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  • 201.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Determination of potential failure initiation time using cumulative sum chart2016In: IFAC-PapersOnLine / [ed] Christos Emmanouilidis, Benoît Iung, Marco Macchi and François Pérès, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 49:28, p. 43-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hard competition forces companies to reduce uncertainty in production planning through, e.g. reducing the probability of failures. In this paper, more accurate data analysis through reducing randomness in vibration measurements is introduced. Quality control tool Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Chart is adapted for monitoring variation in vibration level to determine the time of potential failure initiation. The result confirms the possibility of reducing false alarms arise due to randomness in vibration signals. The major conclusion; applying Cusum chart it is possible to determine the time of initiation of a potential failure for follow up its progression and accurate planning of maintenance.

  • 202.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Dymanite: ett beslutsstödsystem för effektivare underhållsåtgärder, del III2010In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 6, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 203.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Dynamic e-Maintenance: Applying eMaintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) in Case Companies2011In: 7th IMA International Conference on Modelling in Industrial Maintenance and Reliability: Sidney Susses College, University of Cambrige, UK, UK: Institute of Mathematics & its applications , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to maintain and improve company profitability especially during financial crises and lower profit-margin, it is necessary to reduce economic losses. This can be achieved through maintaining and improving the quality of the elements involved in the production process. Therefore, the maintenance strategy applied should be dynamic to suit the changes occur in a production process cost-effectively. Therefore, it is essential for maintenance and production managers to have a system providing the data required to achieve dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions. In this paper, a new Maintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) for achieving dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions is introduced, tested and discussed. It consists of three toolsets and five software modules for performing six services to; enhance accuracy of maintenance decisions, select the most cost-effective maintenance solutions, identify and prioritise problem areas, and assess losses in production time, and map, follow up and assess maintenance cost-effectiveness (maintenance savings and profit) to achieve continuous & cost effective improvement. The major result of this tsudy is verfication of a new innovative Mainteance Decision Support System (eMDSS). The system has been tested at Fiat (car manufacturer)/CRF in Italy and GORATU (CNC-machine manufacturer).  The main conclusion is; applying eMDSS it is possible to map production and maintenance processes, identify and prioritise problems, select the most cost-effective maintenance investment and follow up and control investments results.

  • 204.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Dynamite: ett beslutsstödsystem för effektivare underhållsåtgärd, del II2010In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 3, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 205.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Dynamite: ett beslutsstödsystem för effektivare underhållsåtgärder2009In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 7, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 206.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Economic criteria to select a cost-effective maintenance policy1999In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 236-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reputation of an organisation is often built through hard work on improving quality, reliability, delivery time and price. In this paper a graphical method for the selection of a cost-effective monitoring technique is suggested. This graphical method is also used to select the most cost-effective replacement vibration level, when a vibration-based maintenance is implemented, i.e. when the available data are mainly condition-based replacement. This method is based on the concept of the Total Time on Test, TTT-plot. The use of this method is explained by three examples.

  • 207.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Economic importance of maintenance planning when using vibration-based maintenance policy2001Book (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    eMaintenance Decision Support System: Case Studies for Securing Production Process & Following up Maintenance Contribution in Company Business2011In: COMADEM 2011 : proceedings of the 24th international congress on conditioning monitoring and diagnostics engineering management: advances in industial asset integrity management / [ed] Maneesh Singh, Raj B.K.N. Rao and J.P. Liyanage, India: PL, Kolkata , 2011, p. 395-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, all the elements involved in a production process, such as tools, machinery, methods, competence and working environment are exposed to dynamic changes. Thus, in order to maintain and improve company profitability and competitiveness especially during financial crises and lower profit-margin, it is necessary to reduce losses through maintaining and improving the quality of the elements involved in the production process. Therefore, the maintenance strategy applied should be dynamic to follow all these changes cost-effectively. The accuracy of maintenance decisions is essential for reducing economic losses generated due to unnecessary stoppages especially when stoppage time is very expensive. Therefore, it is necessary for maintenance and production managers to have a system providing the data required to achieve dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions. In this paper, the role of & importance of dynamic and cost effective maintenance in company business is discussed. Also, a scenario for applying a new eMaintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) for achieving dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions is introduced, tested and discussed. eMDSS introduces four different strategies for continuously improving the cost-effectiveness of maintenance and production processes. It consists of three toolsets and five software modules for performing six services to;

    1. enhance accuracy of maintenance decisions

    2. select the most cost-effective maintenance solutions

    3. identify and prioritise problem areas, and assess losses in production time

    4. map, follow up and assess maintenance cost-effectiveness (maintenance savings and profit) for achieving continuous & cost effective improvement.

    The major result of this tsudy is a new innovative eMDSS. The system has been tested at Fiat (car manufacturer)/CRF inItalyand GORATU (CNC-machine manufacturer).  The main conclusion is; applying eMDSS it is possible to map production an maintenance processes, identify and prioritise investments results.

