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  • 151.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bouyahiaoui, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, J.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    de Bony, M.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Filipovic, M.
    Univ Western Sydney, Australia.
    Fontaine, G.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Université Bordeaux, France.
    Haerer, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khatoon, R.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Leitl, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany;Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Mitchell, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    de Ona Wilhelmi, E.
    DESY, Germany.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    GRAPPA, Netherlands.
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Germany.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa;Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Constraints on the Intergalactic Magnetic Field Using Fermi-LAT and HESS Blazar Observations2023In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 950, no 2, article id L16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic fields in galaxies and galaxy clusters are believed to be the result of the amplification of intergalactic seed fields during the formation of large-scale structures in the universe. However, the origin, strength, and morphology of this intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) remain unknown. Lower limits on (or indirect detection of) the IGMF can be obtained from observations of high-energy gamma rays from distant blazars. Gamma rays interact with the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which can subsequently initiate electromagnetic cascades. The gamma-ray signature of the cascade depends on the IGMF since it deflects the pairs. Here we report on a new search for this cascade emission using a combined data set from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the High Energy Stereoscopic System. Using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo predictions for the cascade signal, our results place a lower limit on the IGMF of B > 7.1 x 10(-16) G for a coherence length of 1 Mpc even when blazar duty cycles as short as 10 yr are assumed. This improves on previous lower limits by a factor of 2. For longer duty cycles of 10(4) (10(7)) yr, IGMF strengths below 1.8 x 10(-14) G (3.9 x 10(-14) G) are excluded, which rules out specific models for IGMF generation in the early universe.

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    fulltext
  • 152.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Cangemi, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cristofari, P.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris, France;Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Haerer, L. K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Unbehaun, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Y. Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, France.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Braiding, C.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Burton, M.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, UK.
    Cubuk, K.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, UK.
    Filipovic, M.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Tothill, N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Wong, G.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    A deep spectromorphological study of the ϒ-ray emission surrounding the young massive stellar cluster Westerlund 12022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 666, article id A124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Young massive stellar clusters are extreme environments and potentially provide the means for efficient particle acceleration. Indeed, they are increasingly considered as being responsible for a significant fraction of cosmic rays (CRs) that are accelerated within the Milky Way. Westerlund 1, the most massive known young stellar cluster in our Galaxy, is a prime candidate for studying this hypothesis. While the very-high-energy gamma-ray source HESS J1646-458 has been detected in the vicinity of Westerlund 1 in the past, its association could not be firmly identified. Aims. We aim to identify the physical processes responsible for the gamma-ray emission around Westerlund 1 and thus to understand the role of massive stellar clusters in the acceleration of Galactic CRs better. Methods. Using 164 h of data recorded with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), we carried out a deep spectromorphological study of the gamma-ray emission of HESS J1646-458. We furthermore employed H I and CO observations of the region to infer the presence of gas that could serve as target material for interactions of accelerated CRs. Results. We detected large-scale (similar to 2 degrees diameter) gamma-ray emission with a complex morphology, exhibiting a shell-like structure and showing no significant variation with gamma-ray energy. The combined energy spectrum of the emission extends to several tens of TeV, and it is uniform across the entire source region. We did not find a clear correlation of the gamma-ray emission with gas clouds as identified through H I and CO observations. Conclusions. We conclude that, of the known objects within the region, only Westerlund 1 can explain the majority of the gamma-ray emission. Several CR acceleration sites and mechanisms are conceivable and discussed in detail. While it seems clear that Westerlund 1 acts as a powerful particle accelerator, no firm conclusions on the contribution of massive stellar clusters to the flux of Galactic CRs in general can be drawn at this point.

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  • 153.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Russian Armenian Univ RAU, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Baghmanyan, V
    Polskiej Akad Nauk PAN, Poland.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Polskiej Akad Nauk PAN, Poland.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Duffy, C.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris, France;Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Zhiqiu
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Klepser, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron Germany.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Konno, R.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Murach, T.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Polskiej Akad Nauk PAN, Poland.
    Niemiec, J.
    Polskiej Akad Nauk PAN, Poland.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Poireau, V
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Prokoph, H.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    Inst Phys & Chem Res RIKEN, Japan.
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Unbehaun, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Polskiej Akad Nauk PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, France.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Russian Armenian Univ RAU, Armenia.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zhu, S. J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Time-resolved hadronic particle acceleration in the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 376, no 6588, p. 77-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent novae are repeating thermonuclear explosions in the outer layers of white dwarfs, due to the accretion of fresh material from a binary companion. The shock generated when ejected material slams into the companion star's wind can accelerate particles. We report very-high-energy [VHE: greater than or similar to 100 giga-electron volts] gamma rays from the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi, up to 1 month after its 2021 outburst, observed using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The temporal profile of VHE emission is similar to that of lower-energy giga-electron volt emission, indicating a common origin, with a 2-day delay in peak flux. These observations constrain models of time-dependent particle energization, favoring a hadronic emission scenario over the leptonic alternative. Shocks in dense winds provide favorable environments for efficient acceleration of cosmic rays to very high energies.

  • 154.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;RAU, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cangemi, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Cristofari, P.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris, France;Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Zhiqiu
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany;Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Poireau, V
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schaefer, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sol, H.
    Laboratoire Univers et Théories, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Unbehaun, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, France.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;RAU, Armenia.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Evidence for γ-ray emission from the remnant of Kepler’s supernova based on deep H.E.S.S. observations2022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 662, article id A65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) have enhanced our knowledge of nearby supernova (SN) remnants with ages younger than 500 yr by establishing Cassiopeia A and the remnant of Tycho's SN as very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. The remnant of Kepler's SN, which is the product of the most recent naked-eye SN in our Galaxy, is comparable in age to the other two, but is significantly more distant. If the gamma-ray luminosities of the remnants of Tycho's and Kepler's SNe are similar, then the latter is expected to be one of the faintest gamma-ray sources within reach of the current generation TACT arrays. Here we report evidence at a statistical level of 4.6 sigma for a VHE signal from the remnant of Kepler's SN based on deep observations by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) with an exposure of 152 h. The measured integral flux above an energy of 226 GeV is similar to 0.3% of the flux of the Crab Nebula. The spectral energy distribution (SED) reveals a gamma-ray emitting component connecting the VHE emission observed with H.E.S.S. to the emission observed at GeV energies with Fermi-LAT. The overall SED is similar to that of the remnant of Tycho's SN, possibly indicating the same nonthermal emission processes acting in both these young remnants of thermonuclear SNe.

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  • 155.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Yerevan State Univ, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ashkar, H.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Backers, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bernlohr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Borowska, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cangemi, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Casanova, S.
    PAN, Poland.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Université d‘Aix-Marseille, France.
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Cite, France;Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Grolleron, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Université Bordeaux, France.
    Haerer, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Z.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Univ Aix Marseille, France.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Marinos, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Poland.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Germany.
    Puhlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Y. Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Yassin, H.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, France.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Zanin, R.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ gGmbH, Italy.
    Kerr, M.
    Naval Res Lab, USA.
    Johnston, S.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Shannon, R. M.
    CSIRO, Australia;Swinburne Univ Technol, Australia;ARC Ctr Excellence Gravitat Wave Discovery OzGrav, Australia.
    Smith, D. A.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Discovery of a radiation component from the Vela pulsar reaching 20 teraelectronvolts2023In: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 1341-1350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray observations have established energetic isolated pulsars as outstanding particle accelerators and antimatter factories. However, many questions are still open regarding the acceleration and radiation processes involved, as well as the locations where they occur. The radiation spectra of all gamma-ray pulsars observed to date show strong cutoffs or a break above energies of a few gigaelectronvolts. Using the High Energy Stereoscopic System's Cherenkov telescopes, we discovered a radiation component from the Vela pulsar which emerges beyond this generic cutoff and extends up to energies of at least 20 teraelectronvolts. This is an order of magnitude larger than in the case of the Crab pulsar, the only other pulsar detected in the teraelectronvolt energy range. Our results challenge the state-of-the-art models for the high-energy emission of pulsars. Furthermore, they pave the way for investigating other pulsars through their multiteraelectronvolt emission, thereby imposing additional constraints on the acceleration and emission processes in their extreme energy limit. The H.E.S.S. gamma-ray observatory has observed gamma rays with energies of at least 20 TeV from a pulsar, an energy regime that is hard to reconcile with the existing theories of gamma-ray production for such objects.

  • 156.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Yerevan State Univ, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Baktash, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Barnard, J.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Borowska, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brown, A.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Bylund, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Casanova, S.
    PAN, Poland.
    Cecil, R.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, J.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Djuvsland, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glombitza, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Goswami, P.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Grolleron, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Haerer, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khatoon, R.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Kluniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Leitl, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mehta, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Montanari, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ren, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Streil, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    PAN, Poland.
    Zacharias, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    TeV flaring activity of the AGN PKS 0625-354 in November 20182024In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 683, article id A70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most gamma-ray detected active galactic nuclei are blazars with one of their relativistic jets pointing towards the Earth. Only a few objects belong to the class of radio galaxies or misaligned blazars. Here, we investigate the nature of the object PKS 0625-354, its gamma-ray flux and spectral variability and its broad-band spectral emission with observations from H.E.S.S., Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, and UVOT taken in November 2018. The H.E.S.S. light curve above 200 GeV shows an outburst in the first night of observations followed by a declining flux with a halving time scale of 5.9 h. The gamma gamma-opacity constrains the upper limit of the angle between the jet and the line of sight to similar to 10 degrees. The broad-band spectral energy distribution shows two humps and can be well fitted with a single-zone synchrotron self Compton emission model. We conclude that PKS 0625-354, as an object showing clear features of both blazars and radio galaxies, can be classified as an intermediate active galactic nuclei. Multi-wavelength studies of such intermediate objects exhibiting features of both blazars and radio galaxies are sparse but crucial for the understanding of the broad-band emission of gamma-ray detected active galactic nuclei in general.

  • 157.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ashkar., H.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Backes., M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Baktash, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    de Bony de Lavergne, M.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Borowska, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bouyahiaoui, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, J.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Dai, S.
    Univ Western Sydney, Australia.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    Fegan, S.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Filipovic, M.
    Univ Western Sydney, Australia.
    Fontaine, G.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Grolleron, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Université Bordeaux, France.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Zhiqiu
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khatoon, R.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Konno, R.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Leitl, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Lypova, I.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Niemiec, J.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    de Ona Wilhelmi, E.
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Germany.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ren, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schaefer, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    HESS Follow-up Observations of GRB 221009A2023In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 946, no 1, article id L27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GRB 221009A is the brightest gamma-ray burst (GRB) ever detected. To probe the very-high-energy (VHE; >100 GeV) emission, the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) began observations 53 hr after the triggering event, when the brightness of the moonlight no longer precluded observations. We derive differential and integral upper limits using H.E.S.S. data from the third, fourth, and ninth nights after the initial GRB detection, after applying atmospheric corrections. The combined observations yield an integral energy flux upper limit of f(UL)(95%)=9.7x10(-12)ergcm(-2)s(-1) E-thr = 650 GeV. The constraints derived from the H.E.S.S. observations complement the available multiwavelength data. The radio to X-ray data are consistent with synchrotron emission from a single electron population, with the peak in the spectral energy distribution occurring above the X-ray band. Compared to the VHE-bright GRB 190829A, the upper limits for GRB 221009A imply a smaller gamma-ray to X-ray flux ratio in the afterglow. Even in the absence of a detection, the H.E.S.S. upper limits thus contribute to the multiwavelength picture of GRB 221009A, effectively ruling out an IC-dominated scenario.

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  • 158.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Yerevan State Univ, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Barnard, J.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    de Bony de Lavergne, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bottcher, M.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Borowska, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bouyahiaoui, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Cecil, R.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Chibueze, J.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Damascene Mbarubucyeye, J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Grolleron, G.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Haerer, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khatoon, R.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Leitl, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Marandon, V.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mehta, A.
    DESY, Germany.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Priyana Noel, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    de Ona Wilhelmi, E.
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ren, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    Centre for Space Research, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wach, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Zacharias, M.
    Universität Heidelberg, Germany;North-West University, South Africa.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Buckley, D. A. H.
    Univ Free State, South Africa;South African Astron Observ, South Africa;Southern African Large Telescope Fdn, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Cooper, J.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Groenewald, D.
    South African Astron Observ, South Africa;Southern African Large Telescope Fdn, South Africa.
    The Vanishing of the Primary Emission Region in PKS 1510-0892023In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 952, no 2, article id L38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2021 July, PKS 1510-089 exhibited a significant flux drop in the high-energy & gamma;-ray (by a factor 10) and optical (by a factor 5) bands and remained in this low state throughout 2022. Similarly, the optical polarization in the source vanished, resulting in the optical spectrum being fully explained through the steady flux of the accretion disk and the broad-line region. Unlike the aforementioned bands, the very-high-energy & gamma;-ray and X-ray fluxes did not exhibit a significant flux drop from year to year. This suggests that the steady-state very-high-energy & gamma;-ray and X-ray fluxes originate from a different emission region than the vanished parts of the high-energy & gamma;-ray and optical jet fluxes. The latter component has disappeared through either a swing of the jet away from the line of sight or a significant drop in the photon production efficiency of the jet close to the black hole. Either change could become visible in high-resolution radio images.

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  • 159.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Borowska, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bouyahiaoui, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Cangemi, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Instytut Fizyki Ja comma drowej PAN, Poland.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chambery, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Chand, T.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, J.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Filipovic, M.
    Univ Western Sydney, Australia.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris, France;Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Grolleron, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Université Bordeaux, France.
    Haerer, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Zhiqiu
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Leitl, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.;Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Marinos, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Niemiec, J.
    Instytut Fizyki Ja comma drowej PAN, Poland.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sushch, I.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Venter, C.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Instytut Fizyki Ja comma drowej PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany;Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    Northwest Univ, South Africa.
    Detection of extended gamma-ray emission around the Geminga pulsar with HESS2023In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 673, article id A148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geminga is an enigmatic radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar located at a mere 250 pc distance from Earth. Extended very-high-energy gamma-ray emission around the pulsar was discovered by Milagro and later confirmed by HAWC, which are both water Cherenkov detector-based experiments. However, evidence for the Geminga pulsar wind nebula in gamma rays has long evaded detection by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) despite targeted observations. The detection of gamma-ray emission on angular scales greater than or similar to 2 degrees poses a considerable challenge for the background estimation in IACT data analysis. With recent developments in understanding the complementary background estimation techniques of water Cherenkov and atmospheric Cherenkov instruments, the H.E.S.S. IACT array can now confirm the detection of highly extended gamma-ray emission around the Geminga pulsar with a radius of at least 3 degrees in the energy range 0.5-40 TeV. We find no indications for statistically significant asymmetries or energy-dependent morphology. A flux normalisation of (2.8 +/- 0.7) x 10-12 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 at 1 TeV is obtained within a 1 degrees radius region around the pulsar. To investigate the particle transport within the halo of energetic leptons around the pulsar, we fitted an electron diffusion model to the data. The normalisation of the diffusion coefficient obtained of D-0 = 7.6-1.2+1.5 x 1027 cm2 s-1, at an electron energy of 100 TeV, is compatible with values previously reported for the pulsar halo around Geminga, which is considerably below the Galactic average.

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  • 160.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Aschersleben, J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Borowska, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bruno, B.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Casanova, S.
    PAN, Poland.
    Celic, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Grolleron, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Université Bordeaux, France.
    Haerer, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Z. -Q
    Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Leitl, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marinos, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Poland.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Y. W.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, France.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Search for the evaporation of primordial black holes with HESS2023In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 4, article id 040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are hypothetical black holes predicted to have been formed from density fluctuations in the early Universe. PBHs with an initial mass around 1014-1015 g are expected to end their evaporation at present times in a burst of particles and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. Those gamma rays may be detectable by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. This paper reports on the search for evaporation bursts of VHE gamma rays with H.E.S.S., ranging from 10 to 120 seconds, as expected from the final stage of PBH evaporation and using a total of 4816 hours of observations. The most constraining upper limit on the burst rate of local PBHs is 2000 pc-3 yr-1 for a burst interval of 120 seconds, at the 95% confidence level. The implication of these measurements for PBH dark matter are also discussed.

  • 161.
    Ahnen, M. L.
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ansoldi, S.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Antonelli, L. A.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Arcaro, C.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Babie, A.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Banerjee, B.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Bangale, P.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;ICREA & Inst Space Sci CSIC IEEC, Barcelona 08193, Spain..
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068501, Japan. CBPF MCTI, Xavier Sigaud 150, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Bednarek, W.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Bernardini, E.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Berti, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Biasuzzi, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Blanch, O.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Bonnoli, G.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Borracci, F.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Carosi, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Carosi, A.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Chatterjee, A.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Colin, P.
    Colombo, E.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Cortina, J.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Covino, S.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Cumani, P.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Da Vela, P.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Dazzi, F.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    De Angelis, A.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Inst Space Sci CSIC IEEC, Barcelona 08193, Spain..
    Di Pierro, F.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Doert, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Dominguez, A.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.;Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Doro, M.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Einecke, S.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Glawion, D. Eisenacher
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.;Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Engelkemeier, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ramazani, V. Fallah
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Fernandez-Barra, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Fidalgo, D.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Font, L.
    Univ Autenoma Barcelona, Unitat Fis Radiat, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Fruck, C.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Galindo, D.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autenoma Barcelona, Unitat Fis Radiat, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Giammaria, P.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Godinovie, N.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Gora, D.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Griffiths, S.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Guberman, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Hahn, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hassan, T.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Hayashida, M.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Herrera, J.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hose, J.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hrupec, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Hughes, G.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ishio, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Konno, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Kubo, H.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Kushida, J.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Kuvezdie, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Lelas, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Lombardi, S.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Lopez-Oramas, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.;CEA Saclay, WuServ Astrophys, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM,UMR 7158 CEA DSM CNRS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Makariev, M.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Maneva, G.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Manganaro, M.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Mannheim, K.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.;Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Maraschi, L.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Mariotti, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Martinez, M.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Mazin, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.;CEA Saclay, WuServ Astrophys, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM,UMR 7158 CEA DSM CNRS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Menzel, U.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Minev, M.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Moralejo, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Moreno, V.
    Univ Autenoma Barcelona, Unitat Fis Radiat, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Moretti, E.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Munar-Adrover, P.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Neustroev, V.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Niedzwiecki, A.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Rosillo, M. Nievas
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Nilsson, K.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland.;Univ Trieste, Trieste, Italy.;FINCA, Turku, Finland..
    Nishijima, K.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Nogues, L.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Paiano, S.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Palacio, J.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Paneque, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Paoletti, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Paredes-Fortuny, X.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Pedaletti, G.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Peresano, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Perri, L.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, I-40126 Bologna, Italy..
    Moroni, P. G. Prada
    Inst Nucl Energy Res, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Puljak, I.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Garcia, J. R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Reichardt, I.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Rhode, W.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Riti, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Saito, T.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Satalecka, K.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schroeder, S.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schweizer, T.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Shore, S. N.
    Inst Nucl Energy Res, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Sitarek, J.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    S'nidarie, I.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Sobczynskall, D.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Stamerra, A.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Strzys, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Surie, T.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Takalo, L.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Tavecchio, F.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Temnikov, P.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Terzie, T.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Tescaro, D.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Teshima, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Torres, D. F.
    Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Torres-Alla, N.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Treves, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Vanzo, G.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Acosta, M. Vazquez
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Vovk, I.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Ward, J. E.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Will, M.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Wu, M. H.
    Inst Space Sci CSIC IEEC, Barcelona 08193, Spain..
    Zarie, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Abdalla, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Abramowski, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Andersson, T.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Weltraum & Astrophys, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Angtiner, E. O.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arrieta, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Aubert, P.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, 13301 Private Bag, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Weltraum & Astrophys, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Bernhard, S.
    Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bernlohr, K.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Blackwell, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bottcher, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bolmont, J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Bordas, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bregeon, J.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, P.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Btichele, M.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Capasso, M.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Carr, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Casanova, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cerruti, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chevalier, J.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Chretien, M.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Coffaro, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cologna, G.
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cui, Y.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, 13301 Private Bag, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Decock, J.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Degrange, B.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Dei, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Dewilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Domainko, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eger, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Farnier, C.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Weltraum & Astrophys, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Forster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Ftifiling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gajdus, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Gottschal, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Goya, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ivascenko, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.;Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Janiak, M.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jingo, M.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Jogler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzyfiski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Kieffer, M.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Klochkov, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kluiniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kolitzus, D.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Krakau, S.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Krtiger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Laffon, H.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lees, J. -P
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lefranc, V.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Lemiere, A.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Lohse, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Liu, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, 13301 Private Bag, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and HESS observations2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, article id A14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient particle acceleration is taking place in the system. Aims. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to periodic eclipses (P-orb similar to 13.1 days) and precession of the circumstellar disk (P-pre similar to 162 days) periodically covering the central binary system is expected to be at its minimum. The eastern and western SS 433/W50 interaction regions are also examined using the whole data set available. We aim to constrain some theoretical models previously developed for this system with our observations. Methods. We made use of dedicated observations from the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC) and High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of SS 433 taken from 2006 to 2011. These observation were combined for the first time and accounted for a total effective observation time of 16.5 h, which were scheduled considering the expected phases of minimum absorption of the putative VHE emission. Gamma-ray attenuation does not affect the jet/medium interaction regions. In this case, the analysis of a larger data set amounting to similar to 40-80 h, depending on the region, was employed. Results. No evidence of VHE gamma-ray emission either from the central binary system or from the eastern/western interaction regions was found. Upper limits were computed for the combined data set. Differential fluxes from the central system are found to be less than or similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1) in an energy interval ranging from similar to few x 100 GeV to similar to few TeV. Integral flux limits down to similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) and similar to 10(-13)-10(-14) ph cm(-2) s(-1) are obtained at 300 and 800 GeV, respectively. Our results are used to place constraints on the particle acceleration fraction at the inner jet regions and on the physics of the jet/medium interactions. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the fraction of the jet kinetic power that is transferred to relativistic protons must be relatively small in SS 433, q(p) <= 2.5 x 10(-5), to explain the lack of TeV and neutrino emission from the central system. At the SS 433/W50 interface, the presence of magnetic fields greater than or similar to 10 mu G is derived assuming a synchrotron origin for the observed X-ray emission. This also implies the presence of high-energy electrons with E-e up to 50 TeV, preventing an efficient production of gamma-ray fluxes in these interaction regions.

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    Reynolds, P. T.
    Ribeiro, D.
    Richards, G. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rulten, C.
    Ryan, J. L.
    Santander, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Shang, R.
    Weinstein, A.
    Williams, D. A.
    Williamson, T. J.
    Hirota, T.
    Cui, L.
    Niinuma, K.
    Ro, H.
    Sakai, N.
    Sawada-Satoh, S.
    Wajima, K.
    Wang, N.
    Liu, X.
    Yonekura, Y.
    Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign2021In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 911, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ∌6.5 × 109 M o˙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87’s spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded. © 2021. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society..

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    Archambault, S.
    Aune, T.
    Behera, B.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Berger, K.
    Bird, R.
    Bouvier, A.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chen, X.
    Ciupik, L.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Duke, C.
    Dumm, J.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Federici, S.
    Feng, Q.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fortin, P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Griffin, S.
    Griffiths, S. T.
    Grube, J.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Kaaret, P.
    Kertzman, M.
    Khassen, Y.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McCann, A.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Nieto, D.
    de Bhroithe, A. O'Faolain
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Popkow, A.
    Prokoph, Heike
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Rajotte, J.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Richards, G. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rousselle, J.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Sheidaei, F.
    Skole, C.
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    Stroh, M.
    Telezhinsky, I.
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    Anton, G.
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    Becherini, Yvonne
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
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    Punch, Michael
    niv Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
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    Volpe, F.
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    Long-term TeV and X-ray Observations of the Gamma-ray Binary HESS J0632+0572014In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 780, no 2, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories in both thenorthern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System and High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes and the X-ray satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The very-high-energy (VHE) emission is found to be variable and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of 315(-4)(+6) days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, P = (321 +/- 5) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-rayemission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant (> 6.5 sigma) detection at orbital phases 0.6-0.9. Theobtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

  • 164. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Assiro, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barbarito, E
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bisi, V
    Bloise, C
    Bottazzi, E
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Candela, A
    Carboni, M
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Ceres, A
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    Creti, P
    De Cataldo, G
    Degli Esposti, L
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Di Ferdinando, D
    Diotallevi, R
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Gebhard, M
    Giacomelli, G
    Giacomelli, R
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Giuliani, R
    Goretti, M
    Grassi, M
    Grau, H
    Gray, L
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, J
    Hanson, K
    Hawthorne, A
    Heinz, R
    Hong, J T
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Leone, A
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Liu, G
    Liu, R
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Marrelli, V
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Mikheyev, S
    Miller, L
    Monacelli, P
    Mongelli, M
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mossbarger, L
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Okada, C
    Orsini, M
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Ouchrif, M
    Palamara, O
    Parlati, S
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Pellizzoni, G
    Perchiazzi, M
    Perrone, L
    Petrakis, J
    Petrera, S
    Pignatano, N
    Pinto, C
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Sacchetti, A
    Saggese, P
    Satriano, C
    Satta, L
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Sondergaard, S
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Stalio, S
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Valieri, C
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Zaccheo, N
    The MACRO detector at Gran Sasso2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 486, no 3, p. 663-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MACRO was an experiment that ran in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso from 1988 to 2000. Its principal goal was to observe magnetic monopoles or set significantly lower experimental flux limits than had been previously available in the velocity range from about beta = 10(-4) to unity. In addition it made a variety of other observations. Examples are: setting flux limits on other so far unobserved particles such as nuclearites and lightly ionizing particles, searching for WIMP annihilations in the Earth and the Sun and for neutrino bursts from stellar collapses in or near our Galaxy, and making measurements relevant to high energy muon and neutrino astronomy and of the flux of up-going muons as a function of nadir angle showing evidence for neutrino oscillations. The apparatus consisted of three principal types of detectors: liquid scintillator counters, limited streamer tubes, and nuclear track etch detectors. In addition, over part of its area it contained a transition radiation detector. The general design philosophy emphasized redundancy and complementarity. This paper describes the technical aspects of the complete MACRO detector, its operational performance, and the techniques used to calibrate it and verify its proper operation. It supplements a previously published paper which described the first portion of the detector that was built and operated. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 165. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna .
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bisi, V
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Gray, L
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Mikheyev, S
    Miller, L
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Matter effects in upward-going muons and sterile neutrino oscillations2001In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 517, no 1-2, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The angular distribution of upward-going muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos in the rock below the MACRO detector shows anomalies in good agreement with two flavor nu (mu) --> nu (tau) oscillations with maximum mixing and Deltam(2) around 0.0024 eV(2). Exploiting the dependence of magnitude of the matter effect on oscillation channel, and using a set of 809 upward-going muons observed in MACRO, we show that the two flavor nu (mu) --> nu (s) oscillation is disfavored with 99% C.L. with respect to nu (mu) --> nu (tau). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 166. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna .
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Candela, A
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cassese, F
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    De Deo, M
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Dincecco, M
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Gray, L
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C P
    Levin, D S
    Lindozzi, M
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Marroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Tatananni, E
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 492, no 3, p. 376-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to reconstruct the muon energy for E-mu < 40 GeV. The test beam data provide an absolute energy calibration, which allows us to apply this method to MACRO data. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 167.
    Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Università di Napoli, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Antolini, R
    Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell’INFN, Italy.
    Auriemma, G
    Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bakari, D
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy ; University Mohamed I, Morocco.
    Baldini, A
    Università di Pisa, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Barbarino, G C
    Università di Napoli, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Barish, B C
    California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Battistoni, G
    INFN, Italy.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Boston University, USA.
    Bellotti, R
    Università di Bari, Italy ; INFN. Italy.
    Bemporad, C
    Università di Pisa, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bernardini, P
    Università di Lecce, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Chiarusi, T
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Kumar, A
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Matteuzzi, D
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Final results of magnetic monopole searches with the MACRO experiment2002In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 511-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles in the penetrating cosmic radiation, for the range 4 x 10(-5) < 3 < 1. Several searches with all the MACRO sub-detectors (i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors) were performed, both in stand alone and combined ways. No candidates were detected and a 90% Confidence Level (C.L.) upper limit to the local magnetic monopole flux was set at the level of 1.4 x 10(-16) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1). This result is the first experimental limit obtained in direct searches which is well below the Parker bound in the whole 3 range in which GUT magnetic monopoles are,expected.

  • 168. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Search for nucleon decays induced by GUT magnetic monopoles with the MACRO experiment2002In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of a Grand Unification Magnetic Monopole with a nucleon can lead to a barion-number violating process in which the nucleon decays into a lepton and one or more mesons (catalysis of nucleon decay). In this paper we report an experimental study of the effects of a catalysis process in the MACRO detector. Using a dedicated analysis we obtain new magnetic monopole (MM) flux upper limits at the level of similar to 3 (.) 10(-16) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) for 1.1(.) 10(-4) less than or equal to \beta\ less than or equal to 5 (.) 10(-3), based on the search for catalysis events in the MACRO data. We also analyze the dependence of the MM flux limit on the catalysis cross section.

  • 169. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Search for cosmic ray sources using muons detected by the MACRO experiment2003In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 615-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MACRO underground detector at Gran Sasso Laboratory recorded 60 million secondary cosmic ray muons from February 1989 until December 2000. Different techniques were used to analyze this sample in search for density excesses from astrophysical point-like sources. No evidence for DC excesses for any source in an all-sky survey is reported. In addition, searches for muon excess correlated with the known binary periods of Cygnus X-3 and Hercules X-1, and searches for statistically significant bursting episodes from known gamma-ray sources are also proved negative. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 170. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Search for diffuse neutrino flux from astrophysical sources with MACRO2003In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many galactic and extragalactic astrophysical sources are currently considered promising candidates as high-energy neutrino emitters. Astrophysical neutrinos can be detected as upward-going muons produced in charged-current interactions with the medium surrounding the detector. The expected neutrino fluxes from various models start to dominate on the atmospheric neutrino background at neutrino energies above some tens of TeV. We present the results of a search for an excess of high-energy upward-going muons among the sample of data collected by MACRO during similar to5.8 years of effective running time. No significant evidence for this signal was found. As a consequence, an upper limit on the flux of upward-going muons from high-energy neutrinos was set at the level of 1.7 x 10(-14) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1). The corresponding upper limit for the diffuse neutrino flux was evaluated assuming a neutrino power law spectrum. Our result was compared with theoretical predictions and upper limits from other experiments. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 171.
    Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Università di Napoli, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Antolini, R
    INFN, Italy.
    Auriemma, G
    Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bakari, D
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy ; University Mohamed I, Morocco.
    Baldini, A
    Università di Pisa, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Barbarino, G C
    Università di Napoli, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Barish, B C
    California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Battistoni, G
    INFN, Italy.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Università di Bari, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    DiCredico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    A combined analysis technique for the search for fast magnetic monopoles with the MACRO detector2002In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 27-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a search method for fast moving (beta = v/c > 5 x 10(-3)) magnetic monopoles using simultaneously the scintillator, streamer tube and track-etch subdetectors of the MACRO apparatus. The first two subdetectors are used primarily for the identification of candidates while the track-etch one is used as the final tool for their rejection or confirmation. Using this technique, a first sample of more than two-years of data has been analyzed without any evidence of a magnetic monopole. We set a 90% CL upper limit to the local monopole flux of 1.5 x 10(-15) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the velocity range 5 x 10(-3) less than or equal to beta less than or equal to 0.99 and for nucleon decay catalysis cross-section smaller than similar to1 mb (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 172. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, E
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Chiarusi, T
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kumar, A
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Mikheyev, S
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Atmospheric neutrino oscillations from upward throughgoing muon multiple scattering in MACRO2003In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 566, no 1-2, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy of atmospheric neutrinos detected by MACRO was estimated using multiple Coulomb scattering of upward throughgoing muons. This analysis allows a test of atmospheric neutrino oscillations, relying on the distortion of the muon energy distribution. These results have been combined with those coming from the upward throughgoing muon angular distribution only. Both analyses are independent of the neutrino flux normalization and provide strong evidence, above the for level, in favour of neutrino oscillations. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 173. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Cafagna, F
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Cosson, D
    Coutu, S
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Denni, U
    Derkauoi, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Frani, A
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Mengucci, A
    Michael, D G
    Mikheyev, S
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Satriano, C
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Sioli, M
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Measurements of atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations, global analysis of the data collected with MACRO detector2004In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 323-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The final analysis of atmospheric neutrino events collected with the MACRO detector is presented. Three different classes of events, generated by neutrinos in different energy ranges, are studied looking at rates, angular distributions and estimated energies. The results are consistent for all the subsamples and indicate a flux deficit that depends on energy and path - length of neutrinos. The no - oscillation hypothesis is excluded at similar to 5sigma, while the hypothesis of nu(mu) --> nu(tau) oscillation gives a satisfactory description of all data. The parameters with highest probability in a two flavor scenario are sin(2) 2theta(m) = 1 and Deltam(2) = 0.0023 eV(2). This result is independent of the absolute normalization of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes. The data can also be used to put experimental constrain on this normalization.

  • 174. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Chiarusi, T
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kumar, A
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M S
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Moon and Sun shadowing effect in the MACRO detector2003In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data collected by the MACRO experiment from 1989 to the end of its operations in 2000, we have studied in the underground muon flux the shadowing. effects due to both the Moon and the Sun. We have observed the shadow cast by the Moon at its apparent position with a significance of 6.5sigma. The Moon shadowing effect has been used to verify the pointing capability of the detector and to determine the instrument resolution for the search of muon excesses from any direction of the celestial sphere. The dependence of the effect on the geomagnetic field is clearly shown by splitting the data sample in day and night observations. The Sun shadow, observed with a significance of 4.6sigma is displaced by about 0.6degrees from its apparent position. In this case however the explanation resides in the configuration of the Solar and Interplanetary Magnetic Fields, which affect the propagation of cosmic ray particles between the Sun, and the Earth. The displacement of the Sun shadow with respect to the real Sun position has been used to establish an upper limit on the antimatter flux in cosmic rays of about 48% at 68% c.l. and primary energies of about 20 TeV. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 175. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Chiarusi, T
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Miller, L
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Search for the sidereal and solar diurnal modulations in the total MACRO muon data set2003In: Physical Review D. Particles and fields, ISSN 0556-2821, E-ISSN 1089-4918, Vol. 67, no 4, article id 042002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analyzed 44.3M single muons collected by MACRO from 1991 through 2000 in 2145 live days of operation. We have searched for the solar diurnal, apparent sidereal, and pseudosidereal modulation of the underground muon rate by computing hourly deviations of the muon rate from 6 month averages. We find evidence for statistically significant modulations with the solar diurnal and the sidereal periods. The amplitudes of these modulations are <0.1%, and are at the limit of the detector statistics. The pseudosidereal modulation is not statistically significant. The solar diurnal modulation is due to the daily atmospheric temperature variations at 20 km, the altitude of primary cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere; MACRO is the deepest experiment to report this result. The sidereal modulation is in addition to the expected Compton-Getting modulation due to solar system motion relative to the local standard of rest; it represents motion of the solar system with respect to the galactic cosmic rays toward the galactic plane.

  • 176. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, H
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Satraino, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Measurement of the residual energy of muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories2003In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 313-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MACRO detector was located in the Hall B of the Gran Sasso underground laboratories under an average rock overburden of 3700 hg/cm(2). A transition radiation detector composed of three identical modules, covering a total horizontal area of 36 m(2), was installed inside the empty upper part of the detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons. This paper presents the measurement of the residual energy of single and double muons crossing the apparatus. Our data show that double muons are more energetic than single ones. This measurement is performed over a standard rock depth range from 3000 to 6500 hg/cm(2). (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 177. Bakari, D
    et al.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Spurio, M
    Estimate of the energy of upgoing muons with multiple coulomb scattering2001In: Cosmic Radiations: from Astronomy to Particle Physics / [ed] Giacommelli, G; Spurio, M; Derkaoui, JE, Dordrecht: Springer, 2001, Vol. 42, p. 135-140Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Battistoni, G
    et al.
    INFN Sez. di Milano, Italy.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Cecchini, S
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy ; INAF/IASF Sez. di Bologna, Italy.
    Cozzi, M
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Dekhissi, H
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy ; University Mohamed 1st, Morocco.
    Esposito, L.
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Giacomelli, G
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Giorgini, M
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Mandrioli, G
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Manzoor, S
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Margiotta, A
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Patrizii, L
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Popa, V
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy ; ISS, Romania.
    Sioli, M
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Sirri, G
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Spurio, M
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Togo, V
    Universita’ di Bologna, Italy.
    Search for exotic contributions to atmospheric neutrino oscillations2005In: 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference: August 3 - 10, 2005, Pune, India, Mumbai: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research , 2005, p. 171-174Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy spectrum of neutrino-induced upward-going muons in MACRO was analysed in terms of relativity principles violating effects, keeping standard mass-induced atmospheric neutrino oscillations as the dominant source of v(mu) -> v(tau) transitions. The data disfavor these possibilities even at a sub-dominant level; stringent 90% C.L. limits are placed on the Lorentz invariance violation parameter vertical bar Delta v vertical bar < 6 x 10(-24) at sin 2 theta(v) = 0 and vertical bar Delta v vertical bar < 2.5 divided by 5 x 10(-26) at sin 2 theta(v) = +/- 1. The limits can be re-interpreted as bounds on the Equivalence Principle violation parameters.

  • 179. Battistoni, G
    et al.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Cecchini, S
    Cozzi, M
    Dekhissi, H
    Esposito, L S
    Giacomelli, G
    Giorgini, M
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Margiotta, A
    Patrizii, L
    Popa, V
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Spurio, M
    Togo, V
    Search for a Lorentz invariance violation contribution in atmospheric neutrino oscillations using MACRO data2005In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 615, no 1-2, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy spectrum of neutrino-induced upward-going muons in MACRO has been analysed in terms of relativity principles violating effects, keeping standard mass-induced atmospheric neutrino oscillations as the dominant source of v(u) -> v(tau) transitions. The data disfavor these exotic possibilities even at a subdominant level, and stringent 90% C.L. limits are placed on the Lorentz invariance violation parameter vertical bar Delta v vertical bar < 6 x 10(-24) at sin2 theta(v) = 0 and vertical bar Delta(v)vertical bar < 2.5-5 x 10(-26) at sin 2 theta(v) = +/- 1. These limits can also be re-interpreted as upper bounds on the parameters describing violation of the equivalence principle. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 180.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universita’ di Bologna.
    ANTARES: Software organisation, reconstruction, performance studies2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 567, no 2, p. 477-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES Collaboration is building an underwater neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea. The first full 480m line was connected to the shore station in March 2006. The full Monte Carlo simulation chain and offline software structure of the experiment is presented. The offline software structure consists of two main parts: the first concerns the generation of the Monte Carlo events in the detector and the cligitisation and filtering of the signals, while the second concerns offline event reconstruction of both Monte Carlo events and real data. The expected performances of the detector obtained from this accurate simulation procedure are also presented and discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 181.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    University of Bologna .
    MACRO results on atmospheric neutrino oscillations2003In: Neutrino Physics / [ed] Bellotti, E; Declais, Y; Strolin, P; Zanotti, L, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2003, Vol. 152, p. 269-273Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    University of Bologna.
    The ANTARES neutrino telescope2003In: Neutrino Physics / [ed] Bellotti, E; Declais, Y; Strolin, P; Zanotti, L, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2003, Vol. 152, p. 275-279Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Paris Diderot .
    Boisson, C.
    Cerruti, M.
    Discovery of VHE gamma-ray emission from the very distant BL Lac KUV00311-1938 by HESS2012In: HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY ASTRONOMY, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012, p. 490-493Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The observed spectra of very-high-energy (VHE) blazars may be deformed by gamma-gamma absorption onto the Extra-galactic Background Light (EBL) or, more speculatively, by photon-axion oscillations. As the resulting imprint on observed spectral characteristics may be redshift-dependent, it is important to enrich the catalogue of VHE high-redshift blazars. HESS-II [1], with its low-energy threshold and enhanced E > 100 GeV sensitivity, will be a major instrument in this field of study. While awaiting this new phase of the experiment, H. E. S. S. observed the very distant BL Lac KUV00311 - 1938 in a multi-year campaign, leading to the discovery of its VHE gamma-ray emission with a significance of 5.1 standard deviations. The detection of this source has been possible thanks to an enhanced low-energy sensitivity of recent-developed analysis techniques for IACTs (Paris-MVA) and a full refurbishment which markedly lowered the overall analysis threshold. The evaluation of the redshift of this source is difficult, due to the weakness of the absorption lines in the optical spectrum. A first attempt to evaluate this redshift was performed by [2], and [3], where a value of 0.61 was quoted with a question mark. More recently, [4] used the data from the X-Shooter spectrograph operating on the VLT to estimate a solid lower limit on the redshift of the source of z > 0.506, confirming that KUV00311 - 1938 is the farthest BL Lac ever detected at VHE.

