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  • 151.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments2018Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, nr 24, s. 2652-2663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies using observational data suggest that ethnic discrimination increases in downturns of the economy. We investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labour market tightness using data from correspondence studies. We utilize three correspondence studies of the Swedish labour market and two different measures of labour market tightness. These two measures produce qualitatively similar results, and, opposite to the observational studies, suggest that ethnic discrimination in hiring decreases in downturns of the economy.

  • 152.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). IZA;CReAM.
    Explaining the gender wage gap among recent college graduates: pre-labour market factors or empolyer discrimination?2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the gender wage gap upon labor market entry among recent college graduates in Sweden and find a raw male-female wage gap of 12 percent. After adding controls for pre-labor market factors, only a gap of approximately 2.9 percent remains. Hence, pre-labor market factors, and especially the type of college major, explain the bulk of the initial gender wage gap, and there is little that can be attributed to employer discrimination. However, given the high minimum wages in the Swedish labor market discrimination may not be apparent in wages. Instead, employers may discriminate against women in hiring. Using data from a hiring experiment, we do not find any evidence of this. On the contrary, female job applicants tend to be preferred over male job applicants.

  • 153.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how living in a deprived neighborhood affects the labormarket outcomes of its residents has been a subject of great interest for both policy makers andresearchers. Despite this interest, empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labormarket outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant.The mechanism that this study investigates is neighborhood signaling effects. Specifically, weask whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signalsliving in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood. To this end, weconducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with anadvertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either abad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a jobinterview (the callback rate). We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects.However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lowerif they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, wefind that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, andthis is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect. Apparently, employers view informationabout residential addresses as important for employment decisions.

  • 154.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2018Ingår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 534-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings

    We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, we find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value

    Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. We provide such evidence.

  • 155.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer, and the Ethnic Wage Gap2016Ingår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 227-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In most EU countries, ethnic minorities have lower wages than does the ethnic majority. To what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. The authors examine the role that prejudice plays in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe’s most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer (the attitude of the most prejudiced employer hiring the ethnic minority). Results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer—but not those of the average employer—are important for explaining the ethnic wage gap.

  • 156.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). IZA;CReAM.
    What can we learn from correspondence testing studies?2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Antidiscrimination policies play an important role in public discussions. However, identifying discriminatory practices in the labor market is not an easy task. Correspondence testing provides a credible way to reveal discrimination in hiring and provide hard facts for policies. What is this instrument? What does it show and how reliable is it? Should it be widely used for policymaking? Answers to these questions are provided

  • 157.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Stefan, Eriksson
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2018Ingår i: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957, Vol. 86, nr 2, s. 219-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are differences between natives and immigrants in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method getting the job. We further investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but they especially rely on informal search. Immigrants are more likely than natives to find a job using informal search through friends and relatives, and these jobs are associated with lower wages.

  • 158.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

  • 159.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Testing for Backlash in Hiring: A Field Experiment on Agency, Communion, and Gender2014Ingår i: Journal of Personnel Psychology, ISSN 1866-5888, E-ISSN 2190-5150, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 204-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men as agentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001) suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive gender stereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails the risk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive gender stereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs when applying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of 5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labor market. The dependent variable was whether the application resulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do not offer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in the recruitment process.

  • 160.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Testing for backlash in hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion,and gender2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that women (men) who appear agentic (communal) when applying for jobs suffer a backlash in the form of reduced chances of being hired. However, the evidence of backlash is mainly restricted to simulated hiring decisions with undergraduates as participants. To examine whether backlash occurs when men and women apply for real jobs in the labor market, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agentic and communal traits were manipulated in the applications. Whether or not the applications resulted in a job interview invitation constituted the dependent variable. We find no evidence of backlash, suggesting that women are not punished for presenting themselves as agentic in their job applications, nor are men punished for appearing communal.

  • 161.
    Chantrel, Pauline
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fourcade, Agathe
    Is there a difference between the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games in their impact on inbound tourism?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the difference in number of tourist arrivals between the Olympic games and the Paralympic games in the hosting countries. Using the difference-in-differences method, results show that there is a difference in the number of tourist arrivals between the summer games and winter games, and that hosting the games have a bigger impact on smaller city than on bigger one. They also show that since Vancouver 2010 the Olympic games always attracted more tourists than the Paralympic games. The main conclusion of this paper is that there is definitely a difference in the tourist inflow between the Olympic games and Paralympic games and that the Olympic games attract more tourists than the Paralympic games.

  • 162.
    collet, CLAIRE
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Duquennoy, Kimberlay
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Did the pattern of poverty in West Germany change because of the reunification?: A cross-sectional study of poverty in West Germany2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The reunification of West Germany and East Germany occurred in 1990 and had a great impact on the country. This essay investigates the impact that reunification had on the poverty structure of West Germany on the long-run. The results indicate that reunification had a negative impact on poverty since it increased the poverty rate by 4.88 percentage point in 2000 and by 6.16 percentage point in 2005. The structure of the poor population slightly changed the year following the reunification. Five years later, the structure of the poor population was similar to what it was before the reunification. However, during this period, the income transfer became more efficient since it decreased poverty by 6 percentage point to 16 percentage point more after reunification than it used to do before.

  • 163.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    et al.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Does integration change gender attitudes?: the effect of randomly assigning women to traditionally male teams2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether exposure of men to women in a traditionally male-dominated environment can change attitudes about mixed-gender productivity, gender roles and gender identity. Our context is the military in Norway, where we randomly assigned female recruits to some squads but not others during boot camp. We find that living and working with women for 8 weeks causes men to adopt more egalitarian attitudes. There is a 14 percentage point increase in the fraction of men who think mixed-gender teams perform as well or better than same-gender teams, an 8 percentage point increase in men who think household work should be shared equally and a 14 percentage point increase in men who do not completely disavow feminine traits. Contrary to the predictions of many policymakers, we find no evidence that integrating women into squads hurt male recruits’ satisfaction with boot camp or their plans to continue in the military. These findings provide evidence that even in a highly gender-skewed environment, gender stereotypes are malleable and can be altered by integrating members of the opposite sex.

  • 164.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Estimating the Mahalanobis distance in high-dimensional data2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mahalanobis distance is a fundamental statistic in many fields such as Outlier detection, Normality testing and Cluster analysis. However, the standard estimator developed by Mahalanobis (1936) and Wilks (1963) is not well behaved in cases when the dimension (p) of the parent variable increases proportional to the sample size (n). This case is frequently referred to as Increasing Dimension Asymptotics (IDA). Specifically, the sample covariance matrix on which the Mahalanobis distance depends becomes degenerate under IDA settings, which in turn produce stochastically unstable Mahalanobis distances. This research project consists of several parts. It (a) shows that a previously suggested family of “improved” shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix produce inoperable Mahalanobis distances, both under classical and increasing dimension asymptotics. It (b) develops a risk function specifically designed to assess the Mahalanobis distance and identifies good estimators thereof and (c) develops a family of resolvent-type estimators of the Mahalanobis distance. This family of estimators is shown to remain well behaved even under IDA settings. Suicient conditions for the proposed estimator to outperform the traditional estimator are also supplied. The proposed estimator is argued to be a useful tool for descriptive statistics, such as Assessment of influential values or Cluster analysis, in cases when the dimension of data is proportional to the sample size.

  • 165.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Mahalanobis distances of factor structured data2015Ingår i: Festschrift in honor of Professor Ghazi Shukur on the occasion of his 60th birthday / [ed] Thomas Holgersson, Linnaeus University Press, 2015, 1, s. 126-142Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we implement the factor model for deriving the covariance matrix that is used for a Mahalanobis distance. The distributional properties of the new Mahalanobis distances are derived. A general case on contamination effects ofoutliers on Mahalanobis distances from separate parts of the factor model are also investigated. An empirical example indicates the difference between the new proposed separated Mahalanobis distances and the original Mahalanobis distance.

  • 166.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Moments, factor scores and limiting distributions of individual Mahalanobis distances2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 167.
    Dai, Deliang
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Expected and unexpected values of Individual Mahalanobis Distances2017Ingår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 46, nr 18, s. 8999-9006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper derives first-order sampling moments of individual Mahalanobis distances (MD) in cases when the dimension p of the variable is proportional to the sample size n. Asymptotic expected values when n, p → ∞ are derived under the assumption p/n → c, 0 ⩽ c < 1. It is shown that some types of standard estimators remain unbiased in this case, while others are asymptotically biased, a property that appears to be unnoticed in the literature. Second order moments are also supplied to give some additional insight to the matter.

  • 168.
    Damian, Grimshaw
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Marino, Stefania
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Gautié, Jérôme
    University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France.
    Neumann, Lázló
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Weinkopf, Caudia
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Negotiating better conditions for workers during austerity in Europe: unions' local strategies towards low pay and outsourcing in local government2018Ingår i: Reconstructing solidarity: labour unions, precarious work, and the politics of institutional change in Europe / [ed] Virginia Doellgast, Nathan Lillie & Valeria Pulignano, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 1, s. 42-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 169.
    Daniel, Waldenström
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN) ; Paris School of Economics, France.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hansson, Åsa
    Lund University ; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Kapitalbeskattningens förutsättningar i Sverige2018Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 6-15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Årets SNS Konjunkturrådsrapport diskuterar och analyserar förutsättningarna för kapitalbeskattning i Sverige. Mycket har hänt sedan århundradets skattereform. Det gäller hur kapital beskattas, storleken och fördelningen av kapital och inte minst kunskapen om hur kapitalskatter bör utformas. Utifrån detta, och de brister vi finner i dagens kapitalbeskattning, diskuterar vi hur kapitalbeskattningen kan förbättras utifrån både ett effektivitets- och fördelningsperspektiv. Vi förespråkar bl a en mer likformig kapitalbeskattning och en skatteväxling från arbetsinkomstbeskattning till kapitalinkomstbeskattning.

  • 170.
    Delaunay, Romane
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Long, Alida
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Determinants of Outmigration: The Swedish Case2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the composition of outmigration flows regarding migrants’ characteristics such as family situation, educational attainment and labour market situation. To expand our research, out-migrants are separated into return and onward migrants. Results indicate that the labour market situation of immigrants (unemployment and uptake of social benefits) in the destination country is an important determinant in the decision to out-migrate. However, the effect varies among countries due to the political situation in the source country, the migration costs and the extensive welfare benefits in Sweden. Labour immigrants are more likely to return to their country of origin whereas refugee immigrants are more likely to move to another country. Other findings demonstrate that emigrants are negatively selected regarding educational attainment. High-educated individuals have a higher probability of returning home than moving to a third country. The likelihood of emigration also depends on other characteristics such as the family situation of immigrants and the duration of residence in the destination country. All in all, labour market outcomes are the most important factors in the decision of out-migration.

  • 171.
    Deliang, Dai
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    On high-dimensional Mahalanobis distance2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

  • 172.
    Dolk, Ted
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fundamentals of property pricing: The macroeconomic relationship with the Swedish housing market2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the relationship between macroeconomic fundamentals and the price level within the Swedish housing market. Previous empirical research has heavily debated whether there is a long run or short run relationship. The aim of this essay was therefore to analyse the nature of the relationship following the post-crisis period of the 1990’s. This was done in order to determine whether the price level reverts to a long run equilibrium with economic fundamentals or if the market inflates once again following imbalances between supply and demand alongside decreased risk aversion from the credit institutes. The results showed that there were no cointegrative relationship in the longer run. Furthermore, to show that there is not a complete seperative relationship between fundamental factors and the housing market, a short run model was established. The short run model showed significant results for user cost determinants. Concluding from this essay is that supply restrictive factors, such as the unavailability of land, have caused the supply to not match the appropriate rate of growth with demand. Alongside the growth of disposable income, generous tax deductions on interest payments and the decreased risk aversion this has led to the exorbitant price increase during the past two decades.

  • 173.
    Eefting, Sander
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The relationship of earning differences and attitudes towards ethnic minority groups in Sweden: a study describing the effect of negative attitudes towards ethnic minority groups on the earning differences in Sweden2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential effects of negative attitudes towards minority groups on the earnings gap between natives and ethnic minorities on the Swedish labour market. Previous studies have shown signs of earning differences between the two groups on the Swedish labour market and authors use several arguments to explain this. Some authors state that firms use statistical discrimination and taste discrimination to set wages and thus affecting the difference in earnings for natives and immigrants. Other authors use lack of social networks or human capital as explanations for the existing wage gap.

    The results of this study show that there are indeed earning differences between between natives and immigrants and that discrimination is possibly an explanation factor. This study also shows that there is a higher negative attitude towards minorities than there is for positive attitudes. We find however no direct connection between the earning gap and negative attitudes since the variable is insignificant. The reason for this is most lkely due to the earning gap being a very broad concept and thus affected by many different factors. This suggestion follows the outcome of previously written studies.

  • 174.
    Eefting, Sander
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    To Work or not to Work: An empirical study that focuses on the effects of the largest employment programme of local unemployed workers in Växjö, Sweden.2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment programmes, or on-the-job training programmes, are designed to increase the likelihood of unemployed workers receiving work opportunities by providing actual work experience. Whether the unemployed workers lack human resources, obtained a degree in a foreign country or simply need a boost towards obtaining a new job, these programmes give workers the opportunity to execute tasks at organised firms and therefore strengthen their connection to the labour market.  The focus of this paper is towards a unique programme, called Arbetspraktik. This specific programme is designed with the intention to increase the labour market outcomes of unemployed workers. Geographically, Växjö has been selected as the main priority. The local focus is due to two reasons; firstly, the internship at the Swedish Employment Service in Växjö provided local support, insight and experience and therefore estimating local effects matched the purpose of the internship. The result of this thesis may also be used as informative research for the Swedish Employment Service where I performed my internship. Secondly, according to previous work, specific regions within a country are not looked at on a high frequency in Sweden and therefore focusing on regional effects could be beneficial to already existing studies. Previous research shows that the evaluation of these programmes has been done in many countries. Data for this study is obtained through the Swedish Employment Service. With the use of Matching and Propensity Scores, the findings claim that participants in Arbetspraktik have a 28.3% higher probability of receiving better outcomes than the controlled counterpart in Växjö. The interviews, despite having low observations, indicate that positive outcomes for trainees are a possibility and may be connected to the outcomes of the model. For example, trainees are shown to become more independent and productivity across trainees increases over time. Lastly, the interviews claim that trainees perform the same tasks as full-time workers, which is discussed to be a positive thing. Self-critique and tips for future research are presented at the end.

  • 175.
    Ekberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Lindh, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Immigrants in the Old-Age Pension System: The Case of Sweden2016Ingår i: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 5-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article investigates incomes and especially state pensions 2008 among elderly immigrants who arrived in Sweden before 1970. At age 70 and above, the level of state old-age pension for immigrant men was nearly the same and for immigrant women somewhat higher than for natives with similar characteristics. At age 65-66 the state pension was lower for immigrants than for their native counterparts. The differences in pensions for immigrants of different ages are probably due to changed rules in the Swedish state old-age pension system from 2003. The new rules have hit different age groups in different ways. The gaps are partially levelled out when other incomes are included. The extent to which levelling occurs varies greatly between different immigrant groups. For immigrants who have arrived during the last decades, the future state old-age pension outcomes are expected to be worse.

  • 176.
    Elander, Jacob
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Does Boardroom Gender Diversity Affect Firm Financial Performance?: A quantitative study surveying 32 Swedish companies over the years 2011-20142018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The board of directors holds a key position in corporate governance. The board is responsible for the strategy and development of the firm. The gender composition of the board can affect the quality of this operating procedure by changing the dynamic of the group. This paper aims to investigate if there is any relationship between board gender diversity and the firm’s financial performance, as measured by Tobin’s Q. While most of the previous studies in this field has been conducted on US data, this study adds to a growing number of articles outside of the US by using Swedish data. The study uses panel data over the years 2011-2014 and finds no statistically significant link between gender diversity and a firm’s financial performance. This study adds to the minority of articles that argue that gender diversity does not affect performance. Limitations regarding the methodology is presented and strategies for future research is discussed.

  • 177.
    Elliot, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Ted
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The impact of recent regulatory reforms on cross-border banking: a study of the Nordic markets2019Ingår i: Frontier topics in banking: investing new trends and recent developments in the financial industry / [ed] Elisabetta Gualandri, Valeria Venturelli & Alex Sclip, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 293-319Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 178.
    Elliot, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Does bank regulation spill over to firm financing?: SME financing, bank monitoring, and the efficiency of the bank lending channel2018Ingår i: Contemporary issues in banking: regulation, governance and performance / [ed] Myriam García-Olalla & Judith Clifton, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, s. 279-302Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses spill over between banks and firms when required bank capital is regulated. We contribute to the existing literature by addressing different regulatory responses with an impact on the supply and demand of bank lending. The chapter contributes to the growing literature addressing the unintended consequences of regulatory policy development. The study empirically compares the regulatory responses of Swedish banks and how these responses affect lending to Swedish SMEs. The theoretical framework and methodology employed in this chapter make it possible to study theories related to bank monitoring, regulatory arbitrage opportunities, and the risk-return trade off. The main results indicate that banks’ regulatory responses are associated with increasing lending margins, either by (1) increasing the margin on the loan portfolios, spilling over the regulatory costs through higher prices, (2) lower acceptance of lower return customers, or (3) regulatory arbitrage through balance sheet adjustments.

  • 179.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Droga do zatrudnienia osób ubiegających się o azyl na przykładzie Regionu Kronoberg w Szwecji: The path to the employment for asylum seekers on the example of Kronoberg County in Sweden2017Ingår i: Research papers of Wrocław University of Economics, ISSN 1899-3192, nr 489, s. 90-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment integration of asylum seekers in Swedish society has been faced in the last two decades. The paper is focused on the integration of asylum seekers into the Swedish society and Swedish labor market using data from Kronoberg County, where ratio between foreign born and Swedes has been double within the last fifteen years (from nine per cent to above eighteen per cent). The paper lists the rights of those who come to Sweden as asylum seekers based on Swedish and European Union’s acts, directives and ordinances concerning asylum seekers and new arrivals. In the end there is an attempt to advocate the expense of Swedish asylum policy and the challenges faced by migration policy by the creation of the best possibilities for asylum seekers to become active labor market’s participants.

  • 180.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Historical view of the Swedish international migration policy in the case of refugees2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 181.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Historical view of the Swedish migration policy: the case of refugees2018Ingår i: Presented at the Refugee, Borders and Membership Conference, Malmö, Sweden, October 24-26, 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 182.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Historical view of the Swedish migrations policy in the case of refugees2018Ingår i: Presented at Migrating World: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Migration and Integration, London, UK, February 10, 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 183.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Integration and labour market access of asylum seekers in Sweden2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 184.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Integration and labour market access of asylum seekers in Sweden2017Ingår i: Regionalizacja - polityka - etyka T. 2, Fundacja Promocji Rozwoju Podlasia , 2017, s. 221-235Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 185.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Labour market integration of asylum seekers and refugees in Sweden2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 186.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Social integration and labour market access for asylum seekers in Kronoberg County in Sweden2018Ingår i: Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis Oeconomica, ISSN 2081-0644, Vol. 346(92), nr 3, s. 17-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the reception of asylum seekers and their social and labour market’s integration in Kronoberg County. The paper begins with a presentation of Kronoberg County as a part of Sweden, then refer to a short history of immigration to Sweden followed by an overview of the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket) and the receptions of asylum seekers as well as the access to the labour market. The paper lists the rights of those who come to Sweden as asylum seekers based on Swedish and European Union's acts, directives and regulations concerning asylum seekers and new arrivals. In the end there is an attempt to advocate the expense of asylum policy and its impacts on Swedish economic development.

  • 187.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Formy wsparcia zatrudnienia jako determinanta rozwoju regionalnego na przykładzie regionu Kronoberg w Szwecji2016Ingår i: Podlasie - wizje przemian i rozwoju / [ed] Andrzej F. Bocian, Dorota Perło & Paweł Piątkowski, Białystok: Fundacja Promocji Rozwoju Podlasia , 2016, s. 262-276Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [pl]

    Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie podejścia do problemu bezrobocia i migracji z jakim obecnie boryka się Szwecja oraz próba oceny programów przeciwdziałania bezrobociu powołanych przez szwedzki ALMP. Szwecja jest krajem Unii Europejskiej charakteryzującym się rozbudowanym systemem pomocy społecznej, starzejącym się społeczeństwem oraz otwartą polityką migracyjną. Napływ imigrantów, poza wzrostem liczby ludności w wieku produkcyjnym, to także duże wyzwanie dla rynku pracy, zarówno na poziomie krajowym jak i regionalnym. Problematyka zagadnienia będzie omówiona na przykładzie regionu Kronoberg, który to w ostatnim czasie przyjął największy odsetek imigrantów.

    W niniejszej pracy rozpatrywane będą formy wspracia zatrudnienia finansowane z budżetu państwa bez udziału środków unijnych. Wszelkie subwencje oraz wsparcia finansowe będą analizowane z punktu widzenia pracodawcy. Nazewnictwo programów i form kompensacji pozostaje w języku szwedzkim z racji braku polskich odpowiedników.

  • 188. Enmark, Linnea
    et al.
    Persson, Tova
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    "I heard it through the grapevine": En studie om varför kinesiska studenter väljer att studera på universitetsnivå i Sverige2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och forskningsfråga: Syftet med studien är att undersöka varför kinesiska studenter väljer att studera på universitetsnivå i Sverige.

    Med detta syfte i åtanke formulerades följande forskningsfrågor:

    1. Vilka faktorer spelar in i kinesiska studenters beslut att studera utomlands?
    2. Vilka faktorer spelar in i kinesiska studenters jämförelse av olika studiedestinationer?
    3. Hur spelar dessa faktorer in vid beslutet att studera i Sverige?

    Metod: Metodvalet för denna uppsats är av kvalitativ karaktär och forskningsansatsen är deduktiv. Den empiriska datan bygger på åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med kinesiska studenter som valt studera i Sverige under minst sex månader. Empiri till uppsatsens förstudie består av tre semistrukturerade samtal med personal från Linnéuniversitetet, som har en relevant koppling till det valda ämnet.

    Slutsats: Kinesiska studenter påverkas starkt av rekommendationer och råd från alumner med erfarenhet av att studera i Sverige. Studien ger indikationer på att råd och rekommendationer från sociala länkar med egna erfarenheter har en stark inverkan på beslutet vid köp av en högengagemangstjänst i en kultur med en hög grad av Hofstedes kulturella dimensioner: kollektivism och osäkerhetsundvikande.

  • 189.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Do Employers Use Unemployment as a Sorting Criterion When Hiring?: Evidence from a Field Experiment2014Ingår i: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 104, nr 3, s. 1014-1039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The stigma associated with long-term unemployment spells could create large inefficiencies in labor markets. While the existing literature points toward large stigma effects, it has proven difficult to estimate causal relationships. Using data from a field experiment, we find that long-term unemployment spells in the past do not matter for employers' hiring decisions, suggesting that subsequent work experience eliminates this negative signal. Nor do employers treat contemporary short-term unemployment spells differently, suggesting that they understand that worker/firm matching takes time. However, employers attach a negative value to contemporary unemployment spells lasting at least nine months, providing evidence of stigma effects.

  • 190.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Do employers use unemployment as a sorting criterion when hiring?: Evidence from a field experiment2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 191.
    Ezzulddin, Omar
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). 1992.
    Haydari, Farid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Skillnaden i sannolikhet att vara arbetslös mellan inrikes- och utrikes födda2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on European Social Survey, the main objective of this essay is to analyse the difference in the probability of being unemployed between natives and foreign born in Sweden. Using traditional statistical methods such as Linear Probability Model (LPM) and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and controlling for standard socio-economic variables we found that immigrants born in Europe have 5.3 percentage point higher likelihood of being unemployed compared to their Swedish counterpart. Regarding non-European we found that they have 5.2 percentage points higher probability of being unemployed compared to Swedish counterpart. An extension of BlinderOaxaca decomposition suggests that 4.9 percentage points of this gap is due to differences in endowment characteristics between immigrants born in Europe and Swedish counterpart. The difference in the characteristics between nonEuropean and natives amounts to 5.3 percentage points. On the other hand, approximately 1.5 and 10.3 percentage points of the differences in the unemployment probability between immigrants born in Europe and countries outside Europe and Swedish counterpart can be ascribe to different returns to those observable and/or unobservable characteristics that are not captured in the models.  

  • 192.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Sveriges Apoteksförening, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Tano, Sofia
    Tillväxtanalys, Sweden.
    Impact of VAT Reform on Swedish Restaurants: A Synthetic Control Group Approach2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the impact on firms of the value added tax (VAT) reform that took effect in Sweden on 1 January 2012 for restaurant and catering services. Unlike previous research, we use a synthetic control group approach to construct our counterfactual. Our analysis shows that the VAT reduction had a positive effect on turnover, total wages, employment, profit margins, and net entry of firms. The effects of the reform tend to decrease over time. In all, the results point to an overall better performance for the restaurant industry compared with what it would have been in absence of the reform.

  • 193.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). The Swedish National Audit Office.
    Tano, Sofia
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Rätt lagat? Effekter av sänkt moms på restaurang och cateringtjänster i Sverige2016Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 40-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår analys av den sänkta restaurangmomsen visar på relativt kraftiga effekter på de undersökta variablerna omsättning, anställningar, lönesumma, rörelsemarginal och nettotillskott av företag i branschen. Den kortsiktiga effekten på sysselsättningen motsvarar 11 300 heltidstjänster över tre år. Vi bedömer att den sänkta restaurangmomsen även kommer att ha en långsiktigt positiv effekt på den varaktiga sysselsättningen. För analysen har vi vidareutvecklat en metodansats benämnd matchning med syntetiska kontrollgrupper, vilket enligt oss ökar möjligheterna att kunna uppskatta effekter av reformer som påverkar alla företag i en bransch.

  • 194.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Impact of the VAT reform on Swedish restaurants: a synthetic control group approach2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår analys av den sänkta restaurangmomsen visar på positiva effekter på lönesumma, omsättning, anställningar, rörelsemarginaler och företagsstocken. Resultaten visar tydligt att företagen har valt att använda momssänkningen på fler sätt än till att sänka priserna.

    I denna studie undersöker vi sänkningen av mervärdesskattesatsen på restaurang- och cateringtjänster som skedde 2012. Syftet med momssänkningen var att öka den varaktiga sysselsättningen. Tillväxtanalys fick i uppdrag att utvärdera effekterna gällande före­tagande. Detta PM syftar som underlag till Tillväxtanalys slutrapport i uppdraget Sänkt moms på restaurang- och cateringtjänster – slutrapport (Rapport 2015:10).

    En reform som omfattar samtliga företag i en bransch är svårt metodologiskt att utvärdera då ett kontrafaktiskt utfall saknas. I denna studie använder vi matchning med syntetisk kontrollgrupp för att skapa det kontrafaktiska utfallet. Denna metod är datadriven och förlitar sig endast på ett fåtal subjektiva val. Vår analys utgår från att reformen kan påverka komponenterna i vinstfunktionen. Vi analyserar effekterna på branschnivå genom att aggregera data på företagsnivå.

    Momssänkningen har positiva och signifikanta effekter på både omsättning, rörelse­marginal och företagsstocken. Den genomsnittliga årliga effekten uppskattas till 5,6 respektive 1,25 och 1,6 procentenheter. Dessa resultat är signifikanta på 5-procentsnivån. Den genomsnittliga årliga effekten på lönesummor och anställningar är 4,9 respektive 5,0 procentenheter och är signifikanta på 10-procentsnivån. Effekterna tenderar att klinga av över tid, med undantag för nettotillskotten av företag.

    Även om problemet kring att exakt estimera effekter av en reform kvarstår, är dessa resultat robusta för känslighetsanalyser. Sammanfattningsvis pekar resultaten klart mot en positiv effekt för restaurangbranschen, som utvecklats bättre än vad som skulle ha varit fallet utan reformen.

  • 195.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Tillväxtanalys.
    Tano, Sofia
    Tillväxtanalys.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Quoreshi, Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Sänkt moms på restaurang- och cateringtjänster: slutrapport2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår analys av den sänkta restaurangmomsen visar på effekter på anställningar, lönesumma och omsättning. Vi ser även att företagen har valt att använda momssänkningen på fler sätt än till att sänka priserna och att den gett effekter även på vinstmarginaler och på företags-stocken. Tillväxtanalys bedömer vidare att den sänkta restaurangmomsen kommer att ha en långsiktigt positiv effekt på den varaktiga sysselsättningen.

  • 196.
    Faraon, Sadid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    How has the gender wage gap in Germany developed since the 1990s, and what factors can explain the gap?: A look at gender wage differentials in Germany across time2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Germany has a rich history being a conservative welfare state with a strong male breadwinner model. Yet, numerous changes have been made to its welfare structure since the reunification of both sides in 1990. One would then expect to see wage inequality decrease in the country during this period and in fact, it has. Having used data for the country as a whole during this period, along with two econometric approaches: OLS estimates and Oaxaca decomposition, I have been able to demonstrate that the gender wage gap in Germany has narrowed since the 1990s. Factors such as ‘years of work experience’, ‘weeks worked’ and ‘relation to household head’ are the most influential ones that have affected the gender wage gap from 1990 to 2016. In addition, it has also been observed that women have accrued less human capital compared to men during this period, which could have increased the gender wage gap. Further, discrimination experienced by women as well as other unobservable differences has significantly decreased during this period, which could point to a large decrease in the gender wage gap. With the aid of an interaction term, it has been possible to remove the increasing amount of irrelevant effects that have emerged in both of the aforementioned terms over time, thus providing us with more accurate results.

  • 197.
    Fischer, Doris
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    China's strive for quality of growth and growth data: challenges for economic analyses and the European/global corporate sector2015Ingår i: Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference on European Integration - Swedish Network for European Studies in Economics and Business (SNEE), Mölle, Sweden, May 19-22, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Economists – particularly foreign financial analysts, also in Europe – focus mainly on the Purchasing Manager Indices (PMIs) and quarterly GDP changes when analyzing Chinese growth. This is understandable since these data are easily available. More recently these data did not produce an optimistic picture for China’s economy. But does this information really provide reliable information on China’s growth performance and outlook? Does this analytical approach capture the strategy and policy changes announced during the Third Plenum in November 2013?

    Certainly not. Consequently, foreign and even domestic investors run the risk that portfolio and particularly more long-term investments are too heavily based on short-term indicators that do not reflect ongoing structural improvement measures or policy changes.

    The paper will summarize past and current discussion on Chinese GDP data and deal with the alternatives for assessing economic growth and its quality. Merely relying on an improved and widened analysis of Chinese reform policy since November 2013 is difficult and has its limits. But better analysis can be created by economists themselves even under current conditions. Transparency is still by far too poor. Improvements should not be that difficult to achieve all the same. Some ideas are given in this paper – and also hints how and where to find information on structural improvements that have taken place or are planned concretely for the nearer future.

    Better insight into Chinese reform policy and underlying GDP-growth conditions could give a sounder input for decision-making by domestic, European and global investors, Swedish and German companies included. The ambition of the paper is to contribute to a move from too much short-term to more medium- and long-term analysis of China’s development - an approach that should be promising also from a European corporate perspective.

  • 198.
    Fornander, Jenni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Telkert, Emelie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Vin i var mans portfölj?: En studie om vinets möjlighet till riskreduktion2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Vin i var mans portfölj? En studie om vinets möjlighet till riskreduktion

    Bakgrund: En portföljs totala risk kan härledas från både individuella tillgångars ackumulerade standardavvikelser och korrelationerna dem emellan. Genom att inkludera tillgångar med låg eller ingen samvarians kan portföljens risk sänkas utöver vad en diversifiering mellan ett stort antal tillgångar åstadkommer. Det uppstår således ett behov av att diversifiera mellan tillgångar med skiftande respons till marknadshändelser. Dock har olika marknader och tillgångsslag börjat korrelera allt mer vilket resulterat i att fördelarna med diversifiering har minskat. Den ökade samvariansen visar inga tecken på att avta och det föreligger därmed ett intresse i att söka andra marknader. Vin är en relativt ny investeringsmarknad med låga korrelationer till aktie- och obligationsmarknaden vilket gör vin tänkvärt ur ett diversifieringsperspektiv.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka om vin som investering är en bra källa till diversifiering med hänsyn till begränsade korrelationer, och om makroekonomiska faktorer kan förklara vinmarknadens prisrörelser samt dess korrelationsstruktur med andra marknader.

    Metod: Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i modern portföljvalsteori som förespråkar låga eller frånvarande korrelationer som ett medel för diversifiering. Hypoteser skapas utifrån en sammanlänkning mellan teori och uppmärksammat problem. De omfattar korrelation, orsakssamband och påverkan mellan valda variabler och vin och testas empiriskt genom olika statistiska tester. Korrelationerna undersöks genom en korrelationsmatris, både gällande utvecklingen och den övergripande för studerad tidsperiod. Orsakssambandet undersöks genom ett Granger Causality test och påverkan genom modellering av multipla regressioner som korrigeras för ARCH-effekter.

    Resultat: Erhållna resultat visar att vin har en begränsad korrelation med både råvaror och finansiella marknader. Studien finner inte att någon av de finansiella marknaderna eller de makroekonomiska variablerna orsakar förändringar i vinpriset på kort sikt men att ett antal påverkar vinets prisrörelser. Dessa samband kan förklara de korrelationer som föreligger men också avsaknaden av dem som uppkommit ur vinmarknadens brist på nära kopplingar till andra marknader. Inkluderingen av vin i en portfölj blir följaktligen gynnsam eftersom vinet har möjlighet att sänka den totala risken och därmed skifta den effektiva fronten. Vin kan ses som en alternativ investeringstillgång för att erhålla en bättre riskreducering.  

  • 199.
    Fridsén, Ellen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sjölander, Victoria
    A comparative study of the glass ceiling effect in Sweden, Great Britain and France: Is there a difference in the glass ceiling effect for women in these three countries and do the level of education and type of workplace matter?2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The inequality of the labour market has long been a discussed and studied topic and today we know that women earn less than their comparable male colleagues. Many studies have been conducted to find out if there is a glass ceiling effect for women in the labour market but most of these have used wages as their outcome variable. We wanted to see if women in the labour market face a glass ceiling when looking at the probability of holding a managerial position. We also wanted to see if there was any difference in the glass ceiling when comparing different countries so we studied the glass ceiling in Sweden, France and Great Britain. In order to study the glass ceiling, we use two separate probit regressions. The variable of interest in the first regression is the gender variable while in the other it is also an interaction term that shows the difference in the gender gaps between the private and public sector. The results show that there seems to be a glass ceiling effect in both France and Great Britain since the gender gap increases further up in the workplace hierarchy while the results for Sweden show that there is a gender gap throughout the workplace hierarchy. We also find that the gaps differ in the public and the private sector indicating that where you work can affect the probability of holding a managerial position.

  • 200.
    Fridsén, Ellen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sjölander, Victoria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The double disadvantage effect for immigrant women: Is there an earnings differential between native women and immigrant women with similar education and human capital in the Swedish labour market?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration has increased substantially during the last years and most countries struggle to integrate immigrants into the labour market. Since we also know from previous research that women are discriminated against due to their gender we want to investigate if immigrant women are facing an additional earnings differential because of their ethnicity. We study women with similar human capital and occupation in order to see if the initial earnings differential can be explained by these variables. Results indicate that there is no earnings differential remaining after controlling for human capital and occupation. However, there are differences in the results from the different fields of education and occupations. In some fields part of the earnings gap remain even after controlling for the explanatory variables.

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