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  • 151.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Linnaeus University.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ammonium Lignosulfonate Adhesives for Particleboards with pMDI and Furfuryl Alcohol as Crosslinkers2019In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 1-17, article id 1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tightening formaldehyde emission limits and the need for more sustainable materials have boosted research towards alternatives to urea-formaldehyde adhesives for wood-based panels. Lignin residues from biorefineries consist of a growing raw material source but lack reactivity. Two crosslinkers were tested for ammonium lignosulfonate (ALS)—bio-based furfuryl alcohol (FOH) and synthetic polymeric 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI). The addition of mimosa tannin to ALS before crosslinking was also evaluated. The derived ALS adhesives were used for gluing 2-layered veneer samples and particleboards. Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed a reduction of curing temperature and heat for the samples with crosslinkers. Light microscopy showed that the FOH crosslinked samples had thicker bondlines and higher penetration, which occurred mainly through vessels. Tensile shear strength values of 2-layered veneer samples glued with crosslinked ALS adhesives were at the same level as the melamine reinforced urea-formaldehyde (UmF) reference. For particleboards, the FOH crosslinked samples showed a significant decrease in mechanical properties (internal bond (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR)) and thickness swelling. For pMDI crosslinked samples, these properties increased compared to the UmF. Although the FOH crosslinked ALS samples can be classified as non-added-formaldehyde adhesives, their emissions were higher than what can be expected to be sourced from the particles. 

  • 152.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå university of technology.
    Kumar, Anuj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Development of sustainable bio-adhesives for engineered wood panels – A review2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 61, p. 38604-38630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in both formaldehyde legislations and voluntary requirements (e.g. Germany RAL) are currently the driving factors behind research on alternatives to amino-based adhesives; moreover, consumer interest in healthy and sustainable products is increasing in bio-based adhesives. Sources of formaldehyde emissions in wood-based panels as well as different emission test methods have been discussed, and the main focus of this review is on the research conducted on sustainable bio-based adhesive systems for wood panels. Lignin, tannin, protein, and starch have been evaluated as both raw materials and adhesive alternatives to existing amino-based thermosetting adhesives. Adhesion improving modifications of these bio-based raw materials as well as the available and experimental crosslinkers have also been taken into account.

  • 153.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Eceiza, Arantxa
    Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Characterization of Wood-based Industrial Biorefinery Lignosulfonates and Supercritical Water Hydrolysis Lignin2019In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the properties of any particular biorefinery or pulping residue lignin is crucial when choosing the right lignin for the right end use. In this paper, three different residual lignin types [supercritical water hydrolysis lignin (SCWH), ammonium lignosulfonate (A-LS), and sodium lignosulfonate (S-LS)] were evaluated for their chemical structure, thermal properties and water vapor adsorption behavior. SCWH lignin was found to have a high amount of phenolic hydroxyl groups and the highest amount of beta-O-4 linkages. Combined with a low ash content, it shows potential to be used for conversion into aromatic or platform chemicals. A-LS and S-LS had more aliphatic hydroxyl groups, aliphatic double bonds and C=O structures. All lignins had available C-3/C-5 positions, which can increase reactivity towards adhesive precursors. The glass transition temperature (T-g) data indicated that the SCWH and S-LS lignin types can be suitable for production of carbon fibers. Lignosulfonates exhibited considerable higher water vapor adsorption as compared to the SCWH lignin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the SCWH differed greatly from the lignosulfonates in purity, chemical structure, thermal stability and water sorption behavior. SCWH lignin showed great potential as raw material for aromatic compounds, carbon fibers, adhesives or polymers. Lignosulfonates are less suited for conversion into chemicals or carbon fibers, but due to the high amount of aliphatic hydroxyl groups, they can potentially be modified or used as adhesives, dispersants, or reinforcement material in polymers. For most value-adding applications, energy-intensive purification of the lignosulfonates would be required. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 154.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Meyer, Bettina
    Fraunhofer WKI, Germany.
    Larsen, Annelise
    IKEA of Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Schwab, Harald
    Fraunhofer WKI, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influencing factors, repeatability and correlation of chamber methods in measuring formaldehyde emissions from fiber- and particleboards2019In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 95, p. 1-9, article id 102420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been focus on lowering emission levels of wood-based boards. However, the accuracy and correlationbetween EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 chamber methods at emission levels below 0.05 ppm are not wellinvestigated, and information about their correlation to the EN 16516 method is limited. In this paper, the lowemission level of interest was determined by measuring emissions from particles, fibers and pressed boards withoutglue. The effect of analytical methods and edge-sealing on chamber emissions was determined, and accuracies andcorrelations of the EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 chambers were defined at low emission levels (< 0.05 ppm). Inaddition, some emission values were compared to those obtained with EN 16516. The EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007methods had high accuracy. The acetyl acetone and 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine analytical methods showed lowstandard deviations (< 5%), except at emission levels below 0.02 ppm. This could be counteracted by using a directreagent absorber solution. Opening 5% of the edge of boards affected emissions and was dependent on board type.ASTM D 6007 and EN 717-1 methods were highly correlated for both particleboards (r2=0.9167) and fiberboards(r2=0.9443) at emission levels below 0.05 ppm. EN 16516 emissions were 2.6 times greater than those of EN 717-1 at emission range<0.05 ppm, exceeding the conversion factor of two given in the German legislation. The EN 717-1 to EN 16516 correlation needs to be further evaluated for different board types and emission ranges

  • 155.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Luleå University of Technology.
    Bio-based adhesives for the wood industry: an opportunity for the future?2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the use of some of the new technologies that may be implemented in bio-based adhesives, e.g. carbohydrate polymers, proteins, tannins, lignins, and vegetable oils.

    In order to take a part of the market share, an adhesive should have low production costs, fulfil the environmental and health standards and give better properties than conventional synthetic adhesives. For large-volume wood products such as chipboard, it is essential to develop adhesives that enable the product to be cost competitive. Bio-based adhesives that are available and affordable for the wood industry suffer from three main problems: low moisture resistance, low reactivity and poor adhesive properties, and in several cases they are expensive compared to synthetic adhesives.

  • 156.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lignin: an adhesive raw material of the future or waste of research energy?2013In: Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Proceedings of the 9th meeting, September 11-12, 2013, Hannover, Germany / [ed] Brischke, Christian & Meyer, Linda, Hannover: Leibniz Universität , 2013, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin has been studied as an adhesive for more than 100 years, but there are only a few industrial applications. The reason for the current interest is the high availability and low price of lignin. Lignin is the main by-product of paper pulping processes and is typically burned as fuel. Being the natural glue in plants and having a phenolic nature makes lignins an attractive replacement for wood adhesives.

     

    An adhesive system for wood composites consisting mainly of lignin has yet to be developed. Lignin has less reactive sites in the aromatic ring than phenols, and the steric effects caused by the macromolecular structure further hinder its reactivity. The low reactivity leads to slow curing and causes problems in applications where the curing speed is a critical parameter. Modifications such as phenolation, methylolation, and demethylation have been shown to have a positive impact on the reactivity of lignin.