  • 184.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Romano, Patrizia
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy.
    Saleh, Ahmed
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Tluczykont, Martin
    Universität Hamburg, Germany.
    Vercellone, Stefano
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy.
    The CoMET multiperspective event tracker for wide field-of-view gamma-ray astronomy2022In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) , 2022, Vol. 395, article id 905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

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  • 185.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Cecchini, S
    Chiarusi, T
    Cozzi, M
    Dekhissi, H
    Derkaoui, J
    Esposito, L S
    Giacomelli, G
    Giorgini, M
    Giglietto, N
    Maaroufi, F
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Manzoor, S
    Patrizii, L
    Popa, V
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Spurio, M
    Togo, V
    Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector2005In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 186.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy ; INFN Bologna, Italy.
    Cecchini, S
    University of Bologna, Italy ; INAF/IASF Sez. di Bologna, Italy.
    Cozzi, M
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Dekhissi, H
    University of Bologna, Italy ; University Mohamed 1st, Morocco.
    Derkaoui, J
    University Mohamed 1st, Morocco.
    Giacomelli, G
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Giorgini, M
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Maaroufi, F
    University Mohamed 1st, Morocco.
    Mandrioli, G
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Margiotta, A
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Manzoor, S
    University of Bologna, Italy ; PRD, PINSTECH, Pakistan.
    Moussa, A
    University Mohamed 1st, Morocco.
    Patrizii, L
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Popa, V
    University of Bologna, Italy ; ISS, Romania.
    Sioli, M
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Sirri, G
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Spurio, M
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Togo, V
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Time variations in the deep underground muon flux measured by MACRO2005In: 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference: August 3 - 10, 2005, Pune, India, Mumbai: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research , 2005, p. 157-160Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 30 million high-energy muons collected with the MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory have been used to search for flux variations of different nature. Two kinds of studies were carried out: search for periodical variations and for the occurrence of clusters of events. Different analysis methods, including Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis and scan statistics have been applied to the data.

  • 187.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Bologna.
    Collaboration, A. N. T. A. R. E. S.
    Status report of the ANTARES experiment2006In: Taup 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics, 2006, p. 444-446Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES Collaboration is building an underwater neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea. The telescope is designed to search for high energy (E > I TeV) galactic and extra-galactic neutrino sources, but could also be sensitive to neutrinos originating from the decay of neutralino and exotic particles. The detector is a 3-dimensional array of photomultipliers located at a depth of 2500 m, 40 km from the La Seyne sur Mer shore (near Toulon, France). During the year 2005 a full scale test line and an instrumented line have been successfully operated. In the winter '05-'06 the first full 480 m line will be deployed and connected to the shore station.

  • 188.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    Paris Diderot University, France ; École Polytechnique, France.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Marandon, V.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Punch, Michael
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Pita, S.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    A new analysis strategy for detection of faint gamma-ray sources with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes2011In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 858-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new background rejection strategy for gamma-ray astrophysics with stereoscopic Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT), based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and real background data from the H.E.S.S. [High Energy Stereoscopic System, see [1].] experiment, is described. The analysis is based on a multivariate combination of both previously-known and newly-derived discriminant variables using the physical shower properties, as well as its multiple images, for a total of eight variables. Two of these new variables are defined thanks to a new energy evaluation procedure, which is also presented here. The method allows an enhanced sensitivity with the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes to be achieved, and at the same time its main features of rapidity and flexibility allow an easy generalization to any type of IACT. The robustness against Night Sky Background (NSB) variations of this approach is tested with MC simulated events. The overall consistency of the analysis chain has been checked by comparison of the real gamma-ray signal obtained from H.E.S.S. observations with MC simulations and through reconstruction of known source spectra. Finally, the performance has been evaluated by application to faint H.E.S.S. sources. The gain in sensitivity as compared to the best standard Hillas analysis ranges approximately from 1.2 to 1.8 depending on the source characteristics, which corresponds to an economy in observation time of a factor 1.4 to 3.2. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 189.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Paris Diderot.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Ehlert, S.
    Masbou, J.
    Moulin, E.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    HESS-II reconstruction strategy and performance in the low-energy (20-150 GeV) domain2009In: HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY ASTRONOMY / [ed] Aharonian, FA; Hofmann, W; Rieger, FM, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009, p. 738-741Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]