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  • 201.
    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Goias, Brazil;Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Oxford, UK.
    Garibaldi, Lucas A.
    Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, Argentina;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn CONICET, Argentina.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Michez, Denis
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Poyry, Juha
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Reemer, Menno
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;European Invertebrate Survey Netherlands, Netherlands.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    UFZ Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    van den Berg, Leon
    Bosgrp Zuid Nederland, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Kunin, William E.
    Univ Leeds, UK.
    Soil eutrophication shaped the composition of pollinator assemblages during the past century2020In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 43, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and other sources of environmental eutrophication have increased substantially over the past century worldwide, notwithstanding the recent declining trends in Europe. Despite the recognized susceptibility of plants to eutrophication, few studies evaluated how impacts propagate to consumers, such as pollinators. Here we aim to test if soil eutrophication contributes to the temporal dynamics of pollinators and their larval resources. We used a temporally and spatially explicit historical dataset with information on species occurrences to test if soil eutrophication, and more specifically nitrogen deposition, contributes to the patterns of change of plant and pollinator richness in the Netherlands over an 80 yr period. We focus on bees and butterflies, two groups for which we have good knowledge of larval resources that allowed us to define groups of species with different nitrogen related diet preferences. For each group we estimated richness changes between different 20-yr periods at local, regional and national scale, using analytical methods developed for analyzing richness changes based on collection data. Our findings suggest that the impacts of soil eutrophication on plant communities propagate to higher trophic levels, but with a time-lag. Pollinators with nitrogen-related diet preferences were particularly affected, in turn potentially impairing the performance of pollinator-dependent plants. Pollinator declines continued even after their focal plants started to recover. In addition, our results suggest that current levels of nitrogen deposition still have a negative impact on most groups here analyzed, constraining richness recoveries and accentuating declines. Our results indicate that the global increase in nitrogen availability plays an important role in the ongoing pollinator decline. Consequently, species tolerances to soil nitrogen levels should be considered across all trophic levels in management plans that aim to halt biodiversity loss and enhance ecosystems services worldwide.

  • 202.
    Cassani, Stefano
    et al.
    University of Insubria, Italy.
    Kovarich, Simona
    University of Insubria, Italy.
    Papa, Ester
    University of Insubria, Italy.
    Roy, Partha Pratim
    University of Insubria, Italy.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst Ltd, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst Ltd, Stockholm.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jeliazkova, Nina
    IdeaConsult Ltd, Bulgaria.
    Kochev, Nikolay
    Paisij Hilendarski Univ Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Pukalov, Ognyan
    Paisij Hilendarski Univ Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Tetko, Igor V.
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Germany.
    Brandmaier, Stefan
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Germany.
    Durjava, Mojca Kos
    Publ Hlth Inst Maribor, Slovenia.
    Kolar, Boris
    Publ Hlth Inst Maribor, Slovenia.
    Peijnenburg, Willie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, Netherlands ; Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Gramatica, Paola
    Univ Insubria, Italy.
    Evaluation of CADASTER QSAR Models for the Aquatic Toxicity of (Benzo)triazoles and Prioritisation by Consensus Prediction2013In: ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals), ISSN 0261-1929, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QSAR regression models of the toxicity of triazoles and benzotriazoles ([B] TAZs) to an alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), Daphnia magna and a fish (Onchorhynchus mykiss), were developed by five partners in the FP7-EU Project, CADASTER. The models were developed by different methods - Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Partial Least Squares (PLS), Bayesian regularised regression and Associative Neural Network (ASNN) - by using various molecular descriptors (DRAGON, PaDEL-Descriptor and QSPR-THESAURUS web). In addition, different procedures were used for variable selection, validation and applicability domain inspection. The predictions of the models developed, as well as those obtained in a consensus approach by averaging the data predicted from each model, were compared with the results of experimental tests that were performed by two CADASTER partners. The individual and consensus models were able to correctly predict the toxicity classes of the chemicals tested in the CADASTER project, confirming the utility of the QSAR approach. The models were also used for the prediction of aquatic toxicity of over 300 (B)TAZs, many of which are included in the REACH pre-registration list, and were without experimental data. This highlights the importance of QSAR models for the screening and prioritisation of untested chemicals, in order to reduce and focus experimental testing.

