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  • 151. Demirel, Isak
    et al.
    Vumma, Ravi
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Säve, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Persson, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nitric Oxide Activates IL-6 Production and Expression in Human Renal Epithelial Cells2012In: American Journal of Nephrology, ISSN 0250-8095, E-ISSN 1421-9670, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 524-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Increased nitric oxide (NO) production or inducible form of NO synthase activity have been documented in patients suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI), but the role of NO in this infection is unclear. We investigated whether NO can affect the host response in human renal epithelial cells by modulating IL-6 production and mRNA expression. Methods: The human renal epithelial cell line A498 was infected with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain and/or the NO donor DETA/NO. The IL-6 production and mRNA expression were evaluated by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. IL-6 mRNA stability was evaluated by analyzing mRNA degradation by real-time RT-PCR. Results: DETA/NO caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in IL-6 production. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling, but not JNK, were shown to significantly suppress DETA/NO-induced IL-6 production. UPEC-induced IL-6 production was further increased (by 73 +/- 23%, p < 0.05) in the presence of DETA/NO. The IL-6 mRNA expression increased 2.1 +/- 0.17-fold in response to DETA/NO, while the UPEC-evoked increase was pronounced (20 +/- 4.5-fold). A synergistic effect of DETA/NO on UPEC-induced IL-6 expression was found (33 +/- 7.2-fold increase). The IL-6 mRNA stability studies showed that DETA/NO partially attenuated UPEC-induced degradation of IL-6 mRNA. Conclusions: NO was found to stimulate IL-6 in renal epithelial cells through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and also to increase IL-6 mRNA stability in UPEC-infected cells. This study proposes a new role for NO in the host response during UTI by modulating the transcription and production of the cytokine IL-6. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 152.
    Demmelmeier, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    Uppsala University.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Nordgren, Birgitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Opava, Christina H
    Karolinska Institutet ; Karolinska University Hospital.
    Pain rather than self-reported sedentary time explains variation in perceived health and activity limitation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross sectional study in Sweden2017In: Rheumatology International, ISSN 0172-8172, E-ISSN 1437-160X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 923-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate (1) the amount of self-reported time spent sedentary among a large cohort of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) the contribution of sedentary time to explain perceived health and activity limitation in RA beyond that of previously known correlates. This cross-sectional study used data from a postal questionnaire and the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registers (SRQ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess sedentary time (sitting) and moderate, vigorous and walking activity (MVPA). Sociodemographics, pain, fatigue, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety/depression, disease duration, MVPA and sedentary time were included in multiple regression models with perceived health (Visual Analogue Scale 0-100) and activity limitation (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire) as dependent variables.

    RESULTS:

    In all 3152 (59%) of 5391 persons identified as eligible from the SRQ, responded to the questionnaire. 2819 individuals with complete data on all study variables were analysed. Mean time (SD) spent sedentary was 257 (213) minutes per day. Sedentary time did not contribute significantly to explain perceived health and only minimally to explain activity limitation. Instead, variation was mainly explained by pain; for perceived health (Beta = 0.780, p < 0.001) and for activity limitation (Beta = 0.445, p < 0.001).The results indicate a non-significant role of sedentary time and a need for increased focus on pain in the management of RA. Future studies should use prospective designs and objective assessment methods to further investigate the associations between sedentary time and health outcomes in persons with R

  • 153.
    Djarv, T.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, C.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, J.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Stromsoe, A.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Claesson, A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016: a population-based national cohort study2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 26, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA). Methods: A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results: In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15-6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively). Discussion: Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR. C onclusion: In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.

  • 154.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Association between depressive symptoms and age, sex, loneliness and treatment among older people in Sweden2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 560-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of and the association between depressive symptoms and loneliness in relation to age and sex among older people (65–80 years) and to investigate to what extent those who report depressive symptoms had visited a health care professional and/or used antidepressant medication.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Swedish sample randomized from the total population in the age group 65–80 years (n = 6659). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results: The data showed that 9.8% (n = 653) reported depressive symptoms and 27.5% reported feelings of loneliness. More men than women reported depressive symptoms, and the largest proportion was found among men in the age group 75–80 years. An association between the odds to have a depressive disorder and loneliness was found which, however, decreased with increasing age. Of those with depressive symptoms a low proportion had visited a psychologist (2.9%) or a welfare officer (4.2%), and one in four reported that they use antidepressant medication. Of those who reported depressive symptoms, 29% considered that they had needed medical care during the last three months but had refrained from seeking, and the most common reason for that was negative experience from previous visits.

    Conclusion: Contrary to findings in most of the studies, depressive symptoms were not more prevalent among women. The result highlights the importance of detecting depressive symptoms and loneliness in older people and to offer adequate treatment in order to increase their well-being.

  • 155. Djärv, Therese
    et al.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Israelsson, Johan
    Cronberg, Tobias
    Lilja, Gisela
    Rawshani, Araz
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Health related quality of life after surviving an out-of-hospital compared to an in-hospital cardiac arrest –a national population-based Swedish cohort study2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Drab, Dominika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Synen på diagnostiska droppar bland Sveriges optiker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behörighetsutredning tillsattes år 2009 för att ta reda på huruvida legitimerade svenska op-tiker med kontaktlinsbehörighet bör få använda diagnostika eller ej. Ett godkännande skulle innebära utökade arbetsuppgifter och större ansvar.

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på hur svenska optiker ställer sig till en eventuell lagändring där diagnostika godkänns som hjälpmedel i det kliniska arbetet. Även viljan att vidareutbildas för att få behörigheten utreds.

    Enkäter i pappersform skickades ut till optiker i Sveriges alla 21 län. Det som tillfrågades var bland annat inställning till diagnostiska droppar som hjälpmedel, inställning till vidare-utbildning, kön, ålder, kedjetillhörighet, antal år i branschen samt antal år som kontaktlins-behörig.

    53 personer deltog i undersökningen, varav 30 kvinnor och 23 män. 64 % av alla frågade ställer sig positivt till förslaget. Män visar sig vara mer positiva än kvinnor. Vad gäller vil-jan att vidareutbildas valde de allra flesta alternativet "inte nu" då frågan ställdes.

    De allra flesta legitimerade optiker med kontaktlinsbehörighet är positivt inställda till an-vändande av diagnostiska droppar. I framtiden bör man utreda hur inställningen är då dia-gnostiska droppar får användas.