     

    This paper presents properties of particle boards produced using unmodified and oxidized Kraft lignin adhesives. The paper also describes recent research relating to lignin as a base for wood adhesive and discusses the possibilities for future research.

     

    The boards produced with unmodified and modified lignin adhesives under equivalent pressing conditions performed poorly compared to the reference board made with standard UMF adhesive. Oxidation at the correct pH level improved the adhesion of the boards compared with those based on unmodified lignin. Efforts to produce an industrially viable lignin-based adhesive system will continue, and promising combinations of modifications and alternative hardeners are being studied.

  • 157.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Zabka, Michal
    IKEA Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Evaluation of dynamic microchamber as a quick factory formaldehyde emission control method for industrial particleboards2018In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, article id 4582383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common formaldehyde control method for wood panels in Europe, the perforator method, measures formaldehyde content, while most of the legal requirements in the world are based on emissions. Chamber methods typically used for emission measurements require too much time to reach steady state for factory quality control. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether emission values of particleboards measured one day after production would be usable for quality control purposes. The correlation between 1-day and 7-day emission values was determined using a dynamic microchamber (DMC). Three industrial board types that differed in density and emission levels were used for the evaluation. The online emission measuring equipment Aero-laser AL4021 connected to the 1 m3 chamber was used to gain further information on the emission reduction behaviour of the different board types. Only the two particleboard types with higher densities showed good correlation between the 1-day and 7-day emissions. The overall results suggested that 1-day emission values can be used for factory quality control purposes; however, if the initial 1-day values are above the permitted level, extensive evaluation for each individual board type needs to be performed

  • 158.
    Henriksson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Produktion av björk i Halland: kvalitet, tillväxt och ekonomi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag utgör björk en marginell del av skogsmarken i Halland. Rådgivningen om denna produktion, baseras idag främst på studier av självföryngrad björk. Generellt uppfattas björk som ett svårodlat trädslag i södra Sverige. Målet med rapporten är att påvisa vilka faktorer som förklarar hög timmerkvalitet och volymproduktion.

    Totalt har 24 produktionsbestånd inventerats. De 500 potentiellt bästa framtidsstammarna har valts ut för beräkningar och jämförelser.

    Resultatet visar att god timmerkvalitet av björk är möjlig att producera i denna del av landet. Bra stamrakhet, lite kvistar och hög andel A-klassade stammar enligt VMR (2000) fanns i många av bestånden.

    De bestånd som visade en högre medeltillväxt, bättre kvalitetsklassning och högre ekonomiskt värde än medel, var till större del planterade på åkermark, och en högre andel av dem var maskingallrade, än genomsnittet. De växte också i högre grad hos skogsägare med ett stort intresse för, och en positiv bild av sin björkskog.

  • 159.
    Herdinius, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    En undersökning av möjliga tillväxtmiljöer vid den tidiga sågverkshanteringen av ek2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a biological and organic material whose properties makes it possible for mold to grow on it under the right conditions. Mold growth on wood that humans handle and get in contact with can create health problems as some mold species can cause respiratory problems and allergic alveolitis.An investigation of which mold that grows on boards at a sawmill in southern Sweden has ben carried out. In addition to this, possible growth environments for mold have been investigated during lumber yard drying and a kiln drying process. The parameters examined were temperature and relative humidity.Mold of Paecilomyces, Aspergillus niger and yeast was found on boards. The climate during lumber yard drying and the kiln drying process showed that a large part of the early handling of the wood had a favourable climate to mold growth.

  • 160.
    Holm, Boris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effekter av superabsorbent på granplantors överlevnad och tillväxt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the effects concerning survival and growth of Norway spruce seedelings (Picea abeis L. Karst) by addition of superabsorbent Luquasorb 1280R in connection with planting under differnt conditions. Container seedlings and bare-root seedlings were studied. The addition of superabsorbent showed a positive influence regarding the studied parameters in comparision with reference material without the addition of superabsorbent. This was most obvious at the the extreme test under roof without access to additional water during the test period, except water added in connection with planting.

  • 161.
    Holmbom, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Virkesinvägning före torkning: Kan invägning av virkespaket optimera torkningsprocessen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drying is a very energy-intensive but important process in the wood industry. Since the amount of energy used is, more or less, proportional to the amount of water released, the measurement of the initial and final wood moisture content is crucial to optimize the process. Today, a rough estimate of the initial wood moisture content is used as dryer operation input data. The process could be improved by a more accurate determination of the initial moisture level. The present work examines if weighing the wood can be used as a method to determine the wood moisture level and how this can optimize the drying process. 17 drying trials were conducted at a sawmill in northern Sweden. The wood was weighed and new drying schedules were constructed and adjusted accordingly. The result show that weighing the wood results in more accurate drying schedules and overall an optimized drying process.

  • 162.
    Holmlund, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Maskinförarens uppfattning om risker och olyckor i arbetet med skördare Komatsu 901, 901TX2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are few studies about risks and accidents at work with harvesters, but each study creates a better basis to prevent future accidents to occur. The purpose of this study was to examine machine driver's perception of risks and accidents at work with harvesters Komatsu 901, 901TX. The focus was on the drivers of the model Komatsu 901 and 901TX, a common thinning and final felling machine in Sweden. Results show that there are deficiencies that are recurring on multiple machines. These deficiencies also have a connection to the actual accidents. Half of the drivers felt that there were defects (flaws) around the handle and the footboard and only one driver had access to the alarm box. The drivers believe the current structure of harvester can be improved but is not always taken seriously when they make their requests for improvements to reduce risks.

  • 163.
    Holst, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nytt viltskydd för skogsplantor2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetets syfte är att framställa och utvärdera ett individskydd mot viltbetning.

    Betningsskyddet i form av en täkt trefotsbur ska vara enkelt och kostnadseffektivt att

    bygga och bestå av naturligt förekommande material.

    Tanken är även att skyddet ska öka biologisk mångfald och estetiska värden i svenskt

    skogsbruk.

    Resultaten visar att det studerade viltskyddet ger en skyddseffekt på 100 % mot

    klövviltsbete. Trefotsburen påvisar även en högre procentuell skyddseffekt mot

    viltbetningsskador än kemiska behandlingar och är bäst ämnad för skydd av enstaka

    individer av viltbegärliga trädslag. Resultateten visar också att viltskyddet kan öka

    såväl biologisk mångfald som estetiska värden. Trefotsburen är en enkel konstruktion

    som enkelt kan tillverkas och byggas av skogsägare.

  • 164.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Linnaeus University.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Eceiza, Arantxa
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Thermal stability and water vapor sorption of wheat starch modified with isocyanate functional groups2019In: 7th International Conference on Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers (BIOPOL), 17-19th June 2019, Stockholm, Sweden, KTH , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat starch polymer was modified through the unequal reactivity of isocyanate groups in isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) confirmed the presence of both urethane and isocyanate functionalities in the modified polymer. Thermal stability and water vapor sorption properties of the modified polymer were evaluated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and auto-dynamic vapor sorption (AVS) method, respectively. The results indicated that the modified starch polymer showed a better thermal stability (e.g. higher temperature at maximum weight loss) compared to the unmodified one. Water vapor sorption of starch polymer was considerably reduced after modification with IPDI monomer.

