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  • 201.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Christensson, Heléne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En sjukdom - två drabbade: En systematisk litteraturstudie om hur parets liv förändras när en av dem har drabbats av stroke.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar ca 30 000 svenskar i stroke. Stroke är ett tillstånd som ofta leder till allvarliga funktionsnedsättningar. Funktionsnedsättningarna påverkar inte bara den strokedrabbade utan även dess partner.

    Syfte: Att belysa hur parets liv förändras efter att en av dem har insjuknat i stroke.

    Frågeställningar: Vilka emotionella förändringar upplever paret? Vilka sociala förändringar upplever paret? Hur påverkas parets sexualliv? 

    Metod: Metoden vi använde oss av var en systematisk litteraturstudie. Tolv vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats inkluderades i studien. Artiklarna analyserades med inspiration från Friberg (2012)

    Resultat: Resultatet beskrevs utifrån tre frågeställningar och sex kategorier. Kategorierna var känsloyttringar, ökad börda, behov av stöd, nedsatta kroppsfunktioner, dagliga aktiviteter och förändrad intimitet. Resultatet visade att den strokedrabbade och partnern fick förändrade roller i relationen efter en stroke. Det skedde en omfördelning av sysslor, partnern fick ökat ansvar vilket kunde upplevas som övermäktigt och svårhanterat. Parrelationen och sexuallivet påverkades efter stroken och det var viktigt att paret fann en acceptans i den nya livssituationen.

    Slutsats: Vår studie visar att både den strokedrabbade och partnern upplever emotionella och sociala förändringar samt fick ett förändrat sexualliv efter en stroke. För att motverka att paret får en försämrad relation efter stroken är det viktigt att vården ser paret ur ett helhetsperspektiv och vid behov erbjuder ett fortlöpande stöd.

  • 202.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Levin, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mötet med föräldrar till överviktiga barn: En intervjustudie ur barnhälsovårdssköterskans perspektiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight in children is a growing problem around the world. Studies has shown that children suffering from overweight, are at a greater risk to remain overweight as adults as well. Child health care nurses have an important task by trying to motivate parents to better diet and exercise habits for their children. Previous research proves that overweight and obesity in children is a very complex problem which requires a good caring relationship between child health care nurses and parents.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to illuminate the experiences of child health care nurses of meeting parents of overweight children.

    Method: An inductive qualitative approach was used as method. The collection of data was conducted by using semi-structured interviews. Seven child health care nurses participated. A qualitative manifest content analysis was used as the method of analysis.

    Result: The result was described in three main categories. The child health care nurse way of approach described how the attitudes, mind-set and treatment affected the meeting with the parents. Impeding factors in the meeting described that the attitudes of the parents, their approach and cultural-and social differences could be impeding in the meeting. Strategies to increase the motivation and knowledge of the parents illuminated that process thinking and an informative and preventive work could be favorable in the meeting. The child health care nurses also described different useful tools that could increase the motivation and knowledge of the parents.

    Conclusion: The child health care nurses way of approach has a great importance when it comes to motivating the parents to encourage the future health of their overweight children. Today's society is getting increasingly more multicultural and the cultural competence of the child health care nurses should therefore be supported. The work of the child health care nurses is characterized by a process thinking where time is considered as a determinant factor. Ultimately, the child health care nurses work with meeting parents of overweight children can be considered difficult but highly important.

  • 203.
    Andersson, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engstrand, Jepser
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Undervisningsämne, har det en avgörande roll för lärarens stressnivå?: En kvantitativ studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att studera ifall det fanns någon skillnad i stressnivå mellan lärare i olika undervisningsämnen. Tidigare forskning visar att lärare i olika ämnen lägger ner olika mycket tid i undervisningsprocessen (planering, undervisning, dokumentation och bedömning/återkoppling). De lärare som undervisar i praktiska ämnen lägger ner 4% mindre tid på undervisningsprocessen i jämförelse med ämneskategori 5 (kategoriöverskridande ämneskombinationer). Studien involverar 139 grundskolelärare från södra Sverige som fick besvara frågeformuläret. Resultatet i studien visar på att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad i stressnivå hos lärare beroende på undervisningsämne. Slutsatsen är således att ingen hänsyn behöver tas till undervisningsämne för att minska stressnivåerna inom skolan. 

  • 204.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anna
    South Älvsborg's Hospital, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Sweden.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden.
    The early chain of care in bacteraemia patients: early suspicion, treatment and survival in prehospital emergency care2018In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2211-2218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Bacteraemia is a first stage for patients risking conditions such as septic shock. The primary aim of this study is to describe factors in the early chain of care in bacteraemia, factors associated with increased chance of survival during the subsequent 28 days after admission to hospital. Furthermore, the long-term outcome was assessed.

    Methods

    This study has a quantitative design based on data from Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital records.

    Results

    In all, 961 patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 13.5% died during the first 28 days. The EMS was more frequently used by non-survivors. Among patients who used the EMS, the suspicion of sepsis already on scene was more frequent in survivors. Similarly, EMS personnel noted the ESS code “fever, infection” more frequently for survivors upon arriving on scene. The delay time from call to the EMS and admission to hospital until start of antibiotics was similar in survivors and non-survivors. The five-year mortality rate was 50.8%. Five-year mortality was 62.6% among those who used the EMS and 29.5% among those who did not (p < 0.0001).

    Conclusion

    This study shows that among patients with bacteraemia who used the EMS, an early suspicion of sepsis or fever/infection was associated with improved early survival whereas the delay time from call to the EMS and admission to hospital until start of treatment with antibiotics was not. 50.8% of all patients were dead after five years.

  • 205.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    Uppsala University.
    Hedström, Martin
    Lund University.
    Seth, Henrik
    Gothenburg University.
    McEvoy, Eric G
    Sundberg, Per
    Gothenburg University.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish agricultural university (SLU).
    Discovery of peptide toxins in the world’s longest animal (The bootlace worm; Lineus longissimus): challenging claims of tetrodotoxin production.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    Uppsala University.
    Hedström, Martin
    Lund University.
    Seth, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    McEvoy, Eric G
    Liverpool John Moores University.
    Sundberg, Per
    University of Gothenburg.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Discovery of peptide toxins in ribbon worms: challenging claims of tetrodotoxin production2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    Uppsala University.
    Hedström, Martin
    Lund University.
    Seth, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sundberg, Per
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rosengren, Johan
    University of Queensland.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    The toxicity of ribbon worms: alpha-nemertides or tetrodotoxin, or both?2016In: Planta Medica, ISSN 0032-0943, E-ISSN 1439-0221, Vol. 82, no Supplement 1, article id P549Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The marine ribbon worms (nemerteans) are predators which capture their prey by everting a proboscis carrying a mixture of toxins which brings on rapid paralysis [1]. Moreover, ribbon worms have a thick layer of epidermal mucus of similar constitution. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been identified as one of these toxins [2]. The extreme toxicity of TTX (lethal by ingestion of 0.5-2 mg) is due to its ability to block voltage-gated sodium channels. Although several bacterial species (among these Vibrio sp.) have been linked to its synthesis, the biogenic origin and biosynthesis is unclear. One hypothesis is that TTX production occurs in a symbiotic relationship with its host, in this case the ribbon worm [3]. We have made significant effort to identify TTX in a setup for production through the cultivation of Vibrio alginolyticus in nutrient broth infused with mucus from the ribbon worm Lineus longissimus. Toxicity was demonstrated by fraction injections into shore crabs, but no TTX was found, and it could be shown conclusively that toxicity was unrelated to TTX and the Vibrio culture itself, and rather a constituent of the ribbon worm mucus [4]. The following studies led us to the discovery of a new class of peptides, the alpha-nemertides, in the mucus of the ribbon worms, which could be directly linked to the toxic effects. A literature review of the available evidence for TTX in ribbon worms show that the evidence in most cases are indirect, although notable exceptions exist. This points to the necessity to further investigate the presence and roles of TTX and alpha-nemertides in ribbon worms.

  • 208.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    Uppsala University.
    Rosengren, K. Johan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Andrén, Per
    Uppsala University.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish agricultural university (SLU).
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Discovery of peptide toxins in the bootlace worm, the world's longest animal2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala university.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Laborde, Quentin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rosengren, Johan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Alpha-nemertides - a novel family of nemertean peptide neurotoxins2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently discovered a novel family of neuroactive peptides in nemerteans, which we have named alpha-nemertides (1). One of these peptides, nemertide alpha-1, has been the subject of detailed studies with regard to structure and effects. The peptide exhibits exceptional potency against a number of arthropod species. Moreover, in vitro experiments suggest that alpha-1 acts primarily on voltage-gated sodium channels, and that this action is selective for arthropods by two orders of magnitude over vertebrate species. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we have identified 10 alpha-nemertides, but this number is likely to increase. These peptides alongside with a series of mutants are currently under evaluation by our group, with the goal to improve our understanding of structure-function relationships. In addition, we are considering potential practical uses of alpha-nemertides. In this talk, I will describe the current status of this research project.

    1. E. Jacobsson et al., Peptide ion channel toxins from the bootlace worm, the longest animal on Earth. Scientific reports 8, 4596 (2018).

  • 210.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Rosengren, Johan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Discovery of novel ion-channel active peptide toxins in a North Sea Ribbon Worm2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribbon worms (nemerteans) are marine predators, which capture their prey using a proboscis containing a mixture of toxins which brings on rapid paralysis [1]. In addition, their epidermis contains thick mucus of similar toxic constitution. One very potent toxin reported in ribbon worm mucus is tetrodotoxin (TTX). However, despite significant efforts, Strand et al. [2] were unable to detect any TTX, neither in the mucus of the ribbon worm Lineus longissimus, nor from Vibrio alginolyticus cultures isolated from and cultivated in the mucus. These observations challenged the notion of general presence of TTX in ribbon worm mucus, and prompted us to look for other toxins [3]. Using LC-MS analysis of mucus extracts, we identified three peptides present in significant amounts. The peptides were sequenced using a combination of MS/MS analysis and transcriptomics, and whereas one of them strongly resembles the only peptide toxin previously characterized from ribbon worms, Neurotoxin B-IV [4], the other two were found to represent a previously unknown class of peptide toxins. The most abundant of these was synthesized, and its 3D structure determined. Preliminary toxicity tests on shore crab (C. maenas) indicated toxicity (through paralysis) on par with that of TTX. Further analyses have indicated that its toxic effects are due to binding to voltage sensitive sodium channels.

     

    With L. longissimus as our primary target, we are now mapping the presence of peptide toxins in ribbon worms, with the objectives to establish routes for synthesis, and to characterize the biological activities and structures of these peptides. The number of peptides of this novel class is increasing, and synthesis and characterization is well underway. The striking potencies of these peptides make them potentially amenable as novel insecticidal or anthelmintic leads, pharmacological tools or in biotechnology applications.

     

    References

    1. Strand M, Sundberg P. Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna [DO-DP]. Stjärnmaskar-Slemmaskar: Sipuncula-Nemertea: Artdatabanken, SLU; 2010.

    2. Strand M, Hedstrom M, Seth H, McEvoy EG, Jacobsson E, Goransson U, Andersson HS, Sundberg P. The Bacterial (Vibrio alginolyticus) Production of Tetrodotoxin in the Ribbon Worm Lineus longissimus-Just a False Positive? Marine Drugs. 2016;14(4).

    3. Strand M, Andersson HS. Slemmaskens hemlighet. Forskning & Framsteg. 2016;(2):26-33.

    4. Blumenthal KM, Kem WR. Structure and action of heteronemertine polypeptide toxins. Primary structure of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin B-IV. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1976;251(19):6025-9.

  • 211.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Rosengren, Johan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Mapping the diversity of nemertean peptide toxins2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish agricultural university (SLU).
    Peigneur, Steve
    University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium.
    Lebbe, Eline
    University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium.
    Rosengren, Johan
    University of Queensland.
    Tytgat, Jan
    University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Alpha-nemertides, a novel family of marine peptide neurotoxins from ribbon worms2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Finns det något värde i att mäta Peptide tyrosine tyrosine, Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide och Oxyntomodulin postprandialt vid måltidsstudier?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervikt och fetma sprider sig likt en epidemi över världen. Omkring 1,9 miljarder vuxna varöverviktiga år 2014 och av dessa klassificerades 600 miljoner som feta. Forskning kring fetmas uppkomst och nya former av behandlingsalternativ pågår. En viktig faktor för uppkomst av övervikt är aptitreglering, där t.ex. Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), Oxyntomodulin (OXM) och Glucosedependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) har betydelse. En litteraturstudie genomfördes där totalt nio originalartiklar från PubMed utvärderades. Syftet var att undersöka om det finns något värde i att mäta dessa hormon postprandialt. Finns det någon skillnad mellan normalviktiga, överviktiga och obesa och finns det någon skillnad mellan individer med typ 2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) och friska individer? Finns det någon pålitlig analysmetod? Samtliga studier var måltidsstudier där olika näringsämnens påverkan på den postprandiala responsen undersöktes. Peptide tyrosine tyrosine ochGlucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide mättes i sex resp. fem av artiklarna och OXM mättes ien artikel. Protein, fett och kolhydrater ger en postprandial respons på PYY och GIP. Responsen av PYY var starkast efter stimuli från fett och protein. Fett tycks ge starkast respons på GIP. Fastevärden av PYY och GIP var inte olika hos normalviktiga och överviktiga i de studier som undersöktes. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad (p=0,01) mellan normalviktiga och överviktiga tonårsflickor av den postprandiala utsöndringen av PYY efter fettrik måltid, där de obesa flickorna hade lägre procentuell ändring jämfört med de normalviktiga. Pålitliga analysmetoder vid koncentrationsbestämning av dessa tre hormon i plasma är Radioimmunoassay (RIA) och Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  • 214.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindvall, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vårda någon som slåss: Vårdares upplevelse av våldssituationer och hur dessa påverkar vårdrelationen inom rättspsykiatrisk vård2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Background: The forensic psychiatry in Sweden offers care to people who have committed a crime under the influence of a mental disorder. Violence against staff is a common and major problem in the forensic psychiatry. Caregivers who have been exposed to violence feel less satisfied in their work, and are more often staying at home on sick leaves, compared to other caregivers. A good caring relationship between caregivers and patients is described as a prerequisite for giving a good care in the context of forensic psychiatry.

     

    Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the health professionals' experiences of violent situations and how these affect the caring relationship in forensic psychiatric care.

     

    Method: The study has a qualitative approach based on the lifeworld theory. The study is based on interviews with twelve caregivers. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

     

    Result: The interviews revealed that violent situations between patients and caregivers in forensic psychiatric care can lead to a distance between the caregiver and the patient, or that the patient is being moved. Violence can also lead to sick leave for caregivers or a permanent quit from work. Caregivers with long experience of forensic psychiatry describe that they constantly have a mental preparedness for violence to suddenly arise. They also use a rough jargon as a tool to handle the stressful context.

     

    Conclusion: It may be counterproductive to move a patient after a violent situation, thus making it impossible for the patient and the victim to meet each other after a violent situation. An avoidance of the meeting is likely to worsen the caring relationship. Instead of creating a distance, the patient can be invited to a conversation with this caregiver. Caregivers demand support for a longer period of time after a violent situation. In order to create the conditions for interpersonal support after a violent situation, long-term and structured support is needed. Further research is needed to better understand the occasionally rough jargon and how it affects caring.

  • 215.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förekomst av pinguecula och pterygium hos synhjälpsökande i Kenya2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of pinguecula and pterygia among people who sought visual aid during a journey with the charity organisation Vision For All. Associations between these changes in the eye and UV-exposure, age and gender are also investigated, as well as if either pinguecula or pterygia is more common overall and if one of them is more common in any of the visited cities. 

    The measurements were conducted during a journey with Vision For All in Kenya in April 2019. There were 160 participants in the study, out of them were 99 women and 61 were men. The participants were between 11–88 years old and the average age was 47.3 ± 13.5 years. An ophthalmoscope was used to examine pinguecula and pterygia. First the participant was asked to look straight ahead and then right and left so both the central, nasal and temporal conjunctiva and cornea could be examined. All the participants in the study had pinguecula and/or pterygia in one or both eyes. 

    Pinguecula in both eyes was most common among the participants. Pinguecula was documented in 136 of the participants and pterygia in 42 participants. This means that 18 participants had both pinguecula and pterygia, either both changes in one eye or one in each one. Both pinguecula and pterygia was most commonly existing in the nasal part of the eye. Working outdoors was more common than working indoors in all of the cities visited. 

    In this study no association between the changes and age could be found, because people without changes was not included in this study. Association between changes and gender and working indoors or outdoors could not be found. Pinguecula was more common when it was placed both in the nasal and temporal part of the eye and pterygia was more commonly placed in the nasal part of the eye. A significant difference between the changes in the cities visited could not be found. 

  • 216.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyberg, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av transkulturell omvårdnad: -en systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: År 2013 var det 1,5 miljoner av den svenska befolkningen som hade invandrarbakgrund. Vårdkontexten blir allt mer mångkulturell och sjuksköterskan är skyldig att möta patientens kulturella och andliga behov. Syfte: Syftet med den systematiska litteraturstudien var att belysa sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda patienter med en annan kulturell bakgrund. Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie som utgjordes av åtta empiriska orginalartiklar. Ett induktivt förhållningssätt tillämpades vid analysprocessen. Resultat: Tre huvudkategorier och fyra underkategorier identifierades. Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskan upplevde kommunikationen som ett problem i vårdandet av patienten med en annan kulturell bakgrund. Brist på verbal kommunikation gjorde att många sjuksköterskor undvek dessa patienter. Resultatet visade även att brist på kunskap orsakade en känsla av osäkerhet hos sjuksköterskan. Slutsats: All kommunikation är bra kommunikation eftersom det kan inge en trygg känsla hos patienten. Det behövs mer kunskap om hur ett livsvärldsperspektiv kan tillämpas i bemötandet av patienter med en annan kulturell bakgrund. Verbal kommunikation utgör en viktigt del i vårdandet och brist på kommunikation inverkar därmed hämmande på sjuksköterskans möjlighet att ge god omvårdnad. Det behövs ny forskning som berör ämnet kommunikation och hur livsvärlden kan lyftas när den verbala kommunikationen brister.

  • 217.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hotic, Dzenana
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdrelationens betydelse för vården av patienter med Anorexia Nervosa: En systematisk litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to illuminate the health care relationship in relation to patient care with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted. Articles relevant to the aim of the study was sought in the databases Cinahl and PubMed. Ten qualitative articles were identified. A quality valuation and a manifest content analysis was conducted.

    Results: The results in this the study showed that the care relationship is of great importance and the patient considered that support from nurses was helpful. The categories found in the analysis were: Care relations, Emotional experiences and Communication. Difficulties in the care relationship could arise when patients opposed care. The patients also experiences mixed feelings in the care relationship. However, communication and care relationshipa are of great importance for the perception of well-being and for continued treatment.

    Conclusions: There is insufficient knowledge of the importance of the care relationship in treating Anorexia Nervosa. A strong terapeutic relationship is of great importance to prevent relapses from occurring and to build trust in each other. Despite the patient’s fluctuating emotional experiences, nurses should treat patients with dignity, respect and kindness. Communication between both parties is important in order to get an overall picture of the patient’s situation for optimal care and treatment.

    Keywords: Anorexia Nervosa, Patient experience and nurse-patient relations. 

  • 218.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jarlh, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att ha ett kritiskt sjukt barn på en intensivvårdsavdelning.: - En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barnintensivvård beskrivs som stark känsloladdad vård för både föräldrar och sjukvårdspersonal. Att ha ett barn inlagt på en intensivvårdsavdelning är förenat med stress och oro hos de flesta föräldrar. Barn är en särskilt utsatt patientkategori och när patienten är ett barn kan anhöriga kan uppfattas ställa högre krav på vården. Kunskapsökning om föräldrarnas situation skulle inte bara leda till ökad trygghet hos föräldrarna utan även hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskan, vilket kan generera i en bättre och tryggare vård för det sjuka barnet. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa föräldrars upplevelser av att ha ett kritiskt sjukt barn på en intensivvårdsavdelning. Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats. Materialet från insamlad data har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studiens resultat genererade i ett övergripande tema; att vara inkluderad i en surrealistisk värld, elva underkategorier och fyra kategorier: Föräldrars behov under vistelsen på intensivvårdsavdelningen; Upplevelser av intensivvården; En vårdmiljö som väcker känslor; och Upplevelsen av stöd. Slutsats: Vårdteamet och sjuksköterskans roll är central i den kliniska vården, genom att se familjen som en helhet med ett holistiskt helhetstänk. En god familjecentrerad omvårdnad kan bidra till att göra familjen trygg och stärka föräldrarna. Genom att bjuda in föräldrar i vården kring barnet blir de delaktiga, känner stöd och upplever sig inkluderade, vilket skapar ökad trygghet och tillit för både föräldrar och de som vårdar barnet. Vidare forskning skulle kunna öka förståelsen hos sjuksköterskan och leda till en mer specifik familjecentrerad vård, för att hjälpa och möta upp föräldrarnas behov i deras utsatta situation.

  • 219.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strand, Alicia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med diabetes typ 1: Vuxnas erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 1 blir allt vanligare i hela världen. Det är en kronisk sjukdom som påverkar både patienten och personer i dess omgivning på olika sätt. För patienter med kronisk sjukdom finns det olika sätt att hantera livssituationen där vissa ignorerar allvaret och andra tar lärdom av erfarenheterna. Egenvård är en viktig del för att hantera diabetes typ 1 och minska risken för komplikationer. Vald teoretisk referensram är Orems egenvårdsteori.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva patientens erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes typ 1.

    Metod: Den valda designen var en litteraturstudie. Datainsamling genomfördes i databaserna Cinahl, PubMed och PsycINFO. Integrerad analys genomfördes. Nio artiklar valdes ut, åtta var kvalitativa och en var kvantitativ.

    Resultat: Fyra kategorier identifierades: Förändrad tillvaro, personligt ansvar för egenvård, rädsla och oro samt stöd från omgivningen. 

    Slutsats: Patienter har olika erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes typ 1. Egenvården är ständigt närvarande och kräver planering i alla dagliga aktiviteter vilket kan vara påfrestande. Ansvarstagande för egenvård riktas mot att förhindra uppkomst av komplikationer. Hypoglykemi utgör den största rädslan. Stöd från omgivningen är betydelsefullt för att kunna hantera livet. Genom att vara lyhörd och bemöta varje patient som en unik individ kan sjuksköterskan bidra till delaktighet och stöd.

  • 220.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Bostrom, Ullalena
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Forkman, Johannes
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Hakman, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Liew, Josefine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Magnuski, Ewa
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Sprouting capacity from intact root systems of Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis decrease in autumn2013In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perennial weeds are often controlled by mechanical means, which aim at stimulating axillary and adventitious buds to sprout. This happens when the apical dominance of the main shoot is removed by defoliation or when the underground system is fragmented. By repeating the measures, the result is a depletion of storage compounds, which weakens the plants and reduces their capacity to grow and reproduce. However, timing is critical. Earlier research has indicated that emergence from fragments of Sonchus arvensis cease during a period in autumn, while the seasonal pattern of sprouting in Cirsium arvense appears to be inconsistent. We studied the emergence pattern of defoliated plants with undisturbed root systems, from late summer to early spring. Potted plants grown outdoors were exhumed at regular intervals, put under forcing conditions for 4weeks, after which shoots above and below soil level were counted and weighed together with the remaining root systems. In both species, the number and weight of emerged shoots decreased during a period in the autumn. In C.arvense, underground shoots were constantly produced during the same period, while fewer underground shoots were present in S.arvensis. For the latter species, apical dominance does not fully explain the effect; thus, endodormancy might be involved. Root weight increased until withering and did not explain the lack of emergence. Our results suggest an impaired sprouting capacity of undisturbed root systems of C.arvense and S.arvensis during SeptemberOctober, which has implications for the timing and method of control of these species.

  • 221.
    Andersson, Lea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Farmakologisk långtidsbehandling vid ADHD: Hur skiljer sig substanserna metylfenidat, lisdexamfetamin och atomoxetin?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disability  characterised by difficulties in paying attention, excessive activity and actions without thinking about the consequenses. Symptoms vary among different individuals in how the disability expresses. Symptoms also vary among different age groups. The cause of ADHD is not yet known, but the main theory seems to be due to disturbed dopaminergic transmisson in the regions of the brain that controlls attention, activity control and impulses. Clinical studies show that there seems to be a connection between the etiology of the disability and genetic- and environmental factors. ADHD can’t be cured but a multimodal treatment has been proven to be effective in symptom reduction. The multimodal treatment consist of psychoeducation, psychotherapy and medical treatment. In Sweden methylphenidate is the first choise of drug and if it is not tolerated well by patients in terms of respons or side effects lisdexamfetamine or atomoxetin is choosen. The mechanism of action for these three substances is not completly known but in general they presume to block the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in the presynaptic neurons. This leads to an enhanced transmission at the dopaminergic neurons that in turn stimulates the executive funtions that seem to be deficient in ADHD patients.

    The aim of this literature study is to investigate how the three substances methylphenidate, lisdexamfetamine and atomoxetine differ in therapeutic effects and side effects profile during long-term treatment for ADHD.

    Five scientific articles were choosen from the database Pubmed, which analysed the therapeutic effects and side effects of the above choosen drugs during a period of atleast 24 weeks.

    Participants in the selected studies had a definite diagnosis of ADHD and the participants included were children, adolescents and also adults. Therapeutic efficiency of selected drugs was measured by using different diagnostic scales such as ADHD-RS-IV, CAARS-Inv:SV, AISRS, CGI-S or CGI-I. Therapeutic efficiency was measured by the total reduction of the mean value in the rating scale from start to end of the study. Safety was measured at each follow up session by evaluating the side effects profile and measurements of vital parameters. These studies show statistically significant symptom reductions for all three selected drugs. The results also show differences in therapeutic effects among different drugs. Participants treated with lisdexamfetamine showed greater symptom reduction and thereby the greatest effect. There may be a difference in therapeutic effect between methylphenidate and atomoxetine but more studies are needed to conclude the results. The adverse effects were similar between lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate but more serious effects were found during treatment with lisdexamfetamine.

  • 222.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund Johansson, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykisk hälsa och LCHF: Kvantitativ enkätundersökning av psykiskt välbefinnande och psykiskt hälsotillstånd i en grupp som äter LCHF.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate mental health and mental

    well-being in a group eating LCHF (Low Carb High Fat). In the study, 246

    people recruited from interest groups about LCHF on Facebook

    participated. The participants were divided into two groups by how strictly

    and how long they had eaten LCHF. The study was conducted as a

    questionnaire survey. Mental well-being and impaired mental well-being

    were investigated with GHQ-12. Mental health status was investigated with

    self-assessed retrospective pre- and post-measurement. The results of

    impaired mental well-being were compared with the The Public Health

    Agency of Swedens national population value.

    The results showed that both LCHF groups estimated their mental

    health status significantly better after LCHF diet than before. The entire

    LCHF group estimated its impaired mental well-being significantly better

    than the Swedish population. The results indicate that LCHF diet has a

    positive impact on mental health and well-being.

  • 223.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att leva nära en person med depression: En systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fler människor drabbas av depression, till följd av detta blir fler personer anhöriga till individer med depression. Anhöriga blir i olika utsträckning påverkade av detta, vilket vi vill undersöka med vår studie.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att belysa upplevelsen av att vara anhörig till en person med depression.

    Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie utifrån 8 artiklar av kvalitativ samt kvantitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat visar på förändringar i upplevelse och vardag för anhöriga som lever nära en deprimerad. Studien utmynnade i följande kategorier Att inte förstå, Depressionens påverkan på den anhörige, Anhörigas upplevelse av kommunikation, Sätta sig själv i andra hand samt Ta på sig för mycket. Påverkan av relationer i olika aspekter upptäcktes. Att anhöriga ofta sätter sina egna behov åt sidan är ett utmärkande resultat för studien. Kommunikation upplevs som en stor del i förmågan att förstå den deprimerade och på så sätt uppleva en ökad känsla av sammanhang för den anhörige.

    Slutsats: Att vara anhörig till en deprimerad är utmanande på många områden, inte minst när det gäller svårigheten i att prioritera mellan sig själv och patienten. Vi anser efter studiens gång att mer forskning bör ske för att bistå med kunskap och underlätta anhörigas situation.

  • 224.
    Andersson, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur sker prioriteringar av resurser för att bekosta särläkemedel?: Cerezyme® – en fallstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of my thesis is based on orphan drugs, which individuals with rare diseases use as treatment, diagnostics or to prevent the progress of the disease. In order to get a classification as an orphan drug, the drug must be used for a condition that affects 5 or less of 10 000 individuals, based on the European classification. The clinical trials for this type of medicines are as every medical trial, expensive and orphan drugs have the smallest patient groups. Therefore there is no justification to the pharmaceutical companies in development in orphan drugs. This project is made by a case study and answer survey, and the literature research was based on articles written in English or Swedish, and articles older than 2000 were excluded.The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate how priorities of resources are made, to fund expensive drugs, in Sweden. Tandvårds- och läkemedelsförmånsverket (TLV) has the authority to decide whether different kind of medicines are subjects to the Swedish pharmaceutical benefits, which are funding a great amount of medicines. The thesis is based on evaluations from various stakeholder, Swedish laws and previous research in priority.Sweden is financing the orphan drugs in three ways. Orphan drugs included in Swedish pharmaceutical benefits are funded by customs fee to 2200 SEK, and the rest of the costs are financed by the state through the council counties. Orphan drugs in hospitalization are financed by the hospital, clinic or the county where the patient is registered. The orphan drugs which are prescribed but still excluded from the benefits are financed either by the patient, county or the hospital. The investigation of pricing and financial proposition of orphan drugs in Sweden is delayed but still in progress, and are expected to be presented in April, 2014.TLV make the decisions regarding pharmaceutical benefits through calculations of QALY’s and by three ethical grounds or principles. The principles stand for human dignity, cost-effectiveness, solidarity and needs. TLV could either approve the drug, which makes the drug included to pharmaceutical benefits, or disapprove the drug and makes it unavailable through state funding. TLV decided to exclude Cerezyme® from the Swedish pharmaceutical benefits. The decisions were made of calculations of QALY’s, which was calculated much higher costs than previously approved by TLV. The manufacturers of Cerezyme® did not agree with TLV’s decision, and went to higher courts. The recent decision of higher courts was to re-include Cerezyme® from pharmaceutical benefits, which makes the drug available to patients in desperate need again.Processes of different kinds of orphan drugs to include these to pharmaceutical benefits are not treated equally. Depending of the state of the disease, prevalence and geographic location, are patients treated variously. This is a major problem in management of orphan drugs, and should be prevented as soon as possible. All citizens should on equal terms, have access to same health care, this through Swedish Health Care laws.

  • 225.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petrén, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nya regler för vårdplanering och betalningsansvar: Hur erfar sjuksköterskor vårdplaneringsprocessen efter den 1 januari 20182018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den 1 januari 2018 infördes en ny lag om samverkan vid utskrivning från slutenvården. Lagen reglerade samordnad vårdplanering samt kommunernas betalansvar. Forskningen visade att kommunikation mellan vårdgivare gick att förbättra för att öka förståelse för varandras arbete. Genom uppföljning av patienter kunde en trygg hemgång säkras och återinläggningsfrekvensen kunde minskas.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa hur sjuksköterskor inom kommunal hemsjukvård erfor de förändringar i vårdplaneringsprocessen som infördes vid utskrivning av patienter från somatisk slutenvård efter lagändringen den 1 januari 2018.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ design. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes efter ett ändamålsenligt urval samt kompletterades med ett snöbollsurval. Studien innefattade åtta intervjuer med informanter från två kommuner i Kronobergs län. Det insamlade materialet analyserades därefter med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i sex kategorier och tio underkategorier. Efter lagändringen gick vårdplaneringsprocessen snabbare vilket gav negativ inverkan på delaktigheten och patientsäkerheten. Kommunikation och samarbete både inter- och intraprofessionellt hade stor vikt under vårdplaneringsprocessen. Trots en god vårdplanering kunde organisatoriska faktorer orsaka problem i samband med utskrivningar från slutenvården. Resultatet påvisade vissa brister och förbättringsområden i samband med vårdplaneringsprocessen. Studien bidrog med ökad förståelse och ny kunskap om hur sjuksköterskor erfor förändringar i vårdplaneringsprocessen.

    Slutsats: De kortare vårdtiderna inom slutenvården ledde till att hemsjukvården fick ta ett större ansvar för patienters vård. Det framkom även att det var viktigt att bibehålla en god patientsäkerhet och möjliggöra en trygg hemgång för patienter. Det framkom flera förslag på förbättringsåtgärder inom området.

  • 226.
    Andersson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Varför är du lärare?: En kvalitativ studie rörande yrkesverksamma lärares motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 227.
    Andersson, Mari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Har kost och statiner var för sig eller i kombination någon effekt på LDL och HDL?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cholesterol is an important part in our cells. Cholesterol stabilize cell membranes and is needed for the synthesis of estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, vitamin D and in the formation of bile acid. Cholesterol is synthesized in the liver but the body also absorbs cholesterol from the diet. The transport of cholesterol in the blood is taken care of by LDL and HDL. When the levels of LDL are increased and HDL are decreased there is an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases which are the main cause of death in the western countries. 

    Purpose: One of three different purposes of this presented study was to evaluate if the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were changed when following different diets. The second purpose was to study the change in levels of LDL and HDL change after treatment with statins as monotherapy or in combination with ezetimibe. The third part of this study was to see how LDL and HDL were changed when different diets were combined with statins. 

    Method: This work was a literature study based on seven different randomized controlled trials that were found in the database PubMed. Three of the studies evaluated the role of the different diets when aiming at reducing the cholesterol levels. In two of the studies patients were either treated with atorvastatin as monotherapy or with atorvastatin plus ezetimib. The last two studies evaluated the use of simvastatin in combination with LCHF-diet as compared to the use of simvastatin plus ezetimib which were used in combination with a LCHF-diet.

    Results: The results showed that weight reduction and the choice of a specific diet are important factors when aiming at a decrease in levels of LDL and an increase in levels of HDL. Moreover, results obtained also suggested that statins, when used in combination with ezetimibe, gave the largest effect and was found to decrease levels of LDL and increase levels of  HDL. According to the results, it may be concluded that the controlled release of simvastatin has an equivalent effect on these levels regardless if administered in the morning or in the evening.

    Conclusion: The results obtained in this work suggest that weight reduction and eating according to a diet that consists of a low proportion of carbohydrates may be a good and safe approach to reduce the levels of  LDL and increase the levels of  HDL. Statins can be considered to be the first alternative to treat dyslipidemia and should be used at elevated levels of cholesterol. To achieve the best result, an analysis of the selected literature in this work, suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet should be combined with the use of statins and ezetimibe. 

  • 228.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    Stockholm University;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Chirico, Jan
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Christensson, Madeleine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University;County Hospital Ryhov.
    Nordström, Jonas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences;Dalarna County Administration Board.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Molecular detection of Babesia capreoli and Babesia venatorum in wild Swedish roe deer, Capreolus capreolus2016In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The epidemiology of the zoonotic tick-transmitted parasite Babesia spp. and its occurrence in wild reservoir hosts in Sweden is unclear. In European deer, several parasite species, including Babesia capreoli and the zoonotic B. venatorum and B. divergens has been reported previously. The European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, is an important and common part of the indigenous fauna in Europe, as well as an important host for Ixodes ricinus ticks, the vector of several Babesia spp. in Europe. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of Babesia spp. in roe deer in Sweden. Findings: Roe deer (n = 77) were caught and sampled for blood. Babesia spp. was detected with a PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was 52 %, and two species were detected; B. capreoli and B. venatorum in 44 and 7.8 % of the individuals, respectively. Infection occurred both in summer and winter. Conclusions: We showed that roe deer in Sweden, close to the edge of their northern inland distributional range, are infected with Babesia spp. The occurrence of B. venatorum in roe deer imply that it is established in Sweden and the zoonotic implication of this finding should be regarded to a greater extent in future.

  • 229.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania ; German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Detection of Cercopithifilaria bainae in western Romania2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, no 11, p. 3235-3238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cercopithifilaria species are tick-transmitted filarial parasites of mammals. In Europe, three Cercopithifilaria spp. are known to parasitize dogs, all occurring mainly in the Mediterranean countries. In Romania, Cercopithifilaria bainae has been reported in a single dog in eastern Romania but the occurrence in other parts of the country is not known. To further elucidate the geographic distribution of Cercopithifilaria spp. infection, 544 ticks were collected from dogs in several locations across Romania. The presence of Cercopithifilaria spp. was investigated with real-time PCR. A single Dermacentor reticulatus female tick was found to be infected with Cercopithifilaria bainae. The finding in the present study is geographically separated from the previous finding in Romania by 800 km, as well as by the Carpathian mountain range. Hence, C. bainae is more geographically widespread in Romania than previously recognized. However, the single detection does suggest that infection is rather uncommon in Romanian dogs. Nevertheless, further studies on Cercopithifilaria spp. distribution and prevalence are needed.

  • 230.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marga, Georgeta
    Publ Hlth Direct, Romania.
    Banu, Teofilia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Tick-borne pathogens in tick species infesting humans in Sibiu County, central Romania2018In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 1591-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Romania has a highly diverse tick fauna. Consequently, a high diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens might be a potential threat to humans. However, only a limited number of tick species regularly infest humans, and pathogens present in such species are therefore of particular interest from a medical perspective. In this study, 297 ticks were collected from humans during 2013 and 2014. Ixodes ricinus was the predominant tick species, accounting for 272 specimens or 91.6% of the ticks in the study. Nevertheless, other tick species were also found to infest humans: Dermacentor marginatus constituted 7% of the ticks found on humans (21/297), Haemaphysalis punctata 1% (3/297), and Haemaphysalis concinna 0.3% (1/297). Ticks were tested by PCR for a wide range of tick-borne pathogens. In total, 11.8% of the ticks carried human pathogenic bacteria, while no viral or protozoan pathogens were detected. The most frequently detected pathogen was Rickettsia spp., occurring in 5.4% of the ticks (16/297) and comprising three species: Rickettsia (R.) raoultii, R. monacensis, and R. helvetica. Borrelia s.l. occurred in 3% (9/297) of the ticks. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" occurred in 1.7% (5/297) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.3% (4/297). Anaplasma bovis was detected in an H. punctata and Borrelia miyamotoi in an I. ricinus. These results point to the need for further studies on the medical importance of tick-borne pathogens in Romania.

  • 231.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich.
    Tomaso, Herbert
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Rubel, Franz
    Univ Vet Med Vienna, Austria.
    Nava, Santiago
    Estn Expt Agr Rafaela, Argentina.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany;Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    New records and host associations of the tick Ixodes apronophorus and the first detection of Ehrlichia sp HF in Romania2018In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 1285-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ixodes (Ixodes) apronophorus is a neglected tick species and its geographical distribution, host associations, and role as a disease vector are not well known. We collected I. apronophorus from several locations in Romania. Morphological identification of ticks was confirmed by analysis of 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA gene sequences. We report new host associations of I. apronophorus, which was collected from dogs, foxes, and a hare-all new hosts for this tick species in Romania. Furthermore, we report for the first time occurrence of Ehrlichia sp. HF in I. apronophorus. Ehrlichia sp. HF was identified by sequencing a part of the 16S rDNA gene and was found in 16% (3/19) of the tested ticks. Ehrlichia sp. HF has not been previously reported in Eastern Europe and seems to have a much larger geographic distribution than previously known. Currently, it is unknown whether I. apronophorus is a competent vector for Ehrlichia sp. HF, or if the findings in this study represent infection in the hosts, namely dogs and fox.

  • 232.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tamba, Paula
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI VET Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany.
    Tomaso, Herbert
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dobler, Gerhard
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania;Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Molecular survey of neglected bacterial pathogens reveals an abundant diversity of species and genotypes in ticks collected from animal hosts across Romania2018In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 11, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Results: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens. Rickettsia spp. was the most commonly detected pathogen, occurring in 10.6% (87/824) of ticks. Several species were detected: Rickettsia helvetica, R. raoultii, R. massiliae, R. monacensis, R. slovaca and R. aeschlimannii. A single occurrence of the zoonotic bacterium Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Anaplasma phagocytophilum occurred in four samples, and sequences similar to Anaplasma marginale/ovis were abundant in ticks from ruminants. In addition, molecular screening showed that ticks from dogs were carrying an Ehrlichia species identical to the HF strain as well as the enigmatic zoonotic pathogen "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". An organism similar to E. chaffeensis or E. muris was detected in an Ixodes ricinus collected from a fox. Conclusions: We describe an abundant diversity of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from animal hosts in Romania, both on the level of species and genotypes/strains within these species. Several findings were novel for Romania, including Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii that causes bacteremia and endocarditis in dogs. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Previously, a single case of infection in a dog was diagnosed in Germany. The results warrant further studies on the consequences of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in Romania.

  • 233.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tamba, Paula
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI VET Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Rubel, Franz
    Univ Vet Med Vienna, Austria.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania ; German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, no 8, p. 2291-2297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  • 234.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tamba, Paula
    Institute for Diagnosis and Animal Health, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI-VET Private Veterinary Clinics, Romania.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Center for Infection Research, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    German Center for Infection Research, Germany.
    Canine tick-borne diseases in pet dogs from Romania2017In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 10, article id 2092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tick-borne diseases are of substantial concern worldwide for animals as well as humans. Dogs have been a human companion for millennia, and their significant impact on human life renders disease in dogs to be of great concern. Tick-borne diseases in dogs represent a substantial diagnostic challenge for veterinarians in that clinical signs are often diffuse and overlapping. In addition, co-infections with two or more pathogens enhance this problem further. Molecular methods are useful to disentangle co-infections and to accurately describe prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne diseases. At this point, this information is lacking in many areas worldwide. Romania is one such area, where prevalence and distribution of several important pathogens need to be further investigated. To address this, we screened blood samples from 96 sick dogs with molecular methods for eight different pathogens including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", Mycoplasma spp., and Borrelia spp. Results: As many as 45% (43/ 96) of the dogs in the study were infected with protozoan parasites. Babesia canis was the most frequent of these (28 infected dogs), whereas Hepatozoon canis was detected in 15% (14/ 96) and Babesia gibsoni was found in a single sample. Bacterial infection with Mycoplasma spp. occurred in 18% (17/ 96) of the sampled dogs. Obtained bacterial sequences revealed the occurrence of two species: Mycoplasma canis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum". In several cases co-infection with protozoan parasites and Mycoplasma sp. were detected. All dogs were negative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and for Borrelia spp. Conclusions: The results from the present study reinforce the notion that Babesia canis is an important pathogen in the Romanian dog population. However, more surprisingly, another protozoan species, H. canis, seems to be infecting dogs to a larger extent than previously recognized in Romania. Well-known tick-borne bacterial disease agents such as Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. were not detected. In contrast, less wellstudied bacteria such as hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. were detected frequently. Moreover, co-infection might aggravate disease and complicate diagnosis and should be further studied in dogs.

  • 235.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vichova, Bronislava
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Krzyzanowska, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Maria E.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Co-infection with Babesia divergens and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle (Bos taurus), Sweden2017In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 933-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesiosis is a severe disease in cattle worldwide. In Europe, the main causative agent of bovine babesiosis is Babesia divergens. In some areas, this species is reported to have declined or even disappeared, and its etiological role overtaken by other piroplasmid species. Moreover, co-infection with other tick-transmitted pathogens can be expected to complicate diagnosis in cattle. Hence, molecular identification of the causative agent of babesiosis should be a priority. Therefore, samples from 71 domestic cattle, 39 with clinical signs of babesiosis and 32 without, from southern Sweden were screened for Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. using molecular methods Babesia divergens was detected in 38 of the samples, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 17. Co-infections with both pathogens were frequent, occurring in 18% of the animals with a B. divergens infection. The possibility of co-infection should be considered in diagnosis and treatment of bovine babesiosis.

  • 236.
    Andersson, Martina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jeschke Sjöqvist, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med övervikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag är 124 miljoner barn överviktiga. Forskning visar att föräldrar tenderar att missbedöma barns viktstatus samt att de har en stor påverkan på utvecklingen av barns beteenden och levnadsvanor. Hanteringsstrategier i vården gynnas av ett samarbete med föräldrar eftersom de agerar i rollen som beslutstagare tills barnet fyller 18 år.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva föräldrars erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med övervikt.

    Metod: Allmän litteraturstudie med systematisk sökförfarande. Tio kvalitativa artiklar utgjorde materialet. Artiklarna svarade upp till inklusionskriterierna peer review, ålder på barnen samt artiklar skrivna mellan år 2007-2017. Kvalitetsgranskning av artiklarna gjordes följt av en integrerad analys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre kategorier som benämndes prehantering vid övervikt, hantering av övervikt och emotionell påverkan. Prehantering vid övervikt berörde föräldrars bedömning av sina barns viktstatus, föräldrars syn på orsaker till övervikt samt skäl till hjälpsökande. Kategorin hantering av övervikt innefattade föräldrars erfarenheter av viktminskande faktorer, barriärer i hanteringen av övervikt samt stöd.

    Slutsats: Föräldrar till barn med övervikt lever i en känslomässig och komplex situation. Det är därmed viktigt att sjuksköterskan använder sig av ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt för att kunna ta del av föräldrarnas verklighet och nå en konsensus i arbetet med att adressera barns övervikt.

  • 237.
    Andersson, Monica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svensson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskans upplevelser av att vårda patienter med delirium: En kvalitativ intervjustudie 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Intensive care nurse's experiences of caring for patients with delirium. A qualitative interview.

    Background: Delirium occurs as acute mental status changes, introversion, impaired consciousness, confusion and agitation. If signs of delirium, it is important to make quick assessment to identify delirium and minimize the pharmacological and physiological risk factors and reduce risk factors in the patient's environment such as stress. It is important to show understanding and support, and explain the patient´s experiences. Research shows that delirium is usually diagnosed with the subjective clinical gaze on the patient instead of using the screening tool CAM-ICU.Aim: The aim was to illustrate intensive care nurses experiences of caring patients with delirium.

    Method: The study was conducted with a qualitative design with individual semi-structured interviews where eleven critical care nurses participated. Nine of the participants were women and two were men. The data was analyzed by qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Intensive care nurses' experiences of caring for patients with delirium illustrates the frustration over difficulties in identifying patients with delirium and that a good communication both with patients, relatives and staff is an important part of caring. Also pharmacological treatment and activation and physical stimulation produces positive effects for the patient.

    Conclusion: It was revealed in the study of intensive care nurses´ experience that they experienced frustration and difficulties in identifying patients with delirium. Due to the realization of the knowledge gaps in the CAM-ICU, it is important that the staff is trained in how the assessment instrument should be used because it is a reliable instrument.

  • 238.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Borås, Sweden.
    När vårdande och lärande sammanfaller: Patienters, studenters och handledares erfarenheter av möten på en utbildningsvårdavdelning inom psykiatrisk vård2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When students learn caring during clinical practice, the usual point of departure is thatcaring and learning coexist, as separate and parallel phenomena. There is, however, a needto study how caring and learning relate to one another, as well as when and how theyconverge. The aim of this dissertation is to describe how caring and learning converge inthe encounters between students and patients, in a dedicated educational unit withinpsychiatric care, as experienced by students, patients, and supervisors. Describing howsupervisory support can facilitate this is another aim. A reflective lifeworld approach basedon phenomenological philosophy has been applied. Data were collected through interviews,participant observations with follow-up interviews, and narrative diaries.The result shows that caring and learning converge in those encounters between studentsand patients which are characterized by reciprocity, wherein the patient’s narrative is thepoint of departure, complemented by the student’s listening and inquiring attitude. It ishere, that the desire for and pursuit of health and understanding, give the reciprocalinteraction power. The common desire of those involved to know, to become accustomedto the new and unfamiliar, as well as the presence of a feeling of responsibility for oneanother, create questions which in turn create opportunities wherein students and patientsare available to one another.The dissertation shows that learning in a caring context can be complex. Despite theirbeing prerequisites for one another, competition and conflicts can occur when the caringand learning perspectives are not equally attended to. When they are placed counter to oneanother, there is a risk that reciprocal interaction is hindered, which can cause loneliness forall involved. For convergence to occur most propitiously, those involved must exist in acaring and learning togetherness. Responsible and present supervisors are needed, whocreate possibilities for the perspectives to converge through maintenance and monitoring, sothat caring and learning receive equal space.A didactic concept has been developed based on the dissertation’s result, focusing on themeaning of creating forums where students’, patients’, and supervisors’ caringconsiderations and reflections can intertwine.

  • 239.
    Andersson, Petra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevda erfarenheter i barndomen och eget föräldraskap utifrån anknytningsteorin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240.
    Andersson, Pierre
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sundvall, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelsen Av Att Vara Nyutexaminerad Sjuksköterska Under Det Första Yrkesverksamma Året: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Den nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskan har under tre år samlat på sig teoretisk kunskap och ska nu ge sig ut i arbetslivet och ge god och patientsäker vård. Hur första tiden i yrket upplevs har betydelse för hur den kommande rollen som professionell sjuksköterska blir.

    Syfte:Att beskriva hur nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor upplever första åretsom legitimerad sjuksköterska.

    Metod:Litteraturstudie med systematisk datainsamling och urval med tio vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat:Den första tiden i yrket visade sig innebära nervositet, stress och en känsla av att vara otrygg. De nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskorna upplevde under de första månaderna i yrket en frustration. Detta på grund av brist averfarenhetsbaserad kunskap och att deras prestationer inte matchar med förväntningarna från patienter såväl som kollegor.

    Slutsatser:För att övergången skall vara tillfredsställande måste många delar fungera under första året. Arbetsintroduktion, handledning och kollegor gjorde stor inverkan på hur första året upplevdes. En vanligt förekommande uppgift är att nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor upplever brist på klinisk kunskap, denna kunskap utvecklas med hjälp av erfarenhet i yrket. Litteraturstudien visar att nyutexaminerade är i behov av stöd och support för att få en bra start i yrket. Därför anses det vara av vikt att stötta varandra under första tidenför att öka trivseln och undvika att sjuksköterskor slutar

  • 241.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjöstrand, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att genomgå behandling vid bröstcancer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:Bröstcancer utgör 30% av cancerfallen hos kvinnor och är därmed den vanligaste cancerformen bland kvinnor. Behandlingen för bröstcancer är kirurgi, cellgifter, strålning och hormonbehandling. Behandlingen och dess biverkningarna har en stor inverkan på livet vilket bidrar till känslomässiga reaktioner. 

    Syfte:Att beskriva kvinnors upplevelse av att genomgå behandling vid bröstcancer.  

    Metod:Studien baseras på en kvalitativ ansats med vårdvetenskapen som teorigrund. Det tillämpades ett livsvärldsperspektiv. Data samlades in genom fem självbiografier skrivna av kvinnor som behandlats för bröstcancer. För att analysera böckerna användes en kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys. 

    Resultat:Behandlingen av bröstcancern innebar en förändrad vardag där sjukdomen styrde. För att hantera den förändrade vardagen användes olika strategier. Behandlingen och dess biverkningar innebar fysiska förändringar som påverkade vardagen och därtill orsakade känslomässiga reaktioner. För att yttra tankar och känslor fanns ett behov av stöd från både familj och vårdpersonal. 

    Slutsats:För att uppfylla behovet av stöd under behandlingstiden krävs det vidare utbildning i stöd och bemötande hos vårdpersonal och närstående, att vårdpersonal förhåller sig till ett livsvärldsperspektiv samt att ytterligare professioner inkluderas. På så sätt kan kvinnorna få adekvat information, stöd i att hantera vardagen och möjlighet att yttra sina känslor. 

  • 242.
    Andersson, Robin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Halldén, Josefine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    KVINNORS SJÄLVSKADEBETEENDE OCH MÖTEN MED VÅRDEN UTIFRÅN ETT PATIENTPERSPEKTIV2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självskadebeteende betyder att den egna kroppen uppsåtligen skadas. I Sverige är det vanligast förekommande bland kvinnor strax före 20-års ålder. Självskadebeteende kan vara en följd av psykisk ohälsa eller en traumatisk barndom. Vårdpersonal ska lyssna på, vara närvarande i mötet samt acceptera kvinnor som självskadar. Det finns en önskan hos vårdpersonal om att öka sina kunskaper i bemötandet med patienter som skadar sig själva.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka hur kvinnor med självskadebeteende upplever bemötandet i vården.

    Metod: Studien gjordes utifrån en induktiv kvalitativ ansats, baserad på sju bloggar som analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Kvinnorna beskrev möten med vården som både positiva och negativa. Det framkom att de kände sig negativt bemötta i form av skrik, skäll och förolämpande kommentarer. De beskrev också möten där de blivit positivt bemötta, när vårdpersonal lyssnat, brytt sig och sett kvinnorna som människor bakom deras självskadebeteende och psykiska diagnoser.

    Slutsats: Kvinnor med självskadebeteende är unika individer och alla vill bli behandlade olika utifrån vilka vårdsituationer de befinner sig i. Det som ska finnas i åtanke vid bemötande av denna patientgrupp är att ett för kvinnan negativt bemötande kan orsaka ytterligare självskador.

  • 243.
    Andersson, Sabina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Husic, Ajla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av att leva med ALS: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Amyotrofisk lateralskleros (ALS) är en progredierande neurologisk sjukdom som bryter ner kroppens nervceller, vilket leder till att även musklerna förtvinar och dör. Intellektet förblir oftast intakt, vilket gör en drabbad människa medveten om de ständiga förlusterna i sjukdomsprocessen, både de fysiska och existentiella. Att drabbas av ALS och dess förluster upplevs dock olika för alla människor. Syftet med studien var därför att beskriva och belysa personers upplevelser av ALS och dess påföljande förluster. Studien är genomförd som en litteraturstudie som baseras på fem skönlitterära böcker, fyra självbiografier och en biografi. Dessa har lästs och granskats med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar att alla kvinnorna drabbades av fysiska, sociala och existentiella förluster och tillhörande konsekvenser. De mest framträdande känslorna var sorg och rädsla över den obevekliga sjukdomen och medföljande förluster. En slutsats av resultatet är att förlusterna påverkade och uppbringade skilda känslor hos kvinnorna, dock var vissa upplevelser likartade. Detta resultat kan bidra till att underlätta sjuksköterskans arbete med patienter som lider av ALS och liknande tillstånd, där omvårdnaden då kan bedrivas på ett bättre sätt på grund av den bättre kunskapen om kronisk, progressiv sjukdom.

  • 244.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Emma
    Hinder och möjligheter för tidig mobilisering: En systematisk litteraturöversikt med inriktning på intensivvårdspatienter med invasivt andningsstöd2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Intensivvården karakteriseras av en högteknologisk miljö där fokus riktas till livsuppehållande och botande åtgärder vilket kan ge mindre utrymme för mobilisering av patienterna. Mobilisering av intensivvårdspatienter utgör dock en viktig del i omvårdnadsuppgifterna hos en intensivvårdssjuksköterska där de negativa effekterna av immobilisering har visat sig stora.  

    Syfte: Att belysa faktorer som utgör hinder och möjligheter för tidig mobilisering hos intensivvårdspatienter med invasivt andningsstöd.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie genomfördes där resultatet bygger på 16 kvantitativa vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat: Efter analysarbetet framkom tre teman: läkemedel och behandling, kultur och resurser samt protokoll och utrustning. Resultatet visar att läkemedel i form av sedering, smärtlindring och blodtryckshöjande utgör ett hinder för mobilisering. För en ökad möjlighet att mobilisera patienter med invasivt andningsstöd krävs relevanta hjälpmedel, gott samarbete mellan olika yrkeskategorier och en god personaltäthet.  

    Slutsats: Att tidig mobilisering av patienter med invasivt andningsstöd är gynnsamt och leder till positiva effekter för patienten är bevisat, dock finns flertalet hinder till att mobiliseringen ska kunna genomföras på ett korrekt och säkert sätt. Att som intensivvårdssjuksköterska ha kunskap om mobiliseringens positiva utfall samt vad som utgör hinder och möjligheter till mobilisering kan bidra till att patienterna blir mobiliserade i större utsträckning. Då patienter med invasivt andningsstöd saknar förmåga att uttrycka sig verbalt är det svårt att som intensivvårdssjuksköterska veta om en ökad mobilisering leder till ett minskat eller ökat lidande för patienten. Intensivvårdssjuksköterskan måste på grund av detta vara extra lyhörd och göra det som anses vara bäst för patienten.

  • 245.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Linda, Högström
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av hälsa hos individer med fetma2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I dagens samhälle har fetma ökat och fetma leder till en rad riskfaktorer som diabetes, cancer och hjärt-och kärlsjukdomar. Dessa sjukdomar resulterar i sin tur i stora kostnader för samhället både indirekt och direkt. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan är medveten om individers upplevelser av att leva med fetma. Sjuksköterskan kan då bemöta och stödja individen på ett lämpligt sätt för att öka individens upplevelser av hälsa.

    Syfte: Att belysa upplevelser av hälsa hos individer med fetma.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats. Datainsamlingen resulterade i att tolv artiklar kvalitetsgranskades. Åtta artiklar inkluderades i studiens resultat och en integrerarad analys genomfördes.

    Resultat: Resultatet presenteras i tre kategorier. Social hälsa, Mental hälsa och fysisk hälsa. Social hälsa genererade i två underrubriker, Ensamhet och utanförskap samt familjerelationer. Mental hälsa resulterade i underrubriken, Sårbarhet. Fysisk hälsa resulterade i underrubriker, kroppsliga begränsningar och begränsningar i det dagliga livet.

    Slutsats: Individer med fetma upplever försämrad hälsa i olika utsträckningar på det fysiska, mentala samt det sociala planet. Det framkom att kvinnor med fetma upplever en sämre hälsa generellt än män och även ålder har en betydelse för upplevelser av hälsa. Dock går det inte att generalisera hur individer med fetma upplever hälsa, utan hänsyn måste tas till varje enskild individ. Det är av stor vikt att sjuksköterskans hälsofrämjande arbete utgår från varje enskild individ.

     

  • 246.
    Andersson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Är 15 sekunder tillräckligt för att mäta tårproduktion med ett Phenol Red Thread-test?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 247.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fogelström-Andersson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med en livsupphållande behandling: En litteraturstudie om patienters upplevelse av att leva med hemodialys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Varje år påbörjar cirka 1000 personer hemodialys i Sverige och cirka 3000

    personer erhåller behandlingen på en permanent basis. När njurfunktion är kraftigt nedsatt,

    uppträder symtom som diagnostiseras som njursvikt. Patienten behöver då hemodialys vilket

    innebär att en maskin renar patientens blod när njurarna inte längre klarar av det.

    Syfte:

    Att beskriva patienters upplevelse av att leva med hemodialys.

    Metod:

    Litteraturstudiens resultat består av tio kvalitativa artiklar som söktes upp på

    databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. En manifest innehållsanalys enligt Hällgren och Graneheim-

    Lundman gjordes och analysprocessen hade ett induktivt förhållningssätt.

    Resultat:

    Påvisade att patienten påverkas både kortsiktigt av behandlingen vilket framförallt

    skapade begränsningar men även andra problem i vardagen. Långsiktigt påverkades patienten

    då den ovissa framtiden präglade patienternas tankar.

    Slutsats:

    Upplevelsen av att leva med hemodialys var att patienternas liv begränsades och de

    förlorade sin autonomi. Deras sociala relationer förändrades på grund av att de inte längre

    kunde vara med på sociala aktiviteter. De upplever en oviss framtid men ett hopp om en

    njurtransplantation var ständigt närvarande hos patienterna.

  • 248.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Biologiundervisningens hur och varför: En studie om hur lärare i årskurs 4-6 väcker intresse och främjar förståelse2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka didaktiska val som lärare i årskurs 4-6 gör i sin undervisning, inom ämnet biologi, för att väcka intresse och hur de främjar förståelse hos eleverna. Läroplanens centrala innehåll Natur och Samhälle fungerar som utgångspunkt. Enligt egna erfarenheter bearbetas innehållet i undervisningen på olika sätt beroende på läraren sätt att se på lärande samt förutsättningar med anknytning till skolan.

    Studien genomförs med hjälp av semistrukturerade-, personliga intervjuer för att samla in kvalitativa data och sex stycken lärare deltar i studien. Datan som samlas in bearbetas genom tematisk analys och resultatet presenteras med exempel på lärarsvar utifrån kategorier som identifieras.

    I resultatet framkommer det att lärarna som deltagit i studien till viss del har skilda uppfattningar på hur undervisningen ska ta tillvara på och skapa intresse respektive främja förståelse. Det finns även likheter i hur lärarna uttrycker sig kring bägge delar vilket visar sig i lärarsvar som återkommer under de olika huvudrubrikerna. Studiens forskningsfrågor berör även möjligheter och hinder som lärare upplever att de har eller skapar när de genomför sin undervisning. Med resultatet för detta som grund blir slutsaten med studien att det finns både skilda och snarlika uppfattningar hos lärare hur de gör för att ta tillvara på och skapa intresse respektive främja förståelse. Att lärarna upplever ha möjligheter eller hinder att utföra undervisningen kan påverka de didaktiska valen som lärarna gör både vid planering och genomförande. 

  • 249.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hundar och deras hälsoeffekter: En litteraturstudie om hundars påverkan på hälsan hos personer med demens2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Demens är en sjukdom som drabbar ungefär var femte person över 80 år. På senare tid har behovet av alternativa behandlingsmetoder ökat. Vårdhund anses var en brabehandlingsmetod inom demensvården med få eller inga biverkningar.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka vårdhundars påverkan på äldre personer med demenssjukdomgenom att genomföra en litteraturstudie.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på 13 kvantitativa artiklar. Resultaten jämfördes ochlikheter och skillnader plockades ut för att sedan sammanställas.

    Resultat: Vårdhund kan leda till ökat socialt beteende, minskade psykiska symtom, minskatagiterat beteende, minskade depressiva symtom, ökad livskvalitet samt positiva effekter påden fysiska och fysiologiska kroppen.

    Slutsatser: Studiens slutsats är att vårdhund kan ha positiva effekter på hälsan hos dementa.Det krävs mer forskning för att kunna komma fram till om vårdhund är en effektivbehandlingsmetod som eventuellt skulle kunna komplettera eller till och med ersätta vissaläkemedel.

  • 250.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lindqvist, Olav
    Umeå University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Furst, Carl-Johan
    Lund University.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University;University of Gothenburg.
    Factors Associated With Symptom Relief in End-of-Life Care in Residential Care Homes: A National Register-Based Study2018In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 1304-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Residential care homes (RCHs) are a common place of death. Previous studies have reported a high prevalence of symptoms such as pain and shortness of breath among residents in the last week of life.& para;& para;Objectives. The aim of the study was to explore the presence of symptoms and symptom relief and identify factors associated with symptom relief of pain, nausea, anxiety, and shortness of breath among RCH residents in end-of-life care.& para;& para;Methods. The data consisted of all expected deaths at RCHs registered in the Swedish Register of Palliative Care (N 22,855). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted.& para;& para;Results. Pain was reported as the most frequent symptom of the four symptoms (68.8%) and the one that most often had been totally relieved (84.7%) by care professionals. Factors associated with relief from at least one symptom were gender; age; time in the RCH; use of a validated pain or symptom assessment scale; documented end-of-life discussions with physicians for both the residents and family members; consultations with other units; diseases other than cancer as cause of death; presence of ulcers; assessment of oral health; and prescribed pro re nata injections for pain, nausea, and anxiety.& para;& para;Conclusion. Our results indicate that use of a validated pain assessment scale, assessment of oral health, and prescribed pro re nata injections for pain, nausea, and anxiety might offer a way to improve symptom relief. These clinical tools and medications should be implemented in the care of the dying in RCHs, and controlled trials should be undertaken to prove the effect. (C) 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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