  • 157.
    Drugge, Ulf
    Umeå universitet.
    Fragile-X syndromet i gången tid1991In: Forskning om utvecklingsstörning och omsorger inför 90-talet: forskningsdag 15 maj 1990, Stockholm: Sävstaholmsföreningen , 1991, p. 37-43Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Drugge, Ulf
    Umeå universitet.
    Hur psykisk utvecklingsstörning framträder i historiska källor1991In: Forskning om utvecklingsstörning och omsorger inför 90-talet: forskningsdag 15 maj 1990, Stockholm: Sävstaholmsföreningen , 1991, p. 15-17Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Argentzell, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Bejerholm, Ulrika
    Lund University.
    Tjörnstrand, Carina
    Lund University.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wellbeing, activity and housing satisfaction - comparing residents with psychiatric disabilities in supported housing and ordinary housing with support2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, article id 315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The home is imperative for the possibilities for meaningful everyday activities among people with psychiatric disabilities. Knowledge of whether such possibilities vary with type of housing and housing support might reveal areas for improved support. We aimed to compare people with psychiatric disabilities living in supported housing (SH) and ordinary housing with support (OHS) regarding perceived well-being, engaging and satisfying everyday activities, and perceived meaning of activity in one's accommodation. The importance of these factors and socio-demographics for satisfaction with housing was also explored. Methods: This naturalistic cross-sectional study was conducted in municipalities and city districts (n = 21) in Sweden, and 155 SH residents and 111 OHS residents participated in an interview that included both self-reports and interviewer ratings. T-test and linear regression analysis were used. Results: The SH group expressed more psychological problems, but better health, quality of life and personal recovery compared to the OHS residents. The latter were rated as having less symptom severity, and higher levels of functioning and activity engagement. Both groups rated themselves as under-occupied in the domains of work, leisure, home management and self-care, but the SH residents less so regarding home management and self-care chores. Although the groups reported similar levels of activity, the SH group were more satisfied with everyday activities and rated their housing higher on possibilities for social interaction and personal development. The groups did not differ on access to activity in their homes. The participants generally reported sufficient access to activity, social interaction and personal development, but those who wanted more personal development in the OHS group outnumbered those who stated they received enough. Higher scores on satisfaction with daily occupations, access to organization and information, wanting more social interaction, and personal recovery predicted high satisfaction with housing in the regression model. Conclusion: The fact that health, quality of life and recovery were rated higher by the SH group, despite lower interviewer-ratings on symptoms and level of functioning, might partly be explained by better access to social interaction and personal development in the SH context. This should be acknowledged when planning the support to people who receive OHS.

  • 160.
    Eklöf, Motzi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En blodig historia: Recension av boken: Blodflöden: Blodgivning och blodtransfusion i det svenska samhället Bokens författare: Boel BernerLund: Arkiv förlag, 2012 (Open Access)2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 468-470Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Darkeh, Mojgan Haji Seyed Ebrahim
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Xiu, Lijuan
    Forssén, Michaela
    Johansson, Elin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ek, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svensson, Viktoria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekbom, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sleep differences in one-year-old children were related to obesity risks based on their parents' weight according to baseline longitudinal study data2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Parental obesity is the predominant risk factor for child obesity. We compared sleep in one-year-old children with different obesity risks, based on parental weight, and explored associations with weight, parental sleep and family factors.

    METHODS: Baseline data from 167 families participating in a longitudinal obesity prevention programme was used. Sleep patterns were compared between groups with high and low obesity risks, based on parental weight, and associations between child sleep and weight status, family obesity risk and parental sleep were explored. Sleep was assessed using child sleep diaries and standard parental questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Later bedtime, longer sleep onset latency and lower sleep efficiency were observed among children in the high-risk group. Child sleep onset latency was associated with the family obesity risk (β = 0.25, p = 0.001), child bedtime with both maternal (β = 0.33, p < 0.01) and paternal bedtime (β = 0.22, p < 0.05) and child sleep efficiency with maternal sleep quality (β = 0.20, p < 0.01). The child's bedtime was weakly associated with their body mass index (β = 0.17, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Sleep differed between one-year-old children with high or low obesity risks, based on their parents' body mass index, and was associated with the family obesity risk and parental sleep. The child's bedtime was weakly associated with their weight status.

  • 162.
    Ekstrand, Kristina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kamsten, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att träna gravida: Träningsinstruktörers erfarenheter och deras råd till gravida2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Every healthy pregnant women are recommended to be physically active. Many pregnant women reduces their workouts during pregnancy. Midwives have a health-promoting and supportive role and sends some of the pregnant women with questions to personal trainers.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine personal trainers experience of training pregnant women and what training advice they provide. Method: The study has been conducted by interviews with ten personal trainers. The personal trainers' experience and training advice were divided into two domains and then the material was analyzed with qualitative content analysis Results: The content of the domains has been divided into four categories; lack of knowledge, have knowledge, general training advice and personalized training advice. Some informants question both their own and colleagues' knowledge. When the informants feel that they have knowledge, they feel that they can give correct training advice to the pregnant women. In general should the pregnant woman dare to work out, but everything they do should feel okey. All training needs to be personalized based on the woman's training experience and how the woman feels in her pregnancy.

    Conclusion: Pregnant women wants more precise training advice, which is important for both personal trainers and midwives to keep in mind when consulting. With more precise training advice pregnant women could feel safer which hopefully leads to more people training.

  • 163.
    Elfström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bestämning av axelläget för astigmatism – Jämförelse mellan tre objektiva metoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många tidigare studier har genomförts där olika objektiva metoder för att ta fram refraktionsvärden utvärderats med den subjektiva refraktionens resultat som guldstandard. Axelläget för astigmatism har dock sällan varit i fokus för dessa studier.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilken objektiv metod av retinoskopi, autorefraktor och keratometri som bäst överrensstämmer med resultaten från subjektiv refraktion när det gäller att hitta axelläget för astigmatism. Studien har undersökt vilken eller vilka av dessa objektiva metoder som bäst kan assistera undersökaren i att få fram en utgångspunkt för sin synundersökning.

    Metod: Studiens resultat har baserats på undersökningar av 21 försökspersoner med en regelbunden astigmatism på ≥-0.75 DC på minst ett öga. De objektiva testerna utfördes först varefter en binokulär subjektiv refraktion genomfördes.

    Resultat: Resultaten analyserades genom att differensen för avvikelsen i axelläge mellan subjektiv refraktion och varje objektiv metod togs fram. Studien fann att autorefraktorn uppvisade det lägsta medelvärdet för avvikelse där skillnaden mot de andra två metoderna var statistiskt signifikant. Ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad fanns mellan de andra metodernas medelvärden. För astigmatism ≥-1.50 D sågs ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan medelvärdena för avvikelse i axelläge för någon av metoderna.

    Slutsats: Autorefraktorn är den metod som bäst överensstämmer med subjektiv refraktion för bestämning av axelläget för astigmatism, följt av retinoskopi och keratometri som är likvärdiga metoder. Samtliga metoder uppvisar dock godtagbara resultat. Resultaten tyder också på att alla tre objektiva metoder är likvärdiga för cylinderstyrkor ≥-1.50 D.

  • 164. Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Unit Gender & Med, S-58183 Linköping.
    Prioritizing the partner's enjoyment: a population-based study on young Swedish women with experience of pain during vaginal intercourse2013In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the prevalence of women who continue to have vaginal intercourse (VIC) despite pain, avoid telling the partner, and feign enjoyment. It also considers the reasons for this behavior. A sample of 1566 female senior high school students (aged 18-22 years) completed a questionnaire concerning their experiences and attitudes toward their body and sexuality. Forty-seven percent (270/576) of those women who reported pain during VIC continued to have VIC despite the pain. The most common reasons were that they did not want to spoil sex for or hurt the partner by interrupting VIC. Feigning enjoyment and not telling the partner about their pain were reported by 22 and 33%, respectively. Continuing to have VIC despite pain was associated with feelings of being inferior to the partner during sex, dissatisfaction with their own sex lives and feigning enjoyment while having pain. Pain during VIC is reported by every third young Swedish woman, and almost half of those still continue to have VIC. The major reason given is noteworthy - prioritizing the partner's enjoyment before their own - and indicates that young women who continue to have VIC despite pain take a subordinate position in sexual interactions.