  • 165.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Holstein, Nonna
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Dynamic vapour sorption and water-related properties of thermally modified Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood pre-treated with proton acid2017In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 138, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of proton acid pre-treatment and subsequent thermal modification at relatively low temperatures (up to 180 °C) on wood with respect to dimensional stability and water vapour sorption properties. The effects are compared to those of solely thermally-modified wood at higher temperatures (up to 250 °C). Scots pine sapwood (P. sylvestris L.) was impregnated with a proton acid or demineralised water, and subsequently, thermally modified to various mass losses (ML). Acid pre-treatment and thermal modification improved the dimensional stability and reduced the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) until certain ML. Excess surface work (ESW) obtained from vapour sorption studies indicated that, at comparable ML, the acid pre-treatment reduced the available sorption sites as compared to sole thermal treatment. Samples pre-treated with acid also showed stronger decreasing courses of EMC- and ESW-ratios than sole thermally modified ones. This was attributed to degradation of amorphous wood polymers and a stiffer matrix due to cross-linking of the cell wall polymers as a consequence of acid pre-treatment. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated that acid pre-treatment did not enhance the concentration of phenoxy radicals, whereas thermally modified wood showed a considerably higher concentration of phenoxy radicals, suggesting that high radical density cannot be used as an indicator for high matrix stiffness.

  • 166.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, C
    Georg-August-University Gottingen, Germany.
    Analysis of the vapour sorption behaviour of wood modified with thermosetting resins with Hailwood-Horrobin and Excess Surface Work models2018In: 29th International Conference on Wood Science and Technology, ICWST 2018: Implementation of Wood Science in Woodworking Sector - Proceedings / [ed] Spanic N.,Zupcic I., University of Zagreb , 2018, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood modification is a well-known technology to enhance the dimensional stability of wood and the resistance to abiotic and biotic degradation. Impregnation modification of wood with thermosetting resins, such as melamine formaldehyde (MF) or phenol formaldehyde (PF), alters the material properties of wood through formation of a three-dimensional network within the cell wall. This work investigates the vapour sorption behaviour of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) micro-veneers modified with MF and PF resins by means of Hailwood-Horrobin (H-H) and excess surface work (ESW) models. The analysed sorption data indicated that the available sorption sites were increased in the modified samples compared to the unmodified controls due to an increase of the monolayer sorption. However, modification resulted in a considerable reduction of the multilayer sorption. This could be attributed to the formation of a rigid, three-dimensional corset within the cell wall formed by auto-polymerization reactions of resin monomers and oligomers, which is known to reduce the cell wall swell-ability upon water absorption.

  • 167.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Dynamic vapour sorption of wood and holocellulose modified with thermosetting resins2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 165-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-veneers of wood and holocellulose (HC) were modified with the thermosetting resins phenol formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde. The dynamic water vapour sorption of the modified and untreated veneers was studied in a dynamic vapour sorption apparatus to assess the effects of resin modification. The adsorption of wood and HC as well as the desorption of wood was little affected by the modification in the low relative humidity (RH) range but decreased in the RH range above 60–70 %. The desorption isotherm of HC, however, was increased in the RH range of 15–80 % due to modification. Resin modification gradually decreased the EMC ratio of wood and HC and also influenced the moisture increment, equilibrium time and sorption rate in RH range above 50–60 % RH for wood and above 70–80 % RH for HC. HC exhibited a clearly lower hysteresis than wood. Modification of wood slightly reduced hysteresis compared to untreated wood, but modification of HC clearly increased hysteresis about to the same extent as that of wood. This indicates that the stiffening effect of lignin and thermosetting resins reduces the flexibility of the HC matrix, which results in increased hysteresis.

  • 168.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Dynamic water vapour sorption properties and dimensional stability of thermally and acid-treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)2015In: 69th Forest Products Society (FPS) International Convention, June 10-12, Atlanta, GA, Forest Products Society , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to accelerate the thermal modification process, Scots pine sapwood samples were subjected to two types of treatments. One group of samples was impregnated with water and exposed to 220oC and the second group was initially treated with low concentration of acids (1 mol l-1 AlCl3 and a mixture of 0.5 mol l-1 H2SO4 and 1 mol l-1 AlCl3), and then heated at different temperatures (180 and 120oC) to achieve comparable mass loss (ML) levels. The water vapour sorption isotherms of the thermally and acid-treated wood samples were determined using a dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) apparatus. Increasing the temperature in both thermally and acid-treated samples resulted in ML attributable to hemicelluloses degradation. As a result thereof, dimensional stability and reduction in the hygroscopicity of wood were observed. Acid-treated samples heated at lower temperature exhibited similar water sorption behaviour as water-treated samples subjected to considerably higher temperature. The sorption data were analysed using the Hailwood-Horrobin (H-H) and excess surface work (ESW) models. The data indicated that the monolayer and polylayer sorption were reduced by the acid and thermal treatments, but acid treatment reduced the monolyer sorption stronger than the thermal. The effect of thermal and acid treatments on the flexibility of the cell wall matrix could not be fully distinguished.

  • 169.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Effect of lignin and hemicelluloses removal on dynamic water vapour sorption behavior of wood2017In: IUFRO Division 5 Conference, 12-14 June, 2017 - Vancouver, British Columbia: Final program, proceedings and abstracts, IUFRO Division 5 Conference , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-related properties of wood are strongly depended on the sorption behavior of its hygroscopic polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. To assess the sorption performance of wood matrix in the absence of hemicelluloses and lignin, micro-veneers of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were hydrolyzed with sulphuric acid and delignified with sodium chlorite and acetic acid, respectively. The dynamic water vapour sorption of the hydrolyzed, delignified and untreated veneers was studied in a dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) apparatus. The moisture adsorption of hydrolyzed veneers was decreased in the relative humidity (RH) range above 60-70 %. Delignified veneers, however, showed obviously higher moisture adsorption at RH above 70%, as compared to untreated controls. Hydrolyzed and untreated veneers exhibited a comparable hysteresis, while delignified veneers showed a considerably lower hysteresis in comparison to them. This explains that, despite the fact that the hydrophilic hemicelluloses influence the moisture sorption of wood, the expand-ability of the cell wall matrix is mainly controlled by lignin.

