lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 151 - 200 of 633
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 151.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Jost, Guenter
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Juergens, Klaus
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea2013In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 1413-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N-2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N-2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N-2 fixation was measured at the surface (5 m) and in anoxic water (200 m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and <10 mu m size fractions were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2011 at the Gotland Deep and in 2011 in the Bornholm Basin. Both of these stations are characterized by permanently anoxic bottom water. The 454-pyrosequencing nifH analysis revealed a diverse assemblage of nifH genes related to alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria (nifH cluster I) and anaerobic bacteria (nifH cluster III) at and below the chemocline. Abundances of genes and transcripts of seven diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealing abundances of heterotrophic nifH phylotypes of up to 2.1 x 10(7) nifH copies l(-1). Abundant nifH transcripts (up to 3.2 x 10(4) transcripts l(-1)) within nifH cluster III and co-occurring N-2 fixation (0.44 +/- 0.26 nmol l(-1) day(-1)) in deep water suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs are fixing N2 in anoxic ammonium-rich waters. Our results reveal that N-2 fixation in the Baltic Sea is not limited to illuminated N-deplete surface waters and suggest that N-2 fixation could also be of importance in other suboxic regions of the world's oceans.

  • 152.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Ocean Sci Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    del Carmen Munoz-Marin, Maria
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA ; Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    New insights into the ecology of the globally significant uncultured nitrogen-fixing symbiont UCYN-A2016In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 125-138Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial nitrogen-fixers (diazotrophs) play a key role in biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean. In recent years, the unusual symbiotic diazotrophic cyanobacterium Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) has been recognized as one of the major diazotrophs in the tropical and subtropical oceans. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the geographic distribution of UCYN-A, as well as the environmental factors that govern its distribution. In addition, by compiling UCYN-A nifH sequences from the GenBank no. database as well as those from nifH gene amplicon next generation sequencing studies, we present an in-depth analysis of the distribution of defined UCYN-A sublineages (UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2 and UCYN-A3) and identify a novel sublineage, UCYN-A4, which may be significant in some environments. Each UCYN-A sublineage exhibited a remarkable global distribution pattern and several UCYN-A sublineages frequently co-occurred within the same sample, suggesting that if they represent different ecotypes they have overlapping niches. Recently, single cell visualization techniques using specific probes targeting UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 and their respective associated eukaryotic partner cells showed that the size of the consortia and the number of UCYN-A cells differed between these 2 sublineages. Combined, the results highlight that UCYN-A sublineages likely have different physiological requirements, which need to be accounted for in future studies. Furthermore, based on our increasing knowledge of the diversity of the UCYN-A lineage, we discuss some of the limitations of currently used cultivation-independent molecular techniques for the identification and quantification of UCYN-A.

  • 153.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Ploug, Helle
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ossolinski, Justin E.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, USA.
    Collins, James R.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, USA;Univ Washington, USA.
    van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, USA.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Diverse diazotrophs are present on sinking particles in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 170-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sinking particles transport carbon and nutrients from the surface ocean into the deep sea and are considered hot spots for bacterial diversity and activity. In the oligotrophic oceans, nitrogen (N-2)-fixing organisms (diazotrophs) are an important source of new N but the extent to which these organisms are present and exported on sinking particles is not well known. Sinking particles were collected every 6 h over a 2-day period using net traps deployed at 150 m in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The bacterial community and composition of diazotrophs associated with individual and bulk sinking particles was assessed using 16S rRNA and nifH gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial community composition in bulk particles remained remarkably consistent throughout time and space while large variations of individually picked particles were observed. This difference suggests that unique biogeochemical conditions within individual particles may offer distinct ecological niches for specialized bacterial taxa. Compared to surrounding seawater, particle samples were enriched in different size classes of globally significant N-2-fixing cyanobacteria including Trichodesmium, symbionts of diatoms, and the unicellular cyanobacteria Crocosphaera and UCYN-A. The particles also contained nifH gene sequences of diverse non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs suggesting that particles could be loci for N-2 fixation by heterotrophic bacteria. The results demonstrate that diverse diazotrophs were present on particles and that new N may thereby be directly exported from surface waters on sinking particles.

  • 154. Feige, Nicole
    et al.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    van der Graaf, Alexandra J
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leito, Aivar
    Stahl, Julia
    Newly established breeding sites of the barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis in North-western Europe: an overview of breeding habitats and colony development2008In: Die Vogelwelt : Zeitschrift für Vogelkunde und Vogelschutz, ISSN 0042-7993, Vol. 129, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional breeding grounds of the Russian Barnacle Goose population are at the Barents Sea in the Russian Arctic. During the last decades, the population increased and expanded the breeding area by establishing new breeding colonies at lower latitudes. Breeding numbers outside arctic Russia amounted to about 12,000 pairs in 2005. By means of a questionnaire, information about breeding habitat characteristics and colony size, colony growth and goose density were collected from breeding areas outside Russia. This paper gives an overview about the new breeding sites and their development in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in habitat characteristics and population parameters between North Sea and Baltic breeding sites. Colonies at the North Sea are growing rapidly, whereas in Sweden the growth has levelled off in recent years. In Estonia numbers are even decreasing. On the basis of their breeding site choice, the flyway population of Barnacle Geese traditionally breeding in the Russian Arctic can be divided into three sub-populations: the Barents Sea population, the Baltic population and the North Sea population. The populations differ not only in habitat use but also in breeding biology.

  • 155. Fernandez-Gomez, Beatriz
    et al.
    Richter, Michael
    Schueler, Margarete
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Acinas, Silvia G.
    Gonzalez, Jose M.
    Pedros-Alio, Carlos
    Ecology of marine Bacteroidetes: a comparative genomics approach2013In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1026-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteroidetes are commonly assumed to be specialized in degrading high molecular weight (HMW) compounds and to have a preference for growth attached to particles, surfaces or algal cells. The first sequenced genomes of marine Bacteroidetes seemed to confirm this assumption. Many more genomes have been sequenced recently. Here, a comparative analysis of marine Bacteroidetes genomes revealed a life strategy different from those of other important phyla of marine bacterioplankton such as Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacteroidetes have many adaptations to grow attached to particles, have the capacity to degrade polymers, including a large number of peptidases, glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyl transferases, adhesion proteins, as well as the genes for gliding motility. Several of the polymer degradation genes are located in close association with genes for TonB-dependent receptors and transducers, suggesting an integrated regulation of adhesion and degradation of polymers. This confirmed the role of this abundant group of marine bacteria as degraders of particulate matter. Marine Bacteroidetes had a significantly larger number of proteases than GHs, while non-marine Bacteroidetes had equal numbers of both. Proteorhodopsin containing Bacteroidetes shared two characteristics: small genome size and a higher number of genes involved in CO2 fixation per Mb. The latter may be important in order to survive when floating freely in the illuminated, but nutrient-poor, ocean surface. The ISME Journal (2013) 7, 1026-1037; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.169; published online 10 January 2013