  • 165. Elsner, Ann E.
    et al.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Gast, Thomas J.
    Muller, Matthew S.
    Litvin, Taras V.
    Ozawa, Glen Y.
    Cuadros, Jorge
    Underserved diabetic patients with refractive errors insufficient to lead to seeking eyecare2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The increase in prevalence of diabetes is anticipated to increase the numbers of patients needing eye examinations. For our Phase II SBIR data, we reported that for > 2000 underserved diabetic patients in Alameda County, California, > 60% of patients reported no eye examination for at least 3 years despite that free photo diabetic retinopathy screenings were offered with follow on examination and eyecare. If eye screening for diabetic patients is not mandated, it becomes the responsibility of the patient or their primary care physician or endocrinologist to understand and act on the need for eye examinations. Methods: From the Alameda Health system of clinics, 197 diabetic patients agreed to be photoscreened for diabetic retinopathy. Our sample was enriched to have an increased probability of eye complications; thus, 26% had no apparent diabetic retinopathy; 38%, 17% and 4% had mild, moderate and severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; and 13% had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Of the 141 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 29% had bilateral CSME. Of the 132 diabetic patients (67 males and 65 females) returning for full eye exams, 52% were Hispanic, 21% African American, 14% Asian, and 8% NonHispanic Caucasian and Other, with an average age of 58.1 ± 9.4 years. Refractive errors were defined as spherical equivalent (SE) refraction, calculated as the spherical power plus one-half of the cylindrical power. Results: The overall mean spherical equivalent refraction M was −0.16 ± 1.50 D in the right eye (−6.0 D to +3.0 D) and +0.14 ± 1.35 D (−7.0 D to +4.0 D) in the left eye. Out of 132 patients, eight patients (6.1%) had visual acuity worse than 0.3 logMAR in both eyes. The right eyes of four patients and left eyes of eight patients had visual acuity worse than 0.3 logMAR, with fellow eyes having normal visual acuity. Conclusions: In a sample of largely minority, working age adults, there was very little refractive error and relatively good visual acuity when refracted, despite diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema. Thus, working age diabetic patients may not regularly seek eye care for spectacle correction that would lead to the detection of diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema.

  • 166.
    Emma, Arvidsson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carolina, Högström
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tvungen att använda tvång: Det var inte mitt beslut2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett nationellt projekt pågår i Sverige för att minska användandet av tvångsåtgärder inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin. Den tvångsvårdslagstiftning som finns för vuxna gäller även för barn och under 2016 vårdades 257 barn enligt denna lag i Sverige. Att utföra fastspänning ställer höga krav på personal inom psykiatrisk vård och innebär också ett stort ansvar för personalen. Sjuksköterskor upplever beslutet om och genomförandet av fastspänning som etiskt problematiskt.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att belysa sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att utföra tvångsåtgärden fastspänning på barn.

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ metod med induktiv ansats. Elva semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts och analyserats med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Resultatet redovisas utifrån två teman. Vad som krävs för att utföra en fastspänning och förutsättningar i utförandet som beskriver sjuksköterskors behov av att kommunicera, ha rätt kunskap och att ha en tilltro till åtgärden. Att arbetet utförs systematiskt och att det finns varierande förutsättningar samt patientens beteende och vårdpersonals förhållningssätt beskrivs också. Etiska dimensioner vid fastspänning på barn beskriver sjuksköterskors ansvar, känslor av olust, att vara känslomässigt påverkad, att känna sig tvungen, att åtgärden känns onödig eller oundviklig samt att de upplever ett etiskt dilemma.

    Slutsats: Studien visar på hur etiskt svårt det är att utföra fastspänning på ett barn och därför dras slutsatsen att sjuksköterskor behöver ökat stöd i form av utbildning kring fastspänning och få tid till att reflektera över hur man påverkas av att utföra fastspänning på barn. Detta för att framledes kunna ge god vård. Andra alternativ än fastspänning behövs inom barn och ungdomspsykiatrin. Forskning inom barnpsykiatrin om tvångsåtgärder är bristfällig och förhoppningsvis kan studiens resultat vidareutveckla vården genom att uppmärksamma ämnet. 

  • 167.
    Engelheart, Stina
    et al.
    Örebro Municipality.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University.
    Äldre personers biståndsbeslut för vård och omsorg i Örebro kommun med fokus på mat, måltider och nutrition: Slutrapport februari 20132013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt vår kännedom är detta den första kartläggningen av omfattningen av en kommuns vård och omsorg om äldre personer (≥ 65 år) ur ett individperspektiv samt av hur stor del av biståndsbesluten som avser mat-, måltids- och nutritionsrelaterade frågor.

    Kommunens terminologi och klassifikation av biståndsbeslut är utformad från ett utförarperspektiv uppdelad av två lagstiftningar, SoL och HSL. Det krävdes ett omfattande manuellt arbete för att strukturera kommunens registrering av besluten så att materialet kunde beskrivas ur de enskilda äldre personernas perspektiv.

    Medelåldern för personer i särskilt boende var 85 år (spridning 65-105 år), där 69 % var kvinnor. Hos personer med vård och omsorg i hemmet var medelåldern 83 år (spridning 65-110 år), och 70 % var kvinnor.

    Knappt 20 % av personer ≥ 65 år i kommunen hade biståndsbeslut för vård och omsorg med i genomsnitt 3,5 (spridning 1-15) av totalt 19 olika specificerade insatser per person. Ungefär hälften av biståndstagarna hade insatser som var/kunde vara relaterade till mat, måltider och nutrition. Antalet biståndsinsatser hade inget samband med ålder.

    Den omfattande andelen kommunala biståndsbeslut som avser nutritionsrelaterade förhållanden måste leda till att dessa frågor inkluderas i den regelbundet upprepade hälsoanalysen av biståndstagarna samt till förbättrad utbildning i nutrition för vårdoch omsorgspersonal.

  • 168. Engelheart, Stina
    et al.
    Grell, Ulf
    SPF Örebro.
    Edlund, Roland
    SPF Örebro.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University.
    Matlådor till pensionärer i Örebro län: pilotstudie med kartläggning och provsmakning i tolv kommuner2012Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Enström, My
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hur kasserar svenska linsbärare sina kontaktlinser samt kontaktlinsförpackningar?: En enkätundersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 170.
    Ericson, Lisa
    et al.
    Nordic Health Economics AB.
    Ambring, Anneli
    Björholt, Ingela
    Dahm, Peter
    Opioid rotation in patients initiated on oxycodone or morphine: a register study.2013In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 6, p. 379-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Strong opioids are recommended for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, some patients do not achieve a successful treatment outcome due to intolerable adverse events and/or inadequate analgesia, thus may benefit from switching to another opioid, a procedure known as "opioid rotation." The type of opioid at treatment initiation may influence the risk of opioid rotation and the objective of this study was to assess such rotation after treatment initiation with two alternative treatments, controlled-release (CR) oxycodone versus CR morphine in patients suffering from non-cancer pain.

    METHOD: The study reported here was a real-life study based on Swedish register data: the Prescribed Drug, National Patient, and Cause of Death registers. The captured data cover the entire Swedish population treated in specialist care. A statistical analysis plan was agreed and signed before data were accessed.

    RESULTS: Data from 50,223 cases were included in the analyses. The risk of rotation was 19% higher in patients initiating treatment with morphine compared with oxycodone (hazard ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.27; P < 0.001), after adjusting for such baseline variables that were both significantly correlated with the outcome variable (time to rotation) and significantly different between the groups; age at index date, osteoarthritis and number of pain-related drugs.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with non-cancer pain who initiated treatment with CR morphine had a higher risk of opioid rotation than patients initiated with CR oxycodone.

  • 171.
    Eriksson, Hilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Idin, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ljud från medicinsk utrustning: - Hur påverkas intensivvårdspatienter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensive care patients are constantly subjected to noise because of the continuously monitoring of medical equipment in a hospital environment. According to WHO’s recommendations the noise levels within the intensive care should not exceed 30-40 dB. When the patients are subjected to alarm and noise their sleep is affected and as a result recovery and healing is negatively affected for the critically ill patient.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the noise from the medical equipment at the ICU and how it affects the patients and their sleep.

