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  • 151.
    Aidemark, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Management accounting in public and private hospitals:: a comparative study2004In: Studies in managerial and financial accounting, ISSN 1479-3512, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether hospitals run as limited companies have more cost conscious and organizationally committed clinic superintendents when compared with public hospitals. Also, if the management accounting systems differ in the hospitals studied. Using a questionnaire, two hospital companies are compared with two hospitals controlled by political boards.

    According to the analysis there are no significant differences between clinic superintendents in public hospitals and hospital companies. This is true in terms of organizational commitment and cost consciousness. However, the study indicates that participation in the hospital budget-setting process and satisfaction with financial information both affect the superintendents' cost consciousness.

     

  • 152.
    Aittokallio, Mihail
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Provocation and Millennials: Explorative study on millennials ́ emotional response2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction​: Market has saturated in the point where customers are facing advertising overload. For companies it can be difficult task to achieve attention among desired target audience. Millennials

    have become one of the most valuable target group that companies are aiming to target. One way to achieve attention is to do provocative advertising that aims to shock, or violate millennials norms, principles or social cause. Millennials is a special demographic group, compared to previous ones, baby boomers and generation X, since they are more resistant towards provocation. Thys, thesis stress the importance of exploring millennials emotional response when they are exposed to provocation.

    Purpose: ​The purpose of this paper is to explore Millennials ́ emotional response when exposed to provocative advertising. Research Questions: ‘​Which negative emotions provoke millennials?’ and ‘Which positive emotions provoke millennials?’

    Theoretical Framework: ​Theory foundation is builded on provocative advertising and emotional response. Provocative advertising is divided into shock, and social cause. Emotional response concentrates on positive and negative emotions.

    Method: ​The authors of this paper used qualitative approach, deductive structure with explorative purpose that is aiming for in-depth information. Total amount of 8 semi-structured interviews were recorded. Information from interviews were further comprehended via coding schedule.

    Empirical Investigation: ​Empirical chapter presents the main patterns of information from interviews. Chapter is divided into negative and positive parts. This chapters are following the coding schedule structure where main chapters are divided into subchapters based on the sub-categories of coding schedule.

    Analysis: ​The analysis of the empirical investigation showed important information regarding millennials emotional response. Analysis presented that negative emotional response of fear, anger,

    sadness and disgust are evoked when millennials are exposed to provocative advertising. While emotional response of positive emotions, millennials expressed emotional response of contentment to provocative advertising. Thus, no emotional response of love, pride, or happiness was found.

    Conclusion: ​Conclusion of the thesis presented the important findings that millennials are more likely expressing negative than positive emotional response when they are exposed to provocative advertising. Thus emotional response of fear, anger, sadness, disgust or/and contentment were Millennials emotional response to provocative advertising.

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  • 153.
    Akan, Fatih
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Backman, Wilhelm
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Kok, Kim Fai
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    How to wrestle the Dragon to overcome the Great Wall: A case study on how Swedish SME’s handle institutional barriers in China2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade there have been a large increase of Swedish companies entering the Chinese market. It has been explained that entering the Chinese market can be the biggest challenge a firm will face. It has therefore been of great interest to study this problem. We have in this thesis chosen to study Swedish SME’s established in China, and how they have used their business network to overcome institutional barriers. This study also has the objectives of giving a description of the general procedures of setting up a business in China, and to prepare other firms that have plans on entering the Chinese on what the most common obstacles there are when setting up a business in China.

    To be able to fulfill our objectives a qualitative research method and an abductive research approach must be applied. The empirical findings will consist of primary data and that is collected through semi-structured interviews in both Sweden and China. The theoretical framework consists of theories regarding Institution theory, Business Network theory, and the concept of guanxi.

    In our analysis we have combined our empirical data with our theoretical framework to be able to analyze and answer to what extent a business network can be used to overcome institutional barriers when setting up a business in China.

    Through our analysis we have drawn the conclusion that through the business network’s knowledge, experience and guanxi it has made it possible for firms to set-up in China.

    Keywords

    Institutional Barriers, Legitimacy, Business Network, Experiential Knowledge, Guanxi, China.

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  • 154.
    Akhabari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, St Catharines, Canada.
    Wennberg, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Target Costing as a Dynamic Capability in Swedish Publicly Traded Companies2012In: Paper presented at the 8th Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Xiamen, China, November 14-17, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The increased importance of product development can be seen in both recent research on Dynamic Capabilities as well as research on the use of Target Costing (TC). The Dynamic Capabilities literature is primarily developed in the USA and Europe, while the TC practice is rooted in Japanese practices and has been transferred to the west. This study examines the relationship between the Dynamic Capabilities of the product development team and the implementation of Target Costing (TC) in publicly traded companies in Sweden. Using established concepts from both the Dynamic Capabilities and Target Costing literatures we find partial support for the relationship. We suggest that there may be a bias in the development of Dynamic Capability research that does not comprehend organization practices such as those seen in Japan, Sweden and in Lean Production organizations more generally. Reasons for this are discussed and proposals for further research are proposed.

  • 155.
    Akhbari, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sullivan Svensson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Påverkan mellan ekonomistyrningen och inköpsfunktionen: En studie av Sandvik och Scania2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title:

    The Impact of Management Control Systems on the Purchaser Function - A study of Scania and Sandvik Authors: Mohammad Reza Akhbari and Johanna Sullivan Svensson Published: 2011 Keywords: Management control, purchasing function, impact, control, control instruments, Key Performance Indicators, measurement, communication and organizational structure. Background and problem formulation: In order for a company’s business idea or vision to be fulfilled, the management of a company needs assistance from various means to intentionally affect the operation in the desired direction. Management control concerns activities of both financial and non-financial character in order to implement the strategy of a company and to reach profitability. Since the purchaser function is responsible of spending 50 percent of a company’s total revenue, the function has an optimal starting point to be a key actor in the shaping and execution of a company’s strategic plan. The management control and the purchaser function can therefore impact each other, and how this appears and why, constitutes the problem that we have studied. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the impact between the management control and the purchaser function and to explain why it appears this way.

