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  • 151.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A preliminary study of the influence of ions in the pore solution of hardened cement pastes on the porosity determination by low temperature calorimetry2014In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 589, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamic modeling was used to predict the ionic concentrations in the pore solution of cement pastes at different temperatures during a freezing and melting measurement in low temperature calorimetry (LTC) studies. By using the predicted ionic concentrations, the temperature depressions caused by the ions presented in the pore solution were determined. The influence of the freezing/melting point depression caused by the ions on the determined pore size distribution by LTC was demonstrated. Thermodynamic modeling using the program PHREEQC was performed on the cylinder and powder samples of cement pastes prepared by two types of cements, i.e., CEM 132.5 R and CEM III/B 42.5 N. Using the modeled ionic concentrations, the calculated differential pore size distributions for the studied samples with and without considering the temperature depression caused by the ions in the pore solution were compared. The results indicate that for the studied cement paste samples, the influence of the temperature depression caused by the presence of the ions in the pore solution on the determination of the pore size distribution by LTC is limited. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 152.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette Rica
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Determination of ice content in hardened concrete by low-temperature calorimetry2014In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 1335-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature calorimetry has been used to determine the ice content in concrete at different temperatures when exposed to low-temperature environments. However, the analysis of the ice content from the measured data of heat flow is not straightforward. In this study, two important factors influencing the ice content calculation are discussed. The importance of the baseline determination for the calculation of the ice content is realized. Two different methods of generating the baseline are discussed. First, the ‘J-baseline’ is discussed which is a recently proposed extrapolation method based on the accumulated heat curves measured in the freezing and the melting process. Second, the ‘C-baseline’ is discussed in which a calculated baseline is used where the heat capacity of both water and ice and the phase changing behaviour under different testing temperatures are considered. It turns out that both the ‘J-baseline’ method and the ‘C-baseline’ method can be used to calculate the approximate baseline. The heat of fusion of the water confined in small pores is another important parameter to be considered in ice content calculation. This property must be carefully analyzed in order to accurately calculate the ice contents at different temperatures in the freezing and melting process. It should be noted that there is no general agreement on how to obtain the important temperature dependence of the heat of fusion of water confined in small pores. By performing comparison studies, the present study shows the influence of the different values of the heat of fusion commonly adopted on the calculated ice content for the studied concrete samples. The importance and necessity to use an accurate value of the heat of fusion is emphasized. Based on the calculation of the baseline proposed in this work and by carefully selecting the values for the heat of fusion, the ice content in a hardened concrete sample is expected to be estimated with an acceptable accuracy.

  • 153. Yamada, Kazuo
    et al.
    Hosokawa, Yoshifumi
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    A Model for Combined Chemical and Multi-ionic Diffusion in Concrete2007In: Japan Concrete Institute Proceedings, 2007, Vol. 29, p. 957-962Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire performance of wood products and timber structures2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the European requirements on fire safety in buildings is presented based on the construction products regulation and its essential requirements. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of wood products in accordance with the European classification system is given. Euroclass D is usually achieved. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance of building elements can be either tested according to the European standards or calculated using design methods according to Eurocode 5, EN 1995-1-2. Both separating and load-bearing structures are included. Timber structures can obtain high fire resistance, e.g. REI 60, REI 90 or even higher.

  • 155.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    SP/RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Book of Abstracts Papers: Invited papers, 2017, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 156.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Reasearch Institutes of Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Reasearch Institutes of Sweden.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner2018In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    CLT, korslaminerat trä eller KL-trä som det ofta kallas i Sverige är en relativt ny byggprodukt som snabbt blivit känd och uppskattad runt om i världen. Den används främst till stommar i både höga och låga byggnader och bidrar till stabilieringen som är viktig särskilt i högre byggnader.

    Brandegenskaperna hos CLT som synligt material i byggnader har klarlagts (Östman B&t 2017), medan forskning om brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner fortfarande pågår. Denna artikel sammanfattar nuläget.

  • 157.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Riktlinjer för egendomsskydd i höga trähus2018In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 64-66Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Riktlinjer för att minska risken för egendomsskador i flervånings byggnader med trästomme har tagits fram i ett Brandforskprojekt. Riktlinjerna sammanfattas här och är främst tillämpbara för byggnadsklasserna Br1 och Br0 enligt Boverketes byggregler (BBR), men är naturligtvis användbara även för mindre byggnader. Mer utförliga riktlinjer ges i en RISE rapport 2018:46.

    En första del av detta arbete var brandstopp i modulbyggnader, som presenterades i Bygg & teknik 2016.

  • 158.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Palokonsultti Oy, Finland.
    Guidance on Fire Safety of Bio-Based Facades: COST Action FP 1404,  “Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products”2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wooden facade claddings and bio-based insulation materials in external walls are increasing because of esthetical and sustainability reasons. The introduction of performance-based building codes has generally facilitated the wider use of these materials and products in multi-storey buildings, but the use of visible woodas exterior facade claddings is still limited.

    Key initiating events of facade fires are a) interior fire spreading to external wall system via external openings,b) exterior fire directly adjacent external wall system igniting the wall due to radiant heat and/or flame impingement,and c) exterior fire spatially separated from external wall system resulting from radiant heat.

    Contribution of bio-based façade claddings and insulation materials to fire development and spread can beprevented by using protective methods. Examples of these are protection of insulation products by coverings or layers made of materials with good reaction to fire performance and/or with a sufficient protection capacity and/or prevention of facade cladding fires by hindering flames from a flashover room fire by using fire rated windows, automatic window shutters or sprinklers. Fire stops in ventilation cavities or in order to interrupt acombustible insulation are also effective means of fire protection.

    Several wooden facade systems do fulfil at least the European reaction to fire class D-s2, d0. Based on fullscale test results some conclusions and recommendations have been made concerning proper criteria and possible area limits of wooden facades.

    Fire retardant treated wood may be used, but the durability of the fire retardant treatments at exterior weather conditions need to be demonstrated in addition to the fire behaviour. The new European standard EN 16755for testing and classification of fire retardant treated timber products durability is suitable for this purpose.

    This Guidance document on fire safety of bio-based facades is the result of work within several Task Groupsof the COST Action FP1404 “Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products” and aims at a common understanding of issues related to the description, design and fire testing facades

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