    Methods: An integrative literature study.

    Result: The noise from the medical equipment in the intensive care exceeded the noise level for optimal sleep and rest for patients. The patients experienced the noise both positively and negatively. The quality of sleep could be improved by sleep-aiding measures.

    The result is presented by using two main categories: Environment and Quality of sleep including the following subcategories; Noise intensity, Patient’s interpretation of the noise, Sleep disturbance and Sleep-aiding measures.

    Conclusion: The noise from the medical equipment affects the patients to different degrees and contributes to their sleep being disturbed. Through improving the knowledge of the intensive care nurse and by introducing clear guidelines for sleep-aiding measures, the patients sleep and rest can be improved. In the literature study the current knowledge levels are mapped out, which shows a lack of knowledge with the intensive care nursing staff. Further research is needed to improve and increase the level of knowledge of the topic.

  • 172.
    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Buer, Nina
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, p. 1-9, article id 30265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  • 173.
    Eriksson, Sara
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Jämförelse av visus vid användning av svart respektive frostad ocklusionsspade2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Mätning av monokulär visus utförs genom att ena ögat ockluderas med en svart ocklusionsspade. Spadar i ljust frostat material finns idag för användning vid cover test, vilket gör det möjligt att se vad som händer med det öga som täcks för. Dessa spadar har mer eller mindre samma utformning som de svarta ocklusionsspadarna. Dess likheter kan lätt göra att även den frostade spaden används vid visusmätning. Men är denna utformad för att användas även vid visusmätning? Fås då samma resultat med en frostad som med en svart ocklusionsspade, eller finns det faktorer som spelar in och påverkar visusresultaten?

    Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra visusresultaten vid ocklusion med en svart respektive frostad ocklusionsspade för att se om någon skillnad uppstod mellan de två ocklusionsspadarna när ljus tillförs det ockluderade ögat.

    Metoden som användes innefattade totalt 100 personer i studien varav 77 kvinnor och 23 män. Visus mättes på höger öga med logMAR genom Test Chart 2000 Pro, först med svart ocklusionsspade och sedan med frostad ocklusionsspade, med skiftade ortotyper emellan. Pupilldiametern mättes på högra ögat vid vardera ocklusionsspade.

    Resultatet av studien påvisar en signifikant skillnad av visus vid mätning med svart respektive frostad ocklusionsspade på det högra ögat hos försökspersonerna. Medelvärdet för visus med ocklusion av svart spade var -0,046 ± 0,106 logMAR och för frostad -0,080 ± 0,104 logMAR. Medelvärdet för pupillstorleken vid ocklusion av svart spade var 5,12 ± 0,84 millimeter och för den frostade 4,39 ± 0,79 millimeter.

    Slutsatsen utifrån resultaten av denna studie är att den frostade ocklusionsspaden ger ett bättre resultat vid visusmätningen. Baserat på det resultatet kommer jag använda mig av den svarta ocklusionsspaden konsekvent vid visusmätning, för att förebygga att den frostade ocklusionsspaden är en faktor som kan påverka i visusresultatet.

  • 174.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria ; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria ; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Influence of medial collagen organization and in-situ axial stretch on saccular cerebral aneurysm growth2009In: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ISSN 0148-0731, E-ISSN 1528-8951, Vol. 131, no 10, article id 101010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for saccular cerebral aneurysm growth, proposed by Kroon and Holzapfel (2007, "A Model for Saccular Cerebral Aneurysm Growth in a Human Middle Cerebral Artery," J. Theor. Biol., 247, pp. 775-787; 2008, "Modeling of Saccular Aneurysm Growth in a Human Middle Cerebral Artery," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130, p. 051012), is further investigated. A human middle cerebral artery is modeled as a two-layer cylinder where the layers correspond to the media and the adventitia. The immediate loss of media in the location of the aneurysm is taken to be responsible for the initiation of the aneurysm growth. The aneurysmis regarded as a development of the adventitia, which is composed of several distinct layers of collagen fibers perfectly aligned in specified directions. The collagen fibers are the only load-bearing constituent in the aneurysm wall; their production and degradation depend on the stretch of the wall and are responsible for the aneurysm growth. The anisotropy of the surrounding media was modeled using the strain-energy function proposed by Holzapfel et al. (2000, "A New Constitutive Framework for Arterial Wall Mechanics and a Comparative Study of Material Models," J. Elast., 61, pp. 1-48), which is valid for an elastic material with two families of fibers. It was shown that the inclusion of fibers in the media reduced the maximum principal Cauchy stress and the maximum shear stress in the aneurysm wall. The thickness increase in the aneurysm wall due to material growth was also decreased. Varying the fiber angle in the media from a circumferential direction to a deviation of 10 deg from the circumferential direction did, however, only show a little effect. Altering the axial in situ stretch of the artery had a much larger effect in terms of the steady-state shape of the aneurysm and the resulting stresses in the aneurysm wall. The peak values of the maximum principal stress and the thickness increase both became significantly higher for larger axial stretches.

  • 175.
    Eriksson Törnsjö, Emma
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Cykloplegi på barn - nödvändigt eller ej?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnens synutveckling är ytterst viktig för deras framtida syn, varför bästa möjliga synvård är att eftersträva.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka skillnaden mellan en vanlig refraktionsmetod på barn, som ofta används i Sverige idag, och en alternativ metod, för att se om cykloplegi är nödvändigt, samt att belysa vikten av ackommodativ kontroll vid refraktion på barn.

    Metod: 26 barn mellan 4 och 8 års ålder undersöktes med Mohindra-retinoskopi, i autorefraktor före cykloplegi samt i autorefraktor efter cykloplegi med cyklopentolat 1%. De refraktiva värdena från respektive metod omvandlades därefter till sfäriska ekvivalenter, vilka sedan analyserades och jämfördes.

    Resultat: Resultaten visar på högre medelvärde för mätning i autorefraktor efter cykloplegi jämfört Mohindra-retinoskopi och jämfört mätning i autorefraktor före cykloplegi. Medelskillnaden mellan mätning i autorefraktor efter cykloplegi och Mohindra-retinoskopi blir dock närmast obetydlig då ett avdrag på 0.5 D görs från de cykloplegiska värdena, för att kompensera för den toniska ackommodationen.

    Slutsats: Studien visar att Mohindra-retinoskopi ger liknande de värden från autorefraktor efter cykloplegi, varför utövare inom ögonvården kan använda sig av metoden då cykloplegi inte anses nödvändigt.

  • 176.
    Fager, Emelié
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Estun, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arbete med smärtbedömning i sent palliativt skede: - ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effective symptom relief and enhanced well-being are indicated as the most important tasks for nurses in the care of patients in late palliative stage. Pain is one of the most common symptoms at the end of life and pain analysis and regular assessment of pain intensity is one of the national quality indicators for good palliative care. Nurses in a geriatric ward care for people with multiple illnesses and high level of caring needs. It is therefore important to investigate how nurses work on pain assessment and pain estimation in late palliative stage in a geriatric ward.

     Aim: The aim of this study is to describe how nurses work with assessing pain in patients in late palliative care. What are the facilitating and aggravating factors affecting this assessment?

     Method: A qualitative design with an inductive approach was chosen where semi-structured interviews were used as a data collection method. Ten nurses working in geriatric wards in central and southern Sweden were interviewed and a qualitative content analysis was used as the analytical method.