    Method:

    To answer our objective we chose to interview and to study two companies in the manufacturing industry in order to compare and draw similarities, as well as differences in how our problem seems in reality. The approach of our study can be seen as deductive as we have built upon theory in order to compare the result with the empirical data when we drew the conclusion.

    Theory:

    We have studied a variety of literature and articles that treat the management control system in its entirety and governance within the purchaser function. In our theoretical references one can find Inga-Lill Johansson different perspectives of the use of information in 4

    an organization, the aspect of measurement and follow-up on the management control system by van Weele, as well as the theory of the purchaser function as a gatekeeper by Lau et al.

    Conclusion:

    The result of the study proves that there is an impact between the management control system and the purchaser function. This influence already occurs when the choices of the control instruments are being made, as these are based on the overall strategy and vision of the company. By doing performance measurements the companies can se whether the impact is negative or positive. We further prove the impact of the purchaser function on the management control based on its location in the organizational structure. Finally we draw the conclusion that the flow of information between the management control and the purchaser function is used as basis for the impact between the two.

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    Påverkan mellan ekonomistyrningen och inköpsfunktionen - En studie av Sandvik och Scania
  • 156.
    Akhbari, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Wennberg, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Target Costing i Large Cap: -2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Master Thesis G3 in Business Administration, Business School at Linnaeus University, Management Control, 4FE90E, Spring 2012

    Authors: Mohammad Akhbari och Eric Wennberg

    Tutor: Jan Alpenberg

    Title: Target Costing in Large Cap

    Background and problem formulation: Since the 1980s, the product of the company has become increasingly important, because of increased competition and rapid technological development. To succeed in the Product development, “Target Costing” can be used as an important financial tool to calculate costs based on an established price and profit margin. Research shows that the method widely has been applied in Japan, but studies of the method’s prevalence in Sweden, however, are quite limited.

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the Swedish companies applying “Target Costing” in their product development process. Furthermore, the study aims to analyze respondents’ dysfunctional, performance related, successfulness and dynamic experiences of the method. Finally, the intention is to interpret the correlation between the use and experiences of the method in relation to the corporate influential factors. The essay is limited to the companies listed on the “Large Cap” on the Stockholm Stock Exchange and engaged in activities related to product development.

    Theory: We have studied a variety of literature and articles that treat the Target Costing in its entirety within the product development processes. In our theoretical references one can find Ansari et al, Cooper, Robinson and several other researcher describing the implementation and performance factors of Target Costing.

    Method: The study is based on a quantitative survey carried out to 40 companies. The empirical data have been analyzed by theoretical studies and research in this area. Study findings and conclusions are finally discussed based on the thesis of reference.

    Conclusion: Target Costing is used by 22 of 32 companies on Large Cap, which amounts to 69 percent. The use is influenced by the factors; industrial type, sales orientation, profit margin, revenue and staff numbers. Correlations have also been established between their experiences and the factors mentioned above, where the sales approach excels.

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    Target_Costing_i_Large_Cap
  • 157.
    Akhsassi, Rania
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Foreign Market Entry Strategy & International Franchising: Doing Business in Morocco2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s market environment is increasingly growing due to the economical globalization; with international trade, financial transfers and foreign direct investments the economy is becoming highly interconnected. The advances in communication and transportation technology combined with free-market ideology, have given products and services remarkable mobility. Nowadays, international companies are focusing on opening the world markets to their goods especially in emerging markets in order to take advantage of these markets opportunities and be part of its developing and growing infrastructure.

    In order for international companies to enter foreign markets, there are a variety of factors to consider while planning a strategic approach to reach new customers and differentiate their products and services from national and international competitors within the chosen market. This thesis will focus on featuring the significant factors that could affect companies entering new markets; the study is a qualitative single case study of IKEA, it will specifically investigate IKEA’s franchising in the Moroccan market and forms of internal and external factors that could affect IKEA’s entry into the market as well as it will highlight the main concepts that managers should consider when planning to enter the Moroccan market.

    The study was based on theoretical framework combined with empirical findings that were collected from secondary data such as annually reports and trade documents as well as through conducting in-depth interviews with IKEA’s managers to increase the study reliability and validity.

    According to the study findings and analytical results, the conclusion is that IKEA will not face major internal and external obstacles that would affect their operations significantly. There are few factors that could arise while entering the Moroccan market but from a holistic view this minor interferences can be overcame through IKEA’s full awareness of the market and their application of a vigorous, flexible and convenient strategic approach.

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  • 158.
    Akhtar, Mahroz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Mahmood, Awais
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Challenges faced by “Pakistani entrepreneurs” in different cultural context2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to explore the challenges faced by Pakistani entrepreneurs in different cultural context of Sweden and Pakistan.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to collect primary data, authors has conducted six interviews of Pakistani entrepreneurs. Three entrepreneurs were taken from Pakistan and three were taken from Sweden. For this research paper, authors has used Inductive approach as Research approach, Case study as research design, Qualitative data as research strategy, primary and secondary data as data sources and in-depth semi-structured interviews as data collection method, purposive and snowball method were used to select sample size. For the sake of collecting secondary data, two search engines were used; One Search and Google Scholar. Different published articles and journals were utilized in order to critically analyze Literature on similar topic.

    Conclusion – Challenges faced by Pakistani entrepreneurs in Pakistan are brand registration problem, corruption, Lack of support, Labour problem, Law and order, High taxes, Loan problem, Load shedding problem, high approach and high rental expenses. Explored challenges in Sweden are; Language barrier, Employees problem, Loan problem, High taxes, Saturation, less availability of shops, Racism, requirements for Swedish licences.

    Research limitations/implications – This research paper is only limited to Pakistani entrepreneurs who have start-ups in Pakistan and in Sweden.

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  • 159.
    Akhtar, Mehreen
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Female and Gender Leadership: Under Representation of Female Leaders2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When we talk about the females employment in different organization, it is till treated in different disciplines. There are some gaps linked to it which still need to be filled in order to give equal opportunities to females as well. Although, from the last few decades it is been said and noticed that the number of females are rising to the top which is a symbol of progressive social change. However, it is also been noticed that there is still gender inequality in top management positions which leads to under presentation of females in top management position.