  • 209.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    En metod och en apparat för att prediktera tillståndet hos en maskin eller en komponent hos maskinen: PreVib algorithm2014Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett ändamål med föreliggande uppfinning är att förbättra prediktionen av en tillstånds­övervaknings­parameter och därmed förbättra uppskattningen av den mest effektiva tidpunkten för att byta ut eller utföra underhåll på en maskin eller viktiga komponenter hos maskinen.

    Mätdata som används för predikteringen renas på ett sådant sätt att en optimal prediktering uppnås. Om någon del av maskinen är skadad borde mätningarna öka eftersom skadan i maskin­komponenten är irreversibel, d.v.s. den kan inte laga sig själv, vilket borde medföra att värdena på mätningarna inte kan minska över tiden. De utvalda värdena sparas i ett rörligt fönster anpassat att spara ett förutbestämt antal mätvärden.

    Predikteringen börjar när värdet av den uppmätta tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern har överstigit en potentiell skadenivå, d.v.s. skada har initierats, vid vilken det antas att en potentiell skada hos maskinen eller komponenten är initierad. Det förväntade värdet bestäms baserat på ett fördefinierat mönster som reflekterar ett förväntat beteende hos den övervakade parametern efter det att skada har initierats, och tiden som har förflutit mellan tidpunkten när mätningen utfördes och tidpunkten när övervakningsparametern översteg den potentiella skadenivån. Mätvärdena måste på så sätt uppfylla två olika villkor för att de ska tillåtas att sparas i det rörliga fönstret. 

    Predikteringen utförs baserat på mätvärden som sparas i det rörliga fönstret, dvs. som är renade från störningar. På så sätt förbättras predikteringen.

    På grund av det faktum att mätdata renas också under den första fasen är det möjligt att starta prediktionen baserat på mätvärdena som sparats i det rörliga fönstret så fort som värdet på övervakningsparametern har passerat den potentiella skadenivån. På så sätt baseras prediktionen på mätvärden sparade under den första fasen såväl som under den andra fasen.

    Tack vare reningen av mätvärdena minskas antalet nödvändiga mätningar för att åstadkomma en tillräckligt bra prediktering. Det är tillräckligt med tre mätvärden som har renats enligt uppfinningen för att få ett tillförlitligt resultat.

    Enligt en utföringsform av uppfinningen är det fördefinierade mönstret för tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern en kurva som börjar öka vid tidpunkten då övervaknings­parametern överstiger den potentiella skadenivån. Kurvan beskriver värdet hos övervaknings­parametern i förhållande till tiden som har förflutit sedan tidpunkten då övervakningsparametern översteg den potentiella skadenivån. Formen på mönstret och således på kurvan beror t.ex. på typen av parameter, typen av skada, t.ex. ett brott eller slitage, och typen av förslitningssprocess, maskinens last och hastighet, och typen och kvalitén hos maskinen eller komponenten. För många typer av fel är kurvan exponentiellt ökande. Kurvan bestäms t.ex. baserat på föregående värde för samma tillståndsövervakningsparameter för samma eller liknade typer av maskiner eller komponenter. Kurvan börjar vid samma tid som det har detekterats att en skada har initierats, d.v.s. vid den tidpunkten då övervakningsparametern överstiger den potentiella skadenivån, och kurvan ökar under hela den andra fasen. Det förväntade värdet av mätningen bestäms baserat på kurvan och tidpunkten för mätningen. På sätt är det lätt att bestämma det förväntade värdet på mätningen.

    Enligt en utföringsform av uppfinningen slängs det nya mätvärdet om mätvärdet avviker från det förväntade värdet med mer än ett gränsvärde, gränsvärdet kan vara förutbestämt eller beräknas dynamiskt under den andra fasen.

    Enligt en utföringsform av uppfinningen innehåller mätmetoden vidare: ett meddelande till användaren genereras för att kontrollera mätningen och tillhandahålla ett nytt mätvärde när man har upptäckt att mätvärdet avviker för mycket från det definierade mönstret, ett nytt mätvärde tas emot och det nya mätvärdet jämförs med det förväntade värdet som har bestämts i enlighet med det definierade mönstret för tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern, och en varning genereras om det nya mätvärdet också avviker för mycket från det förväntade värdet. I annat fall byts det äldsta av de sparade mätvärdena i det rörliga fönstret ut mot det nya mätvärdet. En ny mätning utförs om värdet på mätningen avviker för mycket från det förväntade värdet under den andra fasen. Alternativt tas ett nytt mätvärde automatiskt när det har detekterats att en mätning avviker för mycket från det förväntade värdet. I och med denna utföringsform kastas ett felaktigt mätvärde och ersätts med en ny förslitningsrelevant mätning. Om den nya mätningen också avviker för mycket från det förväntade värdet genereras en varning till användaren. Det kan antigen betyda att någonting är fel med mätutrustningen eller att skadan har utvecklats mycket fortare än förväntat och att en underhållsåtgärd brådskande behöver utföras.