  • 156.
    Finn, K. T.
    et al.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa;Kalahari Res Ctr, South Africa.
    Parker, D. M.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa;Univ Mpumalanga, South Africa.
    Bennett, N. C.
    Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Zöttl, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalahari Res Ctr, South Africa;Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Contrasts in body size and growth suggest that high population density results in faster pace of life in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis)2018In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 96, no 8, p. 920-927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the correlates of population density and body size, growth rates, litter size, and group size in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis (Ogilby, 1838)) at two study sites with contrasting population densities. Group size, litter size, and the probability of recapture were independent of study site. However, body size differed between the two study sites, suggesting that population density may affect life-history traits in social mole-rats. At the low-density site (0.13 groups/ha), individuals were significantly larger and subordinate males showed higher growth rates than at the high-density site (0.41 groups/ha), which may indicate that high population density in subterranean rodents enhances pace of life. The larger size of nonreproductive individuals at the low-density site could adapt individuals at lower population densities to larger dispersal distances.

  • 157.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Behrens, Jane W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consequences of eye fluke infection on anti-predator behaviours in invasive round gobies in Kalmar Sound2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, no 6, p. 1653-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larvae of the eye fluke, Diplostomum, emerge from snails and infect fish by penetrating skin or gills, then move to the lens where they may impair the vision of the fish. For the fluke to reproduce, a bird must eat the infected fish, and it has been suggested that they therefore actively manipulate the fish's behaviour to increase the risk of predation. We found that round gobies Neogobius melanostomus, a species that was recently introduced to the Kalmar Sound of the Baltic Sea, had an eye fluke prevalence of 90-100%. We investigated how the infection related to behavioural variation in round gobies. Our results showed that the more intense the parasite-induced cataract, the weaker the host's response was to simulated avian attack. The eye flukes did not impair other potentially important anti-predator behaviours, such as shelter use, boldness and the preference for shade. Our results are in accordance with the suggestion that parasites induce changes in host behaviour that will facilitate transfer to their final host.

  • 158.
    Flynn, Kevin J
    et al.
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Stoecker, Diane K
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Mitra, Aditee
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Raven, John A.
    University Of Dundee, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK.
    Glibert, Patricia M.
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Hansen, Per Juel
    University Of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burkholder, Joann M.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Misuse of the phytoplankton-zooplankton dichotomy: the need to assign organisms as mixotrophs within plankton functional types2013In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic portrayal of plankton is dominated by phytoplanktonic primary producersand zooplanktonic secondary producers. In reality, many if not most planktontraditionally labelled as phytoplankton or microzooplankton should be identifiedas mixotrophs, contributing to both primary and secondary production. Mixotrophicprotists (i.e. single-celled eukaryotes that perform photosynthesis and grazeon particles) do not represent a minor component of the plankton, as some formof inferior representatives of the past evolution of protists; they represent a majorcomponent of the extant protist plankton, and one which could become moredominant with climate change. The implications for this mistaken identification, ofthe incorrect labelling of mixotrophs as “phytoplankton” or “microzooplankton”,are great. It extends from the (mis)use of photopigments as indicators of primaryproduction performed by strict photoautotrophs rather than also (co)locating mixotrophicactivity, through to the inadequacy of plankton functional type descriptionsin models (noting that mixotrophic production in the individual organism is not asimple sum of phototrophy and heterotrophy). We propose that mixotrophy shouldbe recognized as a major contributor to plankton dynamics, with due effortexpended in field and laboratory studies, and should no longer be side-lined inconceptual food webs or in mathematical models.

  • 159.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Age-related reproductive success in the barnacle goose1992In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 61, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We studied age-related reproductive success in a recently established breeding colony of barnacle goose Branta leucopsis on the island of Gotland, Sweden.

    2. Associations of age and breeding experience with several reproductive parameters were investigated by comparing the success of individuals of 2, 3, 4 and >=5 years of age. Also, we measured the within-individual changes in reproductive parameters as the individuals grew older.

    3. Associations between survival and reproductive success were investigated by comparing the reproductive success of 2, 3 and 4-year-old birds that returned or did not return, respectively, in the subsequent breeding season.

    4. The reproductive success increased up to an age of 4-5 years. Thus, clutch size, number of hatched young and number of fledged young increased, and hatching date was advanced with increasing age. This was due to the fact that individuals increased in reproductive success as they grew older.

    5. A possibly higher probability of survival among individuals that perform well in reproduction could not explain the higher reproductive success in older age-classes as compared to young age-classes of geese, because there were no associations between survival and reproductive success, and very few individuals did actually disappear between any two breeding seasons.

    6. Path analysis suggested age effects only at earlier stages of reproduction, i. e. timing of breeding and clutch size. These characters, in turn, were associated with number of fledged young. These findings were further supported by measurements of hatching success and rearing success, which did not seem to increase with age.

    7. Increased breeding experience was associated with early hatching date and larger clutch size in males, and with larger clutch size in females. This was concluded from path analysis and from comparisons of individuals of the same age but with different breeding experience.

    8. The increase in reproductive success with age in the barnacle goose is probably a result of age-related skills in individuals and the direct effects of these skills on reproductive success, but possibly also because of increased reproductive effort with age owing to these age-related skills.

  • 160.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Breeding range expansion of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis in the Baltic area1991In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, E-ISSN 2213-1175, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 343-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the development of Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis breeding colonies in the Baltic area. The largest colony is situated on the eastern coast of Gotland. Sweden, and consisted in 1988 of 970 breeding pairs. Breeding birds have also been observed in nine other Baltic localities within the 1980s. Differences in reproductive success at different localities suggest that density-dependent effects are important. Young nonbreeding geese frequently move between colonies during the summer. Intraspecific competition may increase the propensity for natal dispersal by geese from the main colony on Gotland

  • 161.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of mate change an new partner's age on reproductive success in the barnacle goose, Branta leucopsis1991In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 116-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate retention frequencies and correlations between mate change and reproductive performance were estimated in a population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, breeding on the island of Gotland in the Baltic. About 90% of the pairs remained together from one breeding season to the next. Only 2.4% of the pairs divorced, most mate changes being consequences of the death of one partner. Divorces were not forecast by low reproductive success, and seemed to be accidental. In the season before mate change, there was no difference in reproductive performance, measured as clutch size, hatching date, and number of fledged young, between faithful pairs and pairs where one partner was subsequently changed. However, in the first season with a new partner, clutch size and number of fledged young decreased on average. Hence, because mate change led to a reduction in reproductive success, it was concluded that mate retention is advantageous. Our results suggest that this reduction is more likely due to the lower average age or breeding experience of new partners than to the benefits of breeding experience with one particular partner.