    The society and the masculine man has developed some theories. Due to which, it is been said that female qualities do not contribute to the required management attributes. For instance, In order to have an executive role, a person must be more aggressive, competitive, more task oriented etc. but females always have the opposite qualities. For instance, interpersonal relations, emotional, collaborative etc.

    This paper is an effort that shows the obstacles that woman faces in order to reach top management positions. Moreover, I also tried to describe that the traditional leadership model is linked to the masculine stereotypes. Henceforth, I tried to explain that the new organizational culture requires also the feminine stereotypes (emotions, interpersonal relations, cooperation etc). So, one could say that the leadership is not just linked to the masculine stereotypes but it also requires more of feminine qualities as well.

    The empirical study involves the semi structured interviews from men and women on management positions and also general discussions with the public. Based on these interviews and discussions I tried to analyze if both male and female follow the gender stereotypes and if they have difference in leadership styles according to gender.

    Hence, companies should have a more diversity in their organization in order to have more flexibility in organizational culture.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 160.
    Akin, Serdar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Företagsvärdering av Betsson AB: En jämförelse mellan kassaflödesvärdering och Relativvärdering2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 161.
    Akkermann, Janna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of social incidents on CSR transparency and performance: A quantitative study examining companies listed in the European Union2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades there was an evolving theoretical and practical discussion about the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR), partially provoked due to the occurrence of incidents which were caused by negligently companies. Furthermore, there is a disagreement of financial outcomes of the implementation of CSR strategies in prior research. The thesis contributes to the limited established empirical research on the impact of social incidents on company’s CSR transparency and social performance of companies listed in European Union Member States. Furthermore, the thesis examines the impact of social performance on financial performance based on 308 observations in a time range of 2012 to 2014. The author finds no significant relationship between incidents and an improved CSR transparency or social performance for the overall sample at any conventional level. However, the author finds a positive significant relationship between social performance and financial performance, measured by the logarithm of Tobin’s q, which indicates that social performance has a positive impact on financial performance.

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  • 162.
    Aktonius, Agnes
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Helgesson, Hanna
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Nilsson, Jenny
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Arbetsmotivationens betydelse ur ett mellanchefsperspektiv: En fallstudie på Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: Teorin beskriver att mellanchefers situation kan vara problematisk i och med att de styrs både upp- och nerifrån vilket kan leda till en viss osäkerhet i deras ledarskap. Då deras roll går ut på att de ska vara lojala mot både ledningen och medarbetarna befinner sig mellancheferna i en klämd position Deras position har förändrats från att tidigare ha besuttit rollen som den högre ledningens andra hand till att idag vara själva kärnan i verksamheten. De anställda ser sin närmaste chef som ett arbetsgivarombud samtidigt som ledningen ser sin underordnade chef som sin närmaste länk till personalen. Mellanchefers position kan uppfattas som utsatt då de ska förmedla ledningens budskap neråt till medarbetarna. Detta kan leda till att det existerar en osäkerhet i och med att det ställs flera krav på mellanchefer. Här kan kommunikationen i hela organisationen bli en betydande faktor för motivationsarbetet.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka mellanchefers arbetsmotivation som i dagens organisationer har en utsatt position. Vi har valt att relatera detta till verkligheten och praktiken genom att undersöka funktionschefernas roll på Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län, ur ett mellanchefsperspektiv.

    Avgränsningar: Vi har valt att, i denna uppsats, avgränsa oss till mellanchefer och dess arbetsmotivation. Denna studie skulle kunna göras på olika typer och storlekar av organisationer och en jämförelse mellan organisationer hade varit intressant, men det täcker sig inte inom ramen av denna uppsats. Det finns även andra aspekter och faktorer som vi har valt att inte undersöka närmare som påverkar vårt problem.

    Metod: Vi har utgått ifrån ett deduktivt arbetssätt i vår uppsats och den bygger på en kvalitativ undersökning. Vi har använt oss av en enkätundersökning på samtliga funktionschefer på Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län samt tre kvalitativa intervjuer för att få en djupare förståelse av problemet.

    Resultat: Utifrån vår fallstudie har vi fått en inblick i funktionschefernas roll på Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län och det har visat sig att generellt sett anser de flesta funktionschefer att det finns en problematik kring deras roll och position. Det ställs otydliga krav från ledningen och förväntningar från medarbetarna kan i vissa fall vara svåra att uppfylla. De måste finna en balans mellan detta för att kunna motivera sig själva i sitt arbete och därmed sin omgivning. Genom denna studie har vi även fått en ökad förståelse för vilka motivationsfaktorer som är av störst betydelse i deras arbete. De övergripande faktorerna som bidrar till funktionschefernas arbetsmotivation är att stödja medarbetarna, vara lyhörd, målfokusering, utveckling samt att ge och få feedback. Vidare har vi sett att det finns brister i kommunikationen som är en betydande faktor för ett bra samarbete över alla nivåer i organisationen.

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  • 163.
    Akuma, Tom
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Grow your business for God.: Exploring entrepreneuship in the Pentecostal churches in Uganda.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pentecostalism has grown from its founding days in 1900 in Topeka, USA and has extended its reach to most parts the world including Africa where it took off in the 1970s and continues to grow with many mega churches being established. In addition to their main role of taking care of the spiritual development of their followers, many Pentecostal churches have begun to get involved in provision of social and economic goods and services. This has however attracted attention to the churches with some of them being labelled as businesses, their founders being considered as entrepreneurs hiding under the guise of churches and seen as exploiting their followers.

    The purpose of the thesis is to explore, through research questions, if entrepreneurial activities are carried out in the Pentecostal churches in Uganda and if so, whether such activities can be considered productive, unproductive or destructive entrepreneurship and what their implications are. This qualitative study employed qualitative methods of data collection and deductive approach with primary data collected through semi-structured interviews with 6 members of Pentecostal churches in Kampala and 1 non-member that regularly goes to Pentecostal churches to get a feel of their activities.