  • 170.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Georg-August-University, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University, Germany.
    Effects of acid pre-treatments on the swelling and vapor sorption of thermally modified Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood2018In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 331-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine sapwood samples were pre-treated with a Lewis acid (AlCl3) and a combination of Lewis and protonic acids (AlCl3 and H2SO4), and were subsequently exposed to respective temperatures of 180 °C and 120 °C for establishing a comparable mass loss with those impregnated with demineralized water and solely thermally modified at 220 °C. Water impregnated samples dried at 120 °C also served as controls. The swelling behavior of all wood samples was examined with respect to maximum swelling in water, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), shrinkage, and dynamic water vapor sorption at relative humidity ranges of 0% to 95%. The thermal modification at 220 °C diminished swelling and moisture adsorption, and also reduced moisture increment and decrement compared with the unmodified control. However, it was less obvious than both acid pre-treated samples. Excess surface work and Hailwood-Horrobin results calculated from water vapor sorption studies demonstrated that, at comparable mass loss, the available sorption sites were reduced to a greater extent by Lewis acid and combination of Lewis and protonic acids pre-treatment than the sole thermal treatment. This was attributed to more pronounced degradation of polysaccharides, mainly hemicelluloses and amorphous parts of cellulose, and to cross-linking of cell wall polymers due to the acid pre-treatments.

  • 171.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effect of Bio-Based Additives on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Medium Density Fibreboards2017In: 28th ICWST, International Conference on Wood Science and Technology: Implementation of Wood Science in Woodworking Sector, Proceedings. Zagreb, 7th - 8th of December 2017 / [ed] Ivica Zupcic, Vjekoslav Zivkovic, Josip Miklecic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Forestry , 2017, p. 153-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimensional stability of wood-based panels is generally improved with application of suitable additives. Most of these additives, such as paraffin wax, are petroleum-based and with relatively high cost, and therefore, it is desirable to develop low-cost and effective substitutes from renewable resources. This work studied the potential of using a renewable water-repellent additive, such as tall oil fatty acid, for lab-scale manufacturing of medium density fibreboards (MDF). Tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) was used at 1 and 3% w/w of urea formaldehyde (UF) resin. MDF panels with similar concentrations of paraffin wax (wax) and panels without adding a water-repellent agent were served as controls. It was assessed the dimensional stability of the panels in terms of thickness swelling and water uptake after 4 and 24h immersion in water, and their mechanical performance in terms of modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and internal bonding. Results showed no obvious differences in the strength behaviour of the panels by addition of water-repellent agents. Dimensional stability, however, considerably improved by addition of TOFA, but it was still inferior when compared to that provided by wax.   

  • 172.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza
    Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran.
    Properties of medium-density fibreboards bonded with dextrin-based wood adhesive2019In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on manufacturing of medium density fibreboard (MDF) panels bonded with dextrin-based wood adhesive and crosslinked in situ with various weight ratios of synthetic (e.g., polymeric-methane diphenyl-diisocyanate, pMDI) or bio-based (e.g., glyoxal) crosslinkers. The physical and mechanical properties of the panels were evaluated and compared with those from panels without crosslinker (control). Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond (IB) strength of the MDF panels were considerably increased by increasing the crosslinkers’ content. While, slight improvements were observed in modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the panels as a function of crosslinker type and content. Addition of crosslinkers clearly reduced the thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) of the panels, whereas, the panels with pMDI showed superior performances than the control and glyoxal added ones within 4 h and 24 h immersion in water. The results indicate the potential of dextrin as wood panel adhesive along with the use of appropriate crosslinkers.

  • 173.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Parsland, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Utilization of different tall oils for improving the water resistance of cellulosic fibers2019In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 136, no 13, article id 47303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of the pulping by-products crude tall oil (CTO), distilled tall oil (DTO), andtall oil fatty acid (TOFA) on dynamic water vapor sorption behavior, interfiber strength, and thermal stability of cellulosic paper-sheets.The results were compared against those obtained in cellulose papers treated with the conventional petroleum-derived hydrophobicagent hydrowax and in untreated ones. The tall oil treatments caused strong reduction in equilibrium moisture content of the paper-sheets during adsorption and desorption runs. The same trend was noticed for the hydrowax-treated papers, however, it was lesspronounced than the CTO-treated and DTO-treated samples in the relative humidity range of 75–95%. The sorption hysteresis was con-siderably decreased after the treatments. The ultimate dry-tensile strengths of the paper-sheets were significantly reduced by TOFA andhydrowax treatments, while CTO and DTO showed comparable strength as that of untreated control. The ultimate wet-strengths of thepaper-sheets were improved after the treatments. The thermal stability of the specimens was improved by the tall oil treatments, and thehydrowax-treated samples illustrated lower degradation temperature than the untreated control. The results are promising for the use oftall oils as alternative hydrophobic agents of cellulosicfiber-based products, such as wood panels and paper packaging.

  • 174.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Echart, Arantzazu Santamaria
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gabilondo, Nagore
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Eceiza, Arantxa
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Modification of Pea Starch and Dextrin Polymers with Isocyanate Functional Groups2018In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pea starch and dextrin polymers were modified through the unequal reactivity of isocyanate groups in isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer. The presence of both urethane and isocyanate functionalities in starch and dextrin after modification were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The degree of substitution (DS) was calculated using elemental analysis data and showed higher DS values in modified dextrin than modified starch. The onsets of thermal degradation and temperatures at maximum mass losses were improved after modification of both starch and dextrin polymers compared to unmodified ones. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of modified starch and dextrin were lower than unmodified control ones, and this was more pronounced in modified dextrin at a high molar ratio. Dynamic water vapor sorption of starch and dextrin polymers indicated a slight reduction in moisture sorption of modified starch, but considerably lower moisture sorption in modified dextrin as compared to that of unmodified ones.

  • 175.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Göttingen university, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    Dynamic water vapour sorption properties of wood cell wall polymer constituents2015In: COST FP1303 (Performance of bio-based building materials) / [ed] Dennis Jones, Christian Brischke, Jaan Kers, Triinu Poltimäe and Joachim Schmid, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2015, p. 42-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses have main roles on swelling and shrinkage of wood products. Interaction of these components with moisture has an important effect on market-friendly when the wood is subjected to the outside utilizations. In the heterogeneous structure of wood, sorption and desorption are occurred in different stages and it calls hysteresis. Hysteresis is a characteristic result from a moisture/temperature/time-dependent, slow, non-equilibrium, swelling-related conformational change, which is facilitated by increasing free volume and mobility in a polymer that is being plasticized during sorption that usually progresses through the stage of water clustering (Reina et al. 2001). Cell wall polymers of wood have a different behavior in the face of moisture in terms of sorption, desorption and hysteresis (Engelund et al. 2013).

    In order to better comprehension of the effect of cell wall material such as lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, Scots pine micro-veneers were subjected to hydrolysis with sulphuric acid or delignification with acidic sodium chlorite, as previously described (Klüppel and Mai 2012). Then the hemicelluloses were isolated from the delignified veneers according to the chloride method. The commercial lignin was also used after dialysis tubing. The water adsorption and desorption mechanism of delignified and hydrolysed veneers as well as cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin were determined using a dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) apparatus.