  • 162.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2693-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollinsand Griffith (2015) entitled ‘The danger within: the roleof genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in populationpersistence of colour polymorphic species’ that wasrecently published as an Opinion under the NEWS ANDVIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphismmay reduce population fitness and increaseextinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictionsput forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008,34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87,2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphswith co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait valuesmay increase the ecological and evolutionary successof polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that thereis no clear evidence from studies of ‘true polymorphicspecies’ that polymorphism promotes population persistence.In response, I (i) challenge their classifications ofpolymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizingthe dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii)review empirical studies that have examined whetherand how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk,(iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colourpattern and other phenotypic dimensions for populationfitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanismsthat influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphismsare different from the consequences of thepolymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspectsof ecological success and long-term persistence of populationsand species.

  • 163.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rethinking phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for individuals, populations and species.2015In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 276-284Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to identify the conditions under which selection favours flexible individuals or genotypes that are able to modify their growth, development and behaviour in response to environmental cues, to unravel the mechanisms of plasticity, and to explore its influence on patterns of diversity among individuals, populations, and species. The consequences of developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility for the performance and ecological success of populations and species have attracted a comparatively limited but currently growing interest. Here, I re-emphasize that an increased understanding of the roles of plasticity in these contexts requires a ‘whole organism’ (rather than ‘single trait’) approach, taking into consideration that organisms are integrated complex phenotypes. I further argue that plasticity and genetic polymorphism should be analysed and discussed within a common framework. I summarize predictions from theory on how phenotypic variation stemming from developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility may affect different aspects of population-level performance. I argue that it is important to distinguish between effects associated with greater inter-individual phenotypic variation resulting from plasticity, and effects mediated by variation among individuals in the capacity to express plasticity and flexibility as such. Finally, I claim that rigorous testing of predictions requires methods that allow for quantifying and comparing whole organism plasticity, as well as the ability to experimentally manipulate the level of and capacity for developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility independent of genetic variation.

  • 164.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rethinking the thermal melanism hypothesis: rearing temperature and coloration in pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1247-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection for efficient conversion of solar radiation to body heat has favored theevolution of dark coloration in many ectotherms. The thermal melanism hypothesis positsthat dark coloration is beneficial under conditions of low ambient temperatures because itresults in faster heating rates and higher body temperatures. Fast heating rates, however,may come at a cost of overheating unless compensated for by thermal physiology orbehaviour. Pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) populations that inhabit fire-ravagedareas characterized by blackened backgrounds and hot surface temperatures due tohigh absorbance of solar radiation show an increased frequency of black phenotypes. Iraised the progeny of wild-captured Tetrix undulata in cold and hot temperatures and useddata on color patterns and survival in a greenhouse to examine whether a cold thermalenvironment triggered the development of melanic coloration or differently affected survivalof melanic versus non-melanic individuals. My results indicate that melanism was notinfluenced by rearing temperature but by genes or epigenetic maternal effects. Temperaturealso did not affect survival. However, melanic individuals produced by melanic motherssurvived longer than melanic individuals produced by non- melanic mothers, whereas nonmelanicindividuals produced by non-black mothers survived longer than melanic individualsproduced by non-black mothers. This suggests a mismatch between color andphysiology in offspring belonging to a different color morph than their mother. Futureinvestigations into the evolution of melanism should consider conflicting selection pressureson thermal capacity and camouflage as well as the influence of correlated responsesto selection on traits associated with coloration.

  • 165.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Can spatial sorting associated with spawning migration explain evolution of body size and vertebral number in Anguilla eels?2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 751-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial sorting is a process that can contribute to microevolutionary change by assemblingphenotypes through space, owing to nonrandom dispersal. Here we first buildupon and develop the “neutral” version of the spatial sorting hypothesis by arguingthat in systems that are not characterized by repeated range expansions, the evolutionaryeffects of variation in dispersal capacity and assortative mating might not beindependent of but interact with natural selection. In addition to generating assortativemating, variation in dispersal capacity together with spatial and temporal variationin quality of spawning area is likely to influence both reproductive success and survivalof spawning migrating individuals, and this will contribute to the evolution of dispersal-enhancingtraits. Next, we use a comparative approach to examine whether differencesin spawning migration distance among 18 species of freshwater Anguilla eelshave evolved in tandem with two dispersal-favoringtraits. In our analyses, we use informationon spawning migration distance, body length, and vertebral number thatwas obtained from the literature, and a published whole mitochondrial DNA-basedphylogeny. Results from comparative analysis of independent contrasts showed thatmacroevolutionary shifts in body length throughout the phylogeny have been associatedwith concomitant shifts in spawning migration. Shifts in migration distance werenot associated with shifts in number of vertebrae. These findings are consistent withthe hypothesis that spatial sorting has contributed to the evolution of more elongatedbodies in species with longer spawning migration distances, or resulted in evolution oflonger migration distances in species with larger body size. This novel demonstrationis important in that it expands the list of ecological settings and hierarchical levels ofbiological organization for which the spatial sorting hypothesis seems to have predictivepower.

  • 166.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    To what extent can existing research help project climate change impacts on biodiversity in aquatic environments?: A review of methodological approaches2016In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 75Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s) often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  • 167.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-8, article id 36265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 168.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Variable coloration is associated with dampened population fluctuations in noctuid moths2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1808, p. 1-9, article id 20142922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory and recent reviews state that greater genetic and phenotypic variation should be beneficial for population abundance and stability. Experimental evaluations of this prediction are rare, of short duration and conducted under controlled environmental settings. The question whether greater diversity in functionally important traits stabilizes populations under more complex ecological conditions in the wild has not been systematically evaluated. Moths are mainly nocturnal, with a large variation in colour patterns among species, and constitute an important food source for many types of organisms. Here, we report the results of a long-term (2003-2013) monitoring study of 115 100 noctuid moths from 246 species. Analysis of time-series data provide rare evidence that species with higher levels of inter-individual variation in colour pattern have higher average abundances and undergo smaller between-year fluctuations compared with species having less variable colour patterns. The signature of interspecific temporal synchronization of abundance fluctuations was weak, suggesting that the dynamics were driven by species-specific biotic interactions rather than by some common, density-independent factor(s). We condude that individual variation in colour patterns dampens population abundance fluctuations, and suggest that this may partly reflect that colour pattern polymorphism provides protection from visually oriented predators and parasitoids.