    The findings show that there the Pentecostal churches carryout a number of entrepreneurial activities that address spiritual, social and economic aspects of the church members and the community. The study further shows that some of these entrepreneurial activities have a positive impact on the church members and the community and by extension the state whereas some activities do not improve the church members and the community and others have a negative impact on the church members and the community. It is shown through this thesis that determining the implication of the entrepreneurial activities is complicated when such activities are lumped together and not considered individually since some of the activities in the Pentecostal may be productive while some may be unproductive or destructive.

    The contribution of this thesis is by proposing a matrix as an alternative tool for analysis of the various entrepreneurial activities in the Pentecostal churches by considering their effect on different stakeholders to determine if the activity achieved the reason for its establishment.

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  • 164.
    Al Daghstani, Asem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Mousa, Husam Imran
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Rastegari, Mohammad
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Social media marketing in B2B: Can customer engagement help increase brand awareness? A Mixed Methods Study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As social media platforms are increasingly becoming more popular and a part of everyday life, Business-to-Business (B2B) marketers from different industries are realizing social media’s potential for achieving marketing purposes. However, scientific literature regarding social media usage in B2B contexts is still filled with gaps in knowledge; especially when compared to literature about social media usage in Business-to-Customer (B2C) contexts. One of these research gaps is the lack of niched information about each effect of using social media. This paper aims at contributing to filling this research gap by presenting an extensive literature review about social media marketing in B2B; followed by an analysis of empirical data gathered from 11 different cases of B2B companies engaged in social media marketing. Moreover, this is to answer the research questions; how are B2B companies using social media to increase brand awareness? Which types of content inspire the most customer engagement? And how can B2B companies amplify their chances of succeeding in increasing brand awareness through social media? This paper will further contribute to this research topic, by identifying further research gaps and present suggestions for future research.

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  • 165.
    Alaeddin, Faten
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Lindblad, Frida
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Samuelsson, Johanna
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Business Process Outsourcing: Vilka faktorer är avgörande vid ett beslut?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Outsourcing, förflyttning av funktioner till extern part som tidigare funnits i företaget, är ett fenomen som under de två senaste årtiondena har vuxit starkt i världen. Outsourcing har möjliggjort för företag att fokusera på sin kärnverksamhet och därmed erhålla konkurrensfördelar. Business Process Outsourcing är en kategori inom detta område, som innebär att företaget outsourcar hela eller delar av sin ekonomifunktion. Användandet av Business Process Outsourcing har ökat bland de svenska företagen under de senaste åren. Det finns mångtydiga förklaringar till denna framväxt, där en förklaring är att det är en trend. En annan förklarig är att lågkonjunkturen tvingar företag att hitta nya sätt att kostnadsbespara. Det har dock visats att alla initiativ till outsourcing inte blir lyckade, utan att en del företag upplever att de inte uppnått de förväntade fördelarna med outsourcingen. Vi bedömer att det finns ett behov av att kartlägga de för- och nackdelar som finns med Business Process Outsourcing för att hjälpa företag i deras beslutsprocess vid övervägande om att använda Business Process Outsourcing.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ur fyra olika perspektiv; företag som erbjuder Business Process Outsourcing, företag som använder Business Process Outsourcing, företag som beslutat att inte använda Business Process Outsourcing och företag som använder intern outsourcing, studera och analysera de överväganden som är aktuella i samband med Business Process Outsourcing. Syftet är även att ge vägledning och rekommendationer att beakta vid beslut om Business Process Outsourcing samt skapa en bättre förståelse för ämnet.

    Vi har valt att avgränsa vår uppsats till stora svenska företag. Vi har även valt att definiera Business Process Outsourcing som outsourcing av de funktioner som återfinns hos ett företags ekonomiavdelning, som exempelvis lönehantering, fakturering, reskontrabevakning, bokföring men även bokslut, deklaration samt hantering av skatter.

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    FULLTEXT02
  • 166.
    Alaeddine, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Eismar, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Kalkylering i handelsverksamhet: Inriktning mot bilåterförsäljare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 167.
    Alaeddine, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ismail, Gulaid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hur överlever en aktiesparare i den rådande aktiedjungeln?: En kvanitativ studie över hur aktiesparare använder handlingsregler för att förhålla sig till riskerna förknippade med aktiehandeln.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: 

    På senare år sparar nästan alla svenskar mer aktivt och den positiva utvecklingen på aktier har gjort att allt fler aktiesparare lockats in i aktiemarknaden. Detta har bidragit till att aktier blivit den främsta tillgången för sparare. Ägandet av aktier är förknippat med har medfört flertalet risker då det finns en risk att aktiekurserna kan falla. Flertalet investerare har en diffus uppfattning om vilka risker som tas. Identifierar aktiespararen riskerna med aktiesparandet så förbättras förutsättningarna för en bra avkastning. Människor föredrar att undvika risk olika och anledningen till varför människor utsätter sig för en risk är för att de vill bli framgångsrika genom att de vill få en bra avkastning. För att detta ska bli möjligt är det viktigt att aktiespararen hanterar riskerna förknippade med aktiehandeln vilket kan ske om att aktiespararna använder regler.

    Syfte: 

    Syftet med studien är att få en förståelse för hur aktiesparare i praktiken använder sig av handlingsreglerna för att förhålla sig till riskerna som är förknippade med aktiehandeln. Vi har också för avsikt att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan hur frekvent aktiespararna använder sig av handlingsreglerna beroende på deras riskbenägenhet, ålder och kön.

    Metod: 

    I studien har vi använt en kvantitativ forskningsansats med en deduktiv ansats som vetenskaplig metod. Empirisk data har insamlats genom enkätundersökningar.

    Slutsats: 

    Aktiespararna har ett förhållningssätt till samtliga handlingsregler för att förhålla sig till riskerna förknippade med aktiehandeln. Det finns inte ett samband att aggressiva aktiesparare använder handlingsreglerna mindre frekvent i förhållande till balanserade och försiktiga aktiesparare. Det finns inte ett samband att försiktiga aktiesparare använder handlingsreglerna mer frekvent i förhållande till aggressiva och balanserade aktiesparare. Det finns inte ett samband att aktiesparare i åldern 18-35 använder handlingsreglerna mindre frekvent i förhållande till aktiesparare i åldern 36-50 och 51+. Det finns ett samband att män använder handlingsreglerna mer frekvent i förhållande till kvinnor.

