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  • 201.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gao, Ling
    Beihua University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization of dredged sediments: a first guide to define potentially valuable compounds - the case of Malmfjärden Bay, Sweden2019In: Advances in Geosciences, ISSN 1680-7340, E-ISSN 1680-7359, Vol. 49, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tons of bottom sediments are dredged annually all over the world. Ports and bays need to extract the sediments to guarantee the navigation levels or remediate the aquatic ecosystem. The removed material is commonly disposed of in open oceans or landfills. These disposal methods are not in line with circular-economy goals and additionally are unsuitable due to their legal and environmental compatibility. Recovery of valuables represents a way to eliminate dumping and contributes towards the sustainable extraction of secondary raw materials. Nevertheless, the recovery varies on a case-by-case basis and depends on the sediment components. Therefore, the first step is to analyse and identify the sediment composition and properties. Malmfjärden is a shallow semi-enclosed bay located in Kalmar, Sweden. Dredging of sediments is required to recuperate the water level. This study focuses on characterizing the sediments, pore water and surface water from the bay to uncover possible sediment recovery paths and define the baseline of contamination in the water body. The results showed that the bay had high amounts of nitrogen (170–450 µg L−1 ), leading to eutrophication problems. The sediments mainly comprised small size particle material (silt, clay and sand proportions of 62 %–79 %, 14 %–20 %, 7 %–17 %, respectively) and had a medium–high level of nitrogen (7400–11 000 mg kg−1 ). Additionally, the sediments had little presence of organic pollutants and low–medium concentration of metals or metalloids. The characterization of the sediments displays a potential use in less sensitive lands such as in industrial and commercial areas where the sediments can be employed as construction material or as plant-growing substrate (for ornamental gardens or vegetation beside roads).

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  • 202.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Testing of heavy metals recovery from dredged sediments2019In: Sediment as a dynamic natural resource from catchment to open sea / [ed] Marjan Euser, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 203.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Environmental decision-making within the steel industry: the role of individuals’ worries, knowledge and responsibility2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fagergren, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Perception of uncertainties and quality in risk assessments by people working with risk assessments2013In: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, p. Abstract Number : 3978-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 80,000 possible contaminated sites have been identified in Sweden. Assessing the risk posed by these sites and, if necessary, remediating the soil is associated with high costs. It is thus important that these assessments are reliable. A problem with current methods is that uncertainty and variability are often not accounted for. Different individuals have different physiology and behaviour and soil composition differs at various sites which can be considered in probabilistic methods. This requires tools that are user-friendly and cost and time-efficient. Information about the perception of risk assessments, uncertainty and tools wanted by people working with risk assessments is therefore needed.

    Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether people working with risk assessments in practice find that these assessments are of sufficient quality, whether it is important to consider uncertainty and variability and which tools they may need to be able to consider these questions.

    Methods A questionnaire was sent to people working with the risk assessment of contaminated sites at government authorities and consultancies in Sweden. Results The data collected suggest that the majority of respondents find that risk assessment quality in general would need to be improved. Important factors to achieve this include a greater knowledge of the individuals involved in risk assessments, more financial resources, greater knowledge in form of new research and more time. The respondents also find it very important to characterize both uncertainty and variability, and to do this several respondents want more tools such as literature and databases with information about critical exposure factors and manuals.

    Conclusions

    According to personnel involved in the risk assessment of contaminated sites, the quality of the assessment should be enhanced and different tools would be useful to facilitate the characterization of uncertainty and variability.

  • 205.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consumption of vegetables and risk perception at contaminated glass works sites in Sweden2013In: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, p. Abstract Number: 3980-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Glass has been produced since the 18th century in Kalmar and Kronoberg counties in an area called the Kingdom of Crystal. The production of glass has been associated with high levels of heavy metals in the soil. The most critical exposure pathways for metals are oral intake of soil, consumption of water and home-produced vegetables. The consumption of home-produced vegetables in particular is a highly site-specific exposure pathway and is therefore of interest to investigate in this geographic area.

    Aims The study aims to investigate to what extent home-produced vegetables are consumed by people living near glass work industries as well as their perception of environmental and health risks and the authorities’ risk communication.

    Methods A questionnaire including questions about personal factors, consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the perception of risks and risk communication was sent to 300 randomly selected individuals living in areas close to glass works. Results A majority of those questioned, 87%, consume vegetables or fruit from their own garden sometime during the year and more than half of the respondents eat these food items on a regular basis or several times a year. Just over 40% are concerned about that the fruit or vegetables from their own garden may be contaminated with pollutants from the glass works, but an even greater number are concerned that pollution from glass works will affect their health or the environment in general. More than half of the respondents would like to have more information about environmental and health risks.

    Conclusions

    Home-produced vegetables are frequently consumed in areas around glass work industries. Many residents are at the same time concerned and request more information about possible risks. Site-specific studies including quantities and types of vegetables ingested as well as contamination levels are needed to investigate if the exposure is actually of concern.

  • 206.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Exponeringsfaktorer vid riskbedömning: Inventering av dataunderlag2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure is defined as the contact between a chemical, physical or biological agent and the outer boundary of an organism. Human exposure to chemicals in the environment is controlled not only by the occurrence of the pollutant, but also by behavior, physiological characteristics and different external factors. The quantifiable statistics used to describe this information are called The U.S. of such data, but similar attempts have also been made in Europe. However, human behavior, physiological characteristics and environmental factors differ between countries. It is therefore of value to also compile country-specific data for Sweden. A compilation could contribute towards the standardization of risk assessments.

    The exposure factors presented here cover the above mentioned areas and a substantial portion of them are similar to those covered by the international compilations. The selection and presentation is, however, to a large extent determined by the availability of data. In practice this means that for some factors we lack data on variability (natural variation) and uncertainty. These limitations in the available data are particularly pronounced with regard to the consumption of tap water and homegrown vegetables, and time-use patterns.

     However, there is a substantial amount of data available for physiological characteristics like body weight and skin surface area as well as for the general food consumption. These exposure factors have been characterized by statistical parameters like the mean, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skewness. Estimated uncertainty intervals are also given for these parameters. Percentiles are useful alternatives to present variability and these estimates are also presented together with the accompanying uncertainty intervals.