  • 169.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Merilä, Juha
    University of Helsinki.
    Ebenhard, Torbjörn
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Phenotypic evolution of dispersal-enhancing traits in insular voles2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1703, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that in metapopulations subject to rapid extinction-recolonization dynamics, natural selection should favour evolution of traits that enhance dispersal and recolonization ability. Metapopulations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) on islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, are characterized by frequent local extinction and recolonization of subpopulations. Here, we show that voles on the islands were larger and had longer feet than expected for their body size, compared with voles from the mainland; that body size and size-specific foot length increased with increasing geographical isolation and distance from mainland; and that the differences in body size and size-specific foot length were genetically based. These findings provide rare evidence for relatively recent (less than 1000 years) and rapid (corresponding to 100-250 darwins) evolution of traits facilitating dispersal and recolonization in island metapopulations.

  • 170.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Polic, Daniela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sunde, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variable colour patterns indicate multidimensional, intraspecific trait variation and ecological generalization in moths2020In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 43, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal colour patterns long have provided information about key processes that drive the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of biological diversity. Theory and empirical evidence indicate that variation in colour patterns and other traits among individuals generally improves the performance of populations and species, for example by reducing predation risk, increasing establishment success, improving resilience to environmental change, and decreasing risk of extinction. However, little is known about whether and how variation in colour pattern among species is associated with variation in other phenotypic dimensions. To address this issue, we analysed associations of colour pattern with morphological, behavioural and life-history traits on the basis of data for nearly 400 species of noctuid moths. We found that moths with more variable colour patterns had longer flight activity periods, more diverse habitats and a greater number of host plant species than species with less variable colour patterns. Variable coloration in adult noctuid moths therefore can be considered as indicative of broader niches and generalist diets. Colour pattern variability was not significantly associated with overwintering stage or body size (wing span), and it was independent of whether the colour pattern of the larvae was non-variable, variable or highly variable. Colour pattern variation during the larval stage tended to increase as the duration of the flight activity period increased, but was independent of the length of the larval period, diet breadth and habitat use. The realization that information on colour pattern variation in adult moths, and possibly other organisms, offers a proxy for niche breadth and dietary generalization can inform management and conservation biology.

  • 171.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review.2015In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 472-479Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pikeEsox luciusis a large, long-lived, iteroparous, top- predator fish species with a circumpolardistribution that occupies a broad range of aquatic environments. This study reports on a literaturesearch and demonstrates that the publication rate ofE. luciusresearch increases both in absolute termsand relative to total scientific output, and that the focus of investigation has changed over time frombeing dominated by studies on physiology and disease to being gradually replaced by studies on ecol-ogy and evolution.Esox luciuscan be exploited as a model in future research for identifying causes andconsequences of phenotypic and genetic variation at the levels of individuals, populations and speciesas well as for investigating community processes.

  • 172.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Inter-individual variation promotes ecological success of populations and species: evidence from experimental and comparative studies2016In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 630-648Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological diversity is threatened by exploitation, fragmentation of natural habitats, pollution, climatechange, and anthropogenic spread of species. The question of how among-individual variation influencesthe performance of populations and species is a poorly explored but currently growing field of research.Here, we review 31 experimental and 14 comparative studies and first investigate whether there is empiricalsupport for the propositions that higher levels of among-individual phenotypic and genetic variationpromote the ecological and evolutionary success of populations and species in the face of environmentalchange. Next, we examine whether and how the effect of diversity depends on environmental conditions.Finally, we explore whether the relationship linking population fitness to diversity is typically linear,asymptotic, or whether the benefits peak at intermediate diversity. The reviewed studies provide strong,almost invariable, evidence that more variable populations are less vulnerable to environmental changes,show decreased fluctuations in population size, have superior establishment success, larger distributionranges, and are less extinction prone, compared with less variable populations or species. Given theoverwhelming evidence that variation promotes population performance, it is important to identifyconditions when increased variation does not have the theoretically expected effect, a question ofconsiderable importance in biodiversity management, where there are many other practical constraints. Wefind that experimental outcomes generally support the notion that genetic and phenotypic variation is ofgreater importance under more stressful than under benign conditions. Finally, population performanceincreased linearly with increasing diversity in the majority (10 of 12) of manipulation studies that includedfour or more diversity levels; only two experiments detected curvilinear relationships.

  • 173.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Variation in founder groups promotes establishment success in the wild2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1739, p. 2800-2806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes currently pose severe threats to biodiversity, and reintroductions and translocations are increasingly used to protect declining populations and species from extinction. Theory predicts that establishment success should be higher for more variable groups of dissimilar individuals. To test this ‘diversity promotes establishment’ hypothesis, we introduced colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) to different sites in the wild. The number of descendants found at the release sites the subsequent year increased with increasing number of colour morphs in the founder group, and variation in founder groups also positively affected colour morph diversity in the established populations. Since colour morphs differ in morphology, physiology, behaviour, reproductive life history and types of niche used, these findings demonstrate that variation among individuals in functionally important traits promotes establishment success under natural conditions, and further indicate that founder diversity may contribute to evolutionary rescue and increased population persistence.

  • 174.
    Franco, Thiago A.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Xu, Pingxi
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Brito, Nathalia F.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Daniele S.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Wen, Xiaolan
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Moreira, Monica F.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;Inst Nacl Ciencia & Tecnol Entomol Mol, Brazil.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Leal, Walter S.
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Melo, Ana C. A.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;Univ Calif Davis, USA;Inst Nacl Ciencia & Tecnol Entomol Mol, Brazil.
    Reverse chemical ecology-based approach leading to the accidental discovery of repellents for Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas diseases refractory to DEET2018In: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0965-1748, E-ISSN 1879-0240, Vol. 103, p. 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhodnius prolixus is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in Central and South America for which repellents and attractants are sorely needed. Repellents like DEET, picaridin, and IR3535 are widely used as the first line of defense against mosquitoes and other vectors, but they are ineffective against R. prolixus. Our initial goal was to identify in R. prolixus genome odorant receptors sensitive to putative sex pheromones. We compared gene expression of 21 ORs in the R. prolixus genome, identified 4 ORs enriched in male (compared with female) antennae. Attempts to de-orphanize these ORs using the Xenopus oocyte recording system showed that none of them responded to putative sex pheromone constituents. One of the them, RproOR80, was sensitive to 4 compounds in our panel of 109 odorants, namely, 2-heptanone, gamma-octalactone, acetophenone, and 4-methylcychohexanol. Interestingly, these compounds, particularly 4-methylcyclohexanol, showed strong repellency activity as indicated not only by a significant decrease in residence time close to a host, but also by a remarkable reduction in blood intake. 4-Methylcyclohexanol-elicited repellency activity was abolished in RNAi-treated insects. In summary, our search for pheromone receptors led to the discovery of repellents for R. prolixus.