    The hydrolysed veneers were resulted in obviously lower moisture content in adsorption and desorption processes with increasing the relative humidity (RH) (Fig. 1a). While, delignified veneers showed slightly higher moisture content compared to control with increasing the ambient moisture until 70% RH and then considerably higher until 95% RH. Control specimens shown higher hysteresis than hydrolysed veneers and also higher hysteresis than delignified veneers after hygroscopic range (Fig. 1b). Moisture content of cell wall constituents in various relative humidity exhibited the higher moisture sorption and desorption of cellulose than lignin, however, hemicelluloses illustrated the significantly higher moisture content than other two cell wall polymers which might be attributed to the softening of hemicelluloses in higher relative humidity (Fig. 2a,b,c). Lignin showed higher hysteresis than cellulose in different relative humidity. Hemicellulose demonstrated the relatively low hysteresis until 50% RH, and with increasing the ambient pressure from 60% RH the hemicelluloses exhibited the extremely higher hysteresis than other cell wall polymers.

  • 176.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Growth layer and fibre orientation around knots in Norway spruce: a laboratory investigation2018In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 7-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strength of structural timber largely depends on the occurrence of knots and on the local material directions in the surroundings of such knots. There is, however, a lack of methods for establishing a full dataset of the local material directions. The present research aims at the development and application of a laboratory method to assess the geometry of growth layers and the orientation of fibres in a high-resolution 3D grid within wood specimens containing knots. The laboratory method was based on optical flatbed scanning and laser scanning, the former resulting in surface images and the latter, utilizing the tracheid effect, resulting in in-plane fibre angles determined in high-resolution grids on scanned surfaces. A rectangular solid wood specimen containing a single knot was cut from a tree in such a way that it could be assumed that a plane of symmetry existed in the specimen. By splitting the specimen through this plane through the centre line of the knot, two new specimens with assumed identical but mirrored properties were achieved. On one of the new specimens, the longitudinal-radial plane was subsequently scanned, and the longitudinal–tangential plane was scanned on the other. Then, by repeatedly planing off material on both specimens followed by scanning of the new surfaces that gradually appeared, 3D coordinate positions along different growth layers and 3D orientation of fibres in a 3D grid were obtained. Comparisons between detected fibre orientation and growth layer geometry were used for the assessment of the accuracy obtained regarding 3D fibre orientation. It was shown that the suggested method is well suited to capture growth layer surfaces and that it provides reliable information on 3D fibre orientation close to knots. Such knowledge is of great importance for understanding the properties of timber including knots. The quantitative data obtained are also useful for calibration of model parameters of general models on fibre orientation close to knots.

  • 177.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Three dimensional growth layer geometry and fibre orientation around knots: a laboratory investigation2016In: Proceedings of WCTE 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering / [ed] Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Huang, Tianxiao
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hydrophobic Coating on Cellulosic Textile Material by Betulin and a Betulin Based Polymer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Betulin is a naturally abundant compound in the outer bark of birch and can be easily

    obtained by solvent extraction. Herein, solutions of betulin were used to treat cellulosic

    textile fibers and improve their water repellency. Cotton fabrics impregnated in a 7.5 g

    L-1 solution of betulin in ethanol showed the highest water contact angle of about 153°

    while the impregnation in a 3.75 g L-1 solution resulted in a close effect. A terephthaloyl

    chloride-betulin copolymer was synthesized and dissolved in tetrahydrofuran to afford a

    solution with a concentration of 3.75 g L-1. The cotton fabric impregnated in this

    solution showed a water contact angle of 150°. Changes in morphology of the cellulose

    fibers before and after the treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy,

    and the water repellency was measured by a standard spray test. The marketing strategy

    of the potential product, which will be developed based on this technique, was discussed.

  • 179.
    Hultin, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Barkning av björk i små dimensioner: En studie utförd på uppdrag av IKEA Of Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    he study is made on assignment of IKEA and investigates methods of debarking birch in small dimensions, with the purpose of highlighting parameters that will affect debarking in a drum and evaluating possible known methods. Two attempts is made in the study, an attempt in the form of hydraulic debarking and an attempt to highlight parameters affecting drum debarking. The results show that hydraulic barking works but further studies are required to evaluate cost, water usage and machine development. The drum debarking experiment shows that steaming in preparatory purpose makes the process more effective, logs should be of similar size and the bark will be removed more easily during the sapping season. No methods specifically adapted to debark birch of smaller dimensions was found during the study. 

  • 180.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Arvidsson, Claes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skatta beståndsålder och ståndortsindex via flygbilder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbart skogsbruk kräver kunskap om skogens tillstånd i nutid samt tänkbara framtida åtgärder. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om det via digitala flygbilder var möjligt att skatta trädålder och SI på beståndsnivå, samt med vilken precision det kan utföras.Endast tall- och/ eller grandominerade bestånd, valdes i Vetlanda och Nybro kommun. Flygbilderna bearbetades av Foran Sverige AB med hjälp av ett program framtaget av Spacemetric AB.De fältinventerade beståndens data jämfördes med medianvärden från de skattade trädhöjderna, vilka matades in i en formel, konstruerad för att göra en kurvanpassning mot de nya höjdutvecklingskurvorna.Metoden för framtagning av höjdvärden via bildmatchning bör förfinas, t.ex. bör laserskanningen bidra med högre precision. Endast mindre delar av landet har mer än en skanningstidpunkt med laser, metoden kräver minst två höjdvärden i serie.Syftet med studien anses uppfyllt, dock hade studien tjänat på en bättre metod för att sålla bort felaktiga data innan analys. Generaliserbarheten är god på liknande bestånd, vidare studier krävs för att kunna påvisa en användarbarhet i olika typer av bestånd, där även olika skötselvarianter bör vägas in.

  • 181.
    Häggeborg, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Automatisk gallringsuppföljning i olika beståndstyper: Ingående beståndsvariablers inverkan på precisionen hos programvaran hprGallring2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous controls are made to see if the thinning is done as specified. This is made by self-controls by the harvester drivers or more comprehensive controls by the logging companies. Those controls are done by random samples since they are very time consuming. Skogforsk has developed software named hprGallring, which uses harvester data and mathematical algorithms to calculate stand variables and forecasting the remaining stand after thinning. The purpose with this study has been to investigate if hprGallrings forecast is good enough to reduce the manual work.

    The results show that hprGallring seems to overestimate the basal area and volume. This is most obvious in stands were the thinning are concentrated against a specific sort of wood. The forecast for tree composition in the remaining stand are in these cases very inaccurate.

  • 182.
    Hällgren, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thuja plicata - etableringsförsök av jättetuja med fyra olika provenienser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Future climate changes may lead to an interest of alternative and foreign forest tree species in order to spread the risks in forestry. Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Freemont cottonwood and hybrid aspen are examples of popular foreign tree species that along with western red cedar could have a future in the Swedish forests.Södra Skogsägarna and SLU have collaboration in establishment of foreign species in Swedish forests.The purpose of this study was to analyze and present the establishment of western red cedar, and to survey and illustrate injuries of freeze drying and other damages like deer browsing, vegetation and insect attacks. The study included four different provenances, and spruce as a reference, planted in two locations – Asa and Släne.Western red cedar is despite its name a conifer of the cupressaceae family with defined secondary characteristic and gets along well with an overstory. Western red cedar grows often in mixed stands with similar conifers and its natural habitat is within and in the area near to British Columbia.The study included two series of field inventories, one made in the summer and one in the autumn 2013, three growing seasons after plantation. Every second row in the western red cedar plantations were planted with hybrid larch, a cross between Japanese and European larch, to improve a favorable climate for the main trees which are sensitive to freeze, and also to spread the economic risks.The results showed that the reference spruce had a greater establishment than the western red cedar but the results also proves western red cedar to be a possible alternative tree species in these two locations. The study showed good growth even though western red cedar was affected by injuries from freeze and pine weevil.Of the four provenances there was one that had a lower survivorship than the others, Yola Creek, which was more coastal than the other reported provenances.