    Enligt en utföringsform av uppfinningen innefattar metoden vidare: den predikterade nivån hos tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern jämförs med åtminstone ett gränsvärde för tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern, de föregående stegen upprepas åtminstone tills den predikterade nivån hos tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern överstiger gränsnivån och ett meddelande genereras avseende en underhållsåtgärd när den predikterade nivån hos tillstånds­övervaknings­parametern överstiger gränsnivån. Gränsnivån är t.ex. en varningsnivå som ligger nedanför utbytesnivån för komponenten eller maskinen. Det är också möjligt att ha flera gränsnivåer mellan den potentiella skadenivån och en utbytesnivå. Denna utföringsform gör det möjligt att föreslå en underhållsåtgärd med tillräcklig ledtid vid en kostnadseffektiv tidpunkt.

    Enligt en utföringsform av uppfinnen är maskinen en roterande maskin och mätvärdena någon av vibrationsmätningar, temperaturmätningar, ljudmätningar och chockpulsmätningar.

    Enligt en annan aspekt av uppfinningen uppnås detta ändamål av en datorprogramprodukt direkt nedladdningsbar i det interna minnet hos en dator, eller genom en fjärrstyrd dator, web-service, eller molntjänst innefattande mjukvara för att utföra stegen hos metoden när nämnda program körs på datorn.

    Enligt en annan aspekt av uppfinningen uppnås detta ändamål av ett dataläsbart medium som har ett program inspelat, där programmet får datorn att utföra stegen i metoden när programmet körs på datorn.

    Enligt en annan aspekt av uppfinningen uppnås detta ändamål av en apparat.

  • 210.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Establishing and running a condition-based maintenance policy: applied example of vibration-based maintenance2007In: Proceedings of WCEAM / CM2007, 2007, p. 106-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance is not only for solving technical problems as many may consider. It as a matter of fact is for solving production related problems, such as technical, environmental, etc. cost-effectively. This is why the technical part of maintenance, e.g. focusing on developing condition monitoring (CM) technology is not always sufficient alone to achieve a cost-effective maintenance policy. Without the maintenance management part responsible of identifying problem areas, data acquisition, management and analysis, decision-making procedures, planning and performing maintenance tasks at high quality and cost-effectively, the output of using any CM system cannot be guaranteed to be beneficial. In this paper, Condition monitoring and condition-based maintenance is introduced and discussed with respect to the differences between them. Also, the procedures required for establishing and running a condition/vibration-based maintenance is introduced, motivated and discussed.

  • 211.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Ett beslutsstödsystem för kostnadseffektivare underhållsåtgärder2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 212.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Ett nytt underhållskoncept för kvalitetssäkring och förbättring till minskadekostnader: Totalt kvalitetsunderhåll (TKU)1999Report (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Hur vet man om det är bättre att utveckla produktionen än att flytta ut den?2005In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 8, p. 26-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 214.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Impact of integrated vibration-based maintenance on plant LCC: A case study2000In: Quality reliability and maintenance (QRM), 2000, p. 105-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biggest thread confronts maintaining high equipment effectiveness is; whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced It aims at making intensive use of real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery at an early stage and to allow control of these deviations to improve technical and economic of process effectiveness continuously. The effect of TQMain on machine's LCC and a company's economy is discussed. A case study revealing savings in maintenance cost, when a vibration-based policy is involved is presented

  • 215.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Impact of real-time measurements of operating conditions on effectiveness and accuracy of vibration-based maintenance policy: A Case Study in Paper Mill2000In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevant and reliable data from the surroundings in addition to the vibration measurements are required to achieve effective diagnosis and prognosis when a vibration-based maintenance (VBM) policy is used.

    The main conclusion is that the variation in the machine load and speeds influences the amplitudes of rolling element bearing defect frequencies. Therefore, changes in the machine speed and load should be considered when interpreting vibration spectra. This will improve the effectiveness and accuracy of fault diagnosis and prediction of the time to maintenance action.

    The paper classifies stoppage times and highlights the reasons behind them. Also, it discusses the consequential economic losses incurred by unplanned stoppages. During the period covered by this study (fifty-eight days), the total stoppage time was about 76.6 days and caused appreciable economic losses of about 2,3 millions SEK.