  • 175.
    Frank, Alexander H.
    et al.
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Pontiller, Benjamin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Herndl, Gerhard J.
    Univ Vienna, Austria ; Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Netherlands.
    Reinthaler, Thomas
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Erythromycin and GC7 fail as domain-specific inhibitors for bacterial and archaeal activity in the open ocean2016In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific metabolic inhibitors are currently used to differentiate archaeal from bacterial activity. However, studies testing the specificity of these inhibitors are sparse or are based on cultured strains. We determined the inhibition specificity of erythromycin (EMY) and N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7) on bacterial and archaeal communities in the North Atlantic. EMY and GC7 are assumed to inhibit bacterial and archaeal activity, respectively. Heterotrophic prokaryotic activity was estimated via H-3-leucine incorporation on the cell-specific level using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO-CARD-FISH). In the water masses studied, the contribution of Thaumarchaeota to total picoplankton abundance ranged from 5 to 24% while Euryarchaeota contributed 2 to 6%; the relative abundance of Bacteria ranged from 29 to 48%. The addition of EMY and GC7 reduced the bulk leucine incorporation by similar to 77% and similar to 41%, respectively. Evaluation of the inhibition efficiency of EMY on a cell-specific level showed no difference between Archaea (76.0 +/- 14.2% [SD]) and Bacteria (78.2 +/- 9.5%). Similarly, the reduction of substrate uptake in GC7-treated samples was similar in Archaea (59.9 +/- 24%) and Bacteria (47.2 +/- 9.6%). Taken together, our results suggest that in complex open-ocean prokaryotic communities neither EMY nor GC7 is efficient as a domain-specific inhibitor.

  • 176.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dieker, Petra
    Thunen Inst Biodivers, Germany.
    Schrader, Julian
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Rapid plant colonization of the forelands of a vanishing glacier is strongly associated with species traits2019In: Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine research, ISSN 1523-0430, E-ISSN 1938-4246, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 366-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed glacier forelands provide valuable insights into vegetation dynamics. We studied the vascular plants in the glacier forelands of the Almajallojekna glacier in comparison to the plants in the surrounding area. The glacier is retreating rapidly at an average rate of 0.17 km(2) per year from 1898 to 2012. In the newly emerged glacier forelands, we found that 32 percent of the 381 plant taxa occurred in the surrounding region. Sixty-eight plant species were present on the youngest terrain (0-31 y), an additional thirteen species occurred on terrain aged 32-53 years, and an additional forty-two species were detected on terrain aged 54-114 years. Of the surrounding species pool, plant species that had successfully established in recently deglaciated terrains were characterized by high regional abundance and low seed weight, and they were more likely to be members of the plant families Saxifragaceae, Salicaceae, and Asteraceae. Woody plant species with a preference for well-drained soils were more likely to be present in the youngest terrain. Our results show that the vegetation of glacier forelands is developing rapidly depending on the plant species in the surrounding area and the species' life-history traits.

  • 177.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variable color patterns influence continental range size and species-area relationships on islands2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-11, article id e02577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been hypothesized that species with more variable color patterns should have higher establishment success and be less sensitive to environmental changes and local extinction compared with species that do not vary in color. This difference in colonization/extinction balance should manifest as larger continental range distributions and modulate the species-area relationship on true islands. We evaluated these predictions using data for 1216 species of butterflies and moths that differed with regard to inter-individual variation in color pattern. We show that species with more variable color patterns have larger continental range sizes in Europe compared with non-variable species. We also provide rare evidence that the slope of the species-area relationship on islands is steeper for species having non-variable color patterns, suggesting that to preserve 60% of non-variable species would require an area twice as large compared to what would be needed to preserve 60% of variable species. Our findings suggest that combining information on ecological characteristics with presence/absence data from small and medium sized islands can help identify traits that drive species range patterns at the continental scale, and that individual variation in color pattern can be used as a proxy for ecological generalization and the ability to cope with environmental change.

  • 178.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany ; Lund University.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e37359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope  = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope  = 0.59), low abundance (slope  = 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope  = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  • 179.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Thiamin (vitamin B1) in the aquatic food web2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is required for several life-sustaining processes in most organisms and cells, e.g. in the conversion of food to energy. It also serves as an antioxidant and is important for proper nerve signaling. Thiamin is produced predominantly by bacteria and phytoplankton in the aquatic food web. Not all bacteria and phytoplankton, nor any organisms in higher trophic levels can produce thiamin; instead, they rely on a continuous external supply and uptake of this essential compound. Thiamin deficiencies occur episodically in a wide range of taxa, especially in higher trophic levels. In the Baltic Sea, thiamin deficiencies has been most pronounced in salmon (Salmo salar) and recently deficiencies are also reported for other fish species and birds.

    This thesis focuses on thiamin dynamics in lower trophic levels, covering primary producers as well as primary consumers, as this topic has not received much attention previously. Thiamin content of common phytoplankton and zooplankton species and the transfer between them was investigated in experiments and field studies. The relationship between thiamin deficiency and underlying environmental factors was also investigated using monitoring data.

    Thiamin content differed among phytoplankton classes, species and even strains. Filamentous Cyanophyceae had considerably higher thiamin content than other classes. However, thiamin transfer to copepods was lower, probably associated with difficulties ingesting the filaments. Moreover, thiamin content in seston varied seasonally, being highest during summer when both Prymnesiophyceae and filamentous Cyanophyceae were more abundant. Thiamin content in the two size fractions correlated strongly and was always higher in the smaller size fraction, illustrating the importance of picoplankton and bacteria in the food web. Also, seston thiamin content was higher in the Baltic Proper than in the Skagerrak. Copepods differed in thiamin content among genera, as well as between locations. Acartia sp. had the highest thiamin content and copepods from the Skagerrak had higher levels than congeners from the Baltic Sea. Thiamin deficiency syndromes in salmon was associated with changes in all trophic levels, as well as changes in several abiotic variables.

    In all, this thesis provides new insights on thiamin content and seasonal dynamics in various phytoplankton and zooplankton species, the transfer of this vitamin between trophic levels as well as the overall importance of thiamin in the aquatic food web.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Doctoral Thesis (Comprehensive Summary)
    Download (jpg)
    Front Page
  • 180.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Majaneva, Sanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Seasonal variation and species-specific concentrations of the essential vitamin B₁ (thiamin) in zooplankton and seston2019In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 166, no 6, p. 1-13, article id 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is mainly produced by bacteria and phytoplankton and then transferred to zooplankton and higher trophic levels but knowledge on the dynamics of these processes in aquatic ecosystems is lacking. Hence, the seasonal variation in thiamin content was assessed in field samples of copepods and in pico-, nano- and micro-plankton of two size classes (0.7–3 µm and > 3 µm) collected monthly in the Baltic Sea during 3 years and in the Skagerrak during 1 year. Copepods exhibited species-specific concentrations of thiamin and Acartia sp. had the highest carbon-specific thiamin content, at both locations. Even members of the same genus, but from different systems contained different levels of thiamin, with higher thiamin content per specimen in copepods from the Skagerrak compared to congeners from the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, our results show that the small plankton (0.7–3 µm) had a higher carbon-specific thiamin content compared to the large (> 3 µm). Additionally, there was a large seasonal variation and thiamin content was highly correlated comparing the two size fractions. Finally, there was an overall positive correlation between thiamin content in copepods and plankton. However, for periods of high thiamin content in the two size fractions, this correlation was negative. This suggests a decoupling between thiamin availability in pico-, nano- and micro-plankton and zooplankton in the Baltic Sea. Knowledge about concentrations of this essential micronutrient in the aquatic food web is limited and this study constitutes a foundation for further understanding the dynamics of thiamin in aquatic environments.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 181.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Species-specific content of thiamin (vitamin B1) in phytoplankton and the transfer to copepods2020In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is primarily produced by bacteria and phytoplankton in aquatic food webs and transferred by ingestion to higher trophic levels. However, much remains unknown regarding production, content and transfer of this water-soluble, essential micronutrient. Hence, the thiamin content of six phytoplankton species from different taxa was investigated, along with the effect of thiamin amendment on thiamin content. Furthermore, thiamin transfer to copepods was estimated in feeding experiments. Prey type, not phytoplankton thiamin content per se, was the most important factor for the transfer of thiamin, as it was lowest from filamentous Cyanophyceae and highest from more easily ingested prey like Dunaliella tertiolecta and Rhodomonas salina. Cyanophyceae had the highest thiamin content of the investigated species, eightfold higher than the lowest. Phytoplankton varied in thiamin content related to the supply of thiamin, where thiamin addition enabled higher thiamin content in some species, while copepod thiamin content was less variable. In all, thiamin transfer is not only dependent on the prey thiamin content, but also the edibility and/or digestibility is of importance. Thiamin is essential for all organisms, and this study constitutes an important building block to understanding the dynamics and transfer of thiamin in the aquatic food web.

  • 182.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Thiamin (vitamin B1) content in phytoplankton and zooplankton in the presence of filamentous cyanobacteria2018In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2423-2435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Top predators in several aquatic food webs regularly display elevated reproductive failure, caused by thiamin(vitamin B1)deficiency. The reasons for these low-thiamin levels are not understood and information about the transfer of thiamin from the producers (bacteria and phytoplankton) to higher trophic levels is limited. One main concern is whether cyanobacterial blooms could negatively affect thiamin transfer in aquatic systems. Laboratory experiments with Baltic Sea plankton communities and single phytoplankton species were used to study the effect of filamentous cyanobacteria on the transfer of thiamin from phytoplankton to zooplankton. Experiments showed that the thiamin content in copepods was reduced when exposed to elevated levels of cyanobacteria, although filamentous cyanobacteria had higher levels of thiamin than any other analyzed phytoplankton species. Filamentous cyanobacteria also had a negative effect on copepod egg production despite high concentrations of non-cyanobacterial food. Phytoplankton species composition affected overall thiamin concentration with relatively more thiamin available for transfer when the relative abundance of Dinophyceae was higher. Finally, phytoplankton thiamin levels were lower when copepods were abundant, indicating that grazers affect thiamin levels in phytoplankton community, likely by selective feeding. Overall, high levels of thiamin in phytoplankton communities are not reflected in the copepod community. We conclude that presence of filamentous cyanobacteria during summer potentially reduces the transfer of thiamin to higher trophic levels by negatively affecting phytoplankton and copepod thiamin content as well as copepod reproduction, thereby lowering the absolute capacity of the food web to transfer thiamin through copepods to higher trophic levels.

  • 183.
    Frisk, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Alternativ föryngring och skogsskötsel av gran: Påverkan på volym och ekonomi under en omloppstid2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to analyze how a lower number of plants in wider spacing affects the yield and the economy during a rotation period. To compare traditional forestry strategies against alternative forestry strategies during a rotation period the analytical tool Heureka was utilized. Quantitative data from two stands with the site index G31 and G38, respectively was used as the basis of the simulation. The results show that the stands with the alternative forestry strategies have a higher yield at the final felling but a lower height and dimension development than the traditional forestry stands. The thinning carried out in the traditional stands is the factor that increases the economic outcome. However, the most gainful option is to conduct alternative forestry strategies in G38 stands.

    Keyword: Wide spacing, reforestation, unthinning, Heureka, simulation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 184.
    Fuller, Trevon
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund University.
    Müller, Inge
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany.
    Novembre, John
    University of California, USA.
    Pérez-Tris, Javier
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Ricklefs, Robert E
    University of Missouri-St. Louis, USA.
    Smith, Thomas B
    University of California, USA.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research.2012In: EcoHealth, ISSN 1612-9202, E-ISSN 1612-9210, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogens that are maintained by wild birds occasionally jump to human hosts, causing considerable loss of life and disruption to global commerce. Preliminary evidence suggests that climate change and human movements and commerce may have played a role in recent range expansions of avian pathogens. Since the magnitude of climate change in the coming decades is predicted to exceed climatic changes in the recent past, there is an urgent need to determine the extent to which climate change may drive the spread of disease by avian migrants. In this review, we recommend actions intended to mitigate the impact of emergent pathogens of migratory birds on biodiversity and public health. Increased surveillance that builds upon existing bird banding networks is required to conclusively establish a link between climate and avian pathogens and to prevent pathogens with migratory bird reservoirs from spilling over to humans.