  • 183.
    Höckerdal, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Flink, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsröta: Olika sätt att identifiera röta på stående träd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsröta är idag orsaken till de största ekonomiska förlusterna förskogsindustrin i Sverige, framförallt när det handlar om gran. Att kunnaidentifiera om ett stående träd är rötskadat eller inte tordes kunna minska deekonomiska förlusterna avsevärt. I projektet har två olika metoder använtsför att kunna identifiera skogsröta. Den ena metoden var en manuellbedömning av beståndet där synliga defekter på stammen, såsom svarta“skorpor” och rotansvällningar, har tagits i beaktande. Den andra metodenbaserades på mätningar med en impulshammare som mäter tiden det tar förljud att färdas genom en stam. På så sätt kan antydningar till defekter iveden, exempelvis skogsröta, hittas. Dessa två metoder jämfördes sedan medett facit som togs fram efter avverkning där stubbarna inventerades. Utifrånresultatet kunde sedan slutsatsen dras att varken impulshammaren eller denmanuella bedömningen var tillräckligt tillförlitlig.

  • 184.
    Högberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Hallingbäck, Henrik
    SLU.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Skogforsk.
    The potential for the genetic improvement of sawn timber traits in Picea abies2014In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the potential for the selective genetic improvement of the structural quality traits important in sawn Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) timber based on early and nondestructively assessed field traits. From a 34-year-old Norway spruce trial situated in southern Sweden, 401 butt logs were sampled and sawn to produce two 50 × 100 mm boards that were dried to an 18% moisture content. Structural quality traits were assessed, and genetic parameters were estimated, including additive genetic variance, heritability, and their genetic correlations with field traits. Board twisting, density, and modulus of elasticity (MOE, stiffness) were found to have appreciable heritabilities (0.23–0.44). Board twist was found to have a strong genetic correlation with grain angle measured under bark in the field (0.93), and both board MOE and density exhibited strong genetic correlations with field-assessed pilodyn penetration (–0.75 and –0.91, respectively). Although these observations were made on a thinning material comprising mainly juvenile wood, they nonetheless suggest grain angle and pilodyn penetration to be promising candidates as selection criteria for Norway spruce breeding. Heritabilities of other sawn timber traits were lower and the genetic correlations between these traits and field traits were also lower, variable, and had large estimation errors.

  • 185.
    Ingestad, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bokskog för framtiden: Planer och visioner för en bokplantering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an area, where planting of beech, Fagus

    sylvatica, has been made after clear cutting of spruce, Picea abies. Focus of

    the study was primary to follow-up the first phase of the planting, and also

    make an assessment of future planning based on such achievements as

    "selective cutting" or "natural" methods.

    In the result analysis comparisons are made with similar studies and also

    previous results for the area. An investment in natural methods for deciduous

    forest gives, according to the summary conclusions, not the highest economic

    gains in the current situation. However, with a long-term care program you

    can reach investment possibilities. On the one hand you get increase in

    quality of future soil and growing conditions, and greater chance of passing

    climate change and their effects. An additional profit is the opportunity to be

    part of building experience and knowledge of the development of a future

    broadleaved forest.

  • 186.
    Isaksson, Eddie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Klitsch, Robert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Stopptidsanalys i hyvelanläggningen vid VIDA Vislanda2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    VIDA Vislanda has a need to know how efficient production is on their new planing mill. Therefore, work to investigate the stopping time lengths and the underlying causes of stoppages at the company is needed. It is also part of the work to submit proposals on measures that could lead to improvements in activity rates and reduction of downtime.

    VIDA Vislanda wants to know the efficiency, real meters out and real units out for each dimension and length. The results are presented after this request, but the overall efficiency of the entire measurement period was also calculated, to 52%. If VIDA addresses the major recurring causes of stoppages with our proposed improvements it will decrease the stoppages and thus increase efficiency.

  • 187.
    Ivarsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skötsel av julgranar och julgransodling i Sverige: 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike Sweden, Denmark is a major industry when it comes to christmas tree cultivation. More than ten million christmas trees are processed in Denmark annually. The primary purpose of this report is to investigate the technology, treatment and maintenance of christmas trees in Sweden and Denmark, and to find differences in the management between Swedish and Danish christmas tree cultivators. Since an opinion poll has been made, the investigation method mainly used for this report is quantitative. But a qualitative investigation method has also been used to some extent as a few unstructured interviews has occurred while visiting a couple of the cultivators.

     

    63 % of the christmas tree cultivators consider themselves knowledgeable about christmas tree cultivation and 68 % wants to learn more. There is both similarities and differences along those cultivators that has been visited. Obvious similarities has mostly been found when visiting farms engaged in developing christmas trees to a bigger extent. Denmark conducts their maintenance methods with the aim to produce a large amount of high quality Christmas trees. This tendency does also occur in Sweden at, for example, Gunnars Granar located in Degeberga. Gunnar manages his cultivation almost identically to Denmark's management methods. However, the big christmas tree cultivators are still mainly located in Denmark.

  • 188.
    Jakobsson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Användning av markfuktighetskartor för ståndortsanpassad plantering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital depth-to-water maps can be produced from a digital elevation model (DEM). Then GIS- based algorithms are used to calculate water flows and the depth-to-water index classes dry, fresh, moist and wet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility to use depth- to-water maps for site adapted planting.

    The results showed that use of depth-to-water maps for site adapted planting, roughly halved the proportion of improperly planted surfaces from an average of 9 % to 4 %. The variation in the values of proper surface decreased and the result became more even.. In addition, more pine than spruce was incorrectly planted. Without soil moisture maps, the proportion of improper pine and spruce was 66 % and 34 % respectively, and with soil moisture maps, the proportion of improper pine and spruce was 55 % and 45 % respectively. This shows that for regenerations planted without the depth-to-water maps, mostly pine was incorrectly planted, but for the regenerations planted with the depth-to-water maps, the proportions were similar for spruce and pine.

    The conclusion from the results indicated that depth-to-water-maps can improve site adapted planting. By using the maps it is possible to get a good overview of the conditions and terrain variations of the planting sites. 