  • 203.
    Celepli, Narin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sundh, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Dupont, Chris L.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Yooseph, Shibu
    University of Central Florida, USA.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Stockholm University.
    Meta-omic analyses of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria: diversity, community structure and salt acclimation2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 673-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacteria are important phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea, an estuarine-like environment with pronounced north to south gradients in salinity and nutrient concentrations. Here, we present a metagenomic and -transcriptomic survey, with subsequent analyses targeting the genetic identity, phylogenetic diversity, and spatial distribution of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial community constituted close to 12% of the microbial population sampled during a pre-bloom period (June-July 2009). The community was dominated by unicellular picocyanobacteria, specifically a few highly abundant taxa (Synechococcus and Cyanobium) with a long tail of low abundance representatives, and local peaks of bloom-forming heterocystous taxa. Cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea differed genetically from those in adjacent limnic and marine waters as well as from cultivated and sequenced picocyanobacterial strains. Diversity peaked at brackish salinities 3.5-16psu, with low N:P ratios. A shift in community composition from brackish to marine strains was accompanied by a change in the repertoire and expression of genes involved in salt acclimation. Overall, the pre-bloom cyanobacterial population was more genetically diverse, widespread and abundant than previously documented, with unicellular picocyanobacteria being the most abundant clade along the entire Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

  • 204.
    Centeno, Jose A.
    et al.
    US FDA, USA.
    Finkelman, Robert B.
    Univ Texas Dallas, USA.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Medical Geology: Impacts of the Natural Environment on Public Health2016In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 6, no 1, article id UNSP 8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Cerro-Galvez, Elena
    et al.
    CSIC, IDAEA, Spain.
    Casal, Paulo
    CSIC, IDAEA, Spain.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pina, Benjamin
    CSIC, IDAEA, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dachs, Jordi
    CSIC, IDAEA, Spain.
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    CSIC, IDAEA, Spain.
    Microbial responses to anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon in the Arctic and Antarctic coastal seawaters2019In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1466-1481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of semi-volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants (OPs) reach open oceans through atmospheric deposition, causing a chronic and ubiquitous pollution by anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon (ADOC). Hydrophobic ADOC accumulates in cellular lipids, inducing harmful effects on marine biota, and can be partially prone to microbial degradation. Unfortunately, their possible effects on microorganisms, key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles, remain unknown. We challenged coastal microbial communities from Ny-angstrom lesund (Arctic) and Livingston Island (Antarctica) with ADOC concentrations within the range of oceanic concentrations in 24 h. ADOC addition elicited clear transcriptional responses in multiple microbial heterotrophic metabolisms in ubiquitous groups such as Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and SAR11. Importantly, a suite of cellular adaptations and detoxifying mechanisms, including remodelling of membrane lipids and transporters, was detected. ADOC exposure also changed the composition of microbial communities, through stimulation of rare biosphere taxa. Many of these taxa belong to recognized OPs degraders. This work shows that ADOC at environmentally relevant concentrations substantially influences marine microbial communities. Given that emissions of organic pollutants are growing during the Anthropocene, the results shown here suggest an increasing influence of ADOC on the structure of microbial communities and the biogeochemical cycles regulated by marine microbes.