    Other exposure factors that are included in this report are; the age distribution of the population, moving patterns, residential building characteristics, contact with soil and dust, and soil properties. Apart from the tabulated values, references are also given to the primary data sources to facilitate for anyone interested to make more in-depth evaluations.

    The data collected is compared to the parameter settings suggested in the draft version of the Swedish exposure model for estimating guideline values. This comparison shows that the values selected sometimes correspond to a central or best estimate, often a conservative estimate, and sometimes a very conservative estimate. It is not possible from this comparison to draw firm conclusions regarding the impact on the final risk assessment or risk management decisions.

    The authors hope that this compilation of data on exposure factors will facilitate and accelerate the transition to risk assessment methods that permit evaluation and quantitative estimates of variability and uncertainty.

  • 207.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fagerberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Parents’ risk perception of toxic chemicals in children’s products at daycare centers2015In: Presented at: Sociology of Risk and Uncertainty Research Networks (ESA) mid-term conference, Risk, Uncertainty and Transition. 8-10 April 2015, Stuttgart, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ljunggren, Lill
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gender differences in risk management of contaminated land at a Swedish authority2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any risk analysis process leading to the remediation of contaminated land will be affected by individual judgements. Many contaminated land risk assessments in Sweden are reviewed by the County Administrative Board (CAB), a regional government authority. The cost for risk assessments and eventually remediation is funded by whichever operator is legally responsible; however, when the responsible party is unknown, the cost can be met by government grants. A questionnaire was sent to all employees working with contaminated land at each of Sweden’s CABs to investigate whether gender, age and work experience, as well as funding source, affect the reviewing of risk assessments, and the employees’ perception of knowledge gained from the Sustainable Remediation (Hållbar Sanering) research programme. It was found that gender was the most significant factor, but also age and experience of the employees influenced the respondent’s answers. The reviews of risk assessments also varied depending on funding source.

  • 209.
    Fjendbo Petersen, Mette
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Binning, Philip John
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale2012In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna: Copernicus Gesellschaft , 2012, Vol. 14, p. 11892-11892Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 – 0.09 g/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 g/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact occurs at the reach downstream Grindsted city revealing that the main contaminant groundwater discharge zones are found here. The contaminant plume from the factory site north of the stream is known to impact the stream whereas the impact by the old landfill south of the stream remains to be assessed. A conceptual model of the chemical impacts by the identified sources was made, and high impact was assigned to the contaminant plume from the factory site and to the diffuse sources of urban-use and agricultural pesticides. The next step will be a quantification of the sources, which will be presented at the conference.

  • 210.
    Florén, Kajsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Miljökrav inom leverantörskedjan: En studie med utgångspunkt i värmeljuskoppar på Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ställa miljökrav inom leverantörskedjorna har blivit allt vanligare i takt med ökat miljöarbete. Det är dock bristfälligt dokumenterat hur väl eventuella miljökrav uppfylls kedjan igenom. För att organisera miljöarbetet har strategier uppkommit vilka tar hänsyn till kedjans miljöpåverkan, såsom Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). Genom en fallstudie kartlades vilka miljökrav som ställdes, om kraven var konsekventa längs leverantörskedjan och hur kraven kunde relateras till företagens övriga miljöarbete. Fallstudien hade sin utgångspunkt i Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks AB med fokus på värmeljuskoppens leverantörskedja. Genom en semistrukturerad intervju har företagen inom kedjan svarat på frågor kring bl.a. miljökrav. Dessutom har en LCA gjorts på värmeljuskoppen för att se huruvida miljökraven var adekvata med tanke på produktens miljöpåverkan. Resultatet visade att företagen ställde miljörelaterade krav. Dessa krav berörde främst leverantörens allmänna miljöarbete snarare än själva produkten. Typen av ställda krav var ej konsekvent med företagens miljöarbete. LCAn visade på att produktens största miljöpåverkan härrör från aluminiumet. Miljökraven borde således inriktas på större andel återvunnet material.

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  • 211.
    Foghagen, Christer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mitigating water shortage impacts: water consump­tion and sectoral adaptations among tourism and farming enterprises in Öland, South East Sweden2018In: Tourism implications and dilemmas, 24-26 September 2018: book of abstract, 2018, p. 126-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism development has, for many areas, become an important means to mitigate impacts from rural restructuring and out migration. At the same time, tourism is an additional stress factor on local infrastructures, environments and water resources. The peak season for both farming and coastal tourism often coincide with the dry summer season. As a result, since both farming and tourism have a high demand for freshwater consumption, water scarcity and related issues has become an increasingly pressing matter (Gössling 2001; Gössling Et al, 2012; Cole 2014). This is especially evident for many coastal and island destinations where freshwater demand and water consumption accelerate. The increasing demand is in part a result of increasing volumes of incoming tourists, cattle livestock changes as well as the 20th century wetland reductions to feed the need of larger areas of farmland. The capacity to cope with low amounts of precipitation for periods of continuous years becomes increasingly challenging. This paper examines the awareness of water scarcity among tourism and farming businesses in Öland and Gotland, as well as measures taken to mitigate of impacts and freshwater use. Focus group interviews as well as surveys have been conducted among tourism and farming businesses and stakeholders in Öland and Gotland. The results show significant differences between tourism- and farming stakeholders regarding perception of causes and effects of water scarcity. Variation in responses is also seen in water management issues as well as matters of responsibility and solutions. There is also a difference between tourism- and farming businesses regarding mitigation and the actions and measures taken to secure freshwater their access or reduce freshwater abstraction.

  • 212.
    Forslund Hultman, Natalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hur mycket bekämpningsmedel får vi i oss via grönsaker?: En studie av 12 olika hushåll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted to see how much of the most common pesticides we ingest through the vegetables that we consume.

    The study was conducted by analyzing the receipts over a six-week period of 27 people from 12 different households, surveys were also used to retrieve information on how their habits for consuming vegetables were.

    Of those asked, 52% were women, 41% were men and 7% children.

    To try and determine how much of the pesticides those asked had consumed, quantitative data from The National Food Agency investigation into the levels of pesticides in fruits and vegetables from 2008 was used.

    The results from this study showed that the pesticides consumed by those asked were not over the recommended daily intake.

    The study further determined that humans almost consume no pesticides at all when consuming ecological vegetables and that there might be a risk in consuming conventionally grown vegetables.

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  • 213.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Biodegradation of azo dyes by natural microflora from forest residues chips cultivated on Swedish soft wood chips2008In: 16th European Biomass Conference& Exhibition, 2-6 June 2008, Valencia,Spain, ETA-Forence renewable energies , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of wood chips as a carrier and coal donator, azo dyes are biodegraded by the native microflora inhabiting forest residues chips from the south east part of Sweden. Due to background emissions from the forest residues chips the microflora are successfully transferred to soft sood chips from Norwegian spruce (picea abis) and Scots pine (pinus sylvestris). The azo dyes used in this study are reactive red 2 and reactive black 5 in combined artifical wastewater. The dyes are at a concentration of 200 mg/l degraded within 20 days with additional yeast extract of 1 g/l and 30 days without.

  • 214.
    Fridesjö, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Potential energy savings through legislative development: A closer look at EU Ecodesign requirements for electric motors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the legislative regulations aiming at reduced energy consumption in the European Union, is (EC) 640/2009 that imposes requirements of the efficiency of electric motors sold in the Union. This study aimed at examining the effectiveness of these legislative requirements.

    To illustrate the opportunities of reducing energy consumption by the introduction of more efficient motors, an efficiency measurement of electric motors that drive the fuel feed system in a cogeneration plant in Nybro was intended to be carried out.

    This was to enable a comparison between the efficiency of existing motors with motors which comply with the efficiency levels in (EC) 640/2009 and to calculate how much the energy consumption would decrease in this energy system if more efficient motors were introduced.

    The planed measurements could not be carried out to give a reliable result because the plant suffer from the same problem as many other industries in the EU, which is that the motors in this energy system are oversized and operate at low loads.

    Oversized motors do not operate at their rated efficiency and therefore a comparison of existing motors and motors that comply with the efficiency requirements in (EC) 640/2009 fails to give a correct result, since they would not operate at their rated efficiency if they were installed in this energy system due to the efficiency drop at low loads.

    Instead the load factor was determined with the Input Power Estimation Method that showed that all motors were operated far below their rated power, thus making this an inefficient energy system. This is a common problem, and an impediment for the directive to achieve its full potential energy savings because the efficiency of motors drops substantially if they are operated below their rated power. The results show that guidelines to avoid motor misapplications is just as important as raising the efficiency of electric motors.

    In the studied case higher energy savings can be achieved by replacing the tested motors to smaller motors instead of introducing new motors of the same size with a higher efficiency.

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  • 215.
    Fröne, Joel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Buss eller spårvagn?: Miljövänligare infrastruktur för lokaltrafik i Jönköpings kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work is an LCA study which compares modes of transport as diesel bus, gas bus and tram. The study deals with today's public transportation systems in Jönköping (a town, in Sweden) comparative realistically expected traffic by tram during a 5- or 30-year perspective. The literature survey has been focused on reports, theses and similar material. Since the noise from rail traffic is less annoying at the equivalent noise level compared to other modes of motorized transportation and the generation of electromagnetic fields required for the operation or function is small, stands rail traffic as a environmental friendlier alternative than urban buses. The results show that the tram has relatively less impact on the environment and the need for energy input than buses in relation to the mileage. By, a shift to rail transport, the public transport’s energy consumption and costs reduces together simultaneously, to eventually become a much more sustainable option than the current. The introduction of more efficient and cost-effective mode of transport may involve additional positive aspects, like in the German city of Freiburg am Breisgau, where it received fewer cars, more bikers, but above all increased use of public transport and more citizens consistently in the central districts.

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  • 216.
    Furvall, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Reningstekniker för reducering av ammoniumkväve i rökgaskondensat.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from incineration plants have decreased since the introduction of nitrogen oxide charge. Flue gas treatment with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is used to reduce the NOx-levels where ammonia is added. This results in unreacted ammonia in the flue gas, which ends up in the condensate as ammonium. Many plants have conditions of ammonium in condensate which require purification before the water is released to a recipient.

    Through cooperation with the heating plant in Kiruna, their plant has been used as a study object. They need to purify ammonium from the flue gas condensate to cope with future limits of emissions. Thus, this work investigates which technique for ammonium removal is the best for Kiruna´s heating plant. Four different purification techniques for ammonium and an alternative method has been investigated. The techniques are ammonia stripper, contact membrane, return of ammonia-containing water to boiler and removal with RO. The alternative method is to install a slip-SCR that takes care of the ammonia residues in the flue gas.

    The results show that all techniques have a purification rate of about 90%. According to this study, the best technology for Kiruna´s heating plant is an ammonia stripper that is also the most common and proven technology.

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  • 217. Fältmarsch, Rasmus
    et al.
    Österholm, Peter
    Greger, Maria
    Åström, Mats E.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metal concentrations in oats (Avena sativa L.) grown on acid sulphate soils2009In: Agricultural and Food Science, ISSN 1459-6067, E-ISSN 1795-1895, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of soil chemistry on the concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe in oats (Avena saliva L. cv. Fiia) grown on Finnish acid sulphate (AS) soils with varying geochemical characteristics. Twenty two soil profiles, which were sampled to a depth of 1 m (five 20 cm section splits), and 26 composite oat grain samples were collected on a total of five fields. The concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn and Mn in the grains were correlated with the NH(4)Ac-EDTA-extractable concentrations in the soils. However, as these four chalcophilic metals are in general easily lost to drains and not retained as a large pool in the soil in easily-extractable form, also the concentrations in the oats were not in general elevated as compared with average values on other soils. On one of the fields, however, the Co and Ni concentrations in the soil, and thus also in the oats, were clearly elevated. Copper and Fe displayed no correlation between the soil and oat concentrations, indicating that the plant-uptake mechanisms are much more important than variations in geochemistry. It was suggested that the NH(4)Ac-EDTA solution was not efficient in extracting Fe and Cu, which shows that these metals are bound in relatively immobile oxyhydroxides.

  • 218.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    University of Plymouth, UK.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Rossby Centre.
    Sugita, Shinya
    University of Tallinn, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    From land cover-climate relationships at the subcontinental scale to land cover-environment relationships at the regional and local spatial scale – the contribution of pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm approach2014In: Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past: Open PAGES Focus 4 Workshop Human-Climate-Ecosystem Interactions University of Leuven, Belgium 3-7 February 2014, 2014, p. 25-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (Sugita 2007a,b) includes two models, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) that estimates vegetation abundance (% cover) within an area of ca. 100 km x 100 km, and LOVE (LOcal Vegetation Estimates) that estimates vegetation abundance at the local spatial scale, i.e. within the Relevant Source Area of Pollen (RSAP sensu Sugita, 2004) that is the smallest area around the study site for which the reconstruction is valid. The RSAP is estimated by the LOVE model and varies between sites and vegetation settings; so far, it was estimated to vary between < 1 - < 10 km in most ecological settings of the Holocene in NW Europe. We used the REVEALS model and over 600 pollen records from pollen data bases and individual researchers to reconstruct land-cover in NW Europe N of the Alps for key time windows of the Holocene in order to assess model-based reconstructions of anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) (e.g. Kaplan et al., 2009) and model (LPJ-GUESS) simulations of past potential (climate-induced vegetation), and to study past land cover – climate interactions using a regional climate model (RCA3). We used the REVEALS model and the complete LRA approach (REVEALS + LOVE models) along with two pollen records from large lakes and three pollen records from small bogs to reconstruct the local-scale land-cover in central Småland, southern Sweden, to study the relationship between vegetation composition, fire, climate and human impact at the regional and local spatial scales with the objective to discuss biodiversity issues. Our results suggest that i) past subcontinental to regional ALCC did influence regional climate through biogeophysical processes at the landatmosphere interface (Strandberg et al., submitted), and ii) local land-cover change, both natural and anthropogenic, govern environmental changes such as fire and biodiversity (Cui et al., 2013; Cui et al., submitted).

  • 219.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaplan, Jed O
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Germany.
    Nielsen, Anne Brigitte
    Lund University.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    Rossby Centre.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Rossby Centre.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Has anthropogenic land-cover change been a significant climate forcing in the past?: An assessment for the Baltic Sea catchment area based on a literature review2015In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2015, Vol. 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed the recent published scientific literature on land cover-climate interactions at the global and regional spatial scales with the aim to assess whether it is convincingly demonstrated that anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) has been (over the last centuries and millennia) a significant climate forcing at the global scale, and more specifically at the scale of the Baltic Sea catchment area. The conclusions from this review are as follows: i) anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response in the past is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects, and to the biogeochemical vs biogeophysical effects; ii) there is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback; iii) several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes; iv) palaeoecological studies indicate a major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the study region occurring between 6000 and 3000/2500 calendar years before present (cal. BP) (1) ; v) the only modelling study so far of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in Europe suggests that a deforestation of the magnitude of that reconstructed for the past (between 6000 and 200 cal BP) can produce changes in winter and summer temperatures of +/- 1, the sign of the change depending on the season and the region (2). Thus, if ALCC and their biogeophysical effects did matter in the past, they should matter today and in the future. A still prevailing idea is that planting trees will mitigate climate warming through biogeochemical effects. Therefore, there is still an urgent need to better understand the biogeophysical effects on regional and continental climate of afforestation in the hemiboreal and boreal regions, and their significance in relation to the biogeochemical effects.

  • 220.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    LandCover6k, Interim Steering Group
    LandCover6k: Global anthropogenic land-cover change and its role in past climate2015In: PAGES News, ISSN 1811-1602, E-ISSN 1811-1610, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lézine, A.-M.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France.
    Morrison, K.
    University of Chicago, USA.
    LandCover6k, Steering Group
    Launching workshop of PAGES' working group LandCover6k: Workshop Report2015In: PAGES News, ISSN 1811-1602, E-ISSN 1811-1610, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 81-81Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Gargano, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Palermo, Italy.
    Tamburino, Lucia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Bagarello, Fabio
    University of Palermo, Italy ; INFN National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Large-scale effects of migration and conflict in pre-agricultural groups: Insights from a dynamic model2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0172262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice. The model outcomes under different conditions were compared with recently available demographic data for prehistoric South America. Only under conditions that include migration among cells and conflict was the model able to consistently reproduce the empirical data at a continental scale. We argue that the interplay between resource competition, migration, and conflict drove the population dynamics of South America after the colonization phase and before the introduction of agriculture. The relation between population and resources indeed emerged as a key factor leading to migration and conflict once the carrying capacity of the environment has been reached.

  • 223. Gaydarova, P N
    et al.
    Yurukova, L
    Donev, E
    Wiman, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Notes on the Natural Resources and Biogeochemistry of the Bulgarian South Black Sea Coast2000In: 1999 Arrhenius Seminar: / [ed] B.L.B. Wiman & L. Pettersson, Kalmar: Högskolan i Kalmar , 2000, p. 65-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Frey, Ulrich
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany.
    Theesfeld, Insa
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.
    Self-organization in the commons: An empirically-tested model2017In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 96, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A appropriate bottom-up rule system can support the sustainability of common-pool resources such as forests and fisheries. The process that leads to the developments of such institutional settings requires the considerations of multiple social, physical, and institutional factors over long time horizons. In this paper, we present the SONICOM model as a general exploratory model of CPR systems. The model can be configured to represent different CPR systems in order to explore what kind of institutional settings result in stable systems, i.e. situations where the resource and the appropriators are in a state of well-being. We use a large-N-dataset of CPR management institutions to validate the model. The results show numerous correlations between various parameters of the system such as rule compliance, social influence and resource growth rate which help explaining the process of institutional emergence as well as unveiling the conditions under which systems are stable.

  • 225.
    Giongo, Adriana
    et al.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Haag, Taiana
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Lopes Simao, Taiz L.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Medina-Silva, Renata
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Utz, Laura R. P.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Bogo, Mauricio R.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Bonatto, Sandro L.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Zamberlan, Priscilla M.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho H.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Lourega, Rogerio V.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Sbrissa, Gesiane F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Kowsmann, Renato O.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Freire, Antonio F. M.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Miller, Dennis J.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Viana, Adriano R.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Eizirik, Eduardo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Discovery of a chemosynthesis-based community in the western South Atlantic Ocean2016In: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 112, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemosynthetic communities have been described from a variety of deep-sea environments across the world's oceans. They constitute very interesting biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, and also given their potential as indicators of the presence and abundance of consistent hydrocarbon-based nutritional sources. Up to now such peculiar biotic assemblages have not been reported for the western South Atlantic Ocean, leaving this large region undocumented with respect to the presence, composition and history of such communities. Here we report on the presence of a chemosynthetic community off the coast of southern Brazil, in an area where high-levels of methane and the presence of gas hydrates have been detected. We performed metagenomic analyses of the microbial community present at this site, and also employed molecular approaches to identify components of its benthic fauna. We conducted phylogenetic analyses comparing the components of this assemblage to those found elsewhere in the world, which allowed a historical assessment of the structure and dynamics of these systems. Our results revealed that the microbial community at this site is quite diverse, and contains many components that are very closely related to lineages previously sampled in ecologically similar environments across the globe. Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaeal groups were found to be very abundant at this site, suggesting that methane is indeed an important source of nutrition for this community. In addition, we document the presence at this site of a vestimentiferan siboglinid polychaete and the bivalve Acharax sp., both of which are typical components of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities. The remarkable similarity in biotic composition between this area and other deep-sea communities across the world supports the interpretation that these assemblages are historically connected across the global oceans, undergoing colonization from distant sites and influenced by local ecological features that select a stereotyped suite of specifically adapted organisms. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 226. Golsteijn, Laura
    et al.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cassani, Stefano
    Hendriks, Harrie W. M.
    Kovarich, Simona
    Papa, Ester
    Rorije, Emiel
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Huijbregts, Mark A. J.
    Assessing predictive uncertainty in comparative toxicity potentials of triazoles2014In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTPs) quantify the potential ecotoxicological impacts of chemicals per unit of emission. They are the product of a substance's environmental fate, exposure, and hazardous concentration. When empirical data are lacking, substance properties can be predicted. The goal of the present study was to assess the influence of predictive uncertainty in substance property predictions on the CTPs of triazoles. Physicochemical and toxic properties were predicted with quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), and uncertainty in the predictions was quantified with use of the data underlying the QSARs. Degradation half-lives were based on a probability distribution representing experimental half-lives of triazoles. Uncertainty related to the species' sample size that was present in the prediction of the hazardous aquatic concentration was also included. All parameter uncertainties were treated as probability distributions, and propagated by Monte Carlo simulations. The 90% confidence interval of the CTPs typically spanned nearly 4 orders of magnitude. The CTP uncertainty was mainly determined by uncertainty in soil sorption and soil degradation rates, together with the small number of species sampled. In contrast, uncertainty in species-specific toxicity predictions contributed relatively little. The findings imply that the reliability of CTP predictions for the chemicals studied can be improved particularly by including experimental data for soil sorption and soil degradation, and by developing toxicity QSARs for more species. (c) 2013 SETAC

  • 227.
    Gradén, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kornstorleksfraktionen och analysmetodens betydelse vid analys av metallförorenade fyllnadsmassor och mulljord2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att studera hur metallhalten i två olika sorters förorenade jord, fyllnadsmassor och mulljord, varierar beroende på valet av analyserad kornstorleksfraktion och analysmetod. För att studera variationerna utfördes kvalitativa korrelationsberäkningarna med fokus på två kornstorleksfraktioner och tre analysmetoder. Storleksfraktionerna inkluderade en < 2 mm och en < 0,075 mm fraktion. Analysmetoderna inkluderar två stycken syrauppslutningar, med antingen salpetersyra eller kungsvatten, samt en XRF-analys. Korrelationsstudierna i detta examensarbete har visat god samstämmighet med redan publicerad litteratur.

    Utförda beräkningar bekräftar även delvis det schablonmässiga antagandet om att metallhalterna i en storleksfraktion < 2 mm är cirka 2/3 jämfört med metallhalten i en storleksfraktion < 0,063 mm. Studierna i detta examensarbete visar dock att det finns en tydlig avvikelse för jordar med lägre halter av tungmetaller. Vid beräkningarna av metallhaltskvoterna mellan den finare och grövre storleksfraktionen påvisades att storleken av kvoten ökade markant vid en metallhalt < 100 mg/kg.

    För jordar med lägre halter av tungmetaller, visar beräkningar att metallhalterna i de finare storleksfraktionerna kan utgöra en betydande faktor vid hälsoriskbedömningar och exponeringsberäkningar. De förhöjda metallhalterna i finfraktionerna kan för fyllnadsmassorna delvis förklaras av dess kornstorleksfördelning. Metallhaltskvoten mellan de båda storleksfraktionerna varierade även med avseende på analyserad metall, där koppar utmärkte sig extra mycket, speciellt i den förorenade mulljorden. En trolig orsak till de observerade variationerna hos de olika metallerna kan bero på jordarnas organiska innehåll, geokemiska egenskaper samt metallernas affinitet för olika jordtyper.

    Slutsatsen dragen utifrån studierna i detta examensarbete är att vid riskbedömningar av metallförorenade jordar bör skillnaden i metallhalt mellan de olika storleksfraktionerna beaktas. Detta gäller speciellt för jordar med en lägre föroreningsgrad av tungmetaller, där halterna kan vara väsentligt mycket högre i finfraktionen än vad som antas schablonmässigt. Att beakta halterna i de olika fraktionerna ökar möjligheterna till säkrare riskbedömningar som underlag för beslutsfattare för att utvärdera och klassificera markområden inför exempelvis olika saneringsåtgärder.

  • 228.
    Gren, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Är fytoremediering en realistisk metod för att rena marken runt Glasriket på arsenik, kadmium och bly?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoremediation is a technique using the ability of plants to absorb pollutants in their biomass from contaminated soils and remediate it. The plants are then harvested and the soil gets purified. This method is more environmental-friendly than the normally used methods for soil remediation. Glasriket in Småland is an area with large amount of pollutants including arsenic, cadmium and lead. This area must be cleaned from these metals because of the high threat to the environment ant the health of people who live here. This work has been carried out to investigate whether phytoremediation is a realistic remediation method for Glasriket or not. Phytoremediation is affected by many factors such as the environment, soil characteristics and the metals bioavailability. But the key determinant for the method is the choice of plants. The chosen plants must have the ability to survive at the location but also have a high biomass and a good ability to absorb heavy metals. Plants with these criteria do not generally grow in Sweden, which leads to the conclusion that phytoremediation not are a realistic option for Glasriket. But phytoremediation can be used as a second method or in a combination with other methods. 

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  • 229.
    Grieger, Khara Deanne
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off?2010In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 118, no 3-4, p. 165-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situapplications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a ‘best’ and ‘worst’ case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency, bioaccumulation, toxicity) are generally unknown. We recommend that in cases where nZVI may be chosen as the ‘best’ treatment option, short and long-term environmental monitoring is actively employed at these sites. We furthermore recommend the continued development of responsible nZVI innovation and better facilitated information exchange between nZVI developers, nano-risk researchers, remediation industry, and decision makers.

  • 230.
    Grönfors, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klimatförändringar på ön Fongafale, Tuvalu: En analys av miljöpåverkan och attityder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed to investigate how a rising sea level would affect the livable area of the island Fongafale, Tuvalu. Through the IPCC stabilization scenarios it was examined which areas of the island that would be affected by flooding. The local population’s perceptions of the effects of climate change were studied to see how the consequences of a world-wide problem such as global warming affect people's lives. The paper clarified the Tuvaluans place in the discussion of climate refugees, explained IPCC's work and described the results of previous studies concerning people in Fongafales perceptions and concerns about climate-related changes. The result shows already flooded areas with important buildings, such as airport and government buildings and that with a rising sea level, an increasing part of the island will suffer. The survey shows a stronger tendency to concern for lack of water and work than for a climate-related sea level rise, and that the main reason for a possible emigration would primarily be work-related.

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  • 231. Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca
    et al.
    Maas, Ger
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 220-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 232.
    Gunnarsson, Helene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Livscykelanalys: Förbränning av hushållsavfall kontra biogas: miljömässiga och ekonomiska perspektiv med utgångspunkt i Oskarshamns kommun2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while achieving sustainable development? The Regional Council in Kalmar County accepted the challenge in 2006 and is thus a leading region in this work. By 2030, the goal is that Kalmar shall become a fossil fuel free region. The greatest potential is considered to be the new alternative to vehicle fuel. Household waste includes organic waste that could become fuel for vehicles. An increasing number of biogas stations have opened and the gas has been successful as the public transports have made investments. In Oskarshamn is there no current sorting of organic waste. Household waste is sent along with the organic food waste to incineration with energy recovery in Linköping. The purpose of my study is to evaluate the environmental impact based on two scenarios: the burning of all household waste compared to producing biogas from food waste and burn the remaining. This is seen by the potential of the area in Oskarshamn. Also examining the economic perspective there is. This is a LCA where two methods were used, the Global Warming Potential with a 100-year perspective and ReCiPe Endpoint. The functional unit is 1 ton of waste. By digesting the organic waste and burning the rest, one can reduce the environmental impact to 74, 6 % compared to burning it all. The greenhouse gases then will decrease by 780 kg carbon dioxide equivalent per ton household waste. The main environmental benefits are in terms of reducing climate change, but it requires quite a significant financial investment

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  • 233.
    Gustafsson, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Växthusgaskartläggning för ABB AB High Voltage Cables2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens utsläpp av växthusgaser är ett globalt problem att räkna med. Om inget görs kommer jordens klimat bli allt varmare och varmare. För att motverka detta behöver levnadsmönster förändras men också industrins produktionmönster. Det finns synergier mellan dessa mönster: t.ex. att ändra och minimera energiförbrukning, att ändra sättet vi människor och varor transporteras på.I denna rapport beskrivs ett företags växthusgasutsläpp. Vilka källor som utsläppen sker från, hur stora utsläppen är samt varför utsläppen uppstår. Baserat på kartläggningen diskuteras tänkbara åtgärder för att minska utsläppen.

    Företaget, High Voltage Cables (HVC), är en del av ABB koncernen och tillverkar bl. a högspänningskabel som används till t.ex. havsbaserade vindkraftverk runt om i Europa. Företagets produkter är en viktig länk i omställningen av Europas energiproduktion så att denna utvecklas på ett hållbart sätt.

    Att kartlägga verksamhetens växthusgasbidrag är ett led i arbetet med att få verksamheten mer hållbar och att produkterna som lämnar fabriken är tillverkade på ett så miljövänligt sätt som möjligt. Företaget är på god väg men har några områden som utmanar:Energiförbrukning, godstransporter och användandet av Svavelhexafluorid (SF6).

    Företaget har genomfört en energikartläggning som resulterat i olika förbättringsåtgärder. Som ett resultat av detta har mängden förbrukad energi per ton producerad kabel minskat med 17 % mellan år 2010 och 2011. Företagets inleveranser av gods sker i nuläget med lastbil. Om transporterna istället kunde ske med t.ex. fartyg skulle CO2-utsläppen reduceras med så mycket som 81 %.I samband med högspänningsprovning av kablar används gasen SF6 som är en kraftfull växthusgas. Så kraftfull att ett läckage direkt påverkar företagets utsläppsbild. Det senaste utsläppet var på nära 95 kg vilket motsvarar en tredjedel av den totala mängden utsläppta växthusgaser under ett år från företaget.

    Då företaget står inför en expansion finns stora möjligheter att adressera dessa källor på ett bra sätt vilket kommer att ge utdelning. Minskade utsläpp är bra för klimatet och miljön men kommer också att vara positivt för affärerna.

  • 234.
    Gustavsson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Biogaspotentialen av matavfall sorterat ur hushållsavfall.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve the Government's milestones for 2018, which means that 50 % of food waste shall be separated from household waste and undergo biological treatment (composting or anaerobic digestion).   

    Hultsfred, Högsby and Vimmerby are three adjacent municipalities of Kalmar, county Småland. During 2012 and 2013 analyzes were performed on their household waste to determine its composition. The household waste is currently collected in one fraction. The work, examines how much food waste the household waste contains. From the amount of food waste, the biogas potential is examined - how much food waste biogas generates and how much energy it corresponds to.   

    Food waste is broken down by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions (anaerobic digestion) in a biogas plant. The final product of the digestion of food waste is raw biogas and biofertilizer. The work has only considered biogas production.      

    Biogas potential is chosen to be investigated because no previous studies on this have been made. It provides the actual municipalities with an insight about how much biogas and energy that their food waste could generate if they separated food wastes from their household waste.     

    The results of the survey showed that the biogas potential in the three municipalities comprises 247 000 m3/year, corresponding to an energy value of 1,6 GWh/year. The current biogas production in Sweden is at an energy value of 1 473 GWh, which means that the biogas potential in the municipalities is low.

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  • 235.
    Gällerspång, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Framtidens begravningskoncept: Tradition i kombination med utveckling?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As The World population increases, there will be necessary with better, more effective and sustainable funeral concepts. Current methods have some undesirable side effects such as: at burials the grave will occupy land under a more or less longer time; emissions of organic and inorganic pollutants to soil and groundwater from burials; cremations results in emissions of air pollution. Due to the current Swedish law of burial (Begravningslagen 1990:1144) the metal residues in the ashes after a cremation will be gathered and buried at the cemetery. In Sweden these metal residues are 22 tons per year.

    To manage the situation the Swedish government in the 29th November 2012 issued   a special investigation concerning burial techniques. The investigation came to the conclusion that it would be best if Sweden started recycle the metals which are left after cremations if it could be done in an economical, ethical and environmental  way and new funeral methods should in the future be applied after they have been audited and approved.

    By conducted interviews, a survey and reviewing the literature showed that there are negative environmental impacts from the current funeral practice, there is a scepticism towards the alternative funeral methods, a majority of the persons who took part in the interviews and the survey were positive too recycle the metals after cremation.

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  • 236.
    Göransson, Görgen
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gömarkens skogsdynamik som biologisk resurs2009Report (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Göransson, Görgen
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Habitatmodeller simulerar ingrepp i naturen2009In: Biodiverse, no 2, p. 5-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 238.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sustainable transportation in the national parks2015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1120-1121Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Dept Serv Management & Serv Studies,Sweden ; Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Choi, Andy S.
    Univ Queensland, Australia ; Natl Inst Ecol, South Korea.
    Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles2015In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 113, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cities of the world, bicycle infrastructure projects are implemented to foster more sustainable transportation systems. However, such projects have often raised questions regarding their public funding, as they entail considerable costs. This paper reviews cost-benefit analysis (CBA) frameworks as these are presently used to assess bicycle infrastructure projects. Specific focus is on the CBA framework developed in Copenhagen, Denmark, a self-declared "city of cyclists". In this framework, costs and benefits of car and bicycle, the two major urban transport modes, have been assessed and are compared across accidents, climate change, health, and travel time. The analysis reveals that each km travelled by car or bike incurs a cost to society, though the cost of car driving is more than six times higher (Euro 0.50/km) than cycling (Euro 0.08/km). Moreover, while the cost of car driving is likely to increase in the future, the cost of cycling appears to be declining. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Copenhagen CBA framework to advance sustainable transport planning and to motivate and justify urban restructuring. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 240.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Fichert, Frank
    Worms Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Forsyth, Peter
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Subsidies in Aviation2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1295Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector's importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies.

  • 241.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway;Lund University.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Litman, Todd
    Victoria Transport Policy Inst, Canada.
    Metzler, Daniel
    Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Effects of Perceived Traffic Risks, Noise, and Exhaust Smells on Bicyclist Behaviour: An Economic Evaluation2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-15, article id 408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active mode (walking, bicycling, and their variants) users are exposed to various negative externalities from motor vehicle traffic, including injury risks, noise, and air pollutants. This directly harms the users of these modes and discourages their use, creating a self-reinforcing cycle of less active travel, more motorized travel, and more harmful effects. These impacts are widely recognized but seldom quantified. This study evaluates these impacts and their consequences by measuring the additional distances that bicyclists travel in order to avoid roads with heavy motor vehicle traffic, based on a sample of German-Austrian bicycle organization members (n = 491), and monetizes the incremental costs. The results indicate that survey respondents cycle an average 6.4% longer distances to avoid traffic impacts, including injury risks, air, and noise pollution. Using standard monetization methods, these detours are estimated to impose private costs of at least Euro0.24/cycle-km, plus increased external costs when travellers shift from non-motorized to motorized modes. Conventional transport planning tends to overlook these impacts, resulting in overinvestment in roadway expansions and underinvestments in other types of transport improvements, including sidewalks, crosswalks, bikelanes, paths, traffic calming, and speed reductions. These insights should have importance for transport planning and economics.

  • 242.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Metzler, Daniel
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, p. 418-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80-95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002-2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector:

  • 243.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund Univ, Sweden ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Peeters, Paul
    NHTV Breda Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands ; Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands ; Wageningen Univ, Netherlands .
    Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900-20502015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 639-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its past, current, and future contributions to global resource use is a central requirement for sustainable tourism assessments. The paper introduces the concept of resource use intensities (RUIs), which represent tourism's resource needs per unit of consumption (e.g. energy per guest night). Based on estimates of RUIs, a first assessment of tourism's global resource use and emissions is provided for the period 1900-2050, utilizing the Peeters Global Tourism Transport Model. Results indicate that the current (2010) global tourism system may require c.16,700 PJ of energy, 138 km(3) of fresh water, 62,000 km(2) of land, and 39.4 Mt of food, also causing emissions of 1.12 Gt CO2. Despite efforts to implement more sustainable forms of tourism, analysis indicates that tourism's overall resource consumption may grow by between 92% (water) and 189% (land use) in the period 2010-2050. To maintain the global tourism system consequently requires rapidly growing resource inputs, while the system is simultaneously becoming increasingly vulnerable to disruptions in resource flows.

  • 244.
    Hagenby, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sura sulfatjordar och vattenkvalitet Vattenmätningar från Vörå å 1969–20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Acid sulphate soils (ASS) form in sulphide bearing marine sediments that have been exposed to atmospheric oxygen caused by eustatic uplift and draining of cultivated fields. The river Vörå å, in western Finland, is a small stream that is severely affected by ASS. Finnish authorities have during decades sampled and analysed the water, but the data has not been interpreted. The objective of this study was to structure, describe and interpret previously untreated analyses data of the water samples from the years 1969 to 2017. Wa-ter quality was in general very bad and the worst situations occurred during springs and late autumns with pH <5, high sulphate concentrations and EC between 25–100 mS/m. Suspended solids and turbidity peaked in April while pH, EC, iron concentration and COD were highest during the summer. The variations in the chemical composition of the water were lowest during the spring and most widespread during the summer. At the end of the measurement period, many variables showed a slight improvement, the reason for this is unclear. Due to climate change the mean temperatures in Finland have increased, this may possibly affect the timing for snow melt in the spring and the time for flooding during the autumn. There are signs in the data indicating such changes. Metal concentra-tions from samples collected since 2005/2010 were compared with regional background values. Some metals demonstrated high concentrations.

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    Sura sulfatjordar och vattenkvalitet - Vattenmätningar från Vörå å 1969–2017
  • 245.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland ; Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    Univ Helsinki, Finland ; Kazan Fed Univ, Russia.
    Penttinen, O. -P
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 246.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Penttinen, Olli-Pekka
    Egfors, Angelica
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Environmental toxicity of glassworks landfill soils2016In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2016: Book of Abstracts : The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World. / [ed] Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland, Linnaeus University Press, 2016, p. 241-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following over 200 years of industrialization, soil contamination is a widespread problem in many countries. Contaminants, especially heavy metals and persistent organic compounds, can still be found at high concentrations decades after the emissions have ceased. One important part of this industrial heritage is the heavy metal contamination of soil and landfills around glass factories, with complex relationships between contaminants, the natural hydrogeochemical environment and biota. In southeastern Sweden lies the so called “Kingdom of Crystal”, with a long tradition of artistic glass production and elevated concentrations of a range of metals found in soil and landfills of the glassworks sites. Because high total concentrations may not always translate into a high mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity, research on biological effects has been deemed necessary to delineate the severity of contamination.

    For the present study, soil samples from landfills and control areas were collected at five glassworks in the Kingdom of Crystal (Bergdala, Målerås, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors). Each landfill site was heavily contaminated with various metals. As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were the major contaminants, exceeding the guideline values of Swedish legislation. Total concentrations were found in the range 64-7800 mg As kg-1, 30- 600 mg Ba kg-1, 0.16- 3 mg Cd kg-1, 160-38000 mg Pb kg-1, 0.40-56 mg Sb kg-1, and 45-1100 mg Zn kg-1. To test for biotoxicity, a battery of tests with species of varying sensitivities and exposure pathways were applied. Evaluation of plant toxicity to Lepidium sativum demonstrated the lack of difference between biomass production between the soils from contaminated landfill sites and control areas. Similarly, elutriates from both metal contaminated and reference soils implied low toxicity to the photobacterium Vibrio fisheri. However, significant reduction in the numbers and biomass of enchytraeids was observed in the landfill sites of Bergdala, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors. Also the numbers of nematodes tended to be reduced in landfill sites. Altogether, the obtained results provide a better understanding of the complex historical contamination by evaluating biological responses at different levels.

  • 247. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Hultman, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Tourism mobility, locality and sustainable rural development2010In: Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe: Approaches to Development. / [ed] McLeod, D. and Gillespie, S., London: Routledge, 2010, p. 28-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural Europe is a highly developed tourism region, representing advanced tourism experience and supposed modern approaches to this industry. That said, it remains highly sensitive and fragile in terms of environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts. This volume focuses on rural Europe as a fascinating example of how tourism development impacts on the communities and the environment of rural regions and offers insights into how long term sustainability could be achieved in this specific region and correspondingly in other rural parts of the world.

    Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe contains contributions from leading international scholars that review and analyse the concept and practice of sustainable tourism in this region through a multidisciplinary approach that embodies the view that sustainable tourism warrants a holistic approach in terms of its impacts and development potential. Divided into three sections: Key Themes and Issues; The State and Development; The Local Community and Development, this book addresses contentious and vital issues through theory, detailed research and case studies, offering real world approaches to sustainable development, showing problems including local politics which challenge abstract models. It introduces cutting edge research dealing with contemporary developments throughout Europe and consequential lessons/implications for other rural parts of the world.

    This volume will be of interest to students, researchers and academics in the areas of Tourism, Geography and Environmental Studies.

  • 248. Hameed, Mahmood
    The ecological Culture as a civilizing necessity for the Family2003 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [ar]

    قد أضحت قضية التثقيف البيئي قضية حضارية وإنسانية عامة تهم البشر بأي لون كانت جلودهم وبأي لغة انطلقت بها ألسنتهم وذلك في ضوء ما يشهده عالمنا المعاصر من تحديات تخل بالتوازن البيئي الذي بدأت عواقبه الوخيمة تزداد يوما بعد يوم. هذا ويتوجب على الإنسان العصري الإلمام بالمشاكل البيئية التي خلقها التقدم التكنلوجي الذي ينعم بمنجزاته. كما غدا الوعي البيئي على صعيد المجتمع وليكون عنصرا فعالا في حماية البيئة حاملا على عاتقه نقل أمانة الحفاظ عليها. إن هذا الكتاب هو معين مبسط يقدم للإنسان عبر سلسلة من المحاضرات شرحا للمشاكل البيئية بأسلوب سلس يستطيع من خلاله استيعاب المخاطر البيئية المحدقة بكوكبنا وذلك من خلال التطرق لمسببات هذه المشاكل ونتائجها وطرق التصدي لها وعلاجها وذلك وذلك بهدف الوعي البيئي لدى مواطنينا مهما اختلفت مستوياتهم التعليمية.                                   

  • 249. Hameed, Mahmood
    The most ecological Problems in the modern world1995 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [ar]

     

    أهم المشكلات البيئية في العالم المعاصر: يقدم هذا الكتاب شرحا مفصلا لأهم المشكلات البيئية التي يرزح تحتها عالمنا المعاصر من تلوث للهواء والتربة والماء والغذاء مع اسقاط الضوء على مشكلتي الاحتباس الحراري وثقب الأوزون: حيث يتم طرح المشكلة مع بيان أسبابها والأضرار الناجمة عنها وطرق علاجها.

  • 250.
    Hammarsten, Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almers, Ellen
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Avery, Helen
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Tobias
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Developing ecological literacy in a forest garden: children’s perspectives2019In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 227-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, cities become more dense, green spaces disappear and children spend less time outdoors. Research suggests that these conditions create health problems and lack of ecological literacy. To reverse such trends, localities are creating urban green spaces for children to visit during school time. Drawing on ideas in ecological literacy, this study investigates school children’s perspectives on a forest garden, a type of outdoor educational setting previously only scarcely researched. Data were collected through walk-and-talk conversations and informal interviews with 28 children aged 7 to 9. Many children in the study expressed strong positive feelings about the forest garden, the organized and spontaneous activities there, and caring for the organisms living there. We observed three aspects of learning in the data, potentially beneficial for the development of children’s ecological literacy: practical competence, learning how to co-exist and care, and biological knowledge and ecological understanding.

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