  • 216.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Improved effectiveness of vibration monitoring of rolling bearings in paper mills1998In: Journal of engineering tribology, Vol. 212, no 2, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling element bearing failures in paper mill machines are considered in relation to their critical role in the machine function. The paper discusses these failures according to what becomes damaged and how, and relates them to the vibration spectra and their development over the bearings’ lives. Interpretation of some variations in the vibration signature, i.e. relating vibration amplitude changes and frequency shifts to the deterioration processes involved, are proposed and discussed. The literature was found mainly to confirm this analysis. A new approach to envelope alarming is presented and shown theoretically (logically) to offer later renewal with fewer failures, and therefore lower cost and higher productivity. Deficiencies in data coverage and quality, and the feedback of case study results, are discussed. A model to improve maintenance experience is proposed and discussed. Using vibration to monitor component condition, the accurate prediction of remaining life requires (a) enough vibration measurements, (b) numerate records of operating conditions, (c) better discrimination between frequencies in the spectrum and (d) correlation of (b) and (c). This is because life prediction depends on the amplitudes of (and) the frequencies generated by the component damage. Much money could be saved because some present policies utilise as little as half of the bearing useful life.

  • 217.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Improvement in effectiveness of vibration-based condition monitoring system in paper millsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Improvement in effectiveness of vibration-based monitoring systems1997Report (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Integrated vibration-based maintenance1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Integrated vibration-based maintenance detecting quality deviations earlier than when using traditional diagram in the automative industry: a case study2000In: Advanced manufacturing: modular manufacturing, supplier integration, production planning, 2000, p. 157-165Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Just in Time Dynamic & Cost-effective Maintenance (JiT dMaint) for more Reliable Production: A Case Study2012In: 21st European Congress on Maintenance and Asset Management, Belgrade, 2012, p. 277-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using CM, we have past data for describing damage initiation & development and current data for describing the current condition of a component/machine.  Data describing possible behaviour of the condition in the close future are usually lack in the available commercial systems although it is important for planning production/maintenance actions, reducing failures/accidents, & consequently reducing losses & production cost. In general, accurate maintenance decisions prolong life length of components/machines and maintain production continuity which adds competitive advantages. When CM parameter exceeds a significant (warning) level, it demands a clear understanding of what happened to avoid failures. Also, reliable answers concerning; what is the probability of failure of a component, its residual life and when is the most profitable time of conducting maintenance are necessary. In this paper, a new innovative eMDSS consists of three strategies for cost-effective maintenance & production processes is introduced and discussed. The major focus is given on one strategy (Accurate Maintenance Decisions). This strategy offers opportunity to achieve Just on Time Dynamic & Cost-effective Maintenance by selecting the most profitable time for maintenance is developed, tested in case companies and discussed. It offers unique solutions to increase maintenance profitability by enhancing maintenance decision accuracy via;

    1. Predicting the value of CM parameter, e.g. vibration, level, PreVib.
    2. Estimating the probability of failure at the close future and component residual life, ProLife.
    3. Using this new information, it will easily estimate the most profitable time for maintenance action.

    Accurate Maintenance Decisions provides data about future situation in addition to the current & past data, which is necessary for production and maintenance successful planning. This toolset; predicts the vibration level (PreVib), assesses the probability of failure of equipment and its residual life (ProLife), and consequently it becomes possible to determine the best time of maintenance action. It has been tested in several Swedish and European companies within the branches of car manufacturing, production machine manufacturer and process industry.  This study was partly funded by EU-IP DYNAMITE (Dynamic Decisions in Maintenance ) 2005-2009 and partly by E-maintenance Sweden AB. The major conclusions are; applying this toolset it is possible to reduce failures appreciably, prolongs the life length of components/equipment, and perform profitable maintenance.

  • 222.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Just in Time Dynamic & Cost-effective Maintenance (JiT dMaint) for more Reliable Production: A Case Study2012In: Journal of Applied Engineering Science, ISSN 2247-3769, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using CM, we have past data for describing damage initiation & development and current data for describing the current condition of a component/machine.  Data describing possible behaviour of the condition in the close future are usually lack in the available commercial systems although it is important for planning production/maintenance actions, reducing failures/accidents, & consequently reducing losses & production cost. In general, accurate maintenance decisions prolong life length of components/machines and maintain production continuity which adds competitive advantages. When CM parameter exceeds a significant (warning) level, it demands a clear understanding of what happened to avoid failures. Also, reliable answers concerning; what is the probability of failure of a component, its residual life and when is the most profitable time of conducting maintenance are necessary. In this paper, a new innovative eMDSS consists of three strategies for cost-effective maintenance & production processes is introduced and discussed. The major focus is given on one strategy (Accurate Maintenance Decisions). This strategy offers opportunity to achieve Just on Time Dynamic & Cost-effective Maintenance by selecting the most profitable time for maintenance is developed, tested in case companies and discussed. It offers unique solutions to increase maintenance profitability by enhancing maintenance decision accuracy via;

    1. Predicting the value of CM parameter, e.g. vibration, level, PreVib.
    2. Estimating the probability of failure at the close future and component residual life, ProLife.
    3. Using this new information, it will easily estimate the most profitable time for maintenance action.

    Accurate Maintenance Decisions provides data about future situation in addition to the current & past data, which is necessary for production and maintenance successful planning. This toolset; predicts the vibration level (PreVib), assesses the probability of failure of equipment and its residual life (ProLife), and consequently it becomes possible to determine the best time of maintenance action. It has been tested in several Swedish and European companies within the branches of car manufacturing, production machine manufacturer and process industry.  This study was partly funded by EU-IP DYNAMITE (Dynamic Decisions in Maintenance ) 2005-2009 and partly by E-maintenance Sweden AB. The major conclusions are; applying this toolset it is possible to reduce failures appreciably, prolongs the life length of components/equipment, and perform profitable maintenance.

  • 223.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Just-in time and dynamic maintenance (JIT-Maint) for turbine, generator, gearbox and sawmills: case stories2015In: 28º COMADEM + X CORENDE 2015 / [ed] Marta Clelia Ruch, Asociación Argentina de Ensayos no Destructivos y Estructurales, AAENDE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profitable production demands continuously improved maintenance decision accuracy to reduce unplanned stoppages, prolong components/machines  life length and maintain production continuity. When CM, e.g. vibration level or oil temperature, value exceeds a warning level, it demands a clear understanding of what happened and how it will develop to avoid failures. It demands also reliable information, e.g. probability of failure, residual  life and when is the most profitable time for maintenance. Companies strive to reduce production cost through reducing non-value adding times, e.g. failures, for offering customers lower prices and generating additional competitive advantages. In this paper, a new tool (Prediction of Vibration and oil temperature, PreVib) for predicting the condition of a turbine, generator and gearbox is introduced,  discussed and tested. The solution offers a unique opportunity to achieve just in time dynamic and cost-effective maintenance by selecting the most profitable time for maintenance. PreVib is tested in a power plant. The major results: Failures can appreciably be reduced thanks the high precision of prediction ( + 90%), i.e. a negligible difference from the real measurement: PreVib does not demand extensive or additional data, and not replace available maintenance systems. The major conclusion is that applying PreVib, it is possible to reduce failures appreciably, prolong life length of components/equipment and perform profitable maintenance

  • 224.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Maintaining Asset Quality Cost-Effectively: Future Business Challenge2012In: Quality. Inovations.Future / [ed] Marko Ferjan, Mirjana Kljajic Borstnar,Miha Maric and Andreja Pucihar, Slovenia, Potoroz, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    World-wide industrial experience shows that vibration is a powerful tool in detecting damage in mechanical systems which made it very widely used in rotating and reciprocating machines. Properly used vibration monitoring systems provide information illustrating what is on-going in the machine, i.e. if there is deterioration. Current and past data can also be used to identify what type of deterioration processes are active. But, sometimes the vibration signal analysis should be completed by additional CM parameter(s), such as SPM, oil analysis and temperature, to get more reliable detection of problems and prediction of future condition of production equipment.

    Making accurate and cost-effective maintenance decisions, i.e. to determine more accurately when and why to stop production equipment and where to conduct maintenance actions  depends on:

    1. availability of equipment history,
    2. possibility to assess current condition,
    3. accuracy of the CM system being used and
    4. the knowledge and experience in monitoring the condition of mechanical systems that is available.

    But, the data set which describes the condition of the equipment in the close future is usually missed. Therefore to avoid failures and conduct maintenance actions during planned stoppages, it is crucial to assess what the condition of production equipment will be at the next planned stoppage (close future), i.e. when the decisions of stopping production equipment for maintenance should be realised.

    The capital invested in production equipment is usually intended to produce a predetermined amount of production in a well-defined production time at a particular quality and production cost. But due to failures, reduced production speed and other unnecessary stoppages, the production process loses some of the time planned for production due to the downtime and failure related poor quality. Higher level of vibration, noise, heat generation and temperature can associate the deterioration phase preceding failures and result in higher energy consumption. The additional energy, i.e. waste in energy, is consumed due to, e.g. failures, reduced production speed, produced bad quality items and machine idle time. Thus, eliminating the root-causes behind these disturbances, the bleeding of waste in energy consumption can be reduced or terminated. Moreover, the pollution released to the environment is, in general, influenced by many factors, among others, energy production/consumption. Therefore,  reduced waste in energy consumption will reduce the amount of pollution released to the environment. It is notable that the reduction in downtime of production equipment and waste in energy consumption can both be assessed on the economic basis but of two dimensional effect; economic and environmental. Therefore, in order to decide whether the time is most profitable, technical and economic analysis is important for highlighting the economic losses due to failures, downtimes and unnecessary consumption of energy and consequently less pollution to the environment. It is also important to develop a model for determining when to plan maintenance actions to continuously increase company profitability. The economic impact of unnecessary downtime and consumption in energy can then be used to distinguish between failure modes, rank them and select the most profitable maintenance time. But, applying any model or system for conducting  profitable maintenance cannot be secured without reliable and easily used key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be used for mapping, analysis, evaluation and judgement of maintenance and production processes. A KPI is a measurable variable that can be used for mapping, analysis or evaluating a process technically, e.g. with respect to failures, downtime, short stoppages, or economically, with respect to production cost, economic losses, maintenance savings. It reflects either only technical measure, such as the number of failures, or economic measure, such as the economic losses due to inefficient maintenance, or a combined measure, such as maintenance savings per high quality item.