  • 206.
    Chapman, Joanne R.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Helin, Anu S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wille, Michelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Atterby, Clara
    Uppsala University.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Fridlund, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A Panel of Stably Expressed Reference Genes for Real-Time qPCR Gene Expression Studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining which reference genes have the highest stability, and are therefore appropriate for normalising data, is a crucial step in the design of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) gene expression studies. This is particularly warranted in non-model and ecologically important species for which appropriate reference genes are lacking, such as the mallard-a key reservoir of many diseases with relevance for human and livestock health. Previous studies assessing gene expression changes as a consequence of infection in mallards have nearly universally used beta-actin and/or GAPDH as reference genes without confirming their suitability as normalisers. The use of reference genes at random, without regard for stability of expression across treatment groups, can result in erroneous interpretation of data. Here, eleven putative reference genes for use in gene expression studies of the mallard were evaluated, across six different tissues, using a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection model. Tissue type influenced the selection of reference genes, whereby different genes were stable in blood, spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract and colon. beta-actin and GAPDH generally displayed low stability and are therefore inappropriate reference genes in many cases. The use of different algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) affected stability rankings, but for both algorithms it was possible to find a combination of two stable reference genes with which to normalise qPCR data in mallards. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies in ducks. The fact that nearly all previous studies of the influence of pathogen infection on mallard gene expression have used a single, non-validated reference gene is problematic. The toolkit of putative reference genes provided here offers a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression in mallards and other waterfowl.

  • 207.
    Chapman, Joanne R.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hellgren, Olof
    Lund University.
    Helin, Anu S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kraus, Robert H. S.
    Univ Konstanz, Germany;Max Planck Inst Ornithology, Germany.
    Cromie, Ruth L.
    Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, UK.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Evolution of Innate Immune Genes: Purifying and Balancing Selection on beta-Defensins in Waterfowl2016In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 3075-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In disease dynamics, high immune gene diversity can confer a selective advantage to hosts in the face of a rapidly evolving and diverse pathogen fauna. This is supported empirically for genes involved in pathogen recognition and signalling. In contrast, effector genes involved in pathogen clearance may be more constrained. beta-Defensins are innate immune effector genes; their main mode of action is via disruption of microbial membranes. Here, five beta-defensin genes were characterized in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other waterfowl; key reservoir species for many zoonotic diseases. All five genes showed remarkably low diversity at the individual-, population-, and species-level. Furthermore, there was widespread sharing of identical alleles across species divides. Thus, specific beta-defensin alleles were maintained not only spatially but also over long temporal scales, with many amino acid residues being fixed across all species investigated. Purifying selection to maintain individual, highly efficacious alleles was the primary evolutionary driver of these genes in waterfowl. However, we also found evidence for balancing selection acting on the most recently duplicated beta-defensin gene (AvBD3b). For this gene, we found that amino acid replacements were more likely to be radical changes, suggesting that duplication of beta-defensin genes allows exploration of wider functional space. Structural conservation to maintain function appears to be crucial for avian beta-defensin effector molecules, resulting in low tolerance for new allelic variants. This contrasts with other types of innate immune genes, such as receptor and signalling molecules, where balancing selection to maintain allelic diversity has been shown to be a strong evolutionary force.

  • 208.
    Chapman, Joanne R.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0141853Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with beta-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  • 209.
    Chi, Xupeng
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Mueller-Navarra, Doerthe C.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sommer, Ulrich
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Javidpour, Jamileh
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany ; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark .
    Food quality matters: interplay among food quality, food quantity and temperature affecting life history traits of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) polyps2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1280-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interaction between organisms' life history traits and environmental factors is an essential task in ecology. In spite of the increasing appreciation of jellyfish as an important component in marine ecosystem, there are still considerable gaps in understanding how the phase transition from the benthic polyp to the pelagic medusa stage is influenced by multiple environmental factors, including nutrition. To investigate survival, growth, and phase transition of Aurelia aurita polyps, we designed a factorial experiment manipulating food quantity (20μg C, 5μg C and 1.5μg C polyp−1 every other day), food quality (Artemia salina and two dietary manipulated Acartia tonsa), and temperature (13°C, 20°C, and 27°C). Temperature was the key factor determining phase transition of polyps and negatively affecting their survival rate and growth at 27°C, which reflected a summer heatwave scenario. Furthermore, at polyps' optimum tolerance temperature (20°C) in our study, budding reproduction benefits from high food concentrations. Interestingly, polyps fed with food containing high level highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) were able to compensate for physiological stress caