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  • 201.
    Fairbanks, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Rollincidenter: Sociologiskt perspektiv på incidenter mellan professionell yrkesroll och privat roll2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: The basis of this essay are taken from Goffmans (1959) theory about impression management. The theory is used to investigate the connection and the collision between separate roles. The purpose of this study is to examine when collision between the bosses professional role and their private role occur and to examine how they handle these collisions. The extent of this study is focused mainly on bosses who are living and working in small districts. The choice of definition is to make sure that the informants have actually experienced some degree of collision between their separate roles. The objective is to find out if bosses who are living and working in small districts can secure their anonymity and stay anonymous in public. A qualitative method is used for this study. And so called go-along interviews and focus Group interviews has been applied. The result of this study shows that bosses who are living and working in small districts are having trouble maintaining their anonymity. And therefore the most common choice made is to take up residence outside the work district. This is of great importance to be able to separate the professional role from the private and to maintain these two. The result clearly presents that collisions between the professional role and the private role are taking place and are quite common.  Henceforth strategies are used by bosses in this study to facilitate and avoid collisions. Bosses is using dramaturgical caution, to avoid execution of actions that can´t be adjusted quickly. Bosses in the conducted study are experiencing that collisions themselves aren't problematic which leads to the conclusion that they have a high level of dramaturgical discipline. In conclusion the main objective of this study has been obtained and the questions has been answered from Goffmans perspective regarding impression management. 

  • 202.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Dataset fo Investing into climate change mitigation initiatives despite the risk of failure: Version 2.02018Data set
  • 203.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Experimental evidence of the bandwagon effect on voting2019In: Presented at: 2019 European ESA Meeting, Dijon, France, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    On whom would I want to depend; humans or computers?2019In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 72, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study in a laboratory experiment whether humans prefer to depend on decisions of others (Human-Driven Uncertainty) or states generated by a computer (Computerized Uncertainty). The experimental design introduced in this paper is unique in that it introduces Human-Driven Uncertainty such that it does not derive from a strategic context. In our experiment, Human-Driven Uncertainty derives from decisions, which were taken in a morally neutral context and in ignorance of externalities that the decisions may have on others. Our results indicate that even without strategic interaction and moral elements humans prefer Computerized to Human-Driven Uncertainty. This holds even when the distribution of outcomes under both types of uncertainty is identical. From a methodological point of view, the findings shed a critical light on behavioral research in which it is common practice to control for strategic uncertainty by comparing interaction with an artificial agent with a known strategy to interaction with humans. Outside the laboratory, our results suggest that whenever dependence on humans is changed to dependence on computers and other kinds of “artificial” decision makers, preferences with regard to these dependencies may change too.

  • 205.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The bandwagon effect in an online experiment with real political organisations2020In: International journal of public opinion research, ISSN 0954-2892, E-ISSN 1471-6909, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined through an online experiment how pre-election pollsaffect voters. The results revealed that votes for the most popular optionincreased on average by 7% when polls were shared with participants, shiftingaway from both minority options and options with intermediate popularity.This bandwagon effect was consistent across different electoral systems anddifferent political issues. In the experiment, participants  voted on the distri-bution of $1,200 between politically active organisations. This experiment isunique in that it offered a highly controlled environment to study voting andexamined voting options that are relevant to participants because of real-worldpolitical consequences.

  • 206.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Dehkordi, Molood
    van Weeren, Rene
    Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources2019In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action2020In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of regulatory activities in historical commons offering a unique picture of their long-term institutional dynamics. The analysis took into account almost 3,800 regulatory activities in eighteen European commons in two countries across seven centuries. Despite differences in time and space, we found a shared pattern where an initial, highly-dynamic institutional-definition phase was followed by a relatively long period of stability and a final burst of activities, possibly in an attempt to respond to new challenges. In addition, most of the initial regulatory activities focused on resource use, while towards the end other activities prevailed. Our approach allows for a better understanding of institutional dynamics and our findings also provide important insights about how to regulate the use of current natural resources.

  • 208.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Kirchkamp, Oliver
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Bubbles in hybrid markets: How expectations about algorithmic trading affect human trading2018In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 146, p. 248-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bubbles are omnipresent in lab experiments with asset markets. Most of these experiments are conducted in environments with only human traders. Since today's markets are substantially determined by algorithmic trading, we use a laboratory experiment to measure how human trading depends on the expected presence of algorithmic traders. We find that bubbles are clearly smaller when human traders expect algorithmic traders to be present.

  • 209.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Loxbo, Karl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Experimental evidence of a bandwagon effect on voting2019In: 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social influence and conformity have been thoroughly studied by social psychologists, leading political scientist to the postulation of the bandwagon effect. However, despite its relevance, the bandwagon effect, claiming that seeing pre-election polls makes votes for majority options more likely, has not been properly tested for political voting and evidence regarding this effect is mixed. Experiments either were ran in very abstract contexts only vaguely representing political voting, or only testing the effect of polls on opinions or hypothetical votes . We present an unique experimental design with more realism than previous designs, keeping the experimental control needed to make causal claims.

    We tested in an online experiment with 1115 participants from the US how votes change when pre-election polls are shown. Our experimental design is unique in that the votes of the participants have real-world consequences within their electoral area (the US), empower actual political organizations falling on a left-right spectrum, and the votes are on issues currently debated in US politics (firearms, abortion, immigration, and environment). Per issue participants chose between three different charities, representing different positions within the political spectrum. As a result of the experiment 1200$ were distributed across these charities as suggested by the vote.

    In line with the bandwagon-effect, we find clear evidence that seeing poll results makes votes for majority opinion more likely. After seeing the surveys, majority opinions received an extra ~7% of votes. In our experiment this effect did not depend on the electoral system and was robust against controlling for the gender and age of voters and the self-assessment on a left-right spectrum. However, we find evidence that under extreme-polarization (where moderate position are the least popular option) the bandwagon-effect is much weaker.

  • 210.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mill, Wladislaw
    University Jena, Germany.
    Panganiban, Marian
    Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Germany.
    Ignorance Is Bliss, But for Whom? The Persistent Effect of Good Will on Cooperation2016In: Games, ISSN 2073-4336, E-ISSN 2073-4336, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who benefits from the ignorance of others? We address this question from the point of view of a policy maker who can induce some ignorance into a system of agents competing for resources. Evolutionary game theory shows that when unconditional cooperators or ignorant agents compete with defectors in two-strategy settings, unconditional cooperators get exploited and are rendered extinct. In contrast, conditional cooperators, by utilizing some kind of reciprocity, are able to survive and sustain cooperation when competing with defectors. We study how cooperation thrives in a three-strategy setting where there are unconditional cooperators, conditional cooperators and defectors. By means of simulation on various kinds of graphs, we show that conditional cooperators benefit from the existence of unconditional cooperators in the majority of cases. However, in worlds that make cooperation hard to evolve, defectors benef

  • 211.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?2018In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 147-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective communication of risks involved in the climate change discussion is crucial and despite ambitious protection policies, the possibility of irreversible consequences actually occurring can only be diminished but never ruled out completely. We present a laboratory experiment that studies how residual risk of failure of climate change policies affects willingness to contribute to such policies. Despite prevailing views on people's risk aversion, we found that contributions were higher at least in the final part of treatments including a residual risk. We interpret this as the product of a psychological process where residual risk puts participants into an "alarm mode," keeping their contributions high. We discuss the broad practical implications this might have on the real-world communication of climate change.

  • 212.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap for climate change mitigation in high cost conditions2019In: Presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An established research result is that people's environmental attitudes only loosely translate into actions effectively reducing their environmental impact, something known as the attitude-behaviour gap. On the other hand, correct information and environmental education are often considered a key to promote sustainability, which raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives and, conversely, when other factors have a better chance to succeed. To answer these questions, we tested the effect of environmental attitudes in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world climate mitigation consequences. We found that environmental attitudes mainly affected behaviour in a low cost situation, while their effect was reduced when the stakes were higher. This finding is consistent with the low cost hypothesis of environmental behaviour and has important consequences for the shaping of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.

  • 214.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 166, p. 1-12, article id 106434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between environmental attitudes and actual `green' actions, something known as the attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. This paper presents an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences designed to test the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior under various conditions. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior only in low-cost situations. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior postulating that concerned individuals will undertake low-cost actions in order to reduce the cognitive dissonance  between their attitudes and rational realization of the environmental impact of their behavior but avoid higher-cost actions despite their greater potential as far as environmental protection. This finding has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context as it puts limits on what can be achieved by raising environmental concern alone.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-09-01 08:00
  • 215.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure2019In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 154, no 3-4, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to convince both policy makers and the general public to engage in climate change mitigation activities, it is crucial to communicate the inherent risks in an effective way. Due to the complexity of the system, mitigation activities cannot completely rule out the possibility of the climate reaching a dangerous tipping point but can only reduce it to some unavoidable residual risk level. We present an online experiment based on a sample of US citizens and designed to improve our understanding of how the presence of such residual risk affects the willingness to invest into climate change mitigation. We found that, far from reducing them, the presence of residual risk actually increases investments into mitigation activities. This result suggests that scientists and policy makers should consider being more transparent about communicating the residual risks entailed by such initiatives.

  • 216.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nonetheless or all the more? Investing into climate change mitigation policies despitea risk of failure2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Fasth, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Olofsson, GunnarLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Studenterna och deras utbildningar vid ett nytt universitet2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För sextio år sedan hade Sverige två universitet (Lund och Uppsala), två större högskolor (Stockholm och Göteborg) och ett antal fackhögskolor för medicinska, tekniska och naturvetenskapliga yrken. För att studera där krävdes studentexamen, något som inte behövdes ör att utbilda sig vid de skolor som utbildade lärare, sjuksköterskor, socialarbetare och poliser. Idag påbörjar nästan hälften av en årskull någon form av högre utbildning vid de många universitet och högskolor som finns i dagens Sverige. Högre utbildning krävs för en snabbt växande rad av yrken.

    1967 fick Växjö en filial till Lunds universitet. Filialen blev efterhanden högskola, där många utbildningar snart fick en tydlig yrkesinriktning. 1999 blev högskolan ett universitet och 2010 slogs Växjö universitet ihop med Högskolan i Kalmar till dagens Linnéuniversitet.

    I denna bok skildras det nya högskolelandskapets studenter och utbildningar med Växjö som exempel. Här följer vi högskoleingenjörer, gymnasielärare, ekonomer och samhällsvetare på deras väg genomstudierna mot en mer eller mindre oviss framtid. Hur ser Växjöstudenternas studiemiljö och studentliv ut? Vilka är deras framtidsförhoppningar?  Varför väljer några att avbryta sina studier? Och hur går det för studenter med bakgrund i andra länder?

    Växjö är en bra utsiktspunkt för den som vill förstå vidden av den omvandling som den högre utbildningen har genomgått i Sverige. Här formas nya utbildningar och hit kommer studenter från befolkningsgrupper och orter där man tidigare inte studerat vidare.

  • 218.
    Fekadu, Mikal
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Can sanctions constrain a democratization process?: A study about the embargo and a democratization possibility in Cuba2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the embargo imposed on Cuba and their possible democratization process. The study will provide answers regarding why the Cuban democratization process has been stagnant, if United States has gone against their liberal values when supporting other countries and if Cuba has chances of reaching a democratic transition from their current totalitarian regime. A theory-testing approach is applied when analysing this matter, and the selected theories were the theory of liberalism and Larry Diamond’s theory the internal values; authoritarian division, authoritarian development, free values and civil society. The author found that different factors have indeed revealed that possibilities for democratization are achievable. Actors who has the main authority to lead Cuba to democracy is the military and the communist party. The outcome of this research also discovered that the embargo constrains a possible democratization process in the country.

    Keywords: Cuba, Embargo, Sanction, Democratization, Castro, Liberalism, Internal values 

  • 219.
    Fellman, Fredrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Sääf, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    To Harvest Development from Education in Agribusiness: A minor field study of the significance of higher education in agrieconomy on the development in northern Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To learn more about how higher education can contribute to economic development through the development of the business perspective in the agricultural sector, this study has been conducted from the point of views of students, graduates and lecturers of the Agribusiness program at the University for Development Studies, UDS, in Tamale, northern Ghana. Although several quantitative studies on the Ghanaian universities’ role for development have been conducted, there is a research gap within this qualitative field. From a social-constructivist perspective, it is crucial to understand the social context, why a qualitative research with open ended interviews proved to be beneficial. The findings have been analysed by the Capability Approach through the perspectives of Relative Deprivation and Knowledge Based Views of Organisations. The result of the study clarifies the importance of paying attention to the capability of the students, the farmers and the region where the higher education is offered. It is also clear from the result that there is a gap between the expectations of the students and the lecturers on the outcome of the education and the actual output. Hence, the Relative Deprivation theory served applicable for the Agribusiness program at UDS. Furthermore, the research reveals the significance of that the institutional conditions, such as financial institutions, are developed to enable the region to benefit from the education programmes.  

  • 220.
    Ferling, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Yearning of Yalambojoch: A field study about rural poverty in northwestern Guatemala and the importance of local influence over development2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1996, Guatemala achieved peace after 36 years of civil war which took root in the political and social oppression of the country’s vast indigenous population. To counter the country’s widespread poverty, inequality and ongoing political and social frustrations the Guatemalan government adopted a liberal peace building agenda by ‘globalizing’ its economy and by decentralizing the political and economic process. Through this process, Guatemala has achieved a democracy which is accepted by western standards as well as the classification of a middle income country. However, the vast, and predominately rural, indigenous population has been left behind in this progress; it is estimated that 7 out 10 indigenous Guatemalans today are facing more or less severe livelihood conditions below the poverty line, why Guatemala remains one of the most unequal countries in the world. The government now hopes to overcome the shortcomings in the rural sector by stimulating local agricultural projects and ideas which are anchored in the many and various territorially strengths and challenges throughout Guatemala’s countryside; the intention is, in other words, to encourage a stronger local control over the development process.This study explores the conditions for, and the relevance of, local ownership of development in terms of livelihood improvements in Yalambojoch, one indigenous agriculture community in one of the poorest and most war torn regions in Guatemala. An abductive field work with a holistic livelihood-approach has been necessary in order to localize more or less obvious factors that are trapping the village in poverty, and to understand to what degree poverty is determined by the village’s level of autonomy, or ownership, over its development process. The results shows that the village's low livelihood level is determined by agricultural insufficiency, poor access to crucial services and political and socio economic isolation. The village's empowerment is restricted to protection of territory, which reproduces a context in which a more participant autonomy in a wider societal setting is thwarted, where external development projects are often reluctantly rejected due to local mistrust, frustration and discontentment with governmental as well as private agencies and where the livelihood situation consequently remains essentially static.

  • 221.
    Flybring, Linnea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Jämställdhetens paradox: En diskursanalys av hur SD och NMR använder jämställdhet i sin politiska retorik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser undersöka Sverigedemokraternas (SD) och Nordiska motståndsrörelsens (NMR) användning av jämställdhet, utifrån hur de skriver om jämställdhet, nation, kön, feminism, familjepolitik och/eller hbtq-frågor. Studien är komparativ och jämför NMR:s och SD:s sätt att använda jämställdhet i sin politiska retorik. För det används diskursanalytisk metod och empirin består av partiprogram och artiklar från vardera parti. Den teoretiska ansatsen utgår från jämställdhet, svenskhet, familj och heteronormativitet.

    Min analys av materialet visar att det finns både likheter och skillnader vad gäller SD:s och NMR:s sätt att skriva om jämställdhet kopplat till kön, hbtq och familj, men att deras retorik kring jämställdhet ändå utgår från samma kärna. Skillnader finns i att NMR inte använder begreppet jämställdhet i lika stor utsträckning som SD vad gäller att beskriva sin egen politik. SD:s sätt att skriva om jämställdhet i relation till sin egen politik gör jämställdheten till en fråga som främst berör kvinnor, trots att de uttrycker att de anser att jämställdhet ska handla om både män och kvinnor, medan NMR i större utsträckning skriver om män. Båda partier kopplar jämställdheten som något svenskt eller nordiskt, för att sedan ställa det i motsats till de icke-svenska, eller invandrarna, som icke jämställda – här blir jämställdheten en tillgång. Samtidigt ser de också feminism och genusvetenskap som problem för samhället, främst i form av att den splittrar familjen som grund. Detta skapar en dubbelhet i hur de använder jämställdhet, där hotet mot det svenska samhället kommer både inifrån och utifrån Sverige.

  • 222.
    Fofuleng, Babila Julius
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Peace and Development Works .
    The Challenges of Mental Health Disorder in Cameroon2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 223.
    Franclova, Tereza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Salomonsson, Penny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Psykisk ohälsa på arbetsplatsen: En studie om avdelningschefer i svenska kommuner 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to form an understanding regarding the mental health and wellbeing of department managers employed at Ljungby, Växjö, and Älmhult municipalities. Previous studies have shown that there has been an increase in mental illness and sick-leave among managers especially within Swedish governmental organizations. The study of this topic is therefore of great relevance due to statistics showing its increase in recent years. 

     

    This study is based on a qualitative research method. Ten department managers were interviewed and at least three were employed at one of the selected municipalities to create as evenly distributed results as possible. The theoretical perspective that the collected data is analyzed through is the social constructivist perspective combined with Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical perspective. The concepts used from the social constructivist theory are social phenomena, reification, typification and roles. Theoretical concepts used from Goffman are performance, façade, team, role, and collective representation.  

     

    The result of this study shows that the majority of department managers in the three municipalities experience their mental health as stable, but their well-being decreases in times of pressure or when there is an excessive workload during a longer period of time. Moreover, the department managers generally believe that the demands placed on them as managers are reasonable, thus their mental states were unaffected. Lastly, the policies and laws regarding the management of mental illness provided by the municipality was reported to be sufficient and well-functioning in supporting the employees’ wellbeing.  

  • 224.
    Fransson, Ebba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Lundin, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Social mobilisering i en digital tidsålder: En analys av rörelseaktivism på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With this study, we have been aiming to describe and analyze how social mobilization is constructed by digital technology, using the #metoo movement as a case study.  The focus of this study has been to show how collective identity and ”we and–them” groups are constructed in digital movements. Our study is based on a netnographic method and our material has been retrived by posts on about 20 closed forums for #metoo–activists on Facebook and Instagram. We are interested to examine the dialogues, which has been published in these forums. Seven major themes has been found; (a) collective identity construction; (b) incorporation; (c) equality ideals; (d) identifying opponents (e) framing of ”we–and them”–groups through imperative; (f) who gets entry; and; (g) poor and bad guys. Our results in the analysis showed us how collective identity and ”we–and them”–goups are constructed by the earlier mentioned themes.

  • 225.
    Fransson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Den salutogena äldreomsorgen.: En kvalitativ studie om omsorgspersonalens arbetssätt.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Den salutogena äldreomsorgen. – En kvalitativ studie om omsorgspersonalens arbetssätt. Författare: Lina FranssonAnledningen till studiens start, var när jag själv uppmärksammade hur en brukare inte gavs möjlighet till att utföra sysslor som hen egentligen klarar på egenhand. Omsorgspersonalen vid tillfället tog över och utförde sysslan åt brukaren. Jag uppmärksammade sedan begreppet salutogen äldreomsorg och blev nyfiken på vad det var.

    Studiens syfte är att skapa kunskap om det salutogena arbetssättet, samt förståelse för hur och varför omsorgspersonalen på två äldreboende i Alvesta kommun arbetar efter det. De avgränsningar som görs är att studien grundas utifrån omsorgspersonalens perspektiv och är utifrån deras arbete mot den enskilde individen. Omsorgsförvaltningen i Alvesta kommun har valt att utbilda sina enhetschefer i salutogent ledarskap men studiens fokus kommer att vara på hur omsorgspersonalen arbetar efter det salutogena arbetssätt som enhetscheferna arbetar med att få ut i sina verksamheter, samt varför. För att följa studiens syfte söker jag svar på två frågor:

    • Hur kommer ett salutogent arbetssätt till uttryck på arbetsplatsen?

    • Hur kan omsorgspersonalens arbetssätt förstås?

    Metodiken som används för att kunna besvara studiens frågor bestod av deltagande observationer av omsorgspersonal, samt semi-strukturerade intervjuer med samma åtta personer ur personalgrupperna, för att få djupare förståelse.

    För att tolka det insamlade materialet och försöka besvara och diskutera studiens frågor användes begrepp ur organisationsteori. Organisationsteorin tar upp och förklarar hur organisationsbeteende och organisationskulturer som finns inom organisationer kan påverka anställda och deras arbetssätt. Teorin tar även upp att organisationen påverkas av samhället utanför. Anställdas sociala nätverk utanför organisationen skapar olika värderingar och normer som följer med de anställda in i organisationen.

    Studiens slutsats är att omsorgspersonalens arbetssätt kan förstås med hjälp av verksamhetens organisationsbeteende och organisationskultur. Eftersom omsorgspersonalen som deltagit i studien känner varandra och umgås utanför arbetsplatsen, delar de liknande värderingar och normer. Organisationsbeteendet och organisationskulturen stärks genom att omsorgspersonalen umgås utanför arbetsplatsen, vilket också kan skapa starkare sammanhållning i arbetsgrupperna och motivationen att strävan efter samma mål.

  • 226.
    Fransson, Therése
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Fyra nyanser av brunt: Adopterades erfarenheter av svenskhetens gränser, ras och vithet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the group of transnational adoptees, which means adoptions that includes a transfer of children to families who racially and culturally different from them. The Swedish research regarding to this group of adoptees is relatively limited. Especially in relation to the phenomenon like race, whiteness and racism. There is a need for more knowledge about what it means to be Swedish and non-white, something that the group adoptees has experience of.

                         The purpose of this study is to examine if, and in that case how, it is possible to discern a pattern of Swedishness boundaries using the adoptees experience, and to find out how notions of race interacts with these experiences. The study is based on a qualitative approach and the empirical material consists of interviews with four adoptees. To understand my empirical data I have chosen to work with several different theoretical perspectives to illustrate the phenomenon as can be seen as border guards of Swedishness concerning to the adoptees. These phenomenon’s are: race and whiteness, and racialization and (everyday) racism. I am also inspired by the American research field of critical race and whiteness studies, but from a Swedish context.

                          The results show that the main limit for Swedishness goes at the adoptees non-white bodies. It is also by their non-white bodies as they get their belonging in Sweden questioned and can be considered as almost Swedes. It is also their non-Swedish appearance that allows them to be exposed to racialization and racism in everyday life. Thus, it is possible to argue, on the basis of the adoptees stories, that race as construction exists and that we must speak of it to be able to understand how it, as adopted (Swedish), is to live in a non-white body in Sweden today.

  • 227.
    Franzén, Elinor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The possibilities of cross-sector relations: A study on partnerships between private companies and environmental NGOs in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a common misconception that the cross-sector partnership between private companies and environmental NGOs purely benefit financing and image possibilities. However, suppositions like these are worryingly out-of-date and do no longer correspond to the actual make-up, ambitions, effort, and functionings of said partnerships. Most companies use a concept called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) when describing their sustainability work, often including partnerships with Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). The term was coined at a time when sustainability work was less refined than what we see today, and while societal awareness and industrial appreciation for the importance of environmental agendas has developed, the term CSR and its definition has remained the same. This study interviewed three environmental NGOs and four private companies in Sweden in order to investigate the structure and outcomes of their current partnerships with the respective actor. The findings underline the need for an updated conceptual definition, that facilitates cross-sector partnership development parallel to societal development rather than to hold it back. With environmental threats winning the attention of both private and public actors in local as well as global settings, the issue of this conceptual misalignment and possible snag in efficiency that it may pose, becomes highly relevant.

  • 228.
    Fredriksson, Erika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Juliusson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Tjejers otrygghet - en klassfråga?: En studie av relationen mellan den faktiska utsattheten och upplevelsen av otrygghet hos unga tjejer.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the relationship between actual victimization and perceived fear of crime among young women aged 18-20 years. Previous studies shows that women are more afraid of becoming a victim of crime than men, even though studies shows that men are victims of crime to a greater extent than women. The purpose of this paper was to examine women’s fear of becoming a victim of crime from a class perspective. To investigate this, we interviewed 16 young women aged 18-20 years with both working class and middle class backgrounds. The interviews helped us understand how the women in each group discussed the fear and crime in society. To analyze the material we used Beverly Skeggs and Bronwyn Davies theories. Skeggs was used to analyze the significance of class differences among women while we used Davies to analyze how the socialization of female and male behavior has significance for the fear of crime. The result of the study showed that it was mainly women from the working class who felt fear of becoming a victim of crime while women from the middle class did not experience fear in the same way as working class women.

  • 229.
    Fresker, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Biggest Effect on Attrition Among Enlisted U.S Marines: A qualitative field study 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military has an important role in peace and development work. Having skilled, experienced and knowledgeable personnel on peace-promoting missions abroad is crucial to ensure the missions success. A consequence of attrition is that military organizations lose valuable skills, experiences and qualities of service members. Preventing attrition is essential to maintain readiness, morale and knowledge. It also has a positive impact on peacekeeping missions, humanitarian relief and interactions with civil society. Current research on attrition has focused on early attrition; separation that occurs before a full term of service. It has focused on pre-enlistment factors of individuals that would make them less suitable to remain in the military. Current research has looked at attrition among all branches of the United States military. The focus of this thesis is to identify the main reasons for attrition among enlisted United States Marines. Focus is on the effect dissatisfaction of service and civilian opportunities has on attrition. It will also identify areas in need of improvement to prevent attrition. This research is a qualitative field study taken with an abductive approach. The main method of data collection was in-depth semi-structured interviews with active and retired U.S Marines, on site in North Carolina. The theory used to analyze the results is the Rational Choice-Theory, an individualistic theory that focus on individual’s actions and the values and beliefs shaping the action. Dissatisfaction because of bad leadership, military structures, long days of work and lack of motivation affected attrition. Civilian opportunities such as college and spending more time with family also played a part in the decision-making regarding reenlistment. Among the Marines, dissatisfaction arising from long-term issues was the factor that affected attrition the most. Civilian opportunities were in some cases the last pull needed to leave service. The findings can assist in making changes that will have a positive effect on the Marines. It can encourage Marines to pursue a longer military career, and hence keep valuable skills and experiences. These Marines can then continue to do important work within the peace and development field. 

  • 230.
    Frick, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Enhetschefers vardag: En studie av relationer inom kommunal äldreomsorg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the essay Unit Manager´s daily study of relationships in municipal elderly care, my purpose is to investigate how unit managers in elderly care have interpreted their assignments based on the organizational framework politics, organizations, employees, care recipents and relatives. Previous research shows that unit managers as intermediaries has a complex mission. The intermediary lives between various interests, which constitutes the complexity of the profession as unit manager. That is to say, different demands are made on unit managers, where the organization from above sets requirements such as efficiency and results and down the organizations requires confirmation and understanding. To answer my question How do eight unit managers in elderly care understand their mission based on the organizational framework I saw the most relevant use of interview as a relevant method. My purpose and question was based on social interaction where qualitative research is an appropriate method of using when you cannot measure social interaction with numbers. To analyze my material, I use Erving Goffman`s theory that the individual includes many different roles that are part of our inner self. The theoretical concepts I use are role, facade and expressivity. The result of my study shows that the unit managers committment contains care recipents, staff, financial responsibility and to lead and distribute employees. Politics feels close but still far away for the unit managers where the current political plan governs. The unit managers need support from the organization. The assignment includes work with motivating employees which includes questions related to relations and communication. Relationship to employees is of great importance. Unit managers responsibility for the care recipents and employees deals with handling and to cope situations where both care recipents participate and are being listened to

  • 231.
    Fridh, Ebba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Aspsjö, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Moving on from war: Empowerment of young war victims and Peacebuilding in Gulu and its neighboring districts in Uganda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers the role war victims empowerment has on peacebuilding. Even though the relation between empowerment and peacebuilding is well examined, the importance of involving war victims in the peacebuilding process has been given less attention. Through a qualitative case study on the NGO GWED-G’s interventions for young war victims in Gulu, Amuru, and Nwoya districts in Uganda, this study contributes to the discussion on the importance of empowering young war victims for improved peacebuilding efforts. The findings and analysis are based on two analytical frameworks, empowerment theory and the four dimensions of peacebuilding, as well as previous realized linkage between the two. Through these frameworks, it is clear that the empirical data collected in this study regarding the empowerment of young war victims are strongly correlated to the four dimensions of peacebuilding. When carrying out the research, it was also discovered that this linkage goes well beyond what previous research have stated. This study additionally discovered that the empowerment of young war victims has contributed to peacebuilding by impacting whole communities as well. By empowering these war victims, GWED-G has generated a ripple effect, the impact extended to families and entire communities of the empowered war victims and thereby more effectively contributed to peacebuilding.

  • 232.
    Friman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Samverkan över professionsgränser i ett kommunalt projekt: En studie om hur uppdelning i professioner påverkar kommuners samverkansformer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to investigate the affects of interaction between different professions in

    a municipal project. In the project, professional representatives from the social services

    and schools have collaborated with staff in preschool/school and exchanged knowledge

    to improve the work around children with antisocial behavior. It is in this essays

    ambition to create an understanding of how professional practitioners, with a monopoly

    on certain knowledge, influences the possibilities and limitations of cooperation in a

    municipal project. This is examined through six qualitative interviews with members of

    an municipal project. By using theories about professionalization, social closure,

    alliance strategy and social control it is possible to understand how division into

    professions creates opportunities and limitations of interaction exchange in

    collaborative projects. The main conclusion is that well-established professions exclude

    other professions through social closure when they threaten to challenge the established

    knowledge monopoly. Project members who don’t challenge the established knowledge

    monopoly are accepted and an alliance between professions occurs. To succeed with the

    exchange of knowledge in projects between different professions, it is important to

    establish a common vision which can gather people's different knowledge and

    professional backgrounds and get them to strive for a common purpose. It is important

    to establish interaction for making the project members feel belonging and solidarity

    with the group.

  • 233.
    Friman, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Sex och samliv inom LSS: Boendestödjares rollantagande i relation till individer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningars sexualitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a sociological essay made by Johanna Friman. ”When it comes to sex” purpose is to understand the relation between individuals with intellectual disabilities sexuality (IID) and the  role adaption of staff members at group homes. The purpose is also to understand the meaning of attitudes in relation to role adaption and how staff members cooperation affect these roles.

    For the current essay I have used the dramaturgy perspective as a tool for the understanding of staff members role adoption. To understand the meaning of the sexuality amongst IID and as a completion to the dramaturgy perspective I have used the theory of sexual script as an implement. These theories has allowed me to understand role adaption in relation to sex and intimacy.

    The method that’s been used to gather information for the empirical material is mainly interviews. Observations has also been made mainly in purpose to get a deeper knowledge for the interpretation of the material from the interviews.

    The results of the study shows that staff members take on three different kinds of roles. The supportive role rises when the purpose is to support the sexuality of IID. The protective role rises when the purpose is to reduce sexual behaviour amongst IID to protect them. The last and third role is taken on by staff members when the purpose is to teach IID about acceptable sexual behavior.

  • 234.
    Frisk, Mårten
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Economic bureaucracy and the South Korean developmental state2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    South Korea underwent a period of high economic growth which propelled it from low to high income status in just a few decades. Instrumental in this process of rapid industrial transformation was the economic bureaucracy which formulated and implemented policies. This thesis details the role played by bureaucratic organizations in South Korea’s development and how they were able to formulate successful economic policies. In analyzing the economic bureaucracy in South Korea, a framework is used to determine its level of autonomy from special interests as well as the degree of public-private cooperation. The study finds that the high levels of corporate coherence and autonomy from special interests within the economic bureaucracy can partially be ascribed to the meticulously meritocratic recruitment and promotion process which was established prior to the first years of high economic growth. At a higher level of abstraction, the study concludes that South Korea benefited from having a strong imperative to develop its economy due to numerous external and domestic conditions. Although the level of applicability in other contexts is found to be limited, the emergence of a competent and relatively incorrupt bureaucracy remains one aspect which could possibly be reproduced elsewhere.

  • 235.
    Fritz, Heiko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    [ Review of ] Hudson, Julie and Paul Donovan (2014). Food Policy and the Environmental Credit Crunch. From Soup to Nuts. London and New York: Routledge2014In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 261-262Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Fröstad, Danielle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The importance of hydropower in relation to the achievement of the SDGs in Bhutan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to have a successful outcome and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, the development of the hydropower sector is important. This as the hydropower contributes to the socioeconomic development and economic growth, as well as to have an efficient implementation of the SDGs. Nevertheless, the desired outcome of a hydropower development, which in fact will contribute to the other sectors. Thereby, dam governance is important in the success and an important mechanism as to find the balance in the hydropower projects. Since a good dam governance has the potential to create the achievement in both a hydropower development and Agenda 2030.  In relation to the research questions of this study, the importance of dam governance is discussed and analyzed in the success of a hydropower development and in the relation to the implementation of the SDGs.

  • 237.
    Fuchs, Léon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Understanding and Implementing Self-Determination for Indigenous Peoples: The case of the Sami in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the current status of the Sami indigenous community of Sweden and on the implementation of the concept of self-determination for indigenous peoples, as presented by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) of 2007. Nowadays, even if the Sami community of Sweden can enjoy several political, economic, social and cultural rights, a lot remains to be done concerning the development of their self-determination because several international principles related to indigenous rights have not been implemented so far.

     

    Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore how the Sami people of Sweden define and understand the principle of self-determination for indigenous peoples and how they would like to implement it in the future, while also focusing on what can be learned from their particular situation from a conceptual perspective. To achieve that, the research has been mainly based on a field study carried out at the end of April 2014 and at the beginning of May 2014. Several representatives belonging to different Sami political parties and Sami stakeholder’s organisations have been interviewed on the field. Moreover, two academic researchers and one public relations officer have also been contacted and interviewed afterwards to offer a different perspective on the topic.

     

    The findings of the study indicate that the interviewees have highlighted three main issues while defining the concept of self-determination for indigenous peoples: the importance of recognition and self-identification, the respect of indigenous traditions and the protection of traditional lands. Besides, many ideas mostly based on the development of the Swedish Sami Parliament have also been mentioned while thinking about the future. The study has also shown that the indigenous position in Sweden is quite paradoxical because even if the Sami people have some rights, they do not have self-determination as the current situation is still dominated by the state. Finally, another major aspect of the findings has also indicated that self-determination is mainly about changing attitudes between the states and indigenous peoples. 

  • 238.
    Ganic, Amila
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Zeka, Kete
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Jag vill ha stora möjligheter: En kvalitativ studie om utbildningsval2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 239.
    Garbarini, Francesca
    et al.
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Riccardo, Boero
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, USA.
    Francesco, D'Agata
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Cristina, Mosso
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Franco, Cauda
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Sergio, Duca
    Koelliker Hosp, CCS FMRI, Turin, Italy.
    Giuliano, Geminiani
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Katiuscia, Sacco
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e106285-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates.

  • 240.
    Gargano, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Palermo, Italy.
    Tamburino, Lucia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Bagarello, Fabio
    University of Palermo, Italy ; INFN National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Large-scale effects of migration and conflict in pre-agricultural groups: Insights from a dynamic model2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0172262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice. The model outcomes under different conditions were compared with recently available demographic data for prehistoric South America. Only under conditions that include migration among cells and conflict was the model able to consistently reproduce the empirical data at a continental scale. We argue that the interplay between resource competition, migration, and conflict drove the population dynamics of South America after the colonization phase and before the introduction of agriculture. The relation between population and resources indeed emerged as a key factor leading to migration and conflict once the carrying capacity of the environment has been reached.

  • 241.
    Gaspar, Karolina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Att extrajobba som student: En kvalitativ studie om valet att extrajobba under studietiden samt dess inverkan på studentliv och karriärval2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This sociological study aims to understand full-time students’ decision to work part-time during their studies. The study also aims to understand the impact part-time work has on full-time students student life and career decisions.

    A qualiatative approach was used containing eight semi-structured interviews. The results were then analyzed with Hodkinson and Sparkes’ theory of careership and Bourdieu’s theory of habitus, field and capital. The results of the study were thematised into following categories: prospects and impacts of positions; the complex relationship between studies and work and the significance of acquired resource.

    The study show that the decision made by the students to participate in a part-time work during studies could indeed be explained through habitus. It further shows how the student is influenced by positions and other players and institutions in their field. Different resources maintained in the different fields were then part of the decision to work part-time during studies.

    The majority of the interviewed had full student aid and still worked part-time. For some of the interviewed, the reason for not wanting full student aid could be explained through positions in the field. Some of the students also stressed the possibility to work part-time as a consequence of a lot of spare time as a result of how the lectures and other educational learning opportunities were formed. It then showed that students had a complex relation to maintain a combination of part-time work with their studies.

  • 242.
    Gellert, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    En annorlunda svensk kvinna: En kvalitativ studie om sverigefinska 1970-talskvinnors socialisation och sociala identitet i det svenska samhället.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate how female Swedish Finns reflect upon their socialization and their social identity in the Swedish society. The main theoretical framework for this study originates from sociologists such as Goffman and Tajfel. Goffman describes social interaction in terms of theatrical performance and deviant role with the concept of stigma. Tajfel explains how social identity can be understood as the part of the individual's self-concept, which derives from their knowledge and pride of their membership of a social group. A web survey (n=78) and semi-structured interviews (n=7) were conducted with female Swedish Finns, who were born in the 1970’s. They were asked to reflect upon their socialization in the Swedish society, the term Swedish Finns and their current social identity. I found out that the women of this study felt their social identity as being mostly Finns. They showed pride of their origin and of being bilingual. The Finnish language keeps them tied to Finnish traditions, family and friends, which inhibits the socialization to the Swedish society. As time goes by these women gradually move away from other Finns to socializing more with the Swedes. The stories of the seven Swedish Finns implicate that normification takes place and the stigmatized Finn strives to appear as an ordinary Swede in social situations. However, these women recognize themselves mostly as Finns at heart, but also as Swedes depending on the social context. They can best be described as different kind of Swedish women.

  • 243.
    Gellrich, Arne L
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Peace Plus the Shooting?: A Critical Evaluation of SDP Practices and Tenability2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study discusses the phenomenon of Sport for Development and Peace, in short SDP, which in recent years and with active support from the United Nations has been constantly gaining importance. Focusing on football, as the most popular sport, the thesis asks the question whether the generally positive view on both sports and the effects of sport participation on behaviour and the psycho-social development of youths is indeed a realistic assessment and if, in consequence, the game of football is accordingly applicable to projects in a peace-building context. 

    To answer that question, the thesis first gives an overview over existing views and agendas concerning SDP projects among the international community, NGO’s, the private sector and academia. Then, two case studies of projects in Israel and the Balkans are presented, followed by a review of academic findings on the overall impact of sports. In an analytical part, the findings on the views on SDP, the case studies and the research considering sport in general are brought together.

    As a main result, the study manages to answer the research question, reaching the conclusion that the ramifications of sport are indeed much more ambivalent than generally suggested, and that the assessment of NGO’s, MNC’s and the UN alike would need to be adjusted accordingly. The UN recommendation to further sports in a peace-building context is not supported, however the human right to access to sport is recognised and the proliferation of sports in this context encouraged. It is however pointed out that such programmes are not automatically conductive towards the aims of peace and development work, but should rather be closely watched and well planned and implemented to avoid negative effects. Furthermore, SDP projects should be more thoroughly connected to other civil society initiatives. Both recommendations are so far not followed by the initiatives selected for the case studies.

  • 244.
    Gellrich, Arne L
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Peace Plus the Shooting?: A Critical Evaluation of SDP Practices and Tenability2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study discusses the phenomenon of Sport for Development and Peace, in short SDP, which in recent years and with active support from the United Nations has been constantly gaining importance. Focusing on football, as the most popular sport, the thesis asks the question whether the generally positive view on both sports and the effects of sport participation on behaviour and the psycho-social development of youths is indeed a realistic assessment and if, in consequence, the game of football is accordingly applicable to projects in a peace-building context.

    To answer that question, the thesis first gives an overview over existing views and agendas concerning SDP projects among the international community, NGO’s, the private sector and academia. Then, two case studies of projects in Israel and the Balkans are presented, followed by a review of academic findings on the overall impact of sports. In an analytical part, the findings on the views on SDP, the case studies and the research considering sport in general are brought together.

    As a main result, the study manages to answer the research question, reaching the conclusion that the ramifications of sport are indeed much more ambivalent than generally suggested, and that the assessment of NGO’s, MNC’s and the UN alike would need to be adjusted accordingly. The UN recommendation to further sports in a peace-building context is not supported, however the human right to access to sport is recognised and the proliferation of sports in this context encouraged. It is however pointed out that such programmes are not automatically conductive towards the aims of peace and development work, but should rather be closely watched and well planned and implemented to avoid negative effects. Furthermore, SDP projects should be more thoroughly connected to other civil society initiatives. Both recommendations are so far not followed by the initiatives selected for the case studies.

  • 245.
    Gelot, Ludwig
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Reclaiming the Transcendence of Positive Peace Against the Violence of Post-Liberal Peace2018In: International Journal on World Peace, ISSN 0742-3640, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 27-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peace research has abandoned thepursuit of positive peace becauseof a profound commitment to anontology of violence. By assumingthat the world is shaped by arbitrarypower relations, scholars workingon the liberal and post-liberal peaceend up focusing their research onnegative peace. The article developsa critique of this ontology ofviolence assumed by the Realist,Liberal and Critical traditions whichconceals the possibility of positivepeace. Following the lead of CharlesTaylor, it locates the philosophicalshackles that stifle peace research inthe immanent frame that underpinsthe political work of Hobbes and hiscontemporaries. The article outlinesthe contours of an ontology of peaceand revisits the concept of eirenismto conceptualise positive peace.

  • 246.
    Gelot, Ludwig
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The legitimacy of peace operations in volatile environments: Between state-centred and people-centred standards2016In: Journal of Regional Security, ISSN 1452-6115, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 123-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peace operations are increasingly multi-dimensional and are affecting ever more aspects of life at the grassroots level. While this evolution is necessary, it has created a tension in the field of legitimacy. Indeed, how can the United Nations possibly legitimise its actions in a domain traditionally subject to domestic laws and norms? International and domestic standards of legitimacy are clashing but neither of them is fully adapted to the particular case of peace operations. This article outlines a third approach to legitimacy centred on the UN Charter which incorporates the views of the entire legitimacy constituency of peace operations deployed in volatile environments.

  • 247.
    Gelot, Ludwig
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Training for peace, conscientization through university simulation2019In: Journal of Peace Education, ISSN 1740-0201, E-ISSN 1740-021X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 195-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete and insufficient university programmes in the field of Peace and Conflict Resolution have led to an important gap in knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) among peacebuilders and peacekeepers. In theory, experiential learning through problem-based learning (PBL) and simulations should be able to address this gap. This article explores the opportunities and limits of this pedagogical approach to educating peace actors using the case of the Carana simulation delivered at Linne University (LNU), Sweden. Using mixed-methods, this article confirms the added- value of PBL in the development of KSAs but identifies challenges peculiar to the field of Peace and Conflict Studies that limit its effects. PBL has a clear added-value for the development of skills in learners with a consistent development of professional skills. It can be used to foster conscientization as a precursor to transforming societies towards nonviolence and justice.

  • 248.
    Gerbeshi, Kaltrina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Vägen till att bli en del av samhället: - en studie om integrationsarbetet på ett HVB-hem för ensamkommande unga2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to research about how the staff at a residental care home strives to make the unaccompanied youths feel like they are a part of the society in Sweden. The purpose is also to explain how the staff at the care home legitimises their integrating actions. To accomplish the purpose, a qualitative approach was made; four staffs and three youths were interviewed at a care home in the southern part of Sweden. The theoretical approach were: social integration and social exclusion. The theoretical concepts in this study were: rules, norms, social norms and moral norms. The findings of this study was that the staff, mentors and the guardians of the youths were people that helped them understand the ”new” society by teaching them the mutual norms, values and attitudes in the society. The norms, rules and routines that were taught at the care home, were interpreted as social and moral norms that sets the framework of a ”correct behavior” in a given situation. To make the system of norms appear as legitimate to the youths, the staff explained why the norms are important to internalize as well as explaining what could happen if you would go against them. In this way, the youths corrected their behavior in relation to what the staff mediated and to what they thought was important themselves. To understand how the society works, including learning the norms, values and behaviours, were according to the staff a way for the youths to create a good start into the Swedish society.

  • 249.
    Ghazanfari, Omid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Utomeuropeiska muslimska kvinnor som företagare: En kvalitativ studie av utomeuropeiska kvinnliga företagare med muslimsk bakgrund i kronobergs län2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to find and analyse the reasons to why non- European women with Muslim background start their own business in Sweden. The purpose is also to investigate which resources the women have and mobilize to start and run their own businesses. To gather data, interviews have been conducted with eight female entrepreneurs originally from Iran, Afghanistan, Irak, Syria, Lebanon and Somalia who have owned their own business in Kronoberg County in Sweden. The Interviews with two advisors who give advice to people that wants to start a business in Sweden have also been conducted. The interviews were transcribed in full, thereafter they have been analysed in relation to the theoretical concepts of pull-and push factors, habitus, cultural, social and economic capital. This has led up to the following themes; women's background before immigration to Sweden, their experience of education and job before starting their own business in Sweden and their experience as Non-European women with Muslim background as entrepreneurs in the Swedish labour market. The result from interviews with the business leaders shows that these women have started the business for two main reasons. First, are personal reasons, including having independence, developing personal development by starting a business, having prestige by starting Own enterprise. The second reason is about the structural problems in society, including unemployment, livelihood, and lack of relevant jobs that match their educational background, which have been caused in some cases by discrimination in the labor market. In order to finance their businesses, the women have used different strategies, including using their ethnic ethnicity network for borrowing money from family members, use their own money that they have saved before stating a company, or borrow money from the Swedish banks and ALMI.

  • 250.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Managing the Commons: A Simple Model of the Emergence of Institutions Through Collective Action2016In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 200-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an abstract replication of institutional emergence patterns observed in common pool resource (CPR) problems. We used the ADICO grammar of institutions as the basic structure to model both users' strategies and institutions. Through an evolutionary process, users modify their behaviours and eventually establish a management institution for their CPR system, leading to significant benefits both for them and for the commons as a whole. We showed that, even with a high level of abstraction, by taking an evolutionary perspective and using the ADICO structure, we are able to observe common institutional patterns. We confirmed that, even within this simplified environment, institutions significantly contributed to the sustainable management of common-pool resource systems.

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