    The detailed analysis of CM signals is essential for detecting problems at an early stage, identifying root-causes, predicting damage severity and, planning and selecting the most profitable maintenance time and actions. The criteria influencing the arrangements and selection of CM systems and maintenance management policy will be controlled by important features;

    1. diagnosis accuracy,

    2. cost-effectiveness of maintenance decisions,

    3. applicability of the system in SMEs from technical, administrative and economic perspectives.

    4. Level of knowledge and experience in CM technology that is required for adequate implementation.

    From everyday experience, more accurate and high quality maintenance and operational data that are necessary for describing the strengths and weaknesses of production equipment are also important for  modifying the design of production equipment.  Also, maintenance role in modifying equipment design through providing the underlying information and evidences that are required to highlight weaknesses and justify modifications technically and economically.

    One of the biggest problems facing the implementation of CBM and especially predictive maintenance is that reliable predictive maintenance demands according to the current way a big number of sensors and may be of different types, e.g. for measuring vibration, SPM, acoustic emission, etc. At continuous monitoring of the health of production equipment, the problem becomes bigger due to the high investing capital that is demanded in many cases.

  • 225.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Maintaining performance-efficeincy and quality rate for high effectiveness of manufacturing machines1999In: Proceedings Condition Monitoring '99 / [ed] Jones, MH; Sleeman, DG, 1999, p. 343-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of manufacturing companies is to achieve increased productivity, high plant availability, high quality rate, and increased safety, at the most competitive cost. Data collected by only one condition monitoring parameter are, sometimes, insufficient to achieve effective assessment of the condition of a machine due to its limited ability to cover the required information and the inherent uncertainty in the acquired data. The problem addressed in this paper, is how to keep availability, quality, and productivity at high levels through utilizing a common database, i.e. integrating the database of condition-based maintenance system with the main plant IT-system, for an innovative expert system. It was found that most research is focused on tool and process monitoring, using various types of condition monitoring parameters, to predict tool wear and tool life. Intelligent manufacturing systems techniques, e.g. Expert System, Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks, are being used to integrate and interpret data from multiple sensors. But less attention was devoted to the development of integrated condition monitoring systems, which enable the user to evaluate a multi-variant system based on the data collected from, e.g. maintenance, quality, production and accountancy. The major conclusion is that; using an innovated expert system, based on a common database having better data coverage and quality, and a continuously improved knowledge base with intelligent inference engine, one can enhance the reliability of data, certainty of decision making, remove the redundancy in the monitoring system, and allow the user to detect and eliminate reasons behind variations through effective diagnosis and prognosis. This leads to continuous improvement in quality, productivity and availability at a reduced cost, and improved effectiveness of the manufacturing system

  • 226.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. systemekonomi.
    Maintenance from Different Perspectives: Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) for a Comprehensive Asset Maintenance2008In: ICOMS 2008 Conference Proceedings, Asset Management Council, Surrey Hills, Australia , 2008, p. 37/1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the interactions between the working areas involved in a production process, such as operation, quality, management, working environment, LCC management and analysis and maintenance, problems in these working areas are usually complex. It is well-known that maintenance is influenced by and influences these working areas. Maintenance role can be described technically using; failures, downtime, availability, planned stoppages, etc. or economically using; direct cost of maintenance, maintenance cost to production cost, spare part cost, etc. In order to high light maintenance technical and economic role and quantify its impact on company profitability and competitiveness, it is necessary to cover all relevant working areas within plant where maintenance affect. Thus, maintenance should be considered from different perspectives due to its interplay with the working areas involved in the production process. In this paper, maintenance is recognised as a means for maintaining the quality of the working areas involved in a production process at a continuous reduced cost. Also, we introduce maintenance from different perspectives based on its role in company profitability and competitiveness. Further more, the paper give big attention to introduce and discuss Total Quality maintenance (TQMain) philosophy with respect to the maintenance broader definition. An industrial case highlights TQMain applicability & maintenance economic importance is also introduced.

  • 227.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Maintenance from Different Relevant Perspectives: Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) for a Comprehensive Asset Maintenance2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Maintenance Function Deployment (MFD) for Cost-effective & Continuous Improvement of Company’s Business: Using Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain)2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Maintenance or Maintenance Lack which Actually Costs: A Model to Quantify the Impact of VBM on Company's Business2005In: International conference on condition monitoring, 2005, p. 15-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    MDSS: ett beslutsstödsystem för effektivare underhållsåtgärder  del IV:1:22011In: Bättre produktivitet : tidning för PLAN och regionala produktivitetsföreningar : med plan-nytt, ISSN 1402-1145, no 1, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 231.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    MDSS: ett beslutsstödsystem för kostnadseffektivare underhållsåtgärder  Del IV:2:22011In: Bättre produktivitet : tidning för PLAN och regionala produktivitetsföreningar : med plan-nytt, ISSN 1402-1145, no 2, p. 24-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 232.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Med färre dyra stopp kan produktionen räddas kvar2004In: Dagens industri, ISSN 0346-640X, no 0607Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 233.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    More Reliable Profitable and Competitive Production via Effective e-Maintenance: A Case Study2015In: Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM 2012) / [ed] Woo Bang Lee,Byeongkuen Choi, Lin Ma and Joseph Mathew, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, p. 49-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profitable production demands continuously improved maintenance decision accuracy for reducing/avoiding failures and unplanned stoppages due to their consequences. More accurate decisions prolong life length of components and consequently machines, and maintain the production running longer. When a condition monitoring (CM) value exceeds a significant (warning) level it demands a clear understanding of what happened and how it will develop in the next future to avoid failures. Also, CM demands reliable information concerning the probability of failure, residual life time and when is the most profitable time of conducting maintenance. Companies strive to reduce production cost in order to increase the possibility of offering customers lower prices & generating additional competitive advantages. But, applying new technologies for enhancing maintenance and production performances and company competitiveness counter many problems in industry. In this paper, a new innovative e-Maintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) is introduced and discussed; the problems facing successful implementation of eMDSS based on a case study are introduced and discussed. Solutions to avoid the problems facing successful implementation of e MDSS are suggested and discussed. eMDSS offers a unique opportunity to achieve just in time dynamic and cost-effective maintenance by selecting the most profitable time for maintenance. It offers innovative solutions to increase maintenance profitability by enhancing maintenance decision accuracy via:

    1. Identifying & classifying problems based on their shares in losses in production.

    2. Predicting the value of CM parameter, e.g. vibration, level in the near future.

    3. Estimating the probability of failure and component remaining life in the near future.

    4. Estimating the most profitable time for maintenance action.

    5. Selecting the most profitable maintenance action.

    6. Mapping & following up maintenance & production performances.

    7. Identifying and following up the most profitable investment in maintenance.

    eMDSS combines technical and economic data describing future situation in addition to the current & past data, which is necessary for production and maintenance successful planning. The major conclusion is that applying eMDSS it is possible to reduce failures appreciably, prolong life length of components/equipment & perform profitable maintenance

  • 234.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Mycket att tjäna på tillståndsbaserat underhåll2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 235.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    On a graphical method for the selection of a maintenance techniqueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a graphical method for the selection of a cost-effective monitoring technique is suggested. Also, a graphical method to estimate the level at which components should be replaced when using a cost-effective technique, i.e. threshold level, is proposed. These two methods are based on the concept of the Total Time on Test, TTT-plot on age and condition dependent replacement is discussed.

  • 236.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    On establishing cost-effective condition-based maintenance: Exemplified for vibration-based maintenance in case companies2012In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 401-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to develop the steps required for establishing and running cost-effective condition-based maintenance (CBM) exemplified for vibration-based maintenance (VBM) and compared with real implementations in case companies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study is based on published knowledge and experience within condition monitoring (CM) and CBM, and three case studies.

    Findings

    – The study has shown that all three case companies are in a big need for systematic procedures for doing right things right, in the right time cost-effectively (establishing and running a cost-effective CBM).

    Research limitations/implications

    – The paper focuses on development of cost-effective CBM exemplified for VBM. Also, the case companies belong to three branches: paper and pulp mills, energy producer and engineering manufacturing. The case companies have different levels in applying CBM/VBM, experience and knowledge in CM and CBM.

    Practical implications

    – Systematic procedures for establishing CBM/VBM policy are developed, motivated and discussed in a way which enables the user to establish and run CBM/VBM policy cost-effectively.

    Originality/value

    – The steps of establishment of CBM/VBM provide a unique model for companies to establish and run cost-effective maintenance its originality.

  • 237.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    On the design of the integration of quality, maintenance and production2003In: Condition monitoring and diagnostic engineering management; COMADEM 2003 / [ed] Shirivastav, O.P. ; A-Najjar B. ; Rao, R. B.K. N., 2003, p. 23-33Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    On the effectiveness of vibration-based monitoring programsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    On the modelling of condition dependent failure rates in mechanical systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycle between two replacements based on condition monitoring is discussed. Models representing a condition dependent failure rate function reflecting the information in a monitoring parameter are suggested. For the selection of a cost-effective technique, a modified version of the Proportional Hazards Model, PHM, is proposed. Utilizing this modified model, it is possible to reveal the effect of monitoring parameters and operating conditions on the failure rate function. General comments on the application of the cost equation are given.