     Result: The categories included  "Using the clinical look", "Use of pain estimation tools," "Impact of the workplace culture on pain assessment", "Impact of relatives on pain assessment", "Palliative Register as a pain assessment tool ". All categories highlighted both facilitating and aggravating factors in pain assessment at late palliative stages.

    Conclusion: All nurses in the study described pain assessment in late palliative stage as a difficult area but one which engaged and affected them strongly. The result shows that there are several aggravating factors for pain assessment at this stage. Older patients with comorbidity, cognitive failure and inability to express their pain verbally, are clearly challenges within pain assessment in late palliative care. In the study results, the clinical gaze and the Palliative Register appear as tools that facilitated the nurses' work on pain assessment.

     

     

    Keywords: Pain assessment, Palliative care, Geriatric care, Clinical gaze, Nursing care

  • 177.
    Fagerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Roskvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linneuniversitetet Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Beskriva operationssjuksköterskans upplevelse av den perioperativa dialogen med patienten2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier samt litteratur visar att patienten upplever oro, rädsla och ångestinför en operation. Genom att studera hur den perioperativa dialogen upplevs avoperationssjuksköterskan som innefattar preoperativ-, intraoperativ- och postoperativdialog så tror vi att tiden på operationsavdelningen kan förbättra den perioperativaprocessen.

  • 178.
    Fagerström, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Odén, Paulina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jag är smittad, men jag väljer livet.: En litteraturstudie om HIV-positivas upplevelse av HIV.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 179.
    Falinska-Krol, Joanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stamcellsterapi: En teknik som räddar synen?!2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Synen är det viktigaste mediet genom vilket människan uppfattar omgivningen. Degenerativa processer som försämrar synen kan förbindas till ärftligt betingade eller degenerativa processer och mutationsfaktorer eller multifaktoriella degenerativa näthinnesjukdomar: retinitis pigmentosa, glaukom och åldersrelaterad makula degeneration. Forskarna har försökt förhindra utveckling av näthinnedegenerationen genom användning av stam- eller progenitorceller. Under differentiering och självförnyande processer utsöndrar dessa celler olika endogena tillväxtfaktorer: substanser som är aktiva vid cellens mognads- och reparationsprocesser. Att rädda och skydda celler från apoptos eller återskapa nya fotoreceptorer eller nervceller är forskarnas mål. Under de senaste 10 åren har man provat att ersätta förlorad syn med synproteser (biomimetisk utrustning).

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att jämföra olika typer av terapier och beskrivna forskningsmetoder över stamcellsterapi vid diverse sjukliga tillstånd i ögat.

    Resultat: Stam- och progenitorceller kan skydda fotoreceptorer och nervceller från apoptos. De kan ha förmildrande effekt vid olika degenerativa tillstånd i ögat. Det finns fortfarande osäkerhet över möjligheten att transplanterade celler kan bilda tumörliknande strukturer. Det krävs mer forskning för att utesluta detta. I samodling med humana neurala progenitorceller (hNPC) var yttre nukleära lagret (ONL) mellan 10 % och 40 % tjockare, antalet fotoreceptorer som har överlevt signifikant större i båda testade grupper än vid kontrollen. Fotoreceptorers dödlighet har minskat med 30 % till över 50 % . Det är enormt svårt att kunna skapa från stamceller neuronceller som t.ex. Amakrina celler, bipolära celler och ganglionceller. Humana embryonala stamceller (hESC) differentierar bättre än vad musembryonala celler gjorde. Med synproteser som baseras på kvarstående näthinnemöjligheter har man kunnat återskapa en del av synen.

    Diskussion: Terapin med stamceller kan ha förmildrande effekter vid glaukomatösa förluster av ganglionceller. Närvaro av humana neurala progenitorceller (hNPC) minskar signifikant dödlighet hos fotoreceptorer och neuronceller men möjligheterna att återskapa redan förlorade näthinneceller är begränsade. Det finns fortfarande risk att transplanterade celler bildar tumörliknande strukturer i ögat. Plats och utvecklingsfas där transplantat hamnar spelar stor roll vid lyckad behandling. Det krävs mer forskning innan dessa terapier blir klinisk tillåtna.

  • 180.
    Fernando, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Dynamics of accommodation after high accommodation demand2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate accommodative response (AR), speed and response time of accommodation after prolonged reading under accommodative stress.

    Methods: Thirteen participants had their binocular vision assessed along with refraction during an initial visit. These participants came for a second visit in which refraction was measured continuously using the COAS HD VR aberrometer. During measurement participants shifted their gaze between targets at 33 cm and 3 meters in 2 conditions: near-far and far-near. Measurements of refraction were taken 3 times: immediately before and after the reading task as well as 10 minutes after reading. During reading, accommodative stress was induced by a negative lens tailored to ensure the use of 70% of the individual amplitude of accommodation.

    Results: Results were extracted successfully from twelve participants. Immediately after the reading task the mean AR from both conditions tested (near-far and far-near) reduced by 0.11 D (SE = 0.18) when compared with immediately before reading. Compared with after reading, AR increased by 0.12 D (SE =0.18) after resting. There was a statistically significant difference between subjective fatigue before and after the reading task.

    Conclusion: AR decreased significantly after 20 minutes of reading under visual stress. When exposed persistently to this type of tasks the fast and temporary adaptation of the accommodative system may become permanent. Adaptations can lead to asthenopia and may be involved in refractive error changes

  • 181.
    Ferreira, Marisa Borges
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal;Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Pereira, Paulo Alexandre
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal;University of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Sousa, Ines
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Figueiredo, José
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João José
    University of Minho, Portugal;Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Relationships between neuropsychological and antisaccade measures in multiple sclerosis patients2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, p. 1-18, article id e5737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Stroop test is frequently used to assess deficits in inhibitory control in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This test has limitations and antisaccade eye movements, that also measure inhibitory control, may be an alternative to Stroop.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to investigate if the performance in the antisaccade task is altered in patients with MS and (ii) to investigate the correlation between performances in neuropsychological tests, the Stroop test and the antisaccade task.

    Methods

    We measured antisaccades (AS) parameters with an infrared eye tracker (SMIRED 250 Hz) using a standard AS paradigm. A total of 38 subjects diagnosed with MS and 38 age and gender matched controls participated in this study. Neuropsychological measures were obtained from the MS group.

    Results

    Patients with MS have higher error rates and prolonged latency than controls in the antisaccade task. There was a consistent association between the Stroop performance and AS latency. Stroop performance but not AS latency was associated with other neuropsychological measures in which the MS group showed deficits.

    Conclusions

    Our findings suggest that AS may be a selective and independent measure to investigate inhibitory control in patients with MS. More studies are necessary to confirm our results and to describe brain correlates associated with impaired performance in the antisaccade task in people diagnosed with MS.

  • 182.
    Filipsson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    EvoTears® effekt på tårfilmens lipidskikt över tid2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 183.
    Filipsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förstår kontaktlinsbärare innebörden av en kontaktlinsundersökning?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka om kontaktlinsbärare förstår innebörden av en kontaktlinsundersökning och vikten av de olika momenten. Hur är deras ställningstagande till regelbundna kontroller och om varför de ska göra en kontaktlinsundersökning? Metoden som användes till studien var en enkätundersökning med 9 frågor som deltagarna fick besvara efter en kontaktlinsundersökning. Frågorna berörde olika attitydsfrågor gällande kontaktlinsbärande och vad de trodde optikern undersökt i kontaktlinsundersökningen. Enkäten delades ut i 10 optikerbutiker och de som medverkade svarade anonymt.