  • 189.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    A decision-making framework for enhancing client well-being: When designing windows and blinds2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current state of window and blind design moves beyond evaluating a single function, such as energy consumption, to include a human perspective in architectural design approach to create value. A current thought among architects and design professionals is that the highest value outcomes can be obtained when any architectural design contributes to enhanced well-being. Previous studies show that an individual’s well-being is determined by five main life domain factors: health, economy, personality, demographic variables and behavior variables. However, the life domain factors health and economy show stronger and more positive correlations to well-being. At this point, value creation within architectural design context, including window and blind design, can be seen as an attempt to enhance well-being by improving health and providing economic benefits for clients. Clients can represent i) owners who own a built asset, ii) investors who commit capital and expect to obtain financial return, or iii) occupants who live or work in the building every day. In the context of owner-occupied buildings, the value creation process is mainly seen as an attempt to enhance well-being for one entity by improving health and providing economic benefits. When considering investment properties or assets held for sale, the value creation process is mainly translated into an attempt to enhance well-being for several entities by improving health for occupants and providing economic benefits for owners and/or investors.Selecting a window and blind design to enhance client well-being remains a challenging task due to three main difficulties. The first difficulty relates to the contradictory effects of windows and blinds on visual and thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. The second difficulty is the availability of a variety of window and blind designs in different sizes, positions and forms, making the selection of windows and blinds an intricate decision challenge for architects and designers. The third difficulty involves decisions about the selection of windows and blinds that should include all criteria and their interactions simultaneously.To resolve the abovementioned difficulties, this research applied the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a multi-criteria decision-making method to select a window and blind design based on a trade-off between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. The analyses of results show the capability of AHP in resolving difficulties, however its application is mainly limited to a small number of designs. To overcome this limitation, a decision-making framework was developed based on integration between non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) as an optimization algorithm and AHP. The strength and limitations of the decision-making framework were later tested by employing it in window and blind design practice. To investigate further benefits from the implementation of the framework, it was expanded by evaluating additional building envelopes, i.e. windows as well as external walls, roof and floor constructions, which made it possible to select a trade-off construction solution. The analyses of results show the framework’s ability to resolve difficulties and locate a trade-off design in a relatively short period of time. However, the decision-making framework only allows the analysis of the objective criteria for evaluating visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. This is because it is necessary to rely on the creativity of the architects and designers when designing windows and blinds in order to consider subjective issues. The decision-making framework can be used either by design teams or customer service experts in window manufacturing companies. A literature study was therefore conducted to extend the technology acceptance model and thereby investigate the determinants of framework user acceptance of the decision-making framework. The results showed that organizational, individual, technological and environmental characteristics were the most influential external variables when investigating determinants of framework user acceptance of the framework. Organizational characteristics included top management support, training, organizational culture, and organizational size, while individual characteristics included the users’ previous knowledge and experience. Technological characteristics embraced information quality and system quality, meanwhile environmental characteristics comprised fulfillment of regulations and competitiveness.

  • 190.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    A decision-making framework for increasing clients’ satisfaction - when designing windows and blinds: Presented at Marcus Wallenberg Prize Ceremony2019Other (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Windows and blinds selection for enhancing subjective well-being2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies in the context of windows and blinds selection have mostly tried to increase the awareness regarding various effects of windows and blinds selection on subjective well-being, including their effect on visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. However, the main problem is the potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Increased awareness about the contradictory effect of windows and blinds selection on subjective well-being on one hand and lack of a feasible method in managing the conflicts on the other hand may bind individuals, as decision-makers, in a situation where they follow the immediate economic benefits rather than the long-term visual and thermal benefits. To solve the mentioned problem, this study analysed first the degree of the conflicts between average daylight illuminance and total energy consumption in Sweden. This decision was made due to large variation in solar elevation angle and solar intensity between summer and winter in Sweden, which has significant effects on daylight illuminance and total energy consumption. Analysing the conflicts was accomplished by developing two multivariate linear regression models for calculating average daylight illuminance and total energy consumption. Comparison and analysis of the multivariate linear regression models showed the existence of a high degree of conflicts, which makes window and blind selection a rather complex multidimensional problem. Specifying the degree of the conflicts formed a hypothesis as: “A multi criteria decision-making method increases the controllability and manages the conflicts in selecting windows and blinds”. The developed hypothesis was later tested by employing analytical hierarchy process, as widely used multi criteria decisionmaking method. The analytical hierarchy process prioritizes decision-maker’ preferences and introduces a desired trade-off solution. The results of employing analytical hierarchy process showed the capability of it in managing the conflicts among visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Finally, the application of the analytical hierarchy process was expanded by integrating it with nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, as an optimization algorithm. Through this integration, optimization algorithm combines windows’ and blinds’ design variables and analyses a large number of solutions, while analytical hierarchy process ranks the solutions based on decision-makers’ preferences and introduces a desired trade-off solution. The integration between analytical hierarchy process and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II was presented later as a conceptual framework. The developed conceptual framework can be used for selecting windows and blinds II in both residential and commercial buildings. In selecting windows and blinds, the conceptual framework is a novel solution to the lack of a feasible method for increasing the controllability for decision-makers and obtaining a desired trade-off solution.

  • 192.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Material properties of wooden surfaces used in interiors and sensory stimulation2018In: Presented at Forum Wood Building Nordic 2018, 27-28 september, Växjö, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Material properties of wooden surfaces used in interiors and sensory stimulation2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 192-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By covering interiors, such as walls, ceilings and floors, with wooden surfaces, one can change the quality of indoor environments and thereby affect both psychological and physiological responses. Psychological responses refer to individuals’ emotional reactions toward interiors, while physiological responses include changes in the activity of the brain, the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system. The above-mentioned responses considered in this study are those caused by visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile stimulation from interior wooden surfaces. Although earlier studies have presented valuable information on this subject, questions remain about the material properties of wood which are associated with the stimulation. Specifying the material properties can support architects, designers and engineers who intend to use wood in interiors for improving psychological and physiological responses. A literature study therefore has been conducted to determine (i) the material properties of wood which are associated with sensory stimulation, and (ii) to specify relevant recommendations or requirements which should be fulfilled when covering interiors with wooden surfaces. The results show a lack of knowledge regarding the material properties of wood and the degree in which it affects sensory stimulation.

  • 194.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Applying a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds2019In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 382-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of the most appropriate window and blind design is a challenging task due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Resolving these conflicts relies on a trade-off window and blind design. This research applied a decision-making framework to select a trade-off window and blind design for an office room in Sweden. The decision-making framework was developed based on integrating the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and the analytical hierarchy process. The first step in the application of the framework was to generate a model of the office room using EnergyPlus. Six types of window and four types of blind; an internal venetian blind, an internal roller curtain, an external venetian blind and an external overhang panel, were modelled in EnergyPlus. The second step was to run an optimisation using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. For this purpose, various window and blind design variables were specified in modeFRONTIER platform. The third and last step in the application of the decision-making framework was to select a trade-off window and blind design using analytical hierarchy process. The results show the strength of the decision-making framework in selecting a trade-off design, and thereby the ability to resolve conflicts through intelligent use of simulation in analyzing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Since, the computation and processing power for performing simulations is constantly increasing, architects and designers can exploit the decision-making framework and locate a trade-off design in a relatively short period of time.