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  • 168.
    Alajmi, Nasser
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Kalitay, Malika
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Leadership Development in International Student Organization: Case Study on Erasmus Student Organization (Sweden)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research on the topic of leadership has long been the area of interest for scholars for many decades. Despite the extensive amount of literature available there is still a gap when it comes to research about the role of student organization in the leadership development of an individual.

    This thesis project, therefore, is designed in order to gain deeper understanding of the potential effect of a student organization on the leadership development of a student who took leadership position within student organization. 

    This ambition was accomplished through qualitative research with semi-structured interviews conducted in a case study of Erasmus Student Network.

    The results of the research have revealed certain link between the leadership development and person’s participation in the activities of student organization. Additionally, cultural aspect has been identified as the important factor of the organization. As the result of our findings, we may conclude that there is a positive correlation between student organizations providing a good opportunity for students to test their leadership abilities in a safe environment, while it was not possible to identify the extent of that impact on the leadership development of an individual. 

    We believe that our research may add value to the theoretical knowledge on the leadership topic in the context of student life while giving an opportunity for the reader to use the findings of this study as a practical information and guidelines for potential of student organization to have an impact on the future of an individual.

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  • 169.
    Alamine, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Chelala, Justina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Can "lagom" save you in a Confucian world?: A study of how national cultural differences affect the use of management control systems of Swedish firms in China.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze and provide a deeper understanding of how the national culture of China affects the use of formal and informal management control systems of Swedish firms, operating in China. In order to conduct this research, relevant theories concerning internationalization, culture and management control systems were gathered and analyzed in relation to each other. This resulted in a conceptual framework, which illustrates the interrelationships between the concepts. Thereafter, this was used as the ground to which the empirical findings were analyzed and compared to. The analysis chapter involves a discussion of the similarities and dissimilarities between theory and empirical data, which leads to the conclusions of this study. This is lastly followed by theoretical implications, practical implications and recommendations, limitations and suggestions for further research.

     

    The study has been conducted with a qualitative research method, in order to obtain a deeper understanding of how national culture can affect the use of  management control systems of Swedish firms in China. Further, due to the unexplored and limited research area of this complex subject, the study followed an abductive approach.

     

    The findings of this research indicate that the Chinese culture affects the use of formal control systems, in which they are used extensively within Swedish firms, operating  in China. However, the national culture of China does not have an effect on the informal control systems of Swedish firms. Nevertheless, the use of the informal control systems should not be undermined, as the use of these triggers for more innovation and creativity among the members of an organization. This in turn could lead to Swedish firms operating more efficiently in the Chinese market. This research can be valuable for Swedish firms that wish to internationalize to the Chinese market, as well as firms operating in China with concerns regarding the use of management control systems in relation to the culture.

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  • 170.
    Alarcón, Dante
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Ivarsson, David
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Human Resource Management: A comparative study of Carrier Refrigeration in Ingelstad (Sweden) and in Jászárokszállás (Hungary)2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HRM is an important issue whether companies are successful or not in the global market. Many authors have different views on how important culture and local factors are and to what extent it should be taken into consideration when managing units. Taylor et al (1996) state that companies can use three different approaches of HRM: adaptive, integrative or exportive. Considering whether or not culture is a factor taken into consideration when shaping HRM in two different affiliates, three hypotheses were formulated:

    Hypothesis 1: Culture and local aspects are to a large extent taken into consideration when shaping Human Resource Management.

    Hypothesis 2: Culture and local aspects are to some extent taken into consideration when shaping Human Resource Management.

    Hypothesis 3: Culture and local aspects are not taken into consideration when shaping Human Resource Management.

    Our purpose is to confirm or reject the formulated hypotheses by identifying, analyzing and comparing the shaping of HRM in Carrier Refrigeration in Ingelstad (Sweden) and in Jászárokszállás (Hungary) regarding:

    • how different types of responsibility are decentralized

    • how employees communicate

    • how employees are motivated & rewarded

    In the aspects of responsibility, communication and motivation & reward the three different approaches are seen. When each aspect is summarized the different approaches are seen as follows; responsibility shows overall an exportive approach, communication shows overall an integrative approach and motivation & reward shows overall an integrative approach.

    Since two of the three aspects show an integrative approach the second hypothesis (H2) is confirmed which means that the first (H1) and the third (H3) hypotheses are rejected. The hypothesis that is valid is formulated as follows:

    Culture and local aspects are to some extent taken into consideration when shaping Human Resource Management.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 171.
    AL-AZZAWI, DUAA
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Barriers when Selecting a Contract Manufacturer in China: A Study of SMEs in the toy industry2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production outsourcing to a manufacturer has become a very common thing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as a manufacturing choice. Offshore manufacturers provide cheap and skillful labor which is what companies need to make a decent profit and make the products affordable to the end consumer. These manufacturers are called Contract Manufacturers (CM), which is what this thesis is about. However, searching and choosing the right manufacturer can be a challenging process, which can be followed by difficulties and obstacles. This paper explores the process of how these SMEs in the toy industry select and find their contract manufacturer, identify the type of barriers they encountered, the process to overcome and solve those difficulties, and what recommendations SMEs offer to prevent those obstacles for those who want to take the path of dealing with an offshore contract manufacturer. Moreover, personal interviews with SMEs in the toy industries were conducted to investigate the purpose of this thesis. These companies shared their experiences with dealing with contract manufacturers and offered valuable recommendations to overcome those troubles that arise during the selection process of a contract manufacturer. One of the major findings was the communication barrier, which arose when the companies had to outsource their production to manufacturers in China. However, some used a middleman to help with solving this issue and others had a representative that can speak the language.

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    Barriers when Selecting a Contract Manufacturer in China
  • 172.
    Albertini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Auffray, Jean-Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Aziz, Yasir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Entry strategy for SMEs in the Russian market -Focus on challenges, entry modes and network relations.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Russia’s economy is growing at a very fast pace and it has an enormous potential for the international enterprises. Although Russian market has a huge potential for international enterprises but at the same time it has challenges and pitfalls that need to be addressed before getting into the Russian market. Often international enterprises fail in Russia due to the reason that they are not fully aware of the challenges and difficulties of the market. Entry mode of SMEs is affected by the challenges and pitfalls of the Russian market and network relationships play vital role for the success of SMEs in the Russian market.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to identify the main challenges of the Russian market that international SMEs can face while entering the Russian market and also how SMEs can choose a specific entry mode while taking into consideration the challenges that Russian market poses to international enterprises. Thesis also deals with the importance of network relationships and how SMEs can take benefit of the network relationships in order to serve the market better.

     

    Empirical data has been collected by conducting interviews with representatives of different Swedish SMEs that are operating already in the Russian market. After the empirical analysis, the challenges of the Russian market are stated that were experienced by the interviewees. Common mode of Swedish SMEs based on the interviews is stated and it is also stated that how Swedish SMEs establish and maintain relationships with Russian counter parts.

     

    This thesis will be helpful for the SMEs that are going to enter in Russia; to identify the key successful factors of the internationalization in Russia through a theoretical background, and cases of Swedish SMEs competing there. Moreover, the present study could also be of great interest for the Russian authorities that try to improve the business environment in Russia as it shows the perceptions of international enterprises on challenges of the Russian market.

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    Master Thesis
  • 173.
    Albertsson, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Wallin, Fanny
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Westerlund, Mikaela
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Det fygitala intåget: En kvalitativ studie om hur olika företag i klädbranschen kan implementera fygital i sitt arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bachelor thesis, Interior design and visual merchandising at School of business and economic Kalmar, Linnaeus university. 2FE77E. Spring of 2019.

    The entry of phygital by Emma Albertsson, Fanny Wallin och Mikaela Westerlund

    Background: The Swedish trade market began from wandering itinerant out on the countryside to stores where customers could pick the goods by themselves, this was the beginning of the development into becoming the retail industry which is still ongoing today. The companies had to make changes to go from multi-channels to omni-channels. And omni-channels led to new development called phygital, where the physical channels are intertwined with the digital channels to become one. This is what this thesis is aiming to study.

    Reserarch question & Purpose: The research question of the study is: How do consulting-firms, online stores and physical stores work in the clothing business with phygital? The purpose of the study is to gain an increased understanding of how the various companies in the clothing business are using phygital. This is to contribute with knowledge of what phygital stands for, as well as which similarities and differences exist between the companies.

    Method: This study involves a qualitative method with a hermeneutic approach, through a deductive approach with inductive elements. The collection of empirical data has been carried out through semi-structured interviews with representatives from three consulting-firms, one online store and one physical store.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of the study shows that the digitization is constantly evolving which makes the digitalisation hard to surpass. The physical store becomes affected by the development of the digitization because it enables the physical stores to become smaller while still being able to offer the entire range of the companies supply. Thus, the digital channel do not become a competitor to the physical channels, but a complement to each other as they fill out the absences of each other. In the future it will evolve and change for the fygital channels to interact in the best way possible.

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  • 174.
    Albertsson, Olivia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Olsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Drivkrafter som kan "gasa" & "bromsa": En studie om hur kundtjänstmedarbetare motiveras2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to improve executives’ understanding of the motivation and its complexity in the service sector. Customer service employees are the focus of the study and a vital work group within the service, because people daily come in contact with any kind of service. The phenomenon motivation is therefore essential, since motivated customer service employees can contribute to recurrent customers. Motivation, however, is complex and individually, which can be a problem for executives. In the previous research the work group customer service employees has not given much space and therefore we believe that the results of this study can highlight the work groups significance, because their accomplishment is crucial for a business success. To answer the study’s research question a qualitative method has been used, with semi-structured interviews. The study’s result is based on nine interviews with individuals in significant positions. The conclusion suggests that if the customer service employees’ needs of motivation are not satisfied, negative organizational consequences in terms of stress, sickness absence and staff turnover occur. Customer service employees can however be justified by five distinctive needs, which are working structure, social elements, coaching, goal setting and monetary reward. If the needs are fulfilled, it can lead to positive consequences, for example a good working atmosphere. The employees’ needs can be satisfied by a balance between result- and people oriented leadership, but also a coaching leadership. We believe that a coach can satisfy customer service employees’ individual motivation, which can help companies succeed in keeping the younger generation within the organization, but also to encourage employees to increase performance. The employees can then convey a professional customer service.

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  • 175.
    Albinsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnesson, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The managerial position in a Swedish municipal organization: possibilities and limitations2018In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 500-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore how a group of managers construct their reality, more specifically what it means to work as a manager in a municipal organization. The empirical data for the study were obtained from a Swedish medium-sized municipality and the study takes as its research approach grounded theory, as developed by Glaser and Strauss. Consequently, the empirical data formed the basis for the research, which takes a multi-methodical and theory-generating approach. The methods used in the study include the use of a questionnaire study, interviews in focus groups, observations, reflective work diaries, and the creation of feedback sessions. The result shows that the managers work in an organization where conflicting and competing value systems act together. These can be interpreted as environmental factors and external bounds on a structural societal level, which cannot be influenced. A point of analysis is that these factors and external bounds to a high degree permeate the manager’s workday and can therefore be seen as a plausible explanation for the boundless nature of the managerial task. For most of the managers of the study, this was expressed as uncertainty as to how to define and interpret goals and as to what the managerial role includes with regard to areas of responsibility. It is interesting to ask, however, whether these conditions are not characteristic of the role of managers and work life in general. The results also show that the substantive theory of the study was not judged to be valid for the municipal companies. These managers do not express as ambivalent an approach to competing value systems as the managers in other sections of the municipality do. Nor do they appear to question their professional knowledge, the work content or managership. Another empirical important finding is that the managers believe that the organizational conditions limit ability to carry out the manager task, but that, despite this, they indicate, paradoxically, that they like their work and the social work environment.