  • 185.
    Furze, Morgan E.
    et al.
    Harvard university, USA.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Warren, JM
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Richardson, Richardson
    Northern Arizona university, USA.
    Seasonal patterns of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in four woody boreal species2018In: Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, ISSN 1095-5674, E-ISSN 1940-0616, Vol. 145, no 4, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants store nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs), such as sugars and starch, to use as carbon and energy sources for daily maintenance and growth needs as well as during times of stress. Allocation of NSCs to storage provides an important physiological strategy associated with future growth and survival, and thus understanding the seasonal patterns of NSC reserves provides insight into how species with different traits (e.g., growth form, leaf habit, wood anatomy) may respond to stress. We characterized the seasonal patterns of NSCs in four woody boreal plant species in Minnesota, USA. Sugar and starch concentrations were measured across the year in the roots and branches of two conifer trees, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and eastern tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch), as well as in the leaves and branches of two evergreen broadleaf shrubs, bog Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd) and leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench). In general, seasonal variation was dominated by changes in starch across all organs and species. While similar seasonal patterns of NSCs were observed in the shrubs, different seasonal patterns were observed between the trees, particularly in the roots. Our results suggest that species-specific traits likely have consequences for organ-level storage dynamics, which may influence whole-plant growth and survival under global change

  • 186.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Qinghai, Xu
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Holocen land-cover change in Eastern Asia for climate modeling2013In: PAGES News, ISSN 1811-1602, E-ISSN 1811-1610, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 81-81Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 187. Gasol, Josep M.
    et al.
    Alonso-Sáez, Laura
    Vaqué, D.
    Baltar, Federico
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Fac Ciencias Mar, Las Palmas Gran Canaria 35017, Spain .
    Calleja, María L.
    Duarte, Carlos M.
    Arístegui, Javier
    Mesopelagic prokaryotic bulk and single-cell heterotrophic activity and community composition in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone2009In: Progress in Oceanography, ISSN 0079-6611, E-ISSN 1873-4472, Vol. 83, p. 189-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesopelagic prokaryotic communities have often been assumed to be relatively inactive in comparison to those from epipelagic waters, and therefore unresponsive to the presence of nearby upwelled waters. We have studied the zonal (shelf-ocean), latitudinal, and depth (epipelagic-mesopelagic) variability of microbial assemblages in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone (CTZ). Vertical profiles of bacterial bulk and single-cell activity through the epi- and mesopelagic waters were combined with point measurements of bacterial respiration, leucine-to-carbon conversion factors and leucine-to-thymidine incorporation ratios. The overall picture that emerges from our study is that prokaryotes in the mesopelagic zone of this area are less abundant than in the epipelagic but have comparable levels of activity. The relationship between prokaryotes and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, their main predators, remains constant throughout the water column, further contradicting the assumption that deep ocean bacterial communities are mostly inactive. Both bulk and single-cell activity showed clear differences between stations, with higher mesopelagic activities closer to the shelf or affected by upwelling features. We also tested whether differences in microbial function between stations could be related to differences in bacterial community structure, and conclude that bacterial communities are very similar at similar depths in the deep ocean, even if the stations present order-of-magnitude differences in bacterial function. 

  • 188.
    Gerard, Maxence
    et al.
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Vanderplanck, Maryse
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Kuhlmann, Michael
    Univ Kiel, Germany;Nat Hist Museum, UK.
    Potts, Simon G.
    Univ Reading, UK.
    Rasmont, Pierre
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Michez, Denis
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Patterns of size variation in bees at a continental scale: does Bergmann's rule apply?2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, no 8, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body size latitudinal clines have been widley explained by the Bergmann's rule in homeothermic vertebrates. However, there is no general consensus in poikilotherms organisms in particular in insects that represent the large majority of wildlife. Among them, bees are a highly diverse pollinators group with high economic and ecological value. Nevertheless, no comprehensive studies of species assemblages at a phylogenetically larger scale have been carried out even if they could identify the traits and the ecological conditions that generate different patterns of latitudinal size variation. We aimed to test Bergmann's rule for wild bees by assessing relationships between body size and latitude at continental and community levels. We tested our hypotheses for bees showing different life history traits (i.e. sociality and nesting behaviour). We used 142 008 distribution records of 615 bee species at 50 x 50 km (CGRS) grids across the West Palearctic. We then applied generalized least squares fitted linear model (GLS) to assess the relationship between latitude and mean body size of bees, taking into account spatial autocorrelation. For all bee species grouped, mean body size increased with higher latitudes, and so followed Bergmann's rule. However, considering bee genera separately, four genera were consistent with Bergmann's rule, while three showed a converse trend, and three showed no significant cline. All life history traits used here (i.e. solitary, social and parasitic behaviour; ground and stem nesting behaviour) displayed a Bergmann's cline. In general there is a main trend for larger bees in colder habitats, which is likely to be related to their thermoregulatory abilities and partial endothermy, even if a 'season length effect' (i.e. shorter foraging season) is a potential driver of the converse Bergmann's cline particularly in bumblebees.

  • 189. Gibb, A.R.
    et al.
    Suckling, D.M.
    El-Sayed, A.M.
    Bohman, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Unelius, Rikard
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dymock, J.J
    Larsen, M.L.
    Willoughby, B.E.
    (Z,E)-11,13-Hexadecadienyl Acetate: Sex Pheromone of the Grass Webworm Herpetogramma licarsisalis - Identification, Synthesis and Field Bioassays.2007In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 839-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Gimmi, Urs
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Switzerland.
    Poulter, Benjamin
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Switzerland;LSCE, France.
    Wolf, Annett
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Portner, Hanspeter
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Weber, Pascale
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Switzerland.
    Buergi, Matthias
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Switzerland.
    Soil carbon pools in Swiss forests show legacy effects from historic forest litter raking2013In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 835-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, forest soils contain twice as much carbon as forest vegetation. Consequently, natural and anthropogenic disturbances affecting carbon accumulation in forest soils can alter regional to global carbon balance. In this study, we evaluate the effects of historic litter raking on soil carbon stocks, a former forest use which used to be widespread throughout Europe for centuries. We estimate, for Switzerland, the carbon sink potential in current forest soils due to recovery from past litter raking ('legacy effect'). The year 1650 was chosen as starting year for litter raking, with three different end years (1875/1925/1960) implemented for this forest use in the biogeochemical model LPJ-GUESS. The model was run for different agricultural and climatic zones separately. Number of cattle, grain production and the area of wet meadow have an impact on the specific demand for forest litter. The demand was consequently calculated based on historical statistical data on these factors. The results show soil carbon pools to be reduced by an average of 17 % after 310 years of litter raking and legacy effects were still visible 130 years after abandonment of this forest use (2 % average reduction). We estimate the remaining carbon sink potential in Swiss forest due to legacy effects from past litter raking to amount to 158,000 tC. Integrating historical data into biogeochemical models provides insight into the relevance of past land-use practices. Our study underlines the importance of considering potentially long-lasting effects of such land use practices for carbon accounting.

  • 191. Glibert, P A
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The diverse nutrient strategies of Hamful Algae: Focus on osmotrophy2006In: Ecology of Harmful Algae: Part C, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, p. 163-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjoekvist, Conny
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Sildever, Sirje
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Sefbom, Josefin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Harðardóttir, Sara
    Natural History Museum of Denmark, Denmark ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gross, Susanna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Khandan, Saghar
    Lund University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lips, Inga
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Lundholm, Nina
    Natural History Museum of Denmark, Denmark ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rengefors, Karin E.
    Lund University.
    Physical barriers and environmental gradients cause spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of an extensive algal bloom2016In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1130-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To test if a phytoplankton bloom is panmictic, or whether geographical and environmental factors cause spatial and temporal genetic structure.

    Location

    Baltic Sea.

    Method

    During four cruises, we isolated clonal strains of the diatom Skeletonema marinoifrom 9 to 10 stations along a 1132 km transect and analysed the genetic structure using eight microsatellites. Using F-statistics and Bayesian clustering analysis we determined if samples were significantly differentiated. A seascape approach was applied to examine correlations between gene flow and oceanographic connectivity, and combined partial Mantel test and RDA based variation partitioning to investigate associations with environmental gradients.

    Results

    The bloom was initiated during the second half of March in the southern and the northern- parts of the transect, and later propagated offshore. By mid-April the bloom declined in the south, whereas high phytoplankton biomass was recorded northward. We found two significantly differentiated populations along the transect. Genotypes were significantly isolated by distance and by the south–north salinity gradient, which illustrated that the effects of distance and environment were confounded. The gene flow among the sampled stations was significantly correlated with oceanographic connectivity. The depletion of silica during the progression of the bloom was related to a temporal population genetic shift.

    Main conclusions

    A phytoplankton bloom may propagate as a continuous cascade and yet be genetically structured over both spatial and temporal scales. The Baltic Sea spring bloom displayed strong spatial structure driven by oceanographic connectivity and geographical distance, which was enhanced by the pronounced salinity gradient. Temporal transition of conditions important for growth may induce genetic shifts and different phenotypic strategies, which serve to maintain the bloom over longer periods.

  • 193.
    Gothe, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;County Board Dalarna, Sweden.
    Degerman, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandin, Leonard
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Segersten, Joel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Flow restoration and the impacts of multiple stressors on fish communities in regulated rivers2019In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 1687-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River regulation for hydropower is undertaken worldwide, causing profound alterations to hydrological regimes and running water habitats. Regulated catchments are often subjected to additional stressors, arising inter alia from agriculture, forestry and industry, which are likely to interact with impacts of river regulation on fish and other biota. Such interactions are poorly understood, hindering planning of effective mitigation and restoration. We investigated fish responses to increased discharge (as a restoration measure) in regulated rivers in Sweden. We compiled electrofishing data from river channels downstream of hydropower dams, each of which either has or lacks a mandated minimum discharge corresponding to c. 5% of pre-regulation discharge. We further analysed interactions between flow restoration and co-occurring local and regional stressors. River channels without a mandated minimum discharge were characterized by a low diversity of fish species with traits favouring persistence under unpredictable environmental conditions, including omnivory, short life cycles and small size. Additional stressors further reduced diversity and increased dominance by broad-niched, opportunistic species. Both the presence and magnitude of a mandated minimum discharge were positively related to fish diversity and density, and the relative density of three economically and recreationally valuable species. However, the size of these relationships frequently varied with the presence of additional stressors. Increasing levels of hydrological degradation and reduced connectivity at the catchment scale reduced positive flow-ecology relationships and hindered the restoration of fish communities towards reference conditions. However, application of a mandated minimum discharge also assisted in mitigating impacts of some co-occurring stressors, especially reduced riparian integrity. Synthesis and applications. Additional stressors can strongly influence the outcomes of flow restoration for fish community diversity and composition. Our approach combining fish species and trait data from multiple flow restoration projects with information on additional stressors yielded valuable insights into factors affecting flow restoration success, useful for (a) identifying the systems most likely to benefit from mandated minimum flows, (b) modelling influences of multiple stressors on flow-ecology relationships, (c) prioritizing additional measures to manage co-occurring stressors and enhance outcomes from flow restoration.

  • 194.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Algal assay of limiting nutrients for phytoplankton production in the Öresund1979In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 34, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Granéli, Edna
    Department of Marine Botany, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Algal growth potential and limiting nutrients for phytoplankton production in Öresund water of Baltic and Kattegat origin1984In: Limnologica, ISSN 0075-9511, E-ISSN 1873-5851, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 563-569Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Begränsande ämnen för primärproduktionen av växtplankton i Laholmsbukten,: Kapitel 5:51986In: Eutrofieringsläget i Kattegatt / [ed] Rutger Rosenberg, Solna: Naturvårdsverket , 1986, , p. 96-104p. 96-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Granéli, Edna
    Lund University.
    Bioassay experiments in the Falsterbo Channel- Nutrients added daily1981In: Kieler Meeresforschung Sonderh, ISSN 0172-7893, Vol. 5, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dinoflagellatblomningar Förekomst, orsaker och konsekvenser i marin miljö: en kunskapsöversikt1987Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Effects of nutrient discharges in coastal areas1983In: The environmental impact of aquaculture: report from the Working group on environmental effects to the Steering committee on aquaculture / [ed] Styrgruppen för vattenbruk. Arbetsgruppen för miljöfrågor, Stockholm: Swedish council for planning and coordination of research (Forskningsrådsnämnden, FRN) in coop. with the National marine resources commission [Delegationen för samordning av havsresursverksamheten] , 1983, , p. 35-42p. 35-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms2005In: Drainage basin nutrient imputs and eutrophication: an integrated approach / [ed] Paul Wassmann and Kalle Olli, University of Tromsø , 2005, 1, p. 99-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 151 - 200 of 633
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf