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  • 151. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013Ingår i: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 565-585Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed

  • 152.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Artifactual evidence of discrimination in correspondence studies?: A replication of the Neumark method2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The advocates of correspondence testing (CT) argue that it provide the most clear and convincing evidence of discrimination. The common view is that the standard CT can identify what is typically defined as discrimination in a legal sense – what we label total discrimination in the current study –, although it cannot separate between preferences and statistical discrimination. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) convincingly show that audit and correspondence studies can obtain biased estimates of total discrimination – in any direction – if employers evaluate applications according to some threshold level of productivity. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature on CT experiments until the appearance of the methodology proposed by Neumark (2012). He shows that with the right data and an identifying assumption, with testable predictions, this method can identify total discrimination. In the current paper we use this new method to reexamine a number of already published correspondence studies to investigate if their estimate of total discrimination is affected by group differences in variances of unobservable characteristics. We also aim at improving the general understanding of to what extent the standardization level of job applications is an issue in empirical work. We find that the standardization level of the job applications being set by the experimenter appear to be a general issue in correspondence studies which must be taken seriously

  • 153.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Body size, skills, and income: Evidence from 150,000 teenage siblings2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the widely described consequences of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity the economics literature to date has almost exclusively focused on the relationship between body size and earnings among adults. We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we show for the first time that there is a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight and obese as a teenager. Second, we show that this result can be replicated using data from the USA and the UK. Third, we show a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size, on the one hand, and cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills, on the other hand. Fourth, we show that a large part of the estimated body size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. All of these results hint at the importance of policy combating early life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life.

  • 154.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market for apartments2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large inefficiencies, but is difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious applications to landlords). In this study, we extend the existing methodology by (i) randomly assigning all relevant applicant characteristics to the applications, and (ii) carefully taking into account the interactions between applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be implemented by considering how an applicant’s gender, ethnicity, age and employment status affect the probability of being invited to an apartment viewing in the Swedish housing market. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination, but also show that the degree of this discrimination varies substantially with applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies.

  • 155.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Do employers use unemployment as a sorting criterion when hiring?: Evidence from a field experiment2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 156.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia university.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University.
    Domestic partnership for what?: Evidence from Sweden2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 157.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared accommodation2013Ingår i: 28th annual congress of the European Economic Association, Gothenburg, August 26-30, 2013, European Economic Association & Econometric , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for most people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. For people with limited financial resources, such as students and even young professionals, this is often one of the few viable types of housing available. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question for London is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: People with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 people advertising shared accommodations all over London. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic or Black African background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with an Indian background are found somewhere inbetween. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination. 

  • 158.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for many people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: people with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with a Black African or Indian background are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination.

  • 159.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Discrimination in the Market for Shared Housing2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In major international cities, the difficulty of finding affordable housing has often resulted in an increased demand for shared housing, i.e. sharing an apartment/house with others. However, a policy-relevant question is if this very informal market is equally available to everyone regardless of ethnic background. To investigate this, we conduct a field experiment in the London market for shared housing. In the experiment, we send fictitious applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African or Arabic background, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic name, while applicants with an Eastern-European name are least affected and applicants with an African or Indian name are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, the results indicate that a substantial fraction of these differences reflects statistical discrimination. Finally, we find that the degree of discrimination varies with the ethnic residential concentration. This suggests that discrimination contributes to maintaining the current situation in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority.

  • 160.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hussain, Shakir
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Etnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A multilevel approach2013Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 885-910Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research, we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be, that is, individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 161.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Integrationsfrågan är mer komplex än vad Fölster vill se2013Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 162.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Making the business case for Public Employment Services: Cost-benefit analysis and productive efficiency analysis2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The PES EU2020 working group points in a briefing note (PES EU2020 no date A) to change processes in EU PESs called for by social evolutions. The note emphasises that public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals.

    PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper.

  • 163.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Parental education and offspring outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish compulsory schooling reform2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we exploit the Swedish compulsory schooling reform in order to estimate the causal effect of parental education on son's outcomes. We use data from the Swedish enlistment register on the entire population of males and focus on outcomes such as cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, and various dimensions of health at the age of 18. We find significant and positive effects of maternal education on sons' skills and health status. Although the reform had equally strong effects on father’s education as on mother’s education, we find little evidence that paternal education improves son’s outcomes.

  • 164.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013Ingår i: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 249-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 165.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants’ Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report high levels of political trust among immigrants in Western Europe. Notably, such confidence tend to be particularly pronounced among immigrants from countries without democratic institutions and poor records in terms of corruption level. Yet over time, members of these population categories tend to express decreasing levels of political trust. Following previous research, such a pattern may be explained by high initial—although with time retreating—expectations concerning the quality of institutions in Western Europe. Analyzing Swedish survey data—particularly appropriate in the light of competing hypotheses concerning acculturation and barriers to integration, including discrimination—this paper presents additional support for the importance of expectations when it comes to political trust. Our analyses suggest that the gradual development of more modest expectations regarding institutional performance in the new country is a trustworthy explanation of the falling levels of immigrants‘ political trust.

  • 166. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: Evidence from Swedish register data2013Ingår i: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 83-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthlyearnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay malesare at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of whichearnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when wecompare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, thedisadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however,earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerablysmaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earningsadvantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documentedregardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing betterthan female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate thatgay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching toplevelpositions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians islikely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work thanheterosexual females.

  • 167.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Testing for backlash in hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion,and gender2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that women (men) who appear agentic (communal) when applying for jobs suffer a backlash in the form of reduced chances of being hired. However, the evidence of backlash is mainly restricted to simulated hiring decisions with undergraduates as participants. To examine whether backlash occurs when men and women apply for real jobs in the labor market, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agentic and communal traits were manipulated in the applications. Whether or not the applications resulted in a job interview invitation constituted the dependent variable. We find no evidence of backlash, suggesting that women are not punished for presenting themselves as agentic in their job applications, nor are men punished for appearing communal.

  • 168.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Economic Value of Elite Sports: The Case of Sweden2013Ingår i: Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects AbstractsThirteenth Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece Edited by Gregory T. Papanikos, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2013, s. 11-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about elite sports in Sweden. There are a lot of ways of studying the economic value of elite sports. In this article we use information from population data, club accounting and a questionnaire to get a picture of the economic values of elite sports. Our knowledge from earlier research concerning the economic value of elite sports is mainly based on US data. The Scandinavian model for sport is different from sports in the USA since the clubs are not owned by businesses and the goals are more or less “sport for all”. This paper tries to present a picture of the process of elite sports in countries there elite sports traditionally has been a mixture between professional and amateur. The results from willingness to pay analysis for the presence of elite sports in the actual county indicate values of 350 SEK (about 35 EURO) per year and person in Sweden. Another way of calculating the value of the elite teams is by estimating how many working hours people are prepared to devote to helping the club. If these hours are translated into economic values, it runs into between 3000 to 5000 SEK (about 300 to 500 EURO) per year and person, depending on location in Sweden.

  • 169.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How schooling affects cognitive skills is a fundamental question forstudies of human capital and labor markets. While scores on cognitive ability testsare positively associated with schooling, it has proven difficult to ascertain whetherthis relationship is causal. Moreover, the effect of schooling is difficult to separate from the confounding factors of age at test date, relative age within a classroom, season of birth, and cohort effects. In this paper, we use a fundamentally different identification approach compared to the previous literature. We exploit conditionally random variation in the assigned test date for a battery of cognitive tests which almost all 18 year-old males were required to take in preparation for military servicein Sweden. Both age at test date and number of days spent in school vary randomly across individuals after flexibly controlling for date of birth, parish, and expected graduation date (the three variables the military conditioned on when assigningtest date). We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises cognitive scoreson crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool dayshave almost no effect. The benefit of additional school days is homogeneous, with similar effect sizes based on past grades in school, parental education, and father’s earnings. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age. We discuss the importance of these findings for questions about the malleability of cognitive skills in young adults, schooling models of signaling versus human capital ,the interpretation of test scores in wage regressions, and policies related to the length of the school year

  • 170.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The impact of ethnic concentration on native and second-generation immigrant children's economic outcomes2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 171.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Public Employment Service: A Survey of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Productive Efficiency Analysis Studies2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals. PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper. The remainder of this paper is organised as follows: Section 1 opens with a brief sketch of changes in the governance in EU PESs during the last decades. This is followed by an accounting framework addressing both efficiency and distributional aspects of employment services. Section 2 begins with a condensed description of basic principles of cost-benefit analysis which is followed by a review of a number of economic analyses concerning employment services that have been carried out in EU countries. Section 3 is devoted to methods to measure the productive efficiency of individual employment offices and of the PES in one country in relation to productive efficiency of PESs in other countries. It starts with brief overviews of the theory of production and of methods to measure efficiency. Then it presents a review of previous studies and a description of the production of employment offices. This section concludes with the development of a benchmarking model for European employment offices. Section 4 provides concluding remarks.

  • 172.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    The Role of Prototypes and Same-Gender Bias in Attributions to Gender Discrimination in Hiring2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 173.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ralsmark, Hilda
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    When a Little Dirt Doesn’t Hurt: The Effect of Family Size on Child Health Outcomes2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    : This paper studies the causal effect of family size on children’s health. We formulate a model of child health production where family size has a negative effect on child health due to resource dilution but a positive effect due to a positive effect on the development of the immune system, as proposed by the hygiene hypothesis. We use a large dataset on the entire Swedish male birth cohorts between 1965 and 1978 to evaluate which effect that dominates. We use the occurrence of twin births as exogenous shifts in family size. Overall, our results suggest that family size has a positive effect on general health outcomes. This suggests that the mechanism proposed in the hygiene hypothesis dominates the mechanism proposed in the quantity-quality model.

  • 174.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

  • 175.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Annie Lööf visar överdriven tilltro till nyföretagandet2012Ingår i: Smålandsposten, ISSN 1104-0009Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 176.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Are homosexuals discriminated against in the hiring process?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4,000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against gays and lesbian varies across different occupations and appears only in the private sector. The results also seem to suggest a new dimension of traditional gender roles; the gay applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Thus, the results suggest that gays to some extent face the same obstacles on the labor market as heterosexual women.

  • 177.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Can media attention about tests of ethnic discrimination change the employers’ behaviour?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation testing is used to investigate whether employers discriminate when hiring. This study analyzes whether authorities can implement such situation tests to hinder ethnic discrimination and enforce anti-discrimination legislation more effectively by taking advantage of the opportunities provided by news media coverage. To this end, we use unique data that relates an exogenous shock, in the form of extensive media coverage of situation testing conducted in the labor market, to data on employers´ actual discriminatory behavior collected in two situation-testing field experiments. The media coverage, which luckily occurred in the middle of these experiments, and implementation of a difference-in-difference methodology make a causal interpretation of the results possible. Based on previous studies that have shown how the news media can affect economic outcomes, the hypothesis here is that such information, as the news media provided in this case, leads to a decline in the degree of discrimination in the labor market. However, the results reveal no sign of employers changing their hiring practices after the media coverage.

  • 178.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do reported attitudes towards immigrants predict ethnic discrimination?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reported attitudes towards immigrants are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is little empirical evidence of a link between attitudes and discrimination. In this paper, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards immigrants combined with data on ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards immigrants and the extent of ethnic discrimination at the municipality level. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful proxy for ethnic discrimination.

  • 179.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Lundin, Christofer
    Does work practice boost chances to finding employment – or is that the intention?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions reduced payroll taxes are analysed with regards to employment and wage effects. Our study extends the impacts to cover several possible firm outcomes using a multilevel modelling approach. Between 20-55 percent in the variation in the outcomes can be explained by municipality differences. On firm level the result follows a clear business logic. In the short run, profits and turnover increased wish later on transforms into increased wages. After seven years we find indication of impacts on investments. Thus, the support has some short-term impacts that are reduced with time and the long-term effects are questionable.

  • 180.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Earnings and occupational attainment among immigrants from the new EU member states in Sweden2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 181.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Earnings differentials due to sexual orientation: A look at some possible explanations2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented earnings differentials due to sexual orientation. In this paper we take a closer look at such differentials and the explanations for them. By studying yearly earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings, we are able to observe the extent to which the earnings disadvantage that is often observed for homosexual males and the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females remain when we control for factors such as their number of hours worked. Our results suggest that male homosexuals are also at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals after controlling for number of hours worked. This disadvantage is larger at the top than at the bottom of the earnings distribution. However, for females the earnings differential is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly earnings than when we study yearly earnings. Thus, the results indicate that male homosexuals face obstacles on the labour market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings levels; the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females in previous research is more likely to stem from the fact that female homosexuals devote more time to market labour than heterosexual females do.

  • 182.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Employer attitudes, the marginal employer and the ethnic wage gap2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic minorities have lower wages compared to the ethnic majority in most EU-countries. However, to what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. This study sets out to examine what role prejudice play in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe's most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer. Our results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer – but not those of the average employer – are important for the ethnic wage gap. This relationship becomes even stronger when potential measurement error and other forms of endogeneity are accounted for by controlling for a rich set of variables and implementing instrumental variable techniques.

  • 183.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hussain, Shakir
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A multlilevel approach2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be i.e. individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 184.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Quoreshi, Shahid
    Evaluating regional cuts in the payroll tax from a firm perspective2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions reduced payroll taxes are analysed with regards to employment and wage effects. Our study extends the impacts to cover several possible firm outcomes using a multilevel modelling approach. Between 20-55 percent in the variation in the outcomes can be explained by municipality differences. On firm level the result follows a clear business logic. In the short run, profits and turnover increased wish later on transforms into increased wages. After seven years we find indication of impacts on investments. Thus, the support has some short-term impacts that are reduced with time and the long-term effects are questionable.

  • 185.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Human capital transmission and the earnings of second-generation immigrants in Sweden2012Ingår i: IZA Journal of Migration, ISSN 2193-9039, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. Article ID: 4-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare the earnings and the intergenerational earnings mobility of immigrants with natives in Sweden. We find an overall convergence in average earnings between immigrants and natives across generations. This convergence hides a divergence in average earnings between groups of immigrants with different ethnic origins. We also find that, on average, immigrants have lower intergenerational earnings mobility within groups with similar ethnic backgrounds. Immigrant groups with relatively low intergenerational earnings mobility increased their average relative earnings in the second generation. The interpretation of this is that immigrant groups with a high degree of intergenerational transmission of human capital from parent to offspring improve their position on the labor market across generations.

  • 186.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Identifying preference-based employer discrimination: a field experiment2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard correspondence testing experiment does not identify whether employer prejudice, as opposed to statistical discrimination, drives discriminatory behavior when hiring. This article proposes a new methodology using geographic variation to explore the link between employer attitudes toward ethnic minorities and the ethnic difference in callbacks for a job interview. Using already existing Swedish data we find that a randomly selected employer is more likely to discriminate against a minority job applicant in regions where the average employer has more negative attitudes.

  • 187.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Idrottens ekonomiska samhällsnytta2012Ingår i: Är idrott nyttigt?: En antologi om idrott och samhällsnytta / [ed] Johan Hvenmark, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2012, 1, s. 226-257Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 188.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Inkomst- och yrkesposition bland invandrare från de nya EU-länderna2012Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 50-58Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 189.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. More than 1,000 participants were asked to read one out of eight possible fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships and subsequently respond to a questionnaire. Sexual orientation, victims’ and batterers’ gender, and severity of the violence varied across the different scenarios. The clearest result of this study was that participants perceived domestic violence to be significantly more serious when a man battered his wife than in any other case (i.e., when a woman battered her husband, when a gay man battered his husband, or when a lesbian woman battered her wife). In all types of relationships, participants matched their perceptions of domestic violence to the level of severity of the violence and participants with more negative attitudes toward women perceived domestic violence as less serious. Female participants were more concerned about lesbian domestic violence than male participants. Attitudes toward gays and lesbians mattered little for the perceptions of domestic violence.

  • 190.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Residential mobility, tipping behaviour, and ethnic segregation: Evidence from Sweden2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies tipping behaviour in residential mobility of the native population in Sweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that the growth in native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once a neighbourhood’s immigrant share exceeds the identified tipping point. In the 1990s the drop can be attributed both to increased out-migration of natives (native flight) and decreased in-migration of natives (native avoidance). In 2000-2007, native flight appears to be driving the segregation pattern. Thus, the native residential mobility has contributed to increased ethnic segregation in Sweden between 1990 and 2007.

  • 191.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Revealing taste-based discrimination in hiring: a correspondence testing experiment with geographic variation2012Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, nr 18, s. 1861-1864Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard Correspondence Testing Experiment (CTE) does not identify whether employer prejudice, as opposed to statistical discrimination, drives discriminatory behaviour when hiring. This article proposes a new methodology using geographic variation to explore the link between employer attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the ethnic difference in callbacks for a job interview. Using already existing Swedish data we find that a randomly selected employer is more likely to discriminate against a minority job applicant in regions where the average employer has more negative attitudes.

  • 192.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 193.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Start-up Subsidies in Sweden: Treatment, Deadweight and Direct Displacement Effects.2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the Swedish self-employment program using data from administrative records about matched groups of program participants and nonparticipants. We find that participating in the program reduces the duration of unemployment and the risk for re-unemployment. The self-employment scheme is not found to result in a significant reduction of jobs elsewhere in the economy whereas the study estimates displacement effects in the order of 35 percent from the compound of other Swedish labor market programs. According to previous Swedish survey investigations self-reported deadweight in the self-employment scheme varies across studies from about 30 to about 45 percent.

  • 194.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    The Power of Media and Changes in Discriminatory Behavior among Employers2012Ingår i: Journal of Media Economics, ISSN 0899-7764, E-ISSN 1532-7736, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 98-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes whether news media coverage of discrimination testing in the labor market leads to a lower degree of ethnic discrimination in hiring. To this end, unique data is used that relates an exogenous shock, in the form of extensive media coverage of discrimination testing, to data on employers' actual discriminatory behavior collected in 2 field experiments. The results reveal no sign of employers changing their hiring practices after the media coverage.

  • 195.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    The Role of Pre-Market Skills in Explaining the Height Premium in Earnings2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to improve our understanding of the height premium by using large-scale register data on 450,000 Swedish males who underwent mandatory military enlistment at age 18. With detailed data on cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills, as well as adult earnings, we show that each type of skill explain similar fractions of the height premium. This result holds when exploiting within-family variation in height and skills among 150,000 siblings. We also estimate models with centimeter fixed effects and find that the remaining height premium mainly originates from very short people having low earnings.

  • 196.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Warm and competent Hassan = Cold and incompetent Eric: A Harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how individuating information about job applicants influences ethnic discrimination. In the present field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Furthermore, conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. In conclusion, the results show that Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 197.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SV.
    Myrberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Who is invited to influence – and where?: Urban inequality and political recruitment in Sweden2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides evidence of segregation-generated differences in political recruitment. Focusing on social-geographical differentiation in the urban landscape, we evaluate—in prior work largely neglected—contextual effects on requests for political participation. Consistent with previous research, our analyses suggest that political activists, who try to convince others to participate, systematically use a set of selection criteria when deciding whom to approach. However, using data based on a sample of inhabitants of Swedish cities and properties of their neighbourhoods, we also present evidence for aggregate-level social exclusion influences on individual-level recruitment efforts. Consistent with our theoretical framework, results indicate that the contextual effect stems both from the disproportional population composition in residential areas, and from recruiters‘ rational avoidance of areas marked by high levels of social exclusion. The net result, we conclude, is a reinforcement of urban inequalities when it comes to the chances to be invited to political life.

  • 198.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Jolivet, Annie
    Working longer in European countries: underestimated and unexpected effects2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 199.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Är förkunskaper verkligen viktiga för framgångsrika högre studier?: En analys av studieresultatet på en grundläggande högskolekurs i statistik2012Ingår i: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 33-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker vilken betydelse goda gymnasiala förkunskaper i matematik har för studieresultatet på en kurs i grundläggande statistik på högskolenivå. Särskilt fokus är på betydelsen av studenternas gymnasiala förkunskaper 1) i sådan matematik som ingår i behörig-hetskraven och 2) i form av extra kurser matematik som lästs utöver behörighetskraven. Data erhålls genom att på individnivå länka samman tentamensresultat på en statistikkurs med uppgifter kring studenternas gymnasiala meriter i ämnet matematik. Något förvånande – och i kontrast till tidigare studier – är det inget i resultaten som indikerar att extra kurser i matematik utöver behörighetskraven har betydelse för studieresultatet på statistikkursen. Istället tycks det vara vilket betyg studenterna har på de mer elementära matematikkurserna som ingår i behörighetskraven som är viktigt. En tolkning av resultaten är att en grundläggande högskolekurs i statistik inte kräver särskilt mycket matematiskt kunnande, utan att det är allmänna kognitiva förmågor som intuition, logiskt tänkande och problemlösningsförmåga som är viktiga och att betygen på de mest elementära matematikkurserna på gymnasiet speglar sådana förmågor

  • 200.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer and the Ethnic Wage Gap.2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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