  • 240.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    On the Relation between Operating Conditions and Changes in Vibration Signature: A Case Study in Paper Mill1998Report (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    On the relation between operating conditions and changes in vibration signature: A case study in paper mill machine1998In: International condition monitoring conference; 1998 technology showcase / [ed] Humphrey, G. R. ; Martin, R. W., 1998, p. 226-235Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    On the selection of condition based maintenance for mechanical systems1991In: Operational reliability and systematic maintenance / [ed] Holmberg, K; Folkeson A., London: Elsevier Applied Science , 1991, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements for increased plant productivity and safety, and reduced maintenance costs, have led to an increasing interest in methods for condition monitoring of mechanical systems.  In the literature on Reliability-Centred Maintenance, RCM, the selection of a maintenance technique is mainly carried out on the level of system failure modes. Also, distinguishing criteria such as the long run average cost per unit time are not modelled see for example, Nowlan et al. (1978). In this study, a summary of three papers, Al-Najjar (1990a, b& c), component failure causes and failure mechanisms are involved in the selection problem, and a long run average cost per unit time is modelled. In chapter 2, the identification of significant components is described. State-changes of a component are discussed in chapter 3. New classifications of failures, monitoring parameters and monitoring techniques are proposed in chapters 2 and 4, respectively. Data sampling and analysis are discussed in chapter 4. The cumulative sum chart is proposed as a technique to reduce the fluctuation in monitoring parameter value.   In chapter 5, the selection of a cost-effective policy is carried out based on economical and non-economical distinguishing criteria. Chapters 1 to 5 summarise Al-Najjar (1990a). Modelling of a condition dependent failure rate function is discussed in chapter 6, which the summary of Al-Najjar (1990b). Chapter 7 is addressed to the problem of selecting a cost-effective monitoring technique based on observational data. To carry out the selection, we suggest the use of a generalization of a method, related to the Total Time on Test, TTT-plot, introduced by Bergman (1977). Also, a graphical method to estimate the threshold level of a monitoring parameter when using a cost-effective technique is proposed, see also Al-Najjar (1990c).

  • 243.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Onödigt underhåll kostar företagen stora pengar2002Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 244.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Prediction of the vibration level when monitoring rolling element bearings in paper mill machines2001In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling element bearings in paper mill machines are considered in this paper due to their critical role in the machine function. In general, the cost-effectiveness of a vibration-based maintenance policy mainly depends on the technical and economic effectiveness of the vibration monitoring system, i.e. software, hardware, and personnel, being used. In this paper, a model for predicting the vibration level of rolling element bearings in paper mills is developed. In the model, a combination of bearing vibration history, current condition and data from operating conditions is used to predict the vibration level of a bearing during a near future.

    The factors influencing the condition of rolling element bearings during operation are discussed. These factors are related partly to operating and environmental conditions and partly to previous changes in the condition of the bearing. The operating life of a bearing is divided into four phases characterised by their vibration behaviour. One of the important conclusions is that a mechanistic model would be more appropriate than other models for predicting the vibration level of a rolling element bearing and describing the deterioration process, which are needed to achieve better understanding of the bearing vibration behaviour.

  • 245.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Prediction of the vibration level when monitoring rolling element bearings in paper mills machines1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Product quality problems can be detected earlier by vibration spectral analysis than by traditional quality control diagram: A case study2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Project-based learning for technical education in master programms2006In: International quality in engineering education / [ed] Pudlowski, ZJ, 2006, p. 216-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project-based learning methodology has been applied in a technical education Master programmes over almost the last almost nine years. The major results that have been achieved are that the graduated students have acquired a wide range of knowledge, together with deeper theoretical and practical skills in specific topics, and the effective enhancement of their analysis skills and training in constructive opposition to the examination of the research work of other groups. The main conclusion is that the course final written examination is not the only reliable examination form for judging the understanding of students. Project-based learning methodology provides a continuous examination of the gradual understanding of students instead of a final written examination.

  • 248.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Review of maintenance concepts1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Selection and improvment of a cost-effective maintenance policy: the case of rolling element bearings1998In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main result reported in this paper is that the bearing’s mean effective life could be extended appreciably if an existing vibration-based maintenance policy is used effectively. A new maintenance approach was developed to overcome some of the limitations of TPM and RCM and is based on the Deming managerial feedback cycle. It is a methodology to sustain and improve technical and economic effectiveness of the essential manufacturing process elements. It is shown that by using vibration-based monitoring, (VBM), program in the frame of a common database for a plant IT-system, the causes behind quality deviations and failures can be identified and eliminated effectively and the company’s economics would be improved. Criteria to select the most cost-effective VBM program and the most cost-effective vibration-based maintenance policy are developed. It is shown, by two case studies, that improvements in VBM systems can be achieved by effective feedback of the results of failures, renewal condition and VBM history analysis. The contribution of this study is: The development of a sequential method for the selection and improvement of a cost-effective vibration-based maintenance policy. This methodology can be used to justify, on economic criteria, the use of VBM systems to indicate when rolling element bearings should be renewed.

  • 250.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Selection of a cost-effective vibration based monitoring system1994Conference paper (Refereed)
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