  • 195.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Comparing the profitability of various renovation packages in Swedish residential building sector: case study2019In: Sustainable built environment conference (SBE 2019). 6-7 August, Tokyo, Japan, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish government adopted national targets to reduce total energy consumption and mitigate environmental impacts. At this point, detached houses play an important role, since they account for a large share of dwelling stock in this country. The majority of these buildings are affected by technical deteriorations in building envelopes and heating, ventilation and air condition systems. Accordingly, there is a need for a deep renovation strategy, which covers both energy efficiency measures and economic issues. Additionally, a deep renovation can improve indoor climate, which contributes to the enhanced health and wellbeing. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of eight different renovation packages in reducing energy consumption and providing economic benefits in a detached house in Sweden. The renovation packages include 1) improving the U-value of building envelopes; 2) adding a heat recovery for ventilation system; 3) installing a ground source heat pomp for supporting heat demand and domestic hot water; 4) combination of renovation package 1 and 2; 5) combination of renovation package 1 and 3; 6) combination of renovation package 2 and 3; 7) combination of renovation package 1, 2 and 3; and 8) combination of renovation package 1, 2, 3 along with installing photovoltaic cells for producing electricity. The reduction in energy consumption was calculated in kWh/m². year for each renovation package, while the economic benefit was obtained by calculating the payback period during a lifespan of 50 years and internal rate of return with interest rates of 1%, 3% and 6%. The results indicate that renovation package 8 has the highest potential in reducing total energy consumption, while renovation package 3 is the most profitable solution since it provides the shortest payback period with the highest internal rate of return. The results help to define and project efficient energy policies in Sweden.

  • 196.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University.
    Integrating BIM, optimization and a multi-criteria decision-making method in building design process2018In: Advances in Informatics and Computing in Civil and Construction Engineering: Proceedings of the 35th CIB W78 2018 Conference: IT in Design, Construction, and Management / [ed] Mutis I., Hartmann T., Springer, 2018, p. 359-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) defined a target as all new constructed buildings within the EU region must be a zero-energy building by the end of 2020. Furthermore, all European countries must ensure the minimum comfort threshold in energy calculations. Reducing energy consumption and improving indoor comfort, including visual and thermal com-fort, can contribute to economic benefits. However, the main problem is the exi-tance of conflicts among visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. To solve the abovementioned problem and to fulfil the EPBD’s target, this study aims to apply an integration between BIM, optimiza-tion and Analytical Hierarchy Process as a multi-criteria decision-making method on an office building in Sweden. Accordingly, 3 types of windows and 5 types of external wall, ground floor and external roof constructions were specified as op-timization variables. The combination between the optimization variables gener-ated 375 design alternatives. The performance of all 375 design alternatives were evaluated with respect to visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Later, AHP was used to find a trade-off design alternative. The results show that the combination between window type 1, external wall type 5, ground floor type 1 and external roof type 5 is the trade-off design alternative. Furthermore, the results show the integration enables to solve the abovemen-tioned conflicts and to fulfil the EPBD’s target.

  • 197.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Determinants of users’ acceptance of a computer-based system2019In: 36th CIB W78 2019 Conference ICT in Design, Construction and Management in Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO), 18-20 September, 2019, Newcastle, United Kingdom: University of Northumbria , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has an ambitious target to attain 50% more efficient energy use by 2030. Improving the energy performance of buildings provides a great opportunity to achieve the above-mentioned target. At this point, windows play a substantial role in improving indoor environmental quality and reducing energy consumption and cost. A computer-based system was therefore developed, which allows selecting a suitable window design. The computer-based system was intended to be used in a large-sized window and door manufacturing company in Sweden. However, the benefits of implementing the computer-based system cannot be realized until users accept using it. Former literature employed the technology acceptance model to investigate the influence of external variables on cognitive beliefs and trace their effects on users’ intention and actual system use. A successful application of TAM relies on the specification of the external variable. Accordingly, this paper conducted a systematic literature review to determine the external variable, affecting users' acceptance, thereby extended TAM. The analyses of results showed that organizational, individual, technological and environmental characteristics were the most influential external variables when investigating determinants of users' acceptance toward a computer-based system. Organizational characteristics contained mainly top management support, training, organizational culture, and organizational size, while individual characteristics embraced users’ previous knowledge and experience. Technological characteristics comprised information quality and system quality, meanwhile environmental characteristics included fulfillment of regulations and competitiveness. The extended TAM overcomes limitations attributed to the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model since it considers attitude as direct determinants of intentions. In addition, the extended TAM is advantageous when compared with technology, organization, environment framework, because it has clear constructs, which allows tracing the influence of external variables on cognitive beliefs, and thereby their effects on users’ intention and actual system use. The extended TAM will be used to investigate determinants of users’ acceptance of the computer-based system in the manufacturing company in Sweden and compare the effect of external variables on users' acceptance.

  • 198.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Application of analytical hierarchy process for selecting an interior window blind2017In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 308-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Window blinds have a substantial role in shaping the energy consumption and improving thermal comfort and visual comfort. However, difficulties in selecting a window blind remain, due to existence of potential conflicts between visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. To overcome this problem, this study evaluates the performance of interior blinds, including venetian with slat of 0° and 45°, roller and double pleated blinds with respect to visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. Later, the Analytical hierarchy method (AHP) is used for selecting the best blind based on trade-off among the visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. In using AHP, visual comfort is determined as most important objective with a weight of 52%. The results show that venetian blind with slat of 0° drawn 100% is the trade-off blind. Accomplishing the sensitivity analysis on blinds’ global weight shows that venetian blind with slat of 0° drawn 100% remains the trade-off blind until the weight of energy and life cycle cost is below 37% and 57% respectively and the weight of visual comfort is above 4%. However, changing thermal comfort weight has no impact on ranking of the blinds. This study shows the capability of AHP in managing the conflicts.

  • 199.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Developing a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds2019In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 357-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows and blinds play a significant role in both shaping energy consumption and enhancing indoor comfort. But there are still difficulties with selecting windows and blinds due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. A literature review was conducted with the purpose of developing a decision-making framework that resolves the conflicts, and allows selecting a window and blind design based on trade-off between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. The decision-making framework was developed by integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II as an optimisation algorithm with analytical hierarchy process as a multi-criteria decision-making method. The optimisation algorithm considers different window and blind design variables and analyses multiple designs, while the multi-criteria decision-making method ranks the optimization results and selects a trade-off design. An operating package enabled the decision-making framework to be automated. The operating package was obtained by coupling EnergyPlus as a simulation tool and modeFRONTIER as an integration platform. The decision-making framework was developed to select a trade-off window and blind design through intelligent use of simulation in analysing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Application of the framework ensures the minimum visual and thermal comfort thresholds with the lowest energy demand and cost. Architects and designers can use the framework during the design or renovation phase of residential and commercial buildings.

     

  • 200.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    A framework for selecting a suitable window design2016In: Presented at BuildSim-Nordic conference, Trondheim, Norway, September 26-27, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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