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  • 151.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Rio de Janeiro State Univ, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Rio de Janeiro State Univ, Brazil.
    Quantification of alkali-labile phosphate groups in the plasma of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to intermittent discharges of oestrogens: effect of concentration vs. load2014Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 94, nr 11, s. 1161-1172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitellogenin protein (Vtg) in Oreochromis niloticus plasma has been indirectly quantified through protein-bound phosphate groups also known as alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) using a recently modified method. Such method as described in the literature was originally applied to Crucian carp and resulted in lower detection limits (3.2 mu g PO(4)(3-)per mL). In this study, O. niloticus males were exposed to intermittent doses of oestrogens for 15 days using different concentrations (converted to loads) of 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) (two different aquarium volumes), oestrone (E1) and 17 beta-oestradiol (E2) individually and in combination (1:1:1). The induction of physiologic and genotoxic effects in erythrocytes was investigated. For the tested oestrogen (EE2), load proved to be more relevant than concentration in determining the oestrogenicity. O. niloticus males proved to have lower ALP baseline (4.11 mu g PO43-/mL plasma, IQ(25)=3.38; IQ(75)=5.18) than other fish species, including Crucian carp, which makes it suitable for oestrogenicity detection in water. Exposure to E2, EE2 separately and in combination (1:1:1) all induced significant increases in the ALP levels at loads >= 0.72 mu g/fish. This load was three times lower than the E1 load required to increase ALP (>= 2.2 mu g/fish). All oestrogens with loads >= 0.072 mu g/fish caused significant increase in micronucleus frequency (>= 2 parts per thousand) compared with the control (0.1 +/- 0.4 parts per thousand). The study highlighted the importance of taking into account not only concentration and dose regime but also the mass load and therefore, the volume used in the experimental units, which is rarely addressed in ecotoxicity assays. Considering the good sensitivity of O. niloticus exposed to relatively low concentrations of oestrogens, the combination of the ALP method with auxiliary biomarkers (particularly micronucleus) can be used as a protocol for oestrogenicity and genotoxicity detection in different contaminated waters as part of water environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 152.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    et al.
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Severo, Raul Goncalves
    da Cruz Roque, Odir Clecio
    Engineered ecosystem for on-site wastewater treatment in tropical areas2012Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 66, nr 10, s. 2131-2137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a worldwide demand for decentralized wastewater treatment options. An on-site engineered ecosystem (EE) treatment plant was designed with a multistage approach for small wastewater generators in tropical areas. The array of treatment units included a septic tank, a submersed aerated filter, and a secondary decanter followed by three vegetated tanks containing aquatic macrophytes intercalated with one tank of algae. During 11 months of operation with a flow rate of 52 L h(-1), the system removed on average 93.2% and 92.9% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reaching final concentrations of 36.3 +/- 12.7 and 13.7 +/- 4.2 mg L-1, respectively. Regarding ammonia-N (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP), the system removed on average 69.8% and 54.5% with final concentrations of 18.8 +/- 9.3 and 14.0 +/- 2.5 mg L-1, respectively. The tanks with algae and macrophytes together contributed to the overall nutrient removal with 33.6% for NH4-N and 26.4% for TP. The final concentrations for all parameters except TP met the discharge threshold limits established by Brazilian and EU legislation. The EE was considered appropriate for the purpose for which it was created.

  • 153.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Soroldoni, Sanye
    Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bila, Daniele
    Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Effects of single and mixed estrogens on single and combined cultures of D. subspicatus and P. subcapitata2014Inngår i: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0007-4861, E-ISSN 1432-0800, Vol. 93, nr 2, s. 215-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effect of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) individually and mixed at equal proportions (1:1:1) on Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in single and combined cultures (S+) at different exposure times basedon algal growth (in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence and cell counting) and coenobium formation. EE2 and E2 were more toxic to individual and combined (S+) cultures than was E1. The frequency of coenobium formation by D. subspicatus increased significantly for all estrogens and all concentrations. After 96 h, D. subspicatus prevailed in S+. The results of the exposure to E+ suggested a less-than-additive effecton D. subspicatus and S+ and additive effect on P. subcapitata. Toxic effects occurred for both species exposed to E+ with individual estrogen concentrations below the NOEC of each species. Assays must include changes in response due to the exposure of more than one species to more than one estrogen.

  • 154.
    de Sá Salomão, André Luís
    et al.
    Laboratory of Bioremediation and Phytotechnologies ; Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Laboratory of Bioremediation and Phytotechnologies ; Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Estrogenicity and Genotoxicity Detection in Different Contaminated Waters2015Inngår i: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 1793-1809Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Owing that Oreochromis niloticus is resistant to different aquatic environments,four contaminated sites were selected: decentralized engineered ecosystem(DEE) and conventional wastewater treatment plants(WWTP); urban lagoon; and gasoline-contaminated marshland. Endocrine disruption was assessed by alkali-labile phosphate(ALP) quantification,genotoxicity by micronuclei frequency,and morphological changes by hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indexes. The ALP baseline of non-exposed O. niloticus males was low,compared with other fish species in the literature. Endocrine disruption was observed in fish exposed to raw wastewater of WWTP and DEE,discharge point of channeled river in the urban lagoon,and water from gasoline-contaminated marshland. After treatment in the DEE,the endocrine disruption effect was removed. The micronuclei frequency corroborated with the ALP results in most cases and proved to be a useful tool to assess genotoxicity in fish. The exposure time of 15 days was not enough to provoke morphological effects in most samples. However,in all gasoline-contaminated samples,the fishes showed an increase in the hepatosomatic index followed by a decrease in the gonadosomatic index. The tested biomarkers showed feasibility,sensibility,reproducibility,and were complementary in the assessment of chronic ecotoxicity; therefore,we recommend them to compose a suitable protocol for aquatic monitoring programs.

  • 155.
    Dearing, JA
    et al.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Acma, B
    Anadolu University, Turkey.
    Bub, S
    University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany.
    Chambers, FM
    University of Gloucestershire, UK.
    Chen, X
    China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Cooper, J
    British Museum, UK.
    Crook, D
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dong, XH
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Dotterweich, M
    GEOarch – Applied Geoarchaeology, Germany ; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Edwards, ME
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Foster, TH
    University of Tulsa, USA.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Galop, D
    Toulouse Jean Jaures University, France.
    Gell, P
    Federation University Australia, Australia.
    Gil, A
    Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael, Argentina.
    Jeffers, E
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Jones, RT
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Anupama, K
    French Institute of Pondicherry, India.
    Langdon, PG
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Marchant, R
    University of York, UK.
    Mazier, F
    Toulouse Jean Jaures University, France.
    McLean, CE
    Youngstown State University, USA.
    Nunes, LH
    State University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Sukumar, R
    Indian Institute of Science, India.
    Suryaprakash, I
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India.
    Umer, M
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Yang, XD
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Wang, R
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Zhang, K
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Social-ecological systems in the Anthropocene: The need for integrating social and biophysical records at regional scales.2015Inngår i: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, E-ISSN 2053-020X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 220-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding social-ecological system dynamics is a major research priority for sustainable management of landscapes, ecosystems and resources. But the lack of multi-decadal records represents an important gap in information that hinders the development of the research agenda. Without improved information on the long-term and complex interactions between causal factors and responses, it will be difficult to answer key questions about trends, rates of change, tipping points, safe operating spaces and pre-impact conditions. Where available long-term monitored records are too short or lacking, palaeoenvironmental sciences may provide continuous multi-decadal records for an array of ecosystem states, processes and services. Combining these records with conventional sources of historical information from instrumental monitoring records, official statistics and enumerations, remote sensing, archival documents, cartography and archaeology produces an evolutionary framework for reconstructing integrated regional histories. We demonstrate the integrated approach with published case studies from Australia, China, Europe and North America.

  • 156.
    Denafas, G.
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Bučinskas, A
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Dace, E
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bazienė, K
    Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania.
    Horttanainen, M
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Havukainen, J
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Kaartinen, T
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Finland.
    Rosendal, R
    Danish Waste Solutions, Denmark.
    Kriipsalu, M
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Investigation for landfill mining feasibilities in the Nordic and Baltic countries: overview of project results2016Inngår i: CYPRUS 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, At Limassol, Cyprus, 23–25 June 2016., 2016, s. 1-13Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 157.
    Dervisevic, Admir
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Luftburna partiklar PM10 i Örebro stad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Luften som vi andas idag innehåller hälsofarliga partiklar. Partiklarna finns runt omkring oss och de kan variera i storlek. Flera av dem går under namnet PM10- partiklar, som är ett samlingsnamn på alla partiklar med medeldiameter under 10 μm. Vägtrafikens bidrag till partiklar mätt som PM10 i utomhusluften är väsentligt i stadsmiljöer.

    Jag har fått tillgång till mätdata på PM- 10 partiklarnas utsläpp som registrerats under år 2011vid mätstation på Rudbecksgatan i Örebro. Mätningar som utförs på Rudbecksgatan i Örebro visar att överskridandet sker under vissa årsperioder, men att halterna PM10 ligger inom MKN (Miljökvalitetsnormer) totalt per år. Bidraget är starkt årstids- och väderberoende. Under sen höst, vinter och framför allt under upptorkningsfasen på våren, kan partiklar från däckslitage och trafik uppvirvling stå för en totalt dominerande del av PM- 10 partikelhalterna i luften i gaturummet.

    För att begränsa partiklarnas förekomst har en miljökvalitetsnorm inrättas. Sedan 2010 är miljömålet att årsmedel inte får överskrida 20 en miljondels gram per kubikmeter luft (μg/m3), och dygnsmedel 35 μg/m3 inte får överskridas 37 gånger per år av halter PM10 i luften.

    Mätningar visade att vid flera tillfällen har PM-10 partikel mängden i luften överskridit MKN under år 2011. Främsta orsaken var vägtrafik och användning av dubbdäck.

    Ökade mängder av partiklar har dålig påverkan på människans hälsa. Flera studier visar att PM10- partiklar ger upphov till astma och andningsproblem. I vissa fall ger luftföroreningar upphov till försämring av sjukdomstillstånd och förtid död. Åtgärder för att minska emissionerna är av två slag: minska bildningen av slitagepartiklar och minska uppvirvling av partiklar.

  • 158.
    Doane, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    An Environmental Risk Assessment of Four Common Footbaths Used by Dairy Farms in the United States2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 159.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, nr 12, s. 2444-2451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 160.
    dos Santos, Victor Hugo J. M.
    et al.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Classification of Fuel Blends Using Exploratory Analysis with Combined Data from Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis2017Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 523-532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemometric tools were applied for exploratory analysis and classification of fuel blends using the combined information on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and stable isotope analysis through isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Principal component analysisand hierarchical clustering analysis were applied for exploratory analysis, while support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the biodiesel/diesel blends. All of the chemometric models used present better results from the combination of spectral information with isotopic data for biodiesel contents of over 10% in the mixture, with the best results being Obtained from the SVM classification. Therefore, the development presented in this paper could become an important technique to improve the discrimination of the feedstock used in biodiesel production and a resource for quality control in industry.

  • 161.
    dos Santos, Victor Hugo J. M.
    et al.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ramos, Alessandro S.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Pires, Jessica P.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Engelmann, Pamela de M.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Lourega, Rogerio V.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Discriminant analysis of biodiesel fuel blends based on combined data from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and stable carbon isotope analysis2017Inngår i: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, ISSN 0169-7439, E-ISSN 1873-3239, Vol. 161, s. 70-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A multivariate approach was used for classification of fuel blends using the combined information from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and stable carbon isotopes analysis by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the classification of biodiesel/diesel fuel blends containing 0-100% (v/v) of biodiesel. The LDA and PLS-DA methods were able to discriminate samples ranging from 10% to 100% biodiesel (v/v) using the combined information from FTIR and IRMS. Since the global trend is toward a gradual increase in the percentage of biodiesel in fuel blends, the technique presented in this paper could be an important development in improving the traceability and identification of different raw materials used in biodiesel production.

  • 162.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Ancient Microbial Activity in Deep Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones within the Forsmark Target Area for Geological Nuclear Waste Disposal, Sweden2018Inngår i: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, nr 6, artikkel-id 211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies reveal that organisms from all three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and even Eukarya—can thrive under energy-poor, dark, and anoxic conditions at large depths in the fractured crystalline continental crust. There is a need for an increased understanding of the processes and lifeforms in this vast realm, for example, regarding the spatiotemporal extent and variability of the different processes in the crust. Here, we present a study that set out to detect signs of ancient microbial life in the Forsmark area—the target area for deep geological nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. Stable isotope compositions were determined with high spatial resolution analyses within mineral coatings, and mineralized remains of putative microorganisms were studied in several deep water-conducting fracture zones (down to 663 m depth), from which hydrochemical and gas data exist. Large isotopic variabilities of δ13Ccalcite (−36.2 to +20.2‰ V-PDB) and δ34Spyrite (−11.7 to +37.8‰ V-CDT) disclose discrete periods of methanogenesis, and potentially, anaerobic oxidation of methane and related microbial sulfate reduction at several depth intervals. Dominant calcite–water disequilibrium of δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr precludes abundant recent precipitation. Instead, the mineral coatings largely reflect an ancient archive of episodic microbial processes in the fracture system, which, according to our microscale Rb–Sr dating of co-genetic adularia and calcite, date back to the mid-Paleozoic. Potential Quaternary precipitation exists mainly at ~400 m depth in one of the boreholes, where mineral–water compositions corresponded

  • 163.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Reiners, Peter W.
    Univ Arizona, USA.
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogmalm, K. Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Unprecedented 34S-enrichment of pyrite formed following microbial sulfate reduction in fractured crystalline rocks2018Inngår i: Geobiology, ISSN 1472-4677, E-ISSN 1472-4669, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 556-574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the deep biosphere, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is exploited for energy. Here, we show that, in fractured continental crystalline bedrock in three areas in Sweden, this process produced sulfide that reacted with iron to form pyrite extremely enriched in S-34 relative to S-32. As documented by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) microanalyses, the S-34(pyrite) values are up to +132 parts per thousand V-CDT and with a total range of 186 parts per thousand. The lightest S-34(pyrite) values (-54 parts per thousand) suggest very large fractionation during MSR from an initial sulfate with S-34 values (S-34(sulfate,0)) of +14 to +28 parts per thousand. Fractionation of this magnitude requires a slow MSR rate, a feature we attribute to nutrient and electron donor shortage as well as initial sulfate abundance. The superheavy S-34(pyrite) values were produced by Rayleigh fractionation effects in a diminishing sulfate pool. Large volumes of pyrite with superheavy values (+120 +/- 15 parts per thousand) within single fracture intercepts in the boreholes, associated heavy average values up to +75 parts per thousand and heavy minimum S-34(pyrite) values, suggest isolation of significant amounts of isotopically light sulfide in other parts of the fracture system. Large fracture-specific S-34(pyrite) variability and overall average S-34(pyrite) values (+11 to +16 parts per thousand) lower than the anticipated S-34(sulfate,0) support this hypothesis. The superheavy pyrite found locally in the borehole intercepts thus represents a late stage in a much larger fracture system undergoing Rayleigh fractionation. Microscale Rb-Sr dating and U/Th-He dating of cogenetic minerals reveal that most pyrite formed in the early Paleozoic era, but crystal overgrowths may be significantly younger. The C-13 values in cogenetic calcite suggest that the superheavy S-34(pyrite) values are related to organotrophic MSR, in contrast to findings from marine sediments where superheavy pyrite has been proposed to be linked to anaerobic oxidation of methane. The findings provide new insights into MSR-related S-isotope systematics, particularly regarding formation of large fractions of S-34-rich pyrite.

  • 164.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tullborg, Eva-Lena
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Fallick, Anthony E.
    Variability of sulphur isotope ratios in pyrite and dissolved sulphate in granitoid fractures down to 1km depth - Evidence for widespread activity of sulphur reducing bacteria2013Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 102, s. 143-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Euhedral pyrite crystals in 46 open bedrock (granitoid) fractures at depths down to nearly 1 km were analysed for sulphur isotope ratios (delta S-34) by the in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique and by conventional bulk-grain analysis, and were compared with groundwater data. Twenty nine of the fractures sampled for pyrite had corresponding data for groundwater, including chemistry and isotopic ratios of sulphate, which provided a unique opportunity to compare the sulphur-isotopic ratios of pyrite and dissolved sulphate both at site and fracture-specific scales. Assessment of pyrite age and formation conditions were based on the geological evolution of the area (Laxemar, SE Sweden), and on data on co-genetic calcite as follows: (1) the isotopic ratios of the calcite crystals (delta O-18, delta C-13, Sr-87/Sr-86) were compared with previously defined isotopic features of fracture mineral assemblages precipitated during various geological periods, and (2) the delta O-18 of the calcites were compared with the delta O-18 of groundwater in fractures corresponding to those where the calcite/pyrite assemblages were sampled. Taken together, the data show that all the sampled fractures carried pyrite/calcite that are low-temperature and precipitated from the current groundwater or similar pre-existing groundwater, except at depths of -300 to -600 m where water with a glacial component dominates and the crystals are from pre-modern fluids. An age of <10 Ma are anticipated for the pre-modern fluids. The delta S-34(pyr) showed huge variations across individual crystals (such as -32 to +73 parts per thousand) and extreme minimum (-50 parts per thousand) and maximum (+91 parts per thousand) values. For this kind of extreme S-isotopic variation at earth-surface conditions there is no other explanation than activity of sulphur reducing bacteria coupled with sulphate-limited conditions. Indeed, the most common subgrain feature was an increase in delta S-34(pyr) values from interior to rim of the crystal, which we interpret are related to successively higher delta S-34 values of the dissolved source SO42- caused by ongoing bacterial sulphate reduction in fractures with low-flow or stagnant waters. The measured groundwater had delta S-34(SO4) values of +9 parts per thousand to +37 parts per thousand, with the highest values associated with low sulphate concentrations. These values are overall, and especially in the sulphate-poor waters down to -400 m, somewhat higher than the anticipated initial values, and can thus, like for the S-34-enriched pyrites, be explained by a Rayleigh distillation process driven by microbial sulphate reduction. An intriguing feature was that the delta S-34(SO4) values of the groundwater were in no case reaching up to the values required to produce biogenic pyrite with delta S-34 values of +40 parts per thousand to +91 parts per thousand. To explain this feature, we suggest that groundwater in low-flow fractures with near-stagnant water (carrying sulphate and pyrite with high delta S-34) is masked by high-flow parts of the fracture system carrying groundwater that often contains sulphate in abundance and considerably less fractionated with respect to S-34 and S-32. In order to gain detailed knowledge of chemical processes and patterns in groundwater in fractured rock, fracture-mineral investigations are a powerful tool, as we have shown here for the sulphur system. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 165.
    Durjava, Mojca Kos
    et al.
    Publ Hlth Inst Maribor, Slovenia.
    Kolar, Boris
    Publ Hlth Inst Maribor, Slovenia.
    Arnus, Lovro
    Publ Hlth Inst Maribor, Slovenia.
    Papa, Ester
    Univ Insubria, Italy.
    Kovarich, Simona
    Univ Insubria, Italy.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Peijnenburg, Willie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, Netherlands ; Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Experimental Assessment of the Environmental Fate and Effects of Triazoles and Benzotriazole2013Inngår i: ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals), ISSN 0261-1929, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 65-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental fate and effects of triazoles and benzotriazoles are of concern within the context of chemical regulation. As part of an intelligent testing strategy, experimental tests were performed on endpoints that are relevant for risk assessment. The experimental tests included the assessment of eco-toxicity to an alga, a daphnid and zebrafish embryos, and the assessment of ready biodegradability. Triazole and benzotriazole compounds were selected for testing, based on existing toxicity data for vertebrate and invertebrate species, as well as on the principal component analysis of molecular descriptors aimed at selecting the minimum number of test compounds in order to maximise the chemical domain spanned for both compound classes. The experimental results show that variation in the toxicities of triazoles and benzotriazole across species was relatively minor; in general, the largest factor was approximately 20. The study conducted indicated that triazoles are not readily biodegradable.

  • 166.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Utredning av koldioxid för transporter samt livscykelvärdering av monteringsdetalj  : Carrab Brake Parts AB2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöarbete för företag blir allt mer viktigt för att kunna konkurrera med sin verksamhet och leder samtidigt ofta till andra konkurrensfördelar. Olika företag ställer krav på sina leverantörer att de ska visa ett aktivt miljöarbete för att kunna få uppdrag eller kontrakt. Ett sätt för företag att visa för kunder och intressenter att man aktivt jobbar med miljöfrågor är att införa ett ledningssystem för miljöarbete, t.ex. ISO 14001:2004. Detta är en internationell standard för miljöledningssystem och certifiering sker efter granskning från tredje part av implementerat ledningssystem.   Studien har gjorts i samarbete med företaget Carrab Brake Parts AB, som inom kort tänker påbörja sitt arbete med att införa standarden. Syftet med studien har därför varit att försöka utreda hur stor miljöpåverkan företaget har från sin största miljöaspekt, vilket är transporter, samt att göra en livscykelvärdering på den produkt företaget säljer mest av, vilket är en monteringsdetalj i rostfritt stål som ska sitta i direkt anslutning till bromsbeläggen på bilar och lastbilar.

    För att kunna uppskatta miljöpåverkan och då främst utsläppen av koldioxid har programvaran SimaPro 7,3 använts, samt uppgifter främst från databasen IDEMAT 2001. Uppgifter om transportsätt, antal frakter, vikter m.m. har tillhandahållits från företaget. Samtliga uppgifter är från år 2011.

    Resultatet visar att företaget har störst påverkan från sina båttransporter, samt att påverkan från vägtransporterna är minimal i förhållande till de andra. Resultatet från livscykelvärderingen visar att utsläpp från transportfasen av produkten i princip är lika stor som materialframställnings- samt tillverkningsfasen tillsammans.

    Slutsats blir att företaget idag till störst del använder sig av det transportsätt som anses bidrar minst till påverkan på miljön, även om den totala påverkan blir relativt stor. Att flytta företagets produktion till ett ställe närmare företagets bas i Kalmar skulle minska utsläppen betydligt.

  • 167.
    Elin, Björnsson
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Avfall från hushåll i Småland: - kan det användas mer cirkulärt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På vilket sätt vi slänger vårt avfall har betydelse för hur mycket som kan återvinnas. Enligt EU:s avfallshierarki måste hushållen som första steg minska sina avfallsmängder, därefter återanvända och materialåtervinna och sist energiåtervinna och deponera. Idag energiåtervinns 50% av hushållsavfallet i Sverige, vilket visar en möjlighet att flytta sig uppåt i avfallshierarkin.

     

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att kartlägga uppkomna mängder hushållsavfall i Småland under år 2012 och 2013 samt att diskutera förbättringsmöjligheter för att få en större del av hushållsavfallet att bli utsorterat och därmed möjliggöra att mer avfall kan användas cirkulärt i samhället.

     

    År 2012 och 2013 genererades 393 000 respektive 407 000 ton hushållsavfall i Småland, och spridningen är stor i insamlade mängder per person och mellan kommuner. Fyra förbättringsmöjligheter för att öka utsorteringen av hushållsavfallet har identifierats. De är huvudsystemets betydelse, ekonomiskt styrmedel (viktbaserad avfallstaxa), samhällsplanering som styrmedel (matavfallssortering och materialströmmar) samt bättre statistiskt underlag. Studien visar att en ökad tillgänglighet till ÅVC/ÅVS kan bidra till bättre inlämning samt att om hushållen i Småland blir bättre på att sortera sitt kärl- och säckavfall kan avfallet till förbränning minskas med upp till 70%.

  • 168.
    Engelmann, Pamela de Medeiros
    et al.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Moser, Letícia Isabela
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    do Canto Bruzza, Eduardo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Barbieri, Cristina Barazzetti
    General Institute of Forensics, Brazil.
    Barela, Pâmela Susin
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Pompéu de Moraes, Diogo
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho Herbert
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Goudinho, Flávio Soares
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Melo, Clarissa Lovato
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Environmental monitoring of water resources around a municipal landfill of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil2017Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, nr 26, s. 21398-21411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, landfills are commonly used as a method for the final disposal of waste that is compliant with the legislation. This technique, however, presents a risk to surface water and groundwater resources, owing to the leakage of metals, anions, and organic compounds. The geochemical monitoring of water resources is therefore extremely important, since the leachate can compromise the quality and use of surface water and groundwater close to landfills. In this paper, the results of analyses of metals, anions, ammonia, and physicochemical parameters were used to identify possible contamination of surface water and groundwater in a landfill area. A statistical multivariate approach was used. The values found for alkali metals, nitrate, and chloride indicate contamination in the regional groundwater and, moreover, surface waters also show variation when compared to the other background points, mainly for ammonia. Thus, the results of this study evidence the landfill leachate influence on the quality of groundwater and surface water in the study area.

  • 169.
    Engkvist, Fanny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hur hanteras och uppfattas övergödning i Östersjön?: En fallstudie av nationella handlingsplaner för genomförandet av Baltic Sea Action Plan och uppfattningar kring övergödning i Östersjöregionen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In November 2007 the countries around the Baltic Sea signed the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). The action plan was an initiative from HELCOM due to the environmental status in the Baltic Sea. The action plan implemented a new approach with measures targeting the whole ecosystem. Eutrophication, hazardous substances, biodiversity and maritime activities constituted the main segments. The parties were to establish national implementation plans to fulfil the BSAP goals, which shall lead to good environmental status in the Baltic Sea by 2021.  

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the points in common regarding conceptions of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea between the management, the science, the media and the public. There are often complex connections between scientific knowledge and decision-making. With the purpose to elucidate these connections the risk management of eutrophication was compared with the scientific knowledge in the area along with the perceptions of the public and media.

    The implementation plans of the HELCOM parties differ in both content and ambitions. Overall the implementation plans are technical and many of them give no background descriptions to the causes of eutrophication. The scientific uncertainty that surrounds the calculation models of eutrophication is mentioned in about half of the implementations plans. Some uncertainty is mentioned due to the timescale of the effects of the measures. This can be compared with the fact that some scientists mean that the BSAP goals are unrealistic. Several parties mention the agriculture as an important sector for the reduction of the nutrient supply to the Baltic Sea. The Russian, Lithuanian and Estonian implementation plans also put forward the municipality treatment plants as important actors. There is a big difference between how many times the notion “eutrophication” is mentioned in the implementation plans. In the German implementation plan the notion is mentioned most frequently (29 times), while the Danish implementation plan only mention the notion twice. In the Finnish, Polish and German implementation plans eutrophication is described as a big threat. Only in the Latvian, Polish and German implementation plans eutrophication is described as a risk. The analysis of the implementation plan content shows that the parties has not succeeded to fully use the risk notion in relation to eutrophication. This can affect the risk governance, but also the perception of eutrophication among different stakeholders. Both media and politics affect the complex interactions that constitute the fundament of the relationship between scientific knowledge and public risk awareness. The consequence of eutrophication that is given most of the space in the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter is algal growth. 73 % of the Swedes consider the algal growth as a rather big issue or a very big issue. A plausible conclusion is that there is a connection between the descriptions of eutrophication in Swedish media and the perceptions and knowledge of eutrophication by the Swedish respondents.

    The perceptions and management of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea are surrounded by complex interactions, uncertainty in the scientific basis and ambiguous opinions. Despite this eutrophication is often treated as a simple risk. For the purpose of successful implementation of the action plans is it important that the public participate in the elaboration of the risk measures. To accomplish real change it might be necessary to make the complex interactions more visible and to make the public participate more.   

  • 170.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Introduction to organic chemistry for environmental engineers2006Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 171.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Substance flow analysis and source mapping of chemical UV-filters2008Inngår i: Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, nr 5-6, s. 473-484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical ultraviolet (UV)-filters are used in sunscreens to protect the skin from harmful UV radiation which may otherwise cause sunburns and skin cancer. Commonly used chemical UV-filters are known to cause endocrine disrupting effects in both aquatic and terrestrial animals as well as in human skin cells. Here, source mapping and substance flow analysis were applied to find the sources of six UV-filters (oxybenzone, avobenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) and to identify the most dominant flows of these substances in Denmark. Urban water, composed of wastewater and surface waters, was found to be the primary recipient of UV-filters, whereby wastewater received an estimated 8.5–65 tonnes and surface waters received 7.1–51 tonnes in 2005. In wastewater treatment plants, their sorption onto sludge is perceived to be an important process and presence in effluents can be expected due to a lack of biodegradability. In addition, the use of UV-filters is expected to continue to increase significantly. Not all filters (e.g., octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) are used in Denmark. For example, 4-MBC is mainly associated with self-tanning liquids and private import of sunscreens.

  • 172.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Substance flow analysis of parabens in Denmark complemented with a survey of presence and frequency in various commodities2008Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 156, nr 1-3, s. 240-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parabens are commonly used as preservatives due to anti-bactericidal and anti-fungicidal properties and they are ubiquitously present in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, food, industrial and domestic commodities. They are suspected of causing endocrine disrupting effects to aquatic organisms and adverse effects in humans and, thus, it is highly relevant to identify and quantify their sources and transportation pathways in the urban environment. Here a substance flow analysis (SFA) was performed in order to map and comprehend the substances’ flow on a national basis. Many household commodities were found to contain parabens; cleaning detergents, slimy toys, and water-based paint. The presence and concentration of parabens are regulated in cosmetics and food. Use of parabens in pharmaceuticals as excipients is documented in Denmark. The import of parabens is increasing; although the number of industrial parabens containing commodities is decreasing and manufacturer reports phase-out of parabens. The vast majority of the paraben containing commodities has a durability of 18–30 months, thus the average lifetime of the paraben stock is perceived to be limited. The inflow was ca. 154 tonnes via pure chemicals and 7.2–73 tonnes via commodities in 2004. This corresponds to an average wastewater concentration of 640–900 μg/L, when excluding discharge to solid waste, soil, biodegradation and metabolism. This is in the same order of magnitudes as can be found in industrial wastewater but higher than that seen in domestic wastewater. The data needed for the SFA is sparse, dispersed, and difficult to access and associated with a great deal of uncertainty.

  • 173.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Madsen, Toke Sloth
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Greywater pollution variability and loadings2009Inngår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 661-669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1. Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes.

  • 174.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Household chemicals and personal care products as sources for xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater2003Inngår i: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 135-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite contributing 75% of the total wastewater flow to domestic sewers, little is currently known concerning the detailed production patterns and characteristics of grey wastewater. In this study, an inventory of the consumption of household chemicals including a diary survey of water-consuming activities was carried out over seven consecutive days in a block of flats. In total 290 parameters in 92 household chemicals were registered in the inventory in which 30 out of 38 tenants participated. The study was accompanied by quantitative analyses of selected parameters and a screening for organic components in grey wastewater. More than 190 individual components were identified by GC-MS. Identified substances were grouped into eight substance classes based on their application and their concentrations were semi-quantitatively assessed. Several fragrances like citronellol, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and menthol as well as some preservatives, e.g. citric acid and triclosan, were identified. The measurements also showed that unwanted and unexpected compounds like drugs and pesticides could be present, as well as chemicals not directly deriving from household chemicals or personal care products, e.g. flame-retardants. The inventory provided detailed information about the consumption of various types of household chemicals, but no information on compound concentrations could be assessed due to the limited data in the list of contents of the household chemicals. It was shown that tracking of potentially toxic compounds used in households was possible.

  • 175.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characteristics of grey wastewater2002Inngår i: Urban Water, ISSN 1462-0758, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 85-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic matter and nutrients compared to ordinary wastewater, since urine, faeces and toilet paper are not included. The levels of heavy metals are however in the same concentration range. The information regarding the content of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) is limited. From this study, 900 different XOCs were identified as potentially present in grey wastewater by the use of tables of contents of household chemical products. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 176.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Smith, Morten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characterisation of grey wastewater2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 177.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characterisation of grey wastewater: xenobiotic organic compounds2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 178.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Phytotoxicity of grey wastewater evaluated by toxicity tests2006Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 13-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An algal growth inhibition test and a short-term acute assay for willows were used in order to evaluate the phytotoxicity of grey wastewater from different sources. Bathroom grey wastewaters were toxic towards algae (EC10 = 36 – 375 mL/L), whereas kitchen and laundry wastewaters were found to be toxic to both organisms (EC10 = 55 – 198 mL/L). The investigation showed that untreated grey wastewater could pose an environmental hazard if discharged into small-size receiving waters. Discharge to willow evaporation beds is problematic and toxic effects may be encountered, but, compared to direct discharge to surface water, the risks of toxic effects are much less pronounced.

  • 179.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants2005Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 47-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of stormwater were considered; discharge into a surface water recipient and infiltration. However, the same methodology can be used for other types of wastewater and other strategies for handling and treatment. A literature survey revealed that at least 656 xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) could be present in stormwater. In the next step, 233 XOCs were evaluated with respect to the potential for being hazardous towards either aquatic living organisms or humans, or causing technical or aesthetical problems. 121 XOCs were found have at least one of these negative effects, while 26 XOCs could not be assessed due to the lack of data. The hazard assessment showed that 40 XOCs had a PEC/PNEC ratio above one., e.g. they should be considered as priority pollutants. The final step is the expert judgement, which resulted in a final SSPP-list containing 16 selected priority pollutants.

  • 180.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Risk assessment of Xenobiotics in stormwater discharged to Harrestrup Å, Denmark2007Inngår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 215, nr 1-3, s. 187-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface waters are highly manipulated in many cities in Europe, and the flow is largely impacted by discharges of stormwater and combined sewer overflow. Toxicity tests shown adverse effects in some of these recipients due to the presence of xenobiotic organic carbons (XOCs). Harrestrup Å, situated in the City of Copenhagen, is one of these recipients, where biotest using algae showed measurable toxicity in eight samples taken in 2003. Twenty-five different XOCs were quantified in the same samples. The present study aimed at identifying the most relevant XOCs out of these 25 to be selected for further analysis with respect to potential source control options.

    Fourteen XOCs (56%) were identified to constitute a potential hazard based on the RICH evaluation (Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards), while 9 XOCs (36%) were found to constitute a hazard towards the aquatic ecosystem based on an environmental-concentration/predicted-no-effect-concentration-quotient. The quantified levels did, however, fulfil the Danish and European surface water quality criteria (QC) and environmental quality standards (ESQ). Thus, although the QC and ESQ are met there is an actual risk due to stormwater-related pollutants. This clearly illustrates that there is a need for monitoring the stormwater quality in order to protect the ecosystems. It also shows that actions are needed to implement source control options and emission barriers.

    Twelve XOCs were selected for further evaluation of possible source control option to be implemented in order to improve the water quality. These are five pesticides (diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, terbutylazine), 4 PAHs (acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene), 3 others (LAS, nonylphenol and dinitro-o-cresol).

  • 181.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ahlman, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective2007Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 383, nr 1-3, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

  • 182.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Christensen, Nina
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge2008Inngår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 226, nr 1-3, s. 371-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is, therefore, not socially acceptable in some countries, e.g., Sweden. In this study, literature reviews showed that 541 XOCs potentially could be present in sewage sludge due to their presence in e.g. construction materials, pharmaceuticals, personal care products etc. 192 compounds have been quantified in sewage sludge, which indicate that, although many XOCs have been measured in sludge, there are potentially a vast number of compounds present that have not been analyzed for yet. In a hazard identification of the quantified compounds using their inherent properties and environmental fate it was shown that 99 XOCs could be classified as being hazardous with regard to the solid phase and 23 were found to be priority pollutants in the subsequent hazard assessment. The final selected priority pollutants can act as indicators when assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed.

  • 183.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Metals in greywater: Sources, presence and removal efficiencies2009Inngår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, nr 1-3, s. 271-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, risk assessment for greywater reuse systems has almost exclusively been focussed on pathogenic microorganisms and conventional water quality parameters. Little is known about the risks from micropollutants present in greywater, nor about the potential for greywater treatment systems to act as barriers for micropollutants. In this paper, the sources, presence and potential fate of cadmium, mercury, lead, and nickel in onsite greywater treatment systems are investigated. Annual metal loads from bathroom greywater are small in comparison with typical municipal wastewater loads but still do not always meet environmental quality standards for surface waters. This study shows that onsite treatment may remove a third to a half of lead, mercury and nickel from bathroom greywater but showed no significant removal of cadmium. Geochemical modelling indicates that metals should not pose a problem for reuse in toilet flushing, irrigation and clothes washing. Rather, the major potential problems associated with the presence of metals in greywater are related to the issue of sludge disposal.

  • 184.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility2010Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, nr 12, s. 2889-2898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment.

  • 185.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater: a matter of concern?2001Inngår i: Frontiers in urban water management: deadlock or hope?: Proceedings to the Symposium Marseilles, France, 18-20 June 2001, Paris: Unesco, 2001, s. 84-91Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 186.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Organic micropollutants in sugar beets cultivated in sludge amended soil2015Inngår i: Book of abstracts: DTU's Sustain Conference 2015, Lyngby: Technical University of Denmark (DTU) , 2015, artikkel-id F-13Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 187.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Analysis of long-chain fatty acids in grey wastewater with in-vial derivatisation2003Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 83, nr 12, s. 987-995Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and levels of long-chain fatty acids (C6–C20) in grey wastewater from bathrooms have been investigated. The acids were purified and concentrated by solid-phase extraction on strong anion exchange discs, in-vial derivatised to their corresponding methyl ester and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The method was able to quantify the acids at concentration <1 µg/L with a recovery of 31–97%. The levels of fatty acids were found in the range of <0.5 to 27 100 µg/L and the highest levels were found for the saturated lauric (C12), palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) acids. The treatment efficiency of a local treatment plant was evaluated by comparing concentrations of fatty acids at the inlet and the outlet. It was found that the treatability decreases with increasing chain length for the saturated acids (19–100% degradation) whereas the corresponding mono unsaturated acids were more easily degraded.

  • 188.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Technical report writing: how to write a technical report2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 189.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, D. Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University.
    Lundy, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances2011Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, nr 10, s. 2109-2118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants” (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECS) have been developed and tested on a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCCA) for selected European priority pollutants (PPs). The SHCCA approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to mitigate data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant.

  • 190.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Srigirisetty, Sunil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge2010Inngår i: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 139-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and acids; selected metals and basic parameters as well as characterization of the organic matter content by oxygen utilization rate (OUR). The grey-water sludge contains metal loads comparable to Danish sewage sludge, and it exceeds the Danish quality criteria for spreading on agricultural land for cadmium and nickel. If dewatered and managed as soil it would be classified as ‘Class 3; polluted soil’ with respect to cadmium, copper and nickel. The OUR results indicate that the grey-water biological sludge contains an equivalent amount of readily degradable organic matter compared to municipal activated sludge. But it contains 35% more readily, and 90% more slowly, hydrolysable organic matter than municipal sludge.

  • 191.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    METLA .
    Kallio, Maarit
    METLA .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    University of Helsinki.
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    METLA .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Solberg, Birger
    UMB .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Valsta, Lauri
    University of Helsinki.
    Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector - towards an integrated modelling framework2012Inngår i: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, nr 1, s. 131-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as a building material affects the carbon balance through several mechanisms. This paper describes a modelling approach that integrates a wood product substitution model, a global partial equilibrium model, a regional forest model and a stand-level model. Three different scenarios were compared with a business-as-usual scenario over a 23-year period (2008-2030). Two scenarios assumed an additional one million apartment flats per year will be built of wood instead of non-wood materials by 2030. These scenarios had little effect on markets and forest management and reduced annual carbon emissions by 0.2-0.5% of the total 1990 European GHG emissions. However, the scenarios are associated with high specific CO2 emission reductions per unit of wood used. The third scenario, an extreme assumption that all European countries will consume 1-m3 sawn wood per capita by 2030, had large effects on carbon emission, volumes and trade flows. The price changes of this scenario, however, also affected forest management in ways that greatly deviated from the partial equilibrium model projections. Our results suggest that increased wood construction will have a minor impact on forest management and forest carbon stocks. To analyse larger perturbations on the demand side, a market equilibrium model seems crucial. However, for that analytical system to work properly, the market and forest regional models must be better synchronized than here, in particular regarding assumptions on timber supply behaviour. Also, bioenergy as a commodity in market and forest models needs to be considered to study new market developments; those modules are currently missing

  • 192.
    Evgenieva, Tsvetina
    et al.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Kolev, Nikolay
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Donev, Evgeni
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Ivanov, Danko
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Danchovski, Ventislav
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Petkov, Doyno
    Solar-Terrestrial Influences Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Grigorieva, Vera
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Kolev, Ivan
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Lidar, ceilometer and sun photometer investigation of the aerosol optical characteristics in the troposphere over Sofia, Bulgaria2010Inngår i: Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences / Proceedings of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1310-1331, E-ISSN 2367-5535, Vol. 63, nr 8, s. 1191-1200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results from planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements carried out in two different experimental sites in Sofia as well as from three-point measurements of aerosol number concentration.

    The main aim of the present investigation is to determine optical and microphysical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol in three points of the valley and their variation during the PBL formation over urban area, park zone and mountain site. Four instruments (lidar, ceilometer, aerosol particle counter and sun photometer) were used in this study.

    The experimental AOD data obtained at lambda = 500nm gave values in the range from 0.22 to 0.41 in case of cloud-free skies and up to around 0.8 under partly cloudy conditions. Aerosol particle counter data on aerosol-particle concentration variations in the size range 0.3-1 mu m provided supportive information on the evolution of the valley-mountain aerosol in time and height during the mixing layer development. Joint interpretation of sun photometer, aerosol lidar and ceilometer CHM 15k data allow the influence of the main part of the atmospheric aerosol in the planetary boundary layer to be accounted as well as the significant influence of aerosol layers and high clouds on AOD values.

  • 193.
    Fadeenko, V. B.
    et al.
    Peter Great St Petersburg Polytech Univ, Russia.
    Rud', V. Yu.
    Peter Great St Petersburg Polytech Univ, Russia;All Russian Res Inst Phytopathol, Russia.
    Rud', Yu. V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Glinushkin, A. P.
    All Russian Res Inst Phytopathol, Russia.
    Shpunt, V. Ch.
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Photoluminescence spectroscopy features in the study of green leaves drying process2018Inngår i: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PHYSICA.SPB/2017 / [ed] Averkiev, NS Poniaev, SA Sokolovskii, GS, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, s. 1-5, artikkel-id UNSP 012030Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented work demonstrates new results of studying the photoluminescence kinetics of green leaves of Brassica rapa L. that were separated from the parent plant and in fact is the logical development of our studies. We found that the time dependence of its intensity includes 2 stages characterized by the fact that in the first one there is an increase in intensity, reaching a maximum and then decrease, but with long drying times in conditions of constant room temperature, it does not fall below its characteristic value for a living plant.

  • 194.
    Fagerberg, Klas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ).
    Issa, Aroa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ).
    Miljövänligare frakt - Till vilket pris?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att världshandeln ökar så ökar även transporterna. Med hjälp av internet har det blivit enklare än någonsin att beställa en vara som skickas från andra sidan jordklotet. Detta arbete har undersökt i vilken utsträckning konsumenter reflekterar över vilka effekter deras beställningsvanor vid varubeställningar får för miljön och hur intresserade de är av att värna om miljön genom att beställa varor med hjälp av en dyrare och mer miljövänlig frakt. Detta har gjorts genom intervjuer med fyra konsumenter i varierande åldrar där det undersökts vad deras inställning är till en dyrare och miljövänligare frakt, hur mycket mer de skulle vilja betala för en sådan frakt samt även vad de vet om det miljöarbete som bedrivs inom sjöfart. Resultatet visar att det finns ett intresse att betala ett högre pris för en mer miljövänlig frakt om priset är överkomligt och om det finns ett förtroende för den som erbjuder den miljövänligare frakten. Viljan skiljer sig mellan de olika respondent och är beroende på vad det är för typ av vara och vad den ordinarie frakten kostar. Respondenterna visar också begränsad kunskap inom sjöfart och det miljöarbete som görs inom branschen.

  • 195.
    Fakhri Fouad, Ghayda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vindkraftens påverkan på sin omgivning: En fallstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this thesis is to study the impact of wind turbines on their surroundings. It also aims to analyze how the communication looks between the authorities, the planner and local residents prior to the establishment of wind turbines in Lännäs/Odensbacken in Örebro, where three wind turbines set up in a group.

    The results of this survey show that the participants experience themselves not as especially disturbed of the turbines in the form of large noise, shadows, and sleep disturbance indoors and outdoors. Participants felt that no change had taken place on the natural environment (52%) since the turbines became operational. It was 49% of participants had got no information about the establishment of Örebro Municipality, Örebro County Administrative Board or Wind Power Company. Scientists/­experts had the highest confidence of 86%, politicians and the media/journalists had least confidence. In the case of knowledge that people have about wind power's impact in their environment, the responses were "quite positive" under the effect of cleaner air (81%), on Odensbacken (79%), on housing value (44%), on outdoor recreation (38%) and on the property value (38%).

    According to this study, the three plants were well located, the works do not entail any major interventions in the landscape, impact and disruption on the local environment was limited and the area can be assessed as a rugged landscape of new elements. Local people in the area need more knowledge about impact of wind turbines on humans, plants, birds, animals and landscapes. The communication described in our case less participant friendly because there is no transparency. Confidence in the wind as renewable energy, for government agencies or for wind developer can damage players and officials do not choose the right methods for good communication. A lack of communication can thus increase the resistance and can even stop the wind developments in the region in the future.

  • 196.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden2015Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, s. 445-451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36 d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 197.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). United Nations University, Germany.
    Avellán, Tamara
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Müller, Andrea
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Dornack, Christina
    Dresden University of Technology, Germany.
    Caucci, Serena
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Selecting sustainable sewage sludge reuse options through a systematic assessment framework: Methodology and case study in Latin America2020Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 242, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 118389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge is a by-product of wastewater treatment and has a complex composition including organic matter and nutrients. The recovery of the useful components can partially buffer the continuous depletion of natural resources. However, due to a range of many complex variables, such as concerns on safe-use practices and lack of technical capacities, sludge recovery is classified as a wicked problem. To facilitate the decision-making process, this study intends to provide a decision support framework (DSF) to guide decision making towards selecting sustainable options to handle sewage sludge in Latin America. The framework was tested and refined through a case study in Panajachel, Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. Sludge disposal solutions are missing in the municipality and the pathogen content highly exceeds national and international standards. The framework was used to evaluate possible recovery scenarios. The results show that the most sustainable ways to use sewage sludge in Panajachel are through agricultural use and soil conditioning. Composting is suggested as a conversion process to eliminate pathogens and obtain stable fertilisers.

  • 198.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gao, Ling
    Beihua University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Characterization of dredged sediments: a first guide to define potentially valuable compounds - the case of Malmfjärden Bay, Sweden2019Inngår i: Advances in Geosciences, ISSN 1680-7340, E-ISSN 1680-7359, Vol. 49, s. 137-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tons of bottom sediments are dredged annually all over the world. Ports and bays need to extract the sediments to guarantee the navigation levels or remediate the aquatic ecosystem. The removed material is commonly disposed of in open oceans or landfills. These disposal methods are not in line with circular-economy goals and additionally are unsuitable due to their legal and environmental compatibility. Recovery of valuables represents a way to eliminate dumping and contributes towards the sustainable extraction of secondary raw materials. Nevertheless, the recovery varies on a case-by-case basis and depends on the sediment components. Therefore, the first step is to analyse and identify the sediment composition and properties. Malmfjärden is a shallow semi-enclosed bay located in Kalmar, Sweden. Dredging of sediments is required to recuperate the water level. This study focuses on characterizing the sediments, pore water and surface water from the bay to uncover possible sediment recovery paths and define the baseline of contamination in the water body. The results showed that the bay had high amounts of nitrogen (170–450 µg L−1 ), leading to eutrophication problems. The sediments mainly comprised small size particle material (silt, clay and sand proportions of 62 %–79 %, 14 %–20 %, 7 %–17 %, respectively) and had a medium–high level of nitrogen (7400–11 000 mg kg−1 ). Additionally, the sediments had little presence of organic pollutants and low–medium concentration of metals or metalloids. The characterization of the sediments displays a potential use in less sensitive lands such as in industrial and commercial areas where the sediments can be employed as construction material or as plant-growing substrate (for ornamental gardens or vegetation beside roads).

  • 199.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Testing of heavy metals recovery from dredged sediments2019Inngår i: Sediment as a dynamic natural resource from catchment to open sea / [ed] Marjan Euser, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 200.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Environmental decision-making within the steel industry: the role of individuals’ worries, knowledge and responsibility2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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