  • 176.
    Albinsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Torstensson, Uljanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wessberg, My
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    E-handel i förändring: Hur etableringen av fysisk butik förändrat ekonomistyrningen i clicks to bricks-företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Lately, more attention has been drawn to the benefits of physical stores, particularly now with an increased competition on the web. This has led companies to go from only selling online to also complement the e-commerce by establishing physical stores; clicks to bricks. When companies change their strategy, they also have to adapt their MCS.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge by finding patterns in how the MCS has changed companies going from clicks to bricks.

    Methodology: Two companies that’ve gone from clicks to bricks have been the basis for this study. To clarify our issue, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each company.

    Conclusion: Companies that’ve gone from clicks to bricks have experienced both internal and external changes that resulted in an increased need for formal controls, where budget and short-term planning have been particularly prominent. The MCS has been more open to be able to quickly handle sudden changes as they occur. Some controls in the MCS, such as the business culture, hasn’t from this study's findings been affected. In other controls elements have been added; physical stores' requires other measurements, among others. Also some MCS controls are now used for other purposes than before clicks to bricks.

     

    Key words: clicks to bricks, management control systems, contingency, MCS as a package

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    E-handel i förändring
  • 177.
    Albort-Morant, Gema
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    How useful are incubators for new entrepreneurs?2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 2125-2129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines profiles of incubator tenants who provide the most positive evaluations of the use of advisory services and support from incubators. The study presents an application of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to a sample of 54 incubator tenants in Valencia, Spain. The study examines how entrepreneurs' age, gender, education and training, work experience, and family background affect the utility of advice and support from experts at the incubator. The results of the research inform that the incubator tenants who find the services of incubators most useful are young, have good studies, have professional experience, and have family experience.

  • 178.
    Aldin, Sandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Sjöstedt, Tove
    Johansson, Kristina
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: – En studie om hur sex klädföretag balanserar positiv och negativ information enligt GRI:s princip balans2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bachelor thesis, 15 hp, 2FE93E, Spring 2017

    School of Business and Economics – Linnaeus University in Växjö

    Authors: Tove Sjöstedt, Kristina Johansson and Sandra Aldin

    Tutor: Yuliya Ponomareva

    Examiner: Pia Nylinder

    Title: Sustainability Report - A study on how six clothing companies balance positive and negative information according to GRI’s principle balance.

    Keyword: Sustainability Report, CSR, GRI, Global Reporting Initiative, Balance, Strategies, Legitimacy

    Background: Sustainability Report is about accounting that includes environmental, social and economic impact. The clothing industry is exposed to heavy pressure from both the media and consumers who have high demands on sustainability issues, and it is therefore important to openly communicate the information. As a support to openly communicate the CSR information, the global GRI framework contains guidelines for obtaining comparable reporting in sustainability reporting. A principle that is part of GRI's guidelines is about balance where companies should report both good and bad results.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the content of Swedish clothing companies' sustainability reports, which report according to GRI's guidelines to see how Swedish clothing companies report negative information and relate to GRI's principle balance in which both positive and negative information should be reported.

    Method: The study is conducted in the form of a multiple case study. The data collection consists of secondary data where six clothing companies' sustainability reports and annual reports have been examined.

    Conclusions: The study shows that all clothing companies report both positive and negative information in their reports, but it is predominantly positive information. It also emerged that clothing companies use different strategies when presenting negative information in their reports, which means that the information still can be perceived as positive.

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    Hållbarhetsredovisning
  • 179.
    Aldstam, Gofi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Fördelning i hållbarhetsrapportering: - en uppsats om svenska företag och organisationers hållbarhetsrapportering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Bachelor Thesis, Business Administration III- Organisation, School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, 2FE95E, Spring 2016. Author: Gofi Aldstam Supervisor: John Jeansson

    Title: Distribution within sustainability reporting – a thesis regarding sustainability reporting from Swedish companies and organisations

    Problem: CSR reporting is increasing within companies and organisations, but to report on three CSR perspectives: socially, environmentally and economically is not enough. The three CSR perspectives need to be evenly distributed to create long-term business and organisations that contribute to a prosperous society.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to examine the extent to which Swedish companies and organisations reported data on all three CSR perspectives and how even distribution between the reported CSR perspectives are. The purpose is also to investigate whether the rate of reporting on the number of CSR perspectives and the distribution between the three CSR perspectives, differ, based on the factors owner, market and international business.

    Method: The study was a cross-sectional design with quantitative approach. Secondary analysis was used as a method, when the analysis was made by CSR reports retrieved from the database of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). Excel was used for the compilation of data. Based on the theoretical framework information was analyzed from the GRI database.

    Results: This study shows that most companies and organisations report on all CSR perspectives. Swedish companies and organisations appear to have equal distribution between CSR perspectives. The results do not differ significantly regarding the factors owner, market and international business, except on reporting rate for CSR perspectives and to some extent distribution between CSR perspectives.

    Key words: Sustainability, CSR, GRI, distribution, owner, market, international 

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  • 180.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Spelar kultur någon roll för utrikes födda kvinnors sysselsättning?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 181.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Berggren, Niclas
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Nya tankar om stabiliseringspolitiken – årets temanummer2018In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 182.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Early health and school outcomes for children with lesbian parents: evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 183.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia University, USA.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University, USA.
    Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data2015In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1243-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is afoot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994–2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage—a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples—children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  • 184.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Boende med konsekvens: en ESO-rapport om etnisk bostadssegregation och arbetsmarknad2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstaterar att även om segregationen i stort sett har varit oförändrad under 2000-talet är skillnaderna mellan olika etniska grupper stora.

    Visar att bostadssegregationen samvarierar med utrikes föddas sannolikhet att ha arbete. Det finns också en koppling till arbetsinkomsten – individer bosatta i områden med många utrikesfödda har sällan höga inkomster och individer med riktigt höga inkomster har få utrikesfödda grannar.

    För att underlätta utrikes föddas integration behövs åtgärder både på bostads- och arbetsmarknaden. Särskilt viktiga är insatser som förbättrar chanserna till egen försörjning. Med arbete och tryggad inkomst ökar möjligheterna för individerna att själva välja boende. Integrationen kan också förbättras genom att det byggs bostäder med olika upplåtelseformer i samma område. Köp rapporten så får du ta del av de kompletta analyserna och förslagen!

    Rapport till expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi (ESO). ESO ligger under Finansdepartementet.

  • 185.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Debatt: varför får afrikanska kvinnor inga jobb?2014In: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En nyligen publicerad rapport visar på stora skillnader på arbetsmarknaden. Sannolikheten att stå utanför arbetskraften är 2,5 gånger högre för högutbildade kvinnor från Afrika eller Asien än för andra grupper, skriver Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt vid Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 186.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Debatten är viktig - men kolla fakta först2016In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 187.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: Access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2016In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique combination of survey and register data regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade, and service sectors. This study is the first to examine discrimination against self-employed immigrants in the credit market of a developed economy outside the US. The results demonstrate that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers, and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant-owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants especially are more likely than natives to have a loan denied, and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives. The results are robust to various different robustness checks. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or lack of access to financial capital is a major obstacle to self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants, a finding that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

  • 188.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: survey based evidence of access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a survey regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade or service sectors. The results show that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital as a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants are more likely than natives of having a loan denial and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives are. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or no access to financial capital is an obstacle for self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 189.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminering på kreditmarknaden?: en enkätundersökning bland utrikes födda egenföretagare2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 50-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultaten från en enkätundersökning riktad till utrikes födda företagare. Företagare födda i länder utanför Europa upplever sig diskriminerade av kunder, leverantörer och banker i högre grad än andra företagare. De har en högre sannolikhet att få avslag på låneansökningar i banker och betalar högre ränta på beviljade banklån. Resultaten är i linje med vad som framkommit i studier från andra länder. Vi drar slutsatsen att diskriminering, åtminstone delvis, förklarar resultaten. Då en allt större andel utrikes födda i Sverige är aktiva som egenföretagare belyser våra resultat en problematik som är central för integrationen av utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden.

  • 190.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Exits from immigrant self-employment: when, why and where to?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of exit rates from self-employment among immigrants in Sweden. A survey was administered to all immigrants who became self-employed during the period 2001–2005 and to the members of a native comparison group. The respondents were then followed up to the year 2010. Immigrants were found to have a lower propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for wage-employment but a higher propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for unemployment or for economic inactivity. Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions are conducted to study the extent to which different background characteristics affect differences in exit rates between immigrants and natives. In line with previous research, we find that labour market and self-employment experience prior to self-employment as well as access to financial capital are important explanations for the difference between non-European immigrants and natives in exit rates from self-employment to unemployment and to being economically inactive.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 191.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Flyktinginvandring: sysselsättning, förvärvsinkomster och offentliga finanser2016Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 192.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur klarar sig utrikes födda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden?2017In: Nationalekonomins frågor, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur påverkar flyktinginvandring de offentliga finanserna?2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 5-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi studerar sysselsättning bland och påverkan på offentliga finanser av flyktingar från Afrika, Mellanöstern och övriga Asien. Det framkommer att omkring 50 procent av flyktingarna var sysselsatta sju år efter folkbokföring i Sverige. Den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting uppgår till ca 190 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring. Sju år efter folkbokföring uppgår denna kostnad till ca 95 000 kr per flykting. När den offentliga konsumtion som på kort sikt kan antas vara oförändrad vid en ökad flyktinginvandring exkluderas uppgår den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting till ca 125 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring.

  • 194.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Inkomst- och yrkesposition bland invandrare från de nya EU-länderna2012In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 50-58Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Integration of immigrants on the Swedish labour market: recent trends and explanations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses new data to illustrate the position of the foreign-born on the Swedish labour market. Foreign-born Africans and Asians have a lower employment and a higher unemployment rate than other groups. They are overrepresented in fixed-time employment and underrepresented in managerial positions. Employment is particularly low among family and refugee immigrants. Educated people from these regions are more likely than others to have jobs requiring lower competencies than their educational level. Lack of human capital acquired in Sweden and lack of access to networks as well as prevalence of discrimination are put forward as explanations for this.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 196.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: evidence from Sweden2019In: Finanzarchiv, ISSN 0015-2218, E-ISSN 1614-0974, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 297-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of how refugee immigration affects public-sector finances during the refugees' first years of stay in Sweden. Two different measures are presented. First, public-sector revenues are related to public-sector costs under the assumption that public costs increase in proportion to refugee immigration. Second, public-sector revenues are related to public-sector costs when, in the short run, costs for public administration, infrastructure, and national defense are assumed to be fixed as refugee immigration increases. We find that refugee immigration implies a net cost for public-sector finances for several years and that this cost to a large extent is dependent on the refugees' labor market assimilation.

  • 197.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: longitudinal evidence from Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an analysis of refugee immigration and public sector finances in Sweden. All refugees who were listed in the national population registers from 2005 to 2007 are tracked from 2006 to 2012. We present two measures of the public sector’s net costs related to refugee immigration. In the first measure, public revenues are related to all public costs associated with refugee immigration. The second measure relates public revenues to public costs associated with immigration, excluding costs that can be assumed to be fixed in the short run when refugee immigration increases. By presenting these two measures we are able to present an upper and a lower bound for the public net costs of refugee immigration during a refugee´s first years in Sweden. Our results reveal that during a refugee’s first year of residency in Sweden after the asylum application has been approved, the public sector net costs for that refugee’s immigration are between 95,000 SEK and 190,000 SEK, depending on how public costs are allocated to the refugee population. After seven years in Sweden, the cost for that refugee is between 37,000 SEK and 125,000 SEK. Large differences are found between refugees with different educational attainment as regards the extent to which they incur a cost for the public sector’s finances.

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  • 198.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly
  • 199.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally straining or stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 200.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Sysselsättning bland flyktingar måste öka"2017In: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 2017-04-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bristande integrationen av flyktingar på svensk arbetsmarknad får konsekvenser för de offentliga finanserna och gör flyktinginvandringen till en nettokostnad lång tid efter invandring, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén, som menar att reformer är nödvändiga.

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