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  • 201.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Experimental validation of Sr uptake in juvenile pike (Esox Lucius L.) otoliths – from water and food.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strontium (Sr) or Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths have been widely used in the last decade to describe migration histories

    of fish between fresh and marine waters. However, reference experimental studies on particular species and

    waters are necessary to confirm the underlying assumption and evaluate the usefulness of this tool for field data.

    We conducted an experiment with the aim to answer these questions for anadromous pike (Esox lucius L.) in

    the Baltic Sea. Juvenile pike were reared in successively increasing salinities (10 steps from 0 to 7 ‰) for 110

    days, and then in constant maximum salinity (7 ‰) for an additional 50 days. Pikes in the experiment were

    divided into two food treatments, given prey fish from brackish environments (7 ‰) and fish from freshwater

    lakes. Sr:Ca in pike otoliths were positively related to Sr in water (i.e salinity) in both treatments, suggesting

    that Sr:Ca ratios may be used to describe migration histories between rivers and the Baltic Sea.

    A significant difference in Sr.Ca ratios was found between the food treatments, showing that differences in diet

    may contribute to variation in otolith Sr:Ca, at least for pike in the Baltic Sea. Maximum Sr:Ca values for pike

    given marine food corresponded with field collected fish from the Baltic Sea.

  • 202.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Strontium (Sr) uptake from water and food in otoliths of juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.)2012In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 418-419, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strontium (Sr) or Sr:Ca ratio in otoliths has been widely used in the last decade to describe the migration

    histories of fish between fresh and marine waters. However, reference experimental studies of particular

    species and waters are necessary to confirm the underlying assumptions and evaluate the applicability of

    this tool to field data. Laboratory experiments indicated that juvenile, anadromous pike (Esox lucius L.)

    from the Baltic Sea reared in successively increasing salinities (from 0 to 7) for 110 d accumulated Sr

    in their otoliths according to a positive relationship with waterborne Sr. When the pike were given prey

    fish from brackish (7) environments, the otolith Sr:Ca ratio increased more than in fish given prey

    from freshwater lakes. Pike held at constant salinity (7) and given prey fish from the same salinity

    environment had an Sr:Ca ratio of 6.9Å~103. The ratio decreased successively for fish given prey

    from freshwater (4.4Å~103) or kept in freshwater and given food from brackish water (3.1Å~103).

    Fish exposed to freshwater and given prey fish from freshwater displayed no increase in Sr:Ca ratio

    (1.6Å~103). The experiments demonstrated that the Sr:Ca ratio may be used to describe the migration

    history of pike between rivers and the Baltic Sea. The maximum Sr:Ca value for pike given marineorigin

    food corresponded to those of fish collected from the Baltic Sea.

  • 203.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Skov, Christian
    Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, Department of Inland Fisheries, Vejlsøvej 39,8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Borger, Tobias
    County Administrative Board of Kalmar, 391 86 Kalmar.
    Stenroth, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Annual spawning migration of anadromous pike (Esox lucius L.) in streams entering the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The movement of pike (n = 3415) was investigated in four streams entering the Baltic Sea in the Kalmar Sound

    region, Sweden. Migration patterns were monitored during spawning in three of the streams and during the

    whole year in the forth stream using passive integrated transponders and outer tags. The study was conducted

    yearly between 2006 and 2010. Mature pike returned (22 – 45%) to the same streams year after year and some

    fish returned to the same regions of the streams. No incidence of fish visiting another stream than the one

    where they were marked was recorded and no fish missed the spawning season to return the next year. These

    results indicated that the reason for fish not returning was due to mortality. The proportions of returning fish

    indicated homing and the spawning ground fidelity (stream) was high. Return rates were influenced by size

    of fish, sex and stream identity. We also investigated if sex, size or individual behaviour influenced timing of

    arrival, departure or duration of stay in freshwater. Diurnal activity was examined in one year in each stream

    suggesting activity peaks in the morning and evening. The results show that pike in the Baltic Sea are anadromous

    and that the migration behavior is likely to create barriers for gene flow. The separation in populations

    by spawning are similar to salmonid species and the management of pike in the Baltic Sea must consider this

    process in strategies and plans of fishing.

  • 204.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stenroth, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Lars
    Fiskeriverket.
    Elfman, Mikael
    Lunds universitet, Kärnfysik.
    Assessment of natal origin of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths2010In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 89, p. 547-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp), bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and burbot (Lola iota) all undertake spawning migrations to freshwater. However, over the last decades populations densities of these species have declined, and recruitment failure has been argued to be at least part of the problem. The importance of brooks and rivers as spawning areas for these species have not been quantified and set in relation to spawning success in brackish bays. In this study, we collected 175 adult pike (Esox lucius) on their foraging grounds in the sea. Fish were collected in two regions on the Baltic coast, more than 600 km apart. Subsequently we determined their origin (freshwater or marine) using otolith chemistry. Sagittal otoliths were analysed for strontium using the PIXE-method. The results show that 80 of the 175 pike were recruited in freshwater, and several of the larger specimens showed reoccurring migration behaviour. Data show that freshwater is an important recruitment habitat for Baltic Sea pike, suggesting that habitat improvements in rivers entering the Baltic Sea might significantly contribute to population restoration.

  • 205.
    Engström, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Terpene Metabolism in Artemisia annua L.: Studies on the Localization of Biosynthetic Enzymes and their Level of Expression2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antimalarial substance artemisinin is a terpene produced in small amounts in the plant Artemisia annua L.  Because of the low yield, artemisinin-based drugs are expensive and therefore not available for many living in poor areas in the world where malaria claims up to a million lives each year. To increase artemisinin yield in A. annua, a lot of research needs to be done to understand the mechanisms for how the plant synthesizes this terpene compound artemisinin.

    In this work, the gene expression of several genes in A. annua involved in terpene production have been studied, especially those in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. The gene expression has been measured and compared in different tissues of the plant. Further, the artemisinin production in the plant takes place in small 10-cellular outgrowths on the surface of the plant, called glandular trichomes. The gene expression in glandular trichomes has been examined by comparing untreated stem with stem where trichomes have been removed mechanically.

    All enzymes except one in the artemisinin pathway showed highest expression in young leaves and flower buds, both tissues with high glandular trichome count, and less or no expression in roots, which lack glandular trichomes. The artemisinin pathway enzyme artemisinic aldehyde reductase surprisingly showed similar expression in all tissues. Old leaves highly expressed the enzyme 8-epi-cedrol synthase that competes for substrates used in artemisinin biosynthesis. Young leaves on the other hand highly expressed another competing enzyme, germacrene A synthase.

  • 206.
    Eriksson, Emily
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Alternativa fröer i bröd: En teknisk och sensorisk utvärdering av amarant, bovete, chia, hirs samt quinoa i bröd och bakning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Influenser från hela världen påverkar livsmedelsindustrin och användandet av fröer har ökat kraftigt de senaste åren. Idag används endast ett begränsat antal fröer inom bageriindustrin men ett intresse finns av att finna alternativa fröer som kan bidra med sina egenskaper till bröd.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka amarant, bovete, chia, hirs och quinoa, för att se vad de kan bidra med för näringsmässiga och sensoriska egenskaper till bröd. Examensarbetet utförs vid Pågen AB. Genom en mindre litteraturstudie och ett antal bakningsförsök med efterföljande analyser av volym, inkråm, textur och vattenhalt, kartläggs fröernas närings- och bakningsegenskaper. Sensoriska analyser görs även för att undersöka dessa egenskaper hos varje frö.

    Av de studerade fröerna valdes chia, bovete och quinoa ut för vidare bakningsförsök. Chia och bovete valdes ut bland annat på grund av de goda resultaten från de sensoriska analyserna och försöken visade att båda fröerna fungerar bra i olika bröd, i olika mängder. Quinoas bittra smak och lukt var svår att få bort men minskade när fröet användes som dekor. Även chia och krossat bovete passade bra som dekor på bröd.

    Försöken visar på att det finns spännande alternativa fröer som kan bidra med mycket både när det gäller näring och smak till bröd. Vidare försök med olika brödrecept och varierade frömängder krävs för att se hur väl fröerna skulle fungera i storskaliga projekt inom bageriindustrin.

  • 207.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hur påverkas urlakningen av metaller från glasbruks deponier vid en klimatförändring?: Med exempel från Åfors glasbruksdeponi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Från 1600 – talet har glasbruken i Kalmar/Kronobergsregionen tillverkat glas. I tillverkningen användes bland annat arsenik för att hindra blåsbildning i glaset, och bly gav kristallglas dess karakteristiska egenskaper. Kadmium användes i färger och även antimon motverkade blåsor. Deponier anlades bland annat i sankmark intill vattendrag, och lade på det sättet grunden för en föroreningsspridning vilken kommer fortsätta långt in i framtiden.

    Det länsövergripande samarbetet Glasbruksprojektet (2006 – 2007) utredde föroreningsgraden på glasbruken, men ingen hänsyn till säsongsvariationer eller klimatförändringar togs. Temperatur- och nederbördsökningar i framtiden kommer troligen ge en kraftigare variation i grundvattennivåer. Forskare har sett vissa samband mellan grundvattennivåer och grundvattenkemi och även variationen mellan årstiderna. I denna undersökning studerades nutida variationer i grundvattenflöde/nivåer och grundvattenkemi för att sedan dra slutsatser om det framtida läckaget från deponier. Undersökningen har gjorts med fältarbeten, kolonnförsök på laboratorium samt analyser av provresultat under Glasbruksprojektet. Åfors glasbruk i Åfors samhälle, Emmaboda kommun, Kalmar län var studieobjekt. Produktionen startade år 1876, och bruket finns kvar än idag i Orrefors Kosta Boda AB koncernen. Den nedlagda deponin som ligger i direkt anslutning till Lyckebyån innehåller stora mängder föroreningar.

    Fältmätningarna visade på relativt stabila metallhalter i vattenprover tagna i Åfors glasbruksdeponi oberoende av variationer i grundvattennivå. Resultatet från det befintliga datamaterialet från Glasbruksprojektet, visade att ett högt flöde inte gav högre halter urlakade metaller. Kolonnförsöket visade på den stora trögheten för glaset att urlaka metaller. Den övergripande slutsatsen av de olika undersökningsmetodernas resultat blir då att halten metall som lakas ur glasdeponin inte kommer att förändras nämnvärt vid högre flöden, men att individuella variationer finns. Mängden metall som lakas ur kan öka vid högre flöden.  

    Komplexiteten i spridningsprocesserna är stor, och den verkliga effekten av klimatförändringarna är mindre lätt att undersöka. Spridningen av metaller kan dramatiskt öka när grundvattnet stiger till områden som inte tidigare varit i kontakt med vatten, eller om ytvatten översvämmas. Den stora mängd lagrad metall i vattendragens sediment kan även lösas upp. Den stora risken kommer i framtiden att finnas under de torra somrarna när dricksvatten tvingas tas från större, potentiellt förorenade områden. Troligt är då att spridningen av glasbruksrelaterade föroreningar, kommer att ha ökat efter en tid med stora klimatförändringar.

  • 208.
    Erman, Evelina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Analys av antikroppar mot Moraxella catarrhalis hos patienter med multipelt myelom, Waldenströms makroglobulinemi och monoklonal gammopati av oklar signifikans med ”enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay”2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försämrat immunförsvar och ökad risk att drabbas av bakterie- och virusinfektioner förekommer hos patienter med blodsjukdomarna multipelt myelom, Waldenströms makroglobulinemi samt hos vissa patienter med blodsjukdomen monoklonal gammopati av oklar signifikans. Infektionerna kräver ofta antibiotikabehandling och behandling med antivirala medel. I dagsläget är det svårt att förutsäga vilka av patienterna som kommer att drabbas av svåra och ibland livshotande infektioner. Därför ges många av patienterna förebyggande antibiotikabehandling.

    I studiens början sattes en enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) för detektion av antikroppar mot Moraxella catarrhalis upp. I studien undersöktes om antikroppstitrar i serum mot bakterien Moraxella catarrhalis var lägre hos patientgrupperna än hos friska kontrollpersoner i samma ålder och om variationer förekom mellan patientgrupperna samt hur kontrollgrupper i olika åldrar skiljde sig från varandra. Kontrollgrupperna som undersöktes var mellan 20-40 år, 40-60 år samt 60 år och äldre.

    Resultatet var att patienterna med multipelt myelom hade lägst antikroppstitrar, patienter med monoklonal gammopati av oklar signifikans hade något högre och patienter med Waldenströms makroglobulinemi hade ännu högre antikroppstitrar. Kontrollgruppen äldre än 60 år hade högre antikroppstitrar än både kontrollgruppen 20-40 år och 40-60 år. Lägst antikroppstitrar hade kontrollgrupp 40-60 år men ingen signifikant skillnad påvisades mellan kontrollgrupp 20-40 år och 40-60 år.

  • 209.
    Evertsson, Kim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ribosomal Protein S6 (rpS6), Muscle Atrophy and Hypertrophy2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a small protein of 33 kDa, residing in the 40S ribosomal subunit and has drawn much attention since its discovery over thirty years ago. The rpS6 is located downstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) along with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP1) and is activated through phosphorylation by ribosomal S6Kinase (S6K). The increased phosphorylation of rpS6 leads to enhanced translation of specific mRNAs. The phosphorylation sites have been mapped to five evolutionarily conserved residues. rpS6 has been implicated in different processes e.g. regulation of transcription of 5エTOP mRNAs but has also been reported to enhance ribosome biogenesis by connecting the two ribosome subunits and thereby affecting global protein synthesis. Moreover, knockout of S6K results in mice with reduced body size.The aim of this study was to examine the expression of total rpS6 protein as well as phosphorylated rpS6 (PrpS6) residues in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles in mice, using Western blot. An experimental model consisting of 6 days denervated hemidiaphragm muscle (hypertrophic) and 6 days denervated hind-limb muscles (atrophic) was used. The expression of total rpS6 protein was not significantly altered in atrophic muscle (hind-limb), but there was a significant increase in the expression of phosphorylated rpS6 protein in atrophic muscle (hind-limb) p <0.001. In hypertrophic muscle (hemidiaphragm) there was a significant increase in both total rpS6 protein expression p < 0.001 and phosphorylated rpS6 protein expression p < 0.001. The results show a marked up regulation of rpS6 and phosphorylated rpS6 in hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscle and of phosphorylated rpS6 in denervated atrophic skeletal muscle. Further studies are necessary in order to understand the significance of increased rpS6 phosphorylation in denervated atrophic as well as hypertrophic skeletal muscle.

  • 210.
    Evgenieva, Tsvetina
    et al.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Tatarov, Boyan
    Atmospheric Environment Division, Japan National Institute for Environmental Studies.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kolev, Nikolay
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Donev, Evgeni
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Ivanov, Danko
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridkski Sofia University.
    Danchovski, Ventislav
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Petkov, Doyno
    Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Scademy of Sciences.
    Grigorieva, Vera
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Kolev, Ivan
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Remote sensing and in situ investigation of the atmosphere over mountain valley (Sofia - Bulgaria)2010In: Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, 2010, p. 1138-1141Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Evgenieva, Tsvetina
    et al.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kolev, Nikolay
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Donev, Evgeni
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Ivanov, Danko
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Danchovski, Ventislav
    Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski Sofia University.
    Petkov, Doyno
    Solar-Terrestrial Influences Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Grigorieva, Vera
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Kolev, Ivan
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Lidar, ceilometer and sun photometer investigation of the aerosol optical characteristics in the troposphere over Sofia, Bulgaria2010In: Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences / Proceedings of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1310-1331, E-ISSN 2367-5535, Vol. 63, no 8, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results from planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements carried out in two different experimental sites in Sofia as well as from three-point measurements of aerosol number concentration.

    The main aim of the present investigation is to determine optical and microphysical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol in three points of the valley and their variation during the PBL formation over urban area, park zone and mountain site. Four instruments (lidar, ceilometer, aerosol particle counter and sun photometer) were used in this study.

    The experimental AOD data obtained at lambda = 500nm gave values in the range from 0.22 to 0.41 in case of cloud-free skies and up to around 0.8 under partly cloudy conditions. Aerosol particle counter data on aerosol-particle concentration variations in the size range 0.3-1 mu m provided supportive information on the evolution of the valley-mountain aerosol in time and height during the mixing layer development. Joint interpretation of sun photometer, aerosol lidar and ceilometer CHM 15k data allow the influence of the main part of the atmospheric aerosol in the planetary boundary layer to be accounted as well as the significant influence of aerosol layers and high clouds on AOD values.

  • 212.
    Evgenieva, Tsvetina
    et al.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kolev, Nikolay
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Savov, P.
    Department of Physics, Ivan Rilski University.
    Donev, E.
    Department of Meteorology & Geophyiscs, St. Kliment Ohridski University.
    Ivanov, D.
    Department of Meteorology & Geophyiscs, St. Kliment Ohridski University.
    Danchovski, V.
    Department of Meteorology & Geophyiscs, St. Kliment Ohridski University.
    Kaprielov, B.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Grigorieva, V.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Iliev, Ts.
    Central Laboratory of Solar-Terrestrial Influences, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Kolev, I.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Three-point observation in the troposphere over Sofia-Plana Mountain,Bulgaria2011In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 32, no 24, p. 9343-9363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a novel combination of approaches and instruments, this article presents campaign-based results from atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements carried out at two different experimental sites in Sofia, as well as from three-point measurements of aerosol number concentrations. Several instruments (lidar (developed by the IE), ceilometer, aerosol particle counter, sun photometer and meteorological sensors) were used in this study. Based on joint interpretation of the instruments' data we assess the influence of the atmospheric aerosol in the planetary boundary layer and the significant influence of aerosol layers and high clouds on AOD values. Measurements of AOD in the city basin gave values in the range 0.22-0.41 for cloud-free skies, and up to around 0.8 under partly cloudy conditions. The information obtained during the two campaigns indicates that aerosol particle concentrations were lower in park areas than along heavy-traffic thoroughfares in the city, but higher than in the mountain area. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the potential of employing a broad array of instruments for the study of boundary layer and aerosol over large, valley-situated and heavily urbanized city areas.

  • 213.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Contribution of phagotrophy versus autotrophy to Prymnesium parvum growth under nitrogen and phosphorus sufficiency and deficiency2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 9, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sufficiency and deficiency on mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta). A parvum was grown with and without algal prey (Rhodomonas salina) and observed for 120 h. Detection and enumeration of cells containing food vacuoles with prey (i.e. phagotrophy) was based on flow cytometric detection of fluorescence of an acidotropic probe. Overall, the presence of R. salina increased phagotrophy in P. parvum suggesting that, at least in this strain of P. parvum, the presence of suitable prey can stimulate phagotrophic behavior in P. parvum. Feeding frequency (the percentage of A parvum cells containing food vacuoles in a given time) was significantly higher under N and P deficiency than in the nutrient-sufficient treatments. A nutrient budget constructed from the data indicated that ingestion of organic matter (OM) supplied with 78 +/- 7% of the N (3.9 +/- 0.3 mu M) incorporated by P. parvum in the N-deficient treatment, and 45 +/- 9% of the P (0.3 +/- 0 mu M) acquired in the P-deficient cultures. Even under nutrient sufficiency, ingestion of OM was estimated to have supplied 43 +/- 16% of the N and 48 +/- 16% of the P incorporated into P. parvum cells. Phagotrophy was observed even in the NP-sufficient cultures (non-axenic mixed and monocultures), although P. parvum cells did not lose their photosynthetic capability, suggesting that phagotrophy is probably a permanent nutritional adaptation to this species. The ingestion of organic nutrients played an important role in P. parvum growth, being a reliable source of nutrition for P. parvum inorganic nutrient limitation, and could explain its capabilities to form persistent blooms. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 214.
    Fagerberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sapa Heat Transfers koldioxidspår: En kartläggning av verksamhetens koldioxidutsläpp2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sapa Heat Transfer is a company that produces aluminum heat-exchanger strips for the automotive industry. Sapa Heat Transfer wish to chart their emissions of carbon dioxide in order to meet future demands on carbon dioxide reporting. They also would like to examine the meaning of the term “green electricity” which is marketed as carbon dioxide free, and the sort of electricity that they purchase. This report includes both direct (liquefied petroleum gas and diesel) and indirect (water, process-water, long distance heating, waste) emissions from their company. The conclusion of this report is that liquefied petroleum is the biggest contributor to the emissions of carbon dioxide and that the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from the processes is almost twice the amount of aluminum product, or 1,77 to be precise. The green electricity emits small amounts of carbon dioxide per kWh produced when analyzed in a lifecycle perspective which is also presented in this report.

  • 215.
    Fagrell, Mimmi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation and development of environmental aspects and objectives at Saab Training Systems, Huskvarna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project work is to evaluate and update Saab Training Systems’ environmental objectives and to propose recommendations for its continuing environmental work. Since the company is ISO 14001 certified the work is based on that standard. To be able to update the objectives and propose new ones; the environmental aspects where first updated.

     

    The results of the work are; an evaluation of the company’s current environmental objectives, new environmental aspects, new environmental objectives and some suggestions for its continual environmental work.

     

    The results follow the current aspects and objectives when it comes to disposition but the content is updated. The company does not have industrial manufacturing or other activities that is usually associated with environmental impact but it still affects the environment in many ways. The many differences and additions the results show compared to the company’s own aspects and objectives show that it can be a good thing to look at things from a new perspective.

  • 216.
    Falinska-Krol, Joanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stamcellsterapi: En teknik som räddar synen?!2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Synen är det viktigaste mediet genom vilket människan uppfattar omgivningen. Degenerativa processer som försämrar synen kan förbindas till ärftligt betingade eller degenerativa processer och mutationsfaktorer eller multifaktoriella degenerativa näthinnesjukdomar: retinitis pigmentosa, glaukom och åldersrelaterad makula degeneration. Forskarna har försökt förhindra utveckling av näthinnedegenerationen genom användning av stam- eller progenitorceller. Under differentiering och självförnyande processer utsöndrar dessa celler olika endogena tillväxtfaktorer: substanser som är aktiva vid cellens mognads- och reparationsprocesser. Att rädda och skydda celler från apoptos eller återskapa nya fotoreceptorer eller nervceller är forskarnas mål. Under de senaste 10 åren har man provat att ersätta förlorad syn med synproteser (biomimetisk utrustning).

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att jämföra olika typer av terapier och beskrivna forskningsmetoder över stamcellsterapi vid diverse sjukliga tillstånd i ögat.

    Resultat: Stam- och progenitorceller kan skydda fotoreceptorer och nervceller från apoptos. De kan ha förmildrande effekt vid olika degenerativa tillstånd i ögat. Det finns fortfarande osäkerhet över möjligheten att transplanterade celler kan bilda tumörliknande strukturer. Det krävs mer forskning för att utesluta detta. I samodling med humana neurala progenitorceller (hNPC) var yttre nukleära lagret (ONL) mellan 10 % och 40 % tjockare, antalet fotoreceptorer som har överlevt signifikant större i båda testade grupper än vid kontrollen. Fotoreceptorers dödlighet har minskat med 30 % till över 50 % . Det är enormt svårt att kunna skapa från stamceller neuronceller som t.ex. Amakrina celler, bipolära celler och ganglionceller. Humana embryonala stamceller (hESC) differentierar bättre än vad musembryonala celler gjorde. Med synproteser som baseras på kvarstående näthinnemöjligheter har man kunnat återskapa en del av synen.

    Diskussion: Terapin med stamceller kan ha förmildrande effekter vid glaukomatösa förluster av ganglionceller. Närvaro av humana neurala progenitorceller (hNPC) minskar signifikant dödlighet hos fotoreceptorer och neuronceller men möjligheterna att återskapa redan förlorade näthinneceller är begränsade. Det finns fortfarande risk att transplanterade celler bildar tumörliknande strukturer i ögat. Plats och utvecklingsfas där transplantat hamnar spelar stor roll vid lyckad behandling. Det krävs mer forskning innan dessa terapier blir klinisk tillåtna.

  • 217.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Al-Soud, Waleed Abu
    Hansen, Lars H
    Sørensen, Søren
    Steward, Grieg F
    Hagström, Åke
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Nitrogenase gene amplicons from global marine surface waters are dominated by genes of non-cyanobacteria2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 4, p. e19223-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacteria are thought to be the main N(2)-fixing organisms (diazotrophs) in marine pelagic waters, but recent molecular analyses indicate that non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs are also present and active. Existing data are, however, restricted geographically and by limited sequencing depths. Our analysis of 79,090 nitrogenase (nifH) PCR amplicons encoding 7,468 unique proteins from surface samples (ten DNA samples and two RNA samples) collected at ten marine locations world-wide provides the first in-depth survey of a functional bacterial gene and yield insights into the composition and diversity of the nifH gene pool in marine waters. Great divergence in nifH composition was observed between sites. Cyanobacteria-like genes were most frequent among amplicons from the warmest waters, but overall the data set was dominated by nifH sequences most closely related to non-cyanobacteria. Clusters related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Proteobacteria were most common and showed distinct geographic distributions. Sequences related to anaerobic bacteria (nifH Cluster III) were generally rare, but preponderant in cold waters, especially in the Arctic. Although the two transcript samples were dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria, 42% of the identified non-cyanobacterial nifH clusters from the corresponding DNA samples were also detected in cDNA. The study indicates that non-cyanobacteria account for a substantial part of the nifH gene pool in marine surface waters and that these genes are at least occasionally expressed. The contribution of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs to the global N(2) fixation budget cannot be inferred from sequence data alone, but the prevalence of non-cyanobacterial nifH genes and transcripts suggest that these bacteria are ecologically significant.

  • 218.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tarangkoon, Woraporn
    Hansen, Gert
    Hansen, Per Juel
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Putative N-2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with dinoflagellate-Cyanobacteria consortia in the low-nitrogen Indian Ocean2010In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 105-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterotrophic dinoflagellates bearing unicellular cyanobacterial symbionts are common within the order Dinophysiales. However, the ecological role of these symbionts is unclear. Due to the occurrence of such consortia in oceanic waters characterized by low nitrogen concentrations, we hypothesized that the symbionts fix gaseous nitrogen (N-2). Individual heterotrophic dinoflagellates containing cyanobacterial symbionts were isolated from the open Indian Ocean and off Western Australia, and characterized using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogenase (nifH) gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and eukaryotic algae were recognized as symbionts of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates. nifH gene sequences were obtained from 23 of 37 (62%) specimens of dinoflagellates (Ornithocercus spp. and Amphisolenia spp.). Interestingly, only 2 specimens contained cyanobacterial nifH sequences, while 21 specimens contained nifH genes related to heterotrophic bacteria. Of the 137 nifH sequences obtained 68% were most similar to Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, 8% clustered with anaerobic bacteria, and 5% were related to second alternative nitrogenases (anfH). Twelve sequences from 5 host cells formed a discrete cluster which may represent a not yet classified nifH cluster. Eight dinoflagellates contained only 1 type of nifH sequence (>99% sequence identity) but overall the putative N-2-fixing symbionts did not appear host specific and mixed assemblages were often found in single host cells. This study provides the first insights into the nifH diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts and suggests a symbiotic co-existence of non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria and N-2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria in heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

  • 219.
    Fernström, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Om utformning av ett verksamhetssystem: En utvärdering av nuläge, tillgänglighet och erfarenheter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    These days most companies conduct some form of work for the external environment, quality and safety. In connection with this work, some companies have chosen to get management systems certified by any applicable standard for one or more of the fields while other companies have chosen other ways that are not associated with certification.

    In light of the fact that the individual systems are becoming unmanageable an increasing number of these companies are faced with the decision whether to integrate and coordinate these different systems or not. In order to study the possibilities of a company’s system coordination an assessment of elements particularly interesting for the company was performed. The key elements and focuses in the evaluation were staff access to information, experiences from other companies and environmental work status for some of the organization's companies. The availability and type of platform for information supply were investigated by means of a survey and showed a clear relationship between degree of usage, difficulties in finding information and perceived availability. Experience of managing such systems were investigated by means of written interviews with a number of companies and gave very good understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of a coordinated or integrated system. Evaluation of environmental work status was conducted as a checklist at two of Företaget AB:s subsidiaries and gave a clear picture of current status in relation to the standard requirements.

    The investigation led to conclusions particularly concerning the importance of understanding the needs of the individual firm and its employees in the layout of an integrated system. A company's current situation regarding environmental work is not always crucial whether or not it should be part of the shared certificate. The solution regarding certification is eminently individual for each company. To avoid the negative effects that can arise from a shared certificate the company consequently need to find solutions that suit its own business best. To enable staff to find and use information in a simple way such information should be made readily available and limited to the user in a process oriented way.

  • 220.
    Filipsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förstår kontaktlinsbärare innebörden av en kontaktlinsundersökning?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka om kontaktlinsbärare förstår innebörden av en kontaktlinsundersökning och vikten av de olika momenten. Hur är deras ställningstagande till regelbundna kontroller och om varför de ska göra en kontaktlinsundersökning? Metoden som användes till studien var en enkätundersökning med 9 frågor som deltagarna fick besvara efter en kontaktlinsundersökning. Frågorna berörde olika attitydsfrågor gällande kontaktlinsbärande och vad de trodde optikern undersökt i kontaktlinsundersökningen. Enkäten delades ut i 10 optikerbutiker och de som medverkade svarade anonymt.

    Resultatet grundas på en enkät med totalt 94 deltagare. 47 % förklarade att de gick på en kontaktlinsundersökning en gång om året och 37 % svarade att de gick en gång i halvåret. 82 % tyckte att det var viktigt att gå på regelbundna kontaktlinskontroller. Den största anledningen till att deltagarna gick till en kontaktlinsundersökning var att förnya sitt kontaktlinsrecept. 69 % svarade att det var viktigt att optikern tog reda på hur de tillfrågade tyckte kontaktlinsanvändning fungerade. 93 % svarade att de måste gå en gång om året eller oftare för att kunna köpa kontaktlinser hos sin optiker. Deltagarna trodde bland annat att optikern undersökte synen, den okulära hälsan och tillpassningen av kontaktlinserna. 50 % svarade att de fått information om skötselrutin för kontaktlinserna.

    Studien visar på att en klar majoritet av kontaktlinsbärarna förstår innebörden av en kontaktlinsundersökning och de olika moment som ingår.

  • 221.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Uncertainty, variability and environmental risk analysis2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of hazardous substances and possible measures that can be taken are evaluated in the environmental risk analysis process, consisting of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Uncertainty due to lack of knowledge and natural variability are always present in this process. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate some tools as well as discuss the management of uncertainty and variability, as it is necessary to treat them both in a reliable and transparent way to gain regulatory acceptance in decision making.

    The catalytic effects of various metals on the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds during the heating of fly ash were investigated (paper I). Copper showed a positive catalytic effect, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium showed a catalytic effect for degradation. Knowledge of the catalytic effects may facilitate the choice and design of combustion processes to decrease emissions, but it also provides valuable information to identify and characterize the hazard.

    Exposure factors of importance in risk assessment (physiological parameters, time use factors and food consumption) were collected and evaluated (paper II). Interindividual variability was characterized by mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and multiple percentiles, while uncertainty in these parameters was estimated with confidence intervals.

    How these statistical parameters can be applied was shown in two exposure assessments (papers III and IV). Probability bounds analysis was used as a probabilistic approach, which enables separate propagation of uncertainty and variability even in cases where the availability of data is limited. In paper III it was determined that the exposure cannot be expected to cause any negative health effects for recreational users of a public bathing place. Paper IV concluded that the uncertainty interval in the estimated exposure increased when accounting for possible changes in climate-sensitive model variables. Risk managers often need to rely on precaution and an increased uncertainty may therefore have implications for risk management decisions.

    Paper V focuses on risk management and a questionnaire was sent to employees at all Swedish County Administrative Boards working with contaminated land. It was concluded that the gender, age and work experience of the employees, as well as the funding source of the risk assessment, all have an impact on the reviewing of risk assessments. Gender was the most significant factor, and it also affected the perception of knowledge.

  • 222.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Environmental decision-making within the steel industry: the role of individuals’ worries, knowledge and responsibility2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 223.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Lill
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Variability between individuals when reviewing environmental risk assessments at a public authority2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Variability and uncertainty in Swedish exposure factors for use in quantitative exposure assessments2011In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information of exposure factors used in quantitative risk assessments has previously been compiled and reported for U.S. and European populations. However, due to the advancement of science and knowledge, these reports are in continuous need of updating with new data. Equally important is the change over time of many exposure factors related to both physiological characteristics and human behavior. Body weight, skin surface, time use, and dietary habits are some of the most obvious examples covered here. A wealth of data is available from literature not primarily gathered for the purpose of risk assessment. Here we review a number of key exposure factors and compare these factors between northern Europe—here represented by Sweden—and the United States. Many previous compilations of exposure factor data focus on interindividual variability and variability between sexes and age groups, while uncertainty is mainly dealt with in a qualitative way. In this article variability is assessed along with uncertainty. As estimates of central tendency and interindividual variability, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple percentiles were calculated, while uncertainty was characterized using 95% confidence intervals for these parameters. The presented statistics are appropriate for use in deterministic analyses using point estimates for each input parameter as well as in probabilistic assessments.

  • 225.
    Floricica, Elisabeta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Läkarens syn på läkemedelsinteraktioner: en intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur ett antal läkare ser på problematiken kring läkemedelinteraktioner samt om läkarna anser att ett utvidgat samarbete mellan läkare och farmaceuter kan hjälpa till att minska förekomsten av läkemedelsinteraktioner och hur detta samarbete i så fall skulle se ut. Undersökningen genomfördes genom intervju av ett antal läkare verksamma i södra Sverige.

    Resultatet visar att de tillfrågade läkarna anser att läkemedelsbehandling kan leda till läkemedelsinteraktioner och att risken för detta ökar i samband med polyfarmaci. För att kunna undvika eventuella läkemedelsinteraktioner använder sig läkarna, förutom av sina kunskaper, av en rad olika hjälpmedel, bland annat datorprogram som varnar för läkemedelsinteraktioner. Läkarna medger att det finns svårigheter också i att upptäcka och särskilja mellan biverkningar och läkemedelsinteraktioner. Förutom behandling med förskrivna läkemedel använder patienterna naturläkemedel, växtbaserade läkemedel eller receptfria läkemedel som kan bidra till uppkomsten av läkemedelsinteraktioner och dessa behandlingar oftast inte är kända av läkarna i samband med förskrivning av en viss medicin.

    Samarbetet mellan läkare och apotekspersonal anses vara tillräckligt enligt de intervjuade respondenterna. Ett eventuellt utökat samarbete önskas i form av lättare tillgänglighet i samband med svåra situationer där en jourhavande apotekare kan rådfrågas, fler farmakologiska föreläsningar samt mer information från apotekets sida kring nya läkemedel och nya forskningsresultat.

  • 226.
    Forsberg, Jeremy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Promoted survival of bacteria via proteorhodopsin-mediated phototrophy2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 227.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rethinking the thermal melanism hypothesis: rearing temperature and coloration in pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1247-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection for efficient conversion of solar radiation to body heat has favored theevolution of dark coloration in many ectotherms. The thermal melanism hypothesis positsthat dark coloration is beneficial under conditions of low ambient temperatures because itresults in faster heating rates and higher body temperatures. Fast heating rates, however,may come at a cost of overheating unless compensated for by thermal physiology orbehaviour. Pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) populations that inhabit fire-ravagedareas characterized by blackened backgrounds and hot surface temperatures due tohigh absorbance of solar radiation show an increased frequency of black phenotypes. Iraised the progeny of wild-captured Tetrix undulata in cold and hot temperatures and useddata on color patterns and survival in a greenhouse to examine whether a cold thermalenvironment triggered the development of melanic coloration or differently affected survivalof melanic versus non-melanic individuals. My results indicate that melanism was notinfluenced by rearing temperature but by genes or epigenetic maternal effects. Temperaturealso did not affect survival. However, melanic individuals produced by melanic motherssurvived longer than melanic individuals produced by non- melanic mothers, whereas nonmelanicindividuals produced by non-black mothers survived longer than melanic individualsproduced by non-black mothers. This suggests a mismatch between color andphysiology in offspring belonging to a different color morph than their mother. Futureinvestigations into the evolution of melanism should consider conflicting selection pressureson thermal capacity and camouflage as well as the influence of correlated responsesto selection on traits associated with coloration.

  • 228.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karpestam, Einat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rapid evolution of fire melanism in replicated populations of pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 2530-2540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts an interactive process whereby spatiotemporal environmental heterogeneity will maintain genetic variation, while genetic and phenotypic diversity will buffer populations against stress and allow for fast adaptive evolution in rapidly changing environments. Here, we study color polymorphism patterns in pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) and show that the frequency of the melanistic (black) color variant was higher in areas that had been ravaged by fires the previous year than in nonburned habitats, that, in burned areas, the frequency of melanistic grasshoppers dropped from ca. 50% one year after a fire to 30% after four years, and that the variation in frequencies of melanistic individuals among and within populations was genetically based on and represented evolutionary modifications. Dark coloration may confer a selective benefit mediated by enhanced camouflage in recently fire-ravaged areas characterized by blackened visual backgrounds before vegetation has recovered. These findings provide rare evidence for unusually large, extremely rapid adaptive contemporary evolution in replicated natural populations in response to divergent and fluctuating selection associated with spatiotemporal environmental changes.

  • 229.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Merilä, Juha
    University of Helsinki.
    Ebenhard, Torbjörn
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Phenotypic evolution of dispersal-enhancing traits in insular voles2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1703, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that in metapopulations subject to rapid extinction-recolonization dynamics, natural selection should favour evolution of traits that enhance dispersal and recolonization ability. Metapopulations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) on islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, are characterized by frequent local extinction and recolonization of subpopulations. Here, we show that voles on the islands were larger and had longer feet than expected for their body size, compared with voles from the mainland; that body size and size-specific foot length increased with increasing geographical isolation and distance from mainland; and that the differences in body size and size-specific foot length were genetically based. These findings provide rare evidence for relatively recent (less than 1000 years) and rapid (corresponding to 100-250 darwins) evolution of traits facilitating dispersal and recolonization in island metapopulations.

  • 230.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Variation in founder groups promotes establishment success in the wild2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1739, p. 2800-2806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes currently pose severe threats to biodiversity, and reintroductions and translocations are increasingly used to protect declining populations and species from extinction. Theory predicts that establishment success should be higher for more variable groups of dissimilar individuals. To test this ‘diversity promotes establishment’ hypothesis, we introduced colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) to different sites in the wild. The number of descendants found at the release sites the subsequent year increased with increasing number of colour morphs in the founder group, and variation in founder groups also positively affected colour morph diversity in the established populations. Since colour morphs differ in morphology, physiology, behaviour, reproductive life history and types of niche used, these findings demonstrate that variation among individuals in functionally important traits promotes establishment success under natural conditions, and further indicate that founder diversity may contribute to evolutionary rescue and increased population persistence.

  • 231.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous biofilter and the associated bacterial and fungal microflora.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile processes use many different chemicals, most of which ends up in wastewater. Coloring of clothes is a particularly troublesome process since both azo and anthraquinone dyes are recalcitrant to degradation, causing environmental concerns. Hence, there is a great need to investigate and develop safe and applicable systems to the water demanding industry, such as textile mills in developing countries.

    In the present study biodegradation of actual textile wastewater (containing azo and anthraquinone dyes) was evaluated in biofilters. Indigenous decolourants from rice husks were used in bioreactors and the degradation was analyzed with spectrophotometer and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to monitor metabolites, especially in the form of aromatic amines. Chemical characteristics of the water were and bacterial and fungal community composition was monitored by denaturing gradient gel glectrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA and ITS gene fragments.

    The indigenous microflora consistently performed over 90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. The molecular fingerprinting revealed the presence of bacteria such as Clostridium, Pseudomonadales, Xenophilus, Paenibacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas, all known to carry genes for azoreductases.  Furthermore, results showed that fungi were present in the biofilter, and were predominant in the aerobic reactors.

    Collectively, these results indicate that the developed biofilter with rice husks support a mixed microbial community of both bacteria and fungi, with key features contributing to an efficient and reliable degradation performance of actual textile wastewater.

  • 232.
    Fournstedt, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av Ocular Protection Index2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att utvärdera Ocular Protection Index (OPI) för att se om det är en användbar metod vid diagnosticering av torra ögon. En del i utvärderingen är att undersöka korrelationen mellan OPI och resultatet på en symtomenkät, Texas Eye Research and Technology Center Dry Eye Questionnaire (TERTC-DEQ).

    Metod: Försökspersonerna fick i början av undersökningen fylla i TERTC-DEQ. Därefter observerades försökspersonerna vid läsning på avstånd och nära håll för att mäta deras blinkintervall. Försökspersonernas ögon undersöktes med spaltlampa och Tear Break-Up Time uppmättes för att därefter räkna fram OPI för varje försöksperon.

    Resultat: Totalt undersöktes 34 personer varav 4 personer exkluderades på grund av att de ej uppfyllde urvalskriterierna. Endast mätningar på höger öga redovisas i resultatet. Av 30 försöksperoner var det 4 stycken som enligt resultaten på TERTC-DEQ hade måttlig ögontorrhet och 1 person som hade svår ögontorrhet. Enligt OPI var det 12 personer som hade torra ögon på avstånd och 22 stycken som hade torra ögon på nära håll. Vid jämförelse mellan OPI och TERTC-DEQ var korrelationen låg.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna studie går det inte att diagnosticera torra ögon enbart med hjälp av OPI och resultatet av TERTC-DEQ. Med rätt utrustning kan OPI vara en användbar undersökningsmetod vid diagnosticering av torra ögon. För ett mer tillförlitligt resultat kan en liknande studie genomföras där fler försökspersoner med torra ögon deltar.

  • 233.
    Fransson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kosmetiska kontaktlinser: En studie i regler för försäljning och incidensen av komplikationer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Den kosmetiska kontaktlins-marknaden växer och linser kan köpas från online-butiker i de flesta länder, men varningar för kosmetiska kontaktlinser kvarstår och lagstiftningen avseende försäljning varierar från land till land.

    Syfte: Att undersöka skillnader i reglerande lagar mellan en rad länder om kosmetiska kontaktlinser samt se på tillståndet för komplikationer av kontaktlinser i dessa länder.

    Resultat: Under studien fanns att reglerna kan skilja sig till och med mellan stater inom samma land, i detta fall Australien där ingen övergripande lagstiftning om försäljning finns men delstaterna New South Wales och South Australia har infört egna regleringar. Singapore reglerar försäljning av kosmetiska kontaktlinser till endast legitimerade optiker och vidare är även försäljning via internet förbjuden. USA och Japan har infört kosmetiska kontaktlinser som medicintekniska produkter och samma bestämmelser som för korrigerande kontaktlinser gäller, ska säljas endast till bärare med giltigt recept. I Sydafrika är liknande förordningar under förslag och förväntas vara i praktik inom kort. Försäljningeni Kanada, Nya Zeeland, Frankrike och Sverige är för tillfället oreglerad.

    Litteratur om komplikationer konstaterades fokusera på mikrobiell keratit då det är ett synhotande tillstånd och länkar drogs till compliance i de flesta fall medan Japan innan ändringav sin lagstiftning genomfört en studie om säkerhet och kvalitet på kontaktlinser där vissa konstaterades vara under all kritik och tillverkarna meddelades om detta. I Sverige rapporteras få biverkningar och en otillfredsställande mängd fakta har samlats in.

    Slutsats: Bärarna av kosmetiska kontaktlinser är i allmänhet unga och köper linser utan recept, i de flesta fall följer inga råd om hygien med köpet och detta verkar vara den vanligaste orsaken till komplikationer. Med tillgången på kosmetiska kontaktlinser bör råd om vård och hygien prioriteras.

  • 234.
    Fransson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ålderns inverkan på högre ordningens axiella aberrationer i det mänskliga ögat2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 235. Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Species traits predict island occupancy in noctuid moths2012In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing how species’ traits relate to processes that underlie occupancy patterns such as colonisation and population persistence, is important for our understanding of how species survive in fragmented and changing landscapes. We used automatic UV light-traps to sample noctuidmoths on two remote islands, and compared traits of island occupants with those of a species pool from mainland southeast Sweden. Widely distributed species, generalist species, species with a long adult activity period and species active late in the summer had higher probability of occupancy on the remote islands. The results were consistent between islands. The traits of host plant specificity and species with an adult activity period during late summer remained robust and were statistically significant after controlling for any possible phylogenetic bias. This indicates that species exhibiting those traits survive better when habitat and climate changes. It is crucial to includeour results in; (1) conservation planning, e.g. when devising conservation measures in fragmented landscapes; (2) for predictions of future occupancy patterns; and (3) ecosystem impact assessments, e.g. the importance of moths as pollinators, herbivores and being the functional link between parasitoids, plants, consumers and predators.

  • 236.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany ; Lund University.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e37359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope  = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope  = 0.59), low abundance (slope  = 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope  = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  • 237.
    Frick, Brage
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of Flue Gas from a Cement Factory on Algal Growth in the Southern Baltic2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae are an interesting alternative in renewable energy production and for carbon dioxide capturing and cleaning of flue gas from power, cement, or steel plants. The low CO2 partial pressure of the atmosphere can be compensated by using industrial flue gas, thereby increasing algal growth and decreasing flue gas pollution. Flue gas is a mixture of toxic and non-toxic gases, such as CO2 and different particles. Prior to establishing a flue-gas treated algae culture, the effect of flue gas constituents on algal production needs to be tested. A tubular photobioreactor, TPBR, was designed to compare the effects of flue gas from Cementa AB Degerhamn, (Heidelberg Cement) in the South of Öland (SE Sweden), to air controls and a synthetic AGA prepared CO2/air mixture (13.5 % CO2) on the green alga Tetraselmis sp. (KAC 21), isolated from the Baltic Sea. Batch cultures of Tetraselmis sp. received flue gas and synthetic AGA gas in separate runs with air controls in triplicates. Flue gas and synthetic AGA gas was injected to the TPBR every 24 hours during a period of 10 days. During the 10 day period all cultures depleted the nutrient concentration to more than 98 %. Flue gas had a positive effect on algal growth, despite the potentially toxic substances. Dry weight, cell density, optical density, growth rate and productivity were higher compared to the air control. These results demonstrate that neither nitrogen oxides (NOx) nor sulfur oxides (SOx) contained in the cement flue gas were toxic to the algae. Tetraselmis sp. exposed to flue gas reached average maximum growth rates of 1.10 doublings day-1, with productivity reaching 0.057 g dry weight L-1 day-1. The algal growth rate and productivity were however most likely underestimated as the TPBR suffered from random bio-fouling, thus diminishing the yield.

  • 238.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kan fiskpredation reglera populationer av storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) i Östersjön?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskbestånden i Östersjön har sedan början av 1980-talet genomgått en omfattande förändring. Stora predatorer, som torsk (Gadus morhua) och abborre (Perca fluviatilis) har minskat i antal medan det finns tecken på att storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) har ökat. Denna sannolika ökning av storspigg skulle kunna ha att göra med minskningen av både torsk och abborre som predatorer i de kustnära tångbältena. För att undersöka detta utfördes ett mesokosmexperiment där torskens och abborrens förmåga att predera på storspigg undersöktes, både i ljus och mörker. Hypoteserna som arbetet utgick ifrån var att torsk var en bättre predator i mörker än i ljus och att torsk var en bättre predator än abborre i mörker.

    Resultaten visar på att torsk är den bättre predatorn i både ljus och mörker, samt att den är lika framgångsrik i mörker som i ljus. Detta tyder på att torskens försvinnande skulle kunna vara en bidragande faktor till ökningen av storspigg. Ytterligare visades abborren vara en mer framgångsrik predator i mörker än i ljus, detta trots att den alltid anges som en visuell predator. Detta visar att även minskningen av abborre skulle kunna vara en anledning till att storspiggen ökar.

  • 239.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Aggregation of amyloids in a cellular context: modelling and experiment2011In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 438, p. 415-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloid-related diseases are a group of illnesses in which an abnormal accumulation of proteins into fibrillar structures is evident. Results from a wide range of studies, ranging from identification of amyloid-β dimers in the brain to biophysical characterization of the interactions between amyloidogenic peptides and lipid membranes during fibril growth shed light on the initial events which take place during amyloid aggregation. Accounts of fibril disaggregation and formation of globular aggregates due to interactions with lipids or fatty acids further demonstrate the complexity of the aggregation process and the difficulty to treat amyloid-related diseases. There is an inherent difficulty in generalizing from studies of aggregation in vitro, but the involvement of too many cellular components limits the ability to follow amyloid aggregation in a cellular (or extracellular) context. Fortunately, the development of experimental methods to generate stable globular aggregates suggests new means of studying the molecular events associated with amyloid aggregation. Furthermore, simulation studies enable deeper understanding of the experimental results and provide useful predictions that can be tested in the laboratory. Computer simulations can nowadays provide molecular or even atomistic details that are experimentally not available or very difficult to obtain. In the present review, recent developments on modelling and experiments of amyloid aggregation are reviewed, and an integrative account on how isolated interactions (as observed in vitro and in silico) combine during the course of amyloid-related diseases is presented. Finally, it is argued that an integrative approach is necessary to get a better understanding of the protein aggregation process.

  • 240.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ions and the protein surface revisited: extensive molecular dynamics simulations and analysis of protein structures in alkali-chloride solutions2011In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 115, p. 9213-9223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins interact with ions in various ways. The surface of proteins has an innate capability to bind ions, and it is also influenced by the screening of the electrostatic potential owing to the presence of salts in the bulk solution. Alkali metal ions and chlorides interact with the protein surface, but such interactions are relatively weak and often transient. In this paper, computer simulations and analysis of protein structures are used to characterize the interactions between ions and the protein surface. The results show that the ion-binding properties of protein residues are highly variable. For example, alkali metal ions are more often associated with aspartate residues than with glutamates, whereas chlorides are most likely to be located near arginines. When comparing NaCl and KCl solutions, it was found that certain surface residues attract the anion more strongly in NaCl. This study demonstrates that protein–salt interactions should be accounted for in the planning and execution of experiments and simulations involving proteins, particularly if subtle structural details are sought after.

  • 241. Friedman, Ran
    et al.
    Caflisch, A
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Pepsinogen-like activation intermediate of plasmepsin II revealed by molecular dynamics analysis2008In: Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, ISSN 0887-3585, E-ISSN 1097-0134, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 814-827Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Friedman, Ran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Caflisch, Amedeo
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich.
    Surfactant Effects on Amyloid Aggregation Kinetics2011In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 414, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong experimental evidence of the influence of surfactants (e.g., fatty acids) on the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation. However, the structures of mixed assemblies and interactions between surfactants and fibril-forming peptides are still not clear. Here, coarse-grained simulations are employed to study the aggregation kinetics of amyloidogenic peptides in the presence of amphiphilic lipids. The simulations show that the lower the fibril formation propensity of the peptides, the higher the influence of the surfactants on the peptide self-assembly kinetics. In particular, the lag phase of weakly aggregating peptides increases because of the formation of mixed oligomers, which are promoted by hydrophobic interactions and favorable entropy of mixing. A transient peak in the number of surfactants attached to the growing fibril is observed before reaching the mature fibril in some of the simulations. This peak originates from transient fibrillar defects consisting of exposed hydrophobic patches on the fibril surface, which provide a possible explanation for the temporary maximum of fluorescence observed sometimes in kinetic traces of the binding of small-molecule dyes to amyloid fibrils.

  • 243.
    Frisk, Pia
    et al.
    Hälsa och Farmaci, Apoteket AB.
    Carlsten, Anders
    Forskning och Utveckling, Apoteket AB.
    Rydberg, Tony
    Hälsa och Farmaci, Apoteket AB.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Patients' experiences with generic substitution-a Swedish pharmacy survey2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 681-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective Generic substitution for reimbursed drugs was introduced in Sweden 1 of October 2002. Concerns have been expressed that generic substitution may compromise patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate how Swedish drug consumers experience generic substitution, more than 5 year after implementation. 

    Design Survey study with an electronic questionnaire, offered to 1551 pharmacy customers/patients presenting with a prescription on one of the 2688 drugs included. The selected drugs constituted 75% of the total volume of dispensed drugs subjected to generic substitution in August 2007.

    Setting Fifty-eight Swedish community pharmacies. 

    Main outcome measures Positive experiences with generic substitution; problems and their degree of seriousness; and the reported incidence of medication errors. Consumers’ suggestions of improvements to the generic substitution system were also captured.

     Results Of 1551 respondents (602 male, 949 female), 35% (n = 536) reported one or more positive experiences, the most common being the lower drug price. Sixty percent (n= 932) claimed they had not experienced any problems. Forty percent reported at least one problem related to substitution. Seven percent (n=109) reported medication errors attributed to generic substitution. Twenty-two percent (n=342) of the respondents offered suggestions for improvement. The most common suggestions were to revise the criteria for assessing interchangeability between brand-name and generic alternatives and to abolish substitution.

    Conclusions A majority of respondents do not experience any problems related to generic substitution. A sizeable minority experience problems, partly resulting in medication errors. Over- and undermedication, lack of compliance, and intake of wrong drug or of both the original and the generic were the problems most often reported. Future system changes should consider the importance of revised criteria for generic and brand name interchangeability.

  • 244.
    Fritzén, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Tapola, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Habermasian Socio-Philosophical Theories and Socio-Constructionism in Pedagogical Practice – A Theoretical DiscussionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Fritzén, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Tapola, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Habermasian Socio-Philosophical Theories and Socio-Constructionism in Pedagogical Practice – A Theoretical Discussion:  2010In:  Moral and Democratic Education and its influence on the society:   / [ed] Roni Reingold, Achva College of Education, The MOFET Institute , 2010, p. 55-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Fritzén, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Tapola, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Linnaeus Project: SIG 13 Future & Vision session2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Fröberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Extraction and Method Optimization of Thylakoid Membranes and their Application in Oat Based Products2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Thylakoid, the photosynthetic membranes of chloroplast are the most abundant biological membranes on earth. They have been shown to have an increasing and prolonged satiety effect when added to food components given to animals and humans, in order to lose or maintain a healthy weight. Several studies conducted in the subject proves this effect and the next step is to reach out to the public with a simple, nutritious and well tasting product that provides the consumer with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of thylakoids.

    Aim: The aim of this study was first of all to learn about the different steps in the extraction process of thylakoid membranes from spinach and learn how to determine the chlorophyll and protein content. Since thylakoids have a very peculiar and recital taste, much of the effort was put into optimize the extraction method in order to reduce this undesirable characteristic. Secondly, the aim was to develop a product concept with thylakoids as an active satiety substance. Oatly products were used as a base to develop e.g. table drinks, yoghurt and pancakes.

    Results: The measured cholorophyll and protein contents were in line with previous studies, indicating that these methods are successful and consistent tools for thylakoid determination. The addition of ethanol treatment and blanching to the original extraction process showed to be favourable in reducing the undesirable taste and smell of the thylakoids. Using Oatly products as a base for thylakoid application worked quite well taste wise for the flavoured products but not so well for the natural products. The most successful products, ranked by different attributes, proved to be a soup and an exotic yoghurt, though these results were not significant.

    Conclusions: There is a big potential in creating products with thylakoids as an active satiety ingredient. However, more effort in reducing the thylakoid flavour needs to be done in order to create a marketable product.

  • 248.
    Fuller, Trevon
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund University.
    Müller, Inge
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany.
    Novembre, John
    University of California, USA.
    Pérez-Tris, Javier
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Ricklefs, Robert E
    University of Missouri-St. Louis, USA.
    Smith, Thomas B
    University of California, USA.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research.2012In: EcoHealth, ISSN 1612-9202, E-ISSN 1612-9210, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogens that are maintained by wild birds occasionally jump to human hosts, causing considerable loss of life and disruption to global commerce. Preliminary evidence suggests that climate change and human movements and commerce may have played a role in recent range expansions of avian pathogens. Since the magnitude of climate change in the coming decades is predicted to exceed climatic changes in the recent past, there is an urgent need to determine the extent to which climate change may drive the spread of disease by avian migrants. In this review, we recommend actions intended to mitigate the impact of emergent pathogens of migratory birds on biodiversity and public health. Increased surveillance that builds upon existing bird banding networks is required to conclusively establish a link between climate and avian pathogens and to prevent pathogens with migratory bird reservoirs from spilling over to humans.

  • 249.
    Gagulic, Ana
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svårigheten med utsättning av protonpumpshämmare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2011 utlämnades recept på PPI-preparat (protonpumpshämmare) till 790 000 personer i Sverige, varav 59 % var kvinnor. Omeprazol (Losec®) är det preparat som helt dominerar förskrivningen. Den förskrivna volymen motsvarar 174 miljoner DDD (Definierade Dygns Doser), vilket är en mängd som räcker till att behandla ovannämnda personer i genomsnitt 220 dagar med en dos på 20 mg/dag. Behandling med PPI-preparat kan vara svårt att sätta ut på grund av att utsättning leder till återkomst av syrahypersekretion.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att lyfta fram den problematik som finns vid utsättning av PPI. Som metod har litteraturstudie valts för att besvara frågeställningen.

    Resultatet i studierna har visat på ökade chromogranin A-(CgA-) och gastrinvärden i plasma under en PPI-behandling. I en av studierna var S-gastrinvärdena före behandlingen 31,2 pmol/l och 54,8 pmol/l i slutet av behandlingen (p< 0.01), d.v.s. nästan en fördubbling, för att 2 veckor efter utsättning återgå till startvärdena 31,7 pmol/l. P-CgA värdena var före behandling 16.7 u/l, och 37.5 u/l i slutet (p< 0.01), vilket visar på en ökning med över 200%, för att 2 veckor efter utsättning återgå till att likna startvärdena 17.7 u/l.

    Av patienter som behandlats under en längre tid för syrarelaterade symptom med PPI-preparat klarade 14 -27 % att avsluta behandlingen utan att utveckla utsättningssymptom. 31 % klarade av att avsluta behandlingen utan utsättningssymptom då man trappade ner dosen. I två av studierna redovisas att 27 % klarar av att avsluta behandlingen efter långtidsanvändning av PPI. I tre studier visades att personer, som inte led av gastroesofageal refluxsjukdom (GERD), fick 44 – 52 % utsättnings symptom efter att ha konsumerat PPI-preparat i mer än fyra veckor.

    Slutsats: Resultaten tyder på att det är lättare att avluta behandlingen hos dem som behandlades med låga PPI-doser och hos de patienter som trappade ner dosen. Hos individer som varken led av magsår eller gastroesofageal refluxsjukdom, utvecklade nästan varannan person dyspeptiska symptom t.ex. halsbränna, sura uppstötningar och magkatarr efter utsättningen. Patienterna hade haft en daglig användning av PPI- preparat under fyra till åtta veckor.

     

  • 250.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Greisman, A.
    Olsson, F.
    Wäglind, J.
    The role of fire and other disturbances in the Holocene forest dynamics and ecosystem diversity of southern Sweden – the combined effect of human impact and climate change.2007Conference paper (Other academic)
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