    Resultatet grundas på en enkät med totalt 94 deltagare. 47 % förklarade att de gick på en kontaktlinsundersökning en gång om året och 37 % svarade att de gick en gång i halvåret. 82 % tyckte att det var viktigt att gå på regelbundna kontaktlinskontroller. Den största anledningen till att deltagarna gick till en kontaktlinsundersökning var att förnya sitt kontaktlinsrecept. 69 % svarade att det var viktigt att optikern tog reda på hur de tillfrågade tyckte kontaktlinsanvändning fungerade. 93 % svarade att de måste gå en gång om året eller oftare för att kunna köpa kontaktlinser hos sin optiker. Deltagarna trodde bland annat att optikern undersökte synen, den okulära hälsan och tillpassningen av kontaktlinserna. 50 % svarade att de fått information om skötselrutin för kontaktlinserna.

    Studien visar på att en klar majoritet av kontaktlinsbärarna förstår innebörden av en kontaktlinsundersökning och de olika moment som ingår.

  • 184.
    Forsberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Jonsson, Per
    Umeå university.
    Stegmayr, Christofer
    Umeå university.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Umeå university.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala university.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala university.
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå university.
    A high blood level in the venous chamber and a wet-stored dialyzer help to reduce exposure for microemboli during hemodialysis2013In: Hemodialysis International, ISSN 1492-7535, E-ISSN 1542-4758, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 612-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During hemodialysis (HD), microemboli develop in the blood circuit of the apparatus. These microemboli can pass through the venous chamber and enter into the patient's circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to reduce the risk for exposure of microemboli by altering of the treatment mode. Twenty patients on chronic HD were randomized to a prospective cross-over study of three modes of HD: (a) a dry-stored dialyzer (F8HPS, Fresenius, steam sterilized) with a low blood level in the venous chamber (DL), (b) the same dialyzer as above, but with a high level in the venous chamber (DH), and (c) a wet-stored dialyzer (Rexeed, Asahi Kasei Medical, gamma sterilized) with a high blood level (WH). Microemboli measurements were obtained in a continuous fashion during 180 minutes of HD for all settings. A greater number of microemboli were detected during dialysis with the setting DL vs. WH (odds ratio [OR] 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.03-4.11, P<0.0001) and DH vs. WH (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.17-1.19, P<0.0001) and less for DH vs. DL (OR 0.290, 95% CI 0.288-0.2930.288-0.293, P<0.0001). These data indicate that emboli exposure was least when using WH, greater with DH, and most with DL. This study shows that using a high blood level in the venous chamber and wet-stored dialyzers may reduce the number of microemboli.

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  • 185.
    Forsell, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Proof of Concept for an Adaptive Treatment Strategy to Prevent Failures in Internet-Delivered CBT: A Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial With Insomnia Patients2019In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 315-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate proof of concept for an adaptive treatment strategy in Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), where risk of treatment failure is assessed early in treatment and treatment for at-risk patients is adapted to prevent treatment failure. Methods: A semiautomated algorithm assessed risk of treatment failure early in treatment in 251 patients undergoing ICBT for insomnia with therapist guidance. At-risk patients were randomly assigned to continue standard ICBT or to receive adapted ICBT. The primary outcome was self-rated insomnia symptoms using the Insomnia Severity Index in a linear mixed-effects model. The main secondary outcome was treatment failure (having neither responded nor remitted at the posttreatment assessment). Results: A total of 102 patients were classified as at risk and randomly assigned to receive adapted ICBT (N=51) or standard ICBT (N=51); 149 patients were classified as not at risk. Patients not at risk had significantly greater score reductions on the Insomnia Severity Index than at-risk patients given standard ICBT. Adapted ICBT for at-risk patients was significantly more successful in reducing symptoms compared with standard ICBT, and it decreased the risk of failing treatment (odds ratio= 0.33). At-risk patients receiving adapted ICBT were not more likely to experience treatment failure than those not at risk (odds ratio= 0.51), though they were less likely to experience remission. Adapted treatment required, on average, 14 more minutes of therapist-patient time per remaining week. Conclusions: An adaptive treatment strategy can increase treatment effects for at-risk patients and reduce the number of failed treatments. Future studies should improve accuracy in classification algorithms and identify key factors that boost the effect of adapted treatments.

  • 186.
    Fournstedt, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av Ocular Protection Index2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att utvärdera Ocular Protection Index (OPI) för att se om det är en användbar metod vid diagnosticering av torra ögon. En del i utvärderingen är att undersöka korrelationen mellan OPI och resultatet på en symtomenkät, Texas Eye Research and Technology Center Dry Eye Questionnaire (TERTC-DEQ).

    Metod: Försökspersonerna fick i början av undersökningen fylla i TERTC-DEQ. Därefter observerades försökspersonerna vid läsning på avstånd och nära håll för att mäta deras blinkintervall. Försökspersonernas ögon undersöktes med spaltlampa och Tear Break-Up Time uppmättes för att därefter räkna fram OPI för varje försöksperon.

    Resultat: Totalt undersöktes 34 personer varav 4 personer exkluderades på grund av att de ej uppfyllde urvalskriterierna. Endast mätningar på höger öga redovisas i resultatet. Av 30 försöksperoner var det 4 stycken som enligt resultaten på TERTC-DEQ hade måttlig ögontorrhet och 1 person som hade svår ögontorrhet. Enligt OPI var det 12 personer som hade torra ögon på avstånd och 22 stycken som hade torra ögon på nära håll. Vid jämförelse mellan OPI och TERTC-DEQ var korrelationen låg.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna studie går det inte att diagnosticera torra ögon enbart med hjälp av OPI och resultatet av TERTC-DEQ. Med rätt utrustning kan OPI vara en användbar undersökningsmetod vid diagnosticering av torra ögon. För ett mer tillförlitligt resultat kan en liknande studie genomföras där fler försökspersoner med torra ögon deltar.

  • 187.
    Fransson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kosmetiska kontaktlinser: En studie i regler för försäljning och incidensen av komplikationer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Den kosmetiska kontaktlins-marknaden växer och linser kan köpas från online-butiker i de flesta länder, men varningar för kosmetiska kontaktlinser kvarstår och lagstiftningen avseende försäljning varierar från land till land.

    Syfte: Att undersöka skillnader i reglerande lagar mellan en rad länder om kosmetiska kontaktlinser samt se på tillståndet för komplikationer av kontaktlinser i dessa länder.

    Resultat: Under studien fanns att reglerna kan skilja sig till och med mellan stater inom samma land, i detta fall Australien där ingen övergripande lagstiftning om försäljning finns men delstaterna New South Wales och South Australia har infört egna regleringar. Singapore reglerar försäljning av kosmetiska kontaktlinser till endast legitimerade optiker och vidare är även försäljning via internet förbjuden. USA och Japan har infört kosmetiska kontaktlinser som medicintekniska produkter och samma bestämmelser som för korrigerande kontaktlinser gäller, ska säljas endast till bärare med giltigt recept. I Sydafrika är liknande förordningar under förslag och förväntas vara i praktik inom kort. Försäljningeni Kanada, Nya Zeeland, Frankrike och Sverige är för tillfället oreglerad.

    Litteratur om komplikationer konstaterades fokusera på mikrobiell keratit då det är ett synhotande tillstånd och länkar drogs till compliance i de flesta fall medan Japan innan ändringav sin lagstiftning genomfört en studie om säkerhet och kvalitet på kontaktlinser där vissa konstaterades vara under all kritik och tillverkarna meddelades om detta. I Sverige rapporteras få biverkningar och en otillfredsställande mängd fakta har samlats in.

    Slutsats: Bärarna av kosmetiska kontaktlinser är i allmänhet unga och köper linser utan recept, i de flesta fall följer inga råd om hygien med köpet och detta verkar vara den vanligaste orsaken till komplikationer. Med tillgången på kosmetiska kontaktlinser bör råd om vård och hygien prioriteras.

  • 188.
    Fransson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ålderns inverkan på högre ordningens axiella aberrationer i det mänskliga ögat2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 189.
    Freitas, Cristina
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Moreno-Perdomo, Natacha
    Hospital Santa Maria Maior de Barcelos, Portugal.
    Gentil, Rita
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Baptista, António M. G.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Functional impairment with minimal macular damage in femtosecond laser plasma injury : case report: [ Comprometimento funcional com dano macular mínimo em lesão com plasma de laser de femtosegundo: relato de caso ]2013In: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, ISSN 0004-2749, E-ISSN 1678-2925, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 317-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 26 years old female patient was examined twenty-four hours after observing laser-induced plasma formation in a process of nanoparticle production complaining of bilateral central scotoma. The ophthalmologic evaluation included dilated fundus observation, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the first assessment, visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed colour changes in the macular region of both eyes. Optical coherence tomography showed a central interruption of the photoreceptor layer in both eyes and fluorescein angiography was normal. In subsequent appointments acuity was always 20/20 in both eyes. Abnormal optical coherence tomography findings disappeared in less than 5 months, but subjective complaints of scotoma in the left eye remained. Extra care must be taken in this type of experiment by, for example, reducing the time that the retina is directly exposed to the plasma radiation. 

  • 190.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Drug resistance in cancer: molecular evolution and compensatory proliferation2016In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 11746-11755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeted therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment. Unfortunately, their success is limited due to the development of drug resistance within the tumor, which is an evolutionary process. Understanding how drug resistance evolves is a prerequisite to a better success of targeted therapies. Resistance is usually explained as a response to evolutionary pressure imposed by treatment. Thus, evolutionary understanding can and should be used in the design and treatment of cancer. In this article, drug-resistance to targeted therapies is reviewed from an evolutionary standpoint. The concept of apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (AICP) is developed. It is shown that AICP helps to explain some of the phenomena that are observed experimentally in cancers. Finally, potential drug targets are suggested in light of AICP.

  • 191.
    Friedman, Ran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Boye, Kjetil
    Flatmark, Kjersti
    Molecular modelling and simulations in cancer research2013In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. CR. Reviews on Cancer, ISSN 0304-419X, E-ISSN 1879-2561, Vol. 1836, no 1, p. 1-14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of cancer and the vast amount of experimental data available have made computer-aided approaches necessary. Biomolecular modelling techniques are becoming increasingly easier to use, whereas hardware and software are becoming better and cheaper. Cross-talk between theoretical and experimental scientists dealing with cancer-research from a molecular approach, however, is still uncommon. This is in contrast to other fields, such as amyloid-related diseases, where molecular modelling studies are widely acknowledged. The aim of this review paper is therefore to expose some of the more common approaches in molecular modelling to cancer scientists in simple terms, illustrating success stories while also revealing the limitations of computational studies at the molecular level.

  • 192.
    Fröbert, Ole
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Scherstén, Fredrik
    Skåne University Hospital.
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Long-term safety and efficacy of drug-eluting and bare metal stents in saphenous vein grafts2012In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy data of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are lacking. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of DES versus bare metal stents (BMS) in SVGs.

    METHODS: We studied all stent implantations in SVGs in Sweden during 74 months between 2005 and 2011 registered in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry. We evaluated outcome in patients who received DES compared with those who received BMS after adjustments for differences in clinical, vessel, and lesion characteristics.

    RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 3 years and 4 months. A total of 4,576 stents, implanted at 3,063 procedures, were included in the analysis of which 2,499 stents (54.6 %) were BMS and 2,077 (45.4%) were DES. The outcome analysis was based on 190 stent thromboses, 898 restenoses, and 523 deaths. The incidence of stent thrombosis did not differ between groups. When adjusted for baseline characteristics, including a propensity score for receiving DES, the incidence of restenosis was significantly lower with DES as compared with BMS (risk ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.97, P = .019). There was a difference in mortality in the crude analysis between DES and BMS, and after multivariable adjustment, this difference remained statistically significant (risk ratio 0.80, CI 0.65-0.99, P = .038).

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of DES compared with BMS in SVGs was associated with a significantly lower adjusted incidence of restenosis and death in this large, national, all-encompassing propensity adjusted observational study.

  • 193.
    Ge, Li
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Nursing College of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.
    Wikby, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    ‘Is gestational diabetes a severe illness?’: exploring beliefs and self‐care behaviour among women with gestational diabetes living in a rural area of the south east of China2016In: The Australian journal of rural health, ISSN 1038-5282, E-ISSN 1440-1584, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 378-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study explores beliefs about illnessand health and self-care behaviour among womenwith gestational diabetes living in a rural area of thesouth east of China.Design: A qualitative exploratory study using semistructuredinterviews and qualitative content analysis.

    Setting: A hospital located in the outskirts of a city inthe south east of China.Participants: Seventeen women with gestational diabetesin 34–38th pregnant weeks.

    Results: The beliefs about gestational diabetes amongthe women in the present study were found to be bidirectional.Some of them feared the illness and its negativeinfluence on health, while others believed that itwas not a severe illness and disbelieved the diagnosisof gestational diabetes. They related their illness andhealth to the individual, social and natural factors.They mainly sought help from the professional sector,but did not fully comply with the professionals’advice. Diet control and exercise were their main selfcaremeasures, but none of them self-monitored theirblood glucose. They demonstrated their misunderstandingabout diet control and self-monitoring ofblood glucose.

    Conclusions: This study highlighted the serious lackof knowledge, lower level of risk awareness and poorself-care behaviour among women in this group.Health professionals were found to be the most importantsource of knowledge about gestational diabetesfor these women. The influence of Chinese culture was demonstrated. Gestational diabetes among thesewomen can most likely be improved by training thehealth professionals and by health education involvingindividuals, families and the rural communities.

  • 194.
    Ge, Li
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Nursing College of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.
    Wikby, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Quality of care from the perspective of women with gestational diabetes in China2016In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the quality of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) care experienced by women in China and how it could be improved.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted at a municipal hospital in south east China. Women who had been diagnosed with GDMat 34–38 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled during two periods;between May 1 and July 31, 2012, and between April 1 and July 31, 2013. Data regarding patient-perceived care quality were collected through semi-structured individual interviews and were analyzed by qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The study enrolled 44 patients; the interviews recorded a lack of professional care resources for GDM, a lack of high-quality personalized care for women with GDM, and patients’ suggestions regarding how to improve GDM care.

    Conclusion: The participants reported a lack of high-quality GDM care, describing the core problem as an imbalance between over-stretched hospitals and low-efficiency under-utilized primary healthcare centers. Clinical-practice reforms identified, particularly in primary healthcare settings, included improving services through increasing the number of health professionals and material resources to comply with diabetes guidelines, and incorporating a humanistic approach in the provision of care

  • 195.
    Ge, Li
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Zhang, Suying
    The attached hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    Chen, Jinxiu
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    Xuemei, Yang
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    Xiaoyun, Zheng
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    Liqun, Yao
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    Albin, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    The Investigation and Analysis on Chinese Medicine Constitution Types of Pregnant Metaphase Women in Fuzhou2013In: Chinese General Practice, ISSN 1007-9572, Vol. 16, no 6A, p. 1920-1922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractObjective To investigate and analyze the Chinese medicine constitution types of pregnant metaphase women in Fuzhou of China. Methods Cross-sectional study and stratified sampling were used. A scale, <Classification and Determination of Constitution in TCM>, was as a tool for investigation. 1000 scale copies were handed out. 989 scale copies were got after excluding the scale copies with logic error. Constitution types were described by constituent ratio. Results In Fuzhou, the Chinese medicine constitution types of pregnant metaphase women were as following: Yang-deficiency type was 28.5%, damp-heat type was 25.5%, Yin-deficiency type was 25.2%, Qi-depression type and Qi-deficiency type were 23.1% respectively, gentleness type was 20.2%, stasis type was 19.1%, phlegm type was 10.9%, and special intrinsic type was 7.0%. The front three constitution types in different age groups: 20 years old~group: Qi-deficiency type was 29.4%, gentleness type was 24.8%, Yin-deficiency type and yang-deficiency type were 24.2% respectively; 25 years old~group:

    Yang-deficiency type was 27.6%, Yin-deficiency type and damp-heat type were 23.3% respectively; 30 years old~group: damp-heat type was 34.4%, Yang-deficiency type was 33.9%, Yin-deficiency type was 30.8%. The distribution of constitution types in different education background groups was similar as that of total constitution types of pregnant metaphase women. Conclusions The constitution type’s characteristics of pregnant metaphase women in Fuzhou were inclined to deficiency, heat and damp, and Qi-depression. Guided by the theory of “Preventive Treatment of Disease”, the staff working on antepartum care may provide targeted care according to different body constitution types of pregnant women.

  • 196.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Kacz, Lucyna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of Age and Gender on Dry Eye according to Tests and Symptoms2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Larsson, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Boström, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Comparison oF Different Tests for Evaluation of the Meibomian Glands2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Glimne, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eye symptoms and reading abilities of computer users subjected to visually impaired direct glare2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer work is a visually demanding task associated with adverse eye symptoms. Frequent use of digitaldisplays is known to cause a deterioration of the so-called binocular control. Direct glare further reduces thecapacity for binocular coordination during computer work, leading to reduced reading ability and increased eyesymptoms.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different luminance levels of direct glare on binoculareye movement control and reading ability in a computer work environment.Sixteen participants with normal binocular vision performed equal reading tasks in a balanced study. Threecontrolled lighting conditions of direct glare (2000, 4000 and 6000 cd/m2) were tested, in addition to no glare.After each trial, the participants answered survey questionnaires regarding their understanding of the text, aswell as their subjective experience of workload and perceived vision. Horizontal fixation disparity (FD) wasmeasured before and after the reading tasks to evaluate binocular eye movement control.When comparing the responses of visual experience, a significant difference in reported eye symptoms wasfound between lighting conditions. Based on the variation (SD), a significant difference was found within meanvalues of repeated measurements of horizontal FD and a significantly higher variation in a comparison of initialFD values measured during lighting conditions of no glare, to final measured values in all three glare conditions.Reading ability was found to be significantly negative affected with the adversity of lighting conditions.This study supports the contention that binocular eye movement control is reduced caused by direct glare.Even lower degree of disability glare caused eye symptoms. The results establish the argument that working withflat screens raises visual demands.

  • 199.
    Good, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University.
    Wilhelm, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University.
    De Muinck, Ebo
    Linköping University.
    High-grade carotid artery stenosis: A forgotten area in cardiovascular risk management2016In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 1453-1460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Patients with high-grade (≥70%) carotid artery stenosis (CAS) rank in the highest risk category for future cardiovascular (CV) events, but the quality of cardiovascular risk management in this patient group is unknown. Design Cross-sectional retrospective study. Methods Data were collected for all patients diagnosed with high-grade CAS in Östergötland county, Sweden between 1 January 2009 and 31 July 2012 regarding the quality of cardiovascular risk management, co-morbidity and outcomes during the 2-year follow-up period after a diagnosis of CAS with a carotid ultrasound scan. Patients were included regardless of whether they underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Results A total of 393 patients with CAS were included in the study; 133 (33.8%) underwent CEA and 260 (66.2%) were assigned to a conservative management (CM) group. In both groups of patients the prescription of platelet inhibitors, statins and antihypertensive drugs increased significantly (p < 0.001) after diagnosis. However treatment targets were not met in the majority of patients and the low-density lipoprotein level was on target in only 13.5% of patients. During follow-up, low-density lipoprotein levels were not measured in 19.8% of patients who underwent CEA and 44.2% of patients in the CM group (p < 0.001); HbA1c was not measured in 24.4% of patients with diabetes in the CEA group and in 18.8% of patients in the CM group (p = 0.560). There was no documentation of counselling on diet, exercise, smoking cessation or adherence to medication. The combined clinical event rate (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events) was high in both groups (CEA 36.8% and CM 36.9%; p = 1.00) with no difference in the occurrence of ipsilateral ischaemic stroke. Conclusions The clinical event rate was high in patients with high-grade CAS and the management of cardiovascular risk was deficient in all aspects.

  • 200.
    Gotberg, M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Christiansen, E. H.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Gudmundsdottir, I. J.
    Reykjavik Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Sandhall, L.
    Helsingborg Hosp.
    Danielewicz, M.
    Karlstad Hosp.
    Jakobsen, L.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Olsson, S. -E
    Ohagen, P.
    Uppsala University.
    Olsson, H.
    Karlstad Hosp.
    Omerovic, E.
    Sahlgrenska Univ.
    Calais, F.
    Örebro University.
    Lindroos, P.
    St Göran Hosp.
    Maeng, M.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Todt, T.
    Lund Univ, Skåne Univ Hosp.
    Venetsanos, D.
    Linköping University.
    James, S. K.
    Uppsala University.
    Karegren, A.
    Västmanland Hosp Västerås.
    Nilsson, M.
    Lund Univ, Skåne Univ Hosp.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hauer, D.
    Linköping University.
    Jensen, J.
    Karolinska Institutet ; Capio St Görans Sjukhus ; Sundsvall Hosp.
    Karlsson, A. -C
    Panayi, G.
    Linköping University.
    Erlinge, D.
    Lund University, Skåne Univ Hosp.
    Frobert, O.
    Örebro University.
    Instantaneous Wave-free Ratio versus Fractional Flow Reserve to Guide PCI2017In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 376, no 19, p. 1813-1823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is an index used to assess the severity of coronary-artery stenosis. The index has been tested against fractional flow reserve (FFR) in small trials, and the two measures have been found to have similar diagnostic accuracy. However, studies of clinical outcomes associated with the use of iFR are lacking. We aimed to evaluate whether iFR is noninferior to FFR with respect to the rate of subsequent major adverse cardiac events. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial using the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry for enrollment. A total of 2037 participants with stable angina or an acute coronary syndrome who had an indication for physiologically guided assessment of coronary-artery stenosis were randomly assigned to undergo revascularization guided by either iFR or FFR. The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization within 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS A primary end-point event occurred in 68 of 1012 patients (6.7%) in the iFR group and in 61 of 1007 (6.1%) in the FFR group (difference in event rates, 0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.5 to 2.8; P = 0.007 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.58; P = 0.53); the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the difference in event rates fell within the prespecified noninferiority margin of 3.2 percentage points. The results were similar among major subgroups. The rates of myocardial infarction, target-lesion revascularization, restenosis, and stent thrombosis did not differ significantly between the two groups. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the FFR group than in the iFR group reported chest discomfort during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with stable angina or an acute coronary syndrome, an iFR-guided revascularization strategy was noninferior to an FFR-guided revascularization strategy with respect to the rate of major adverse cardiac events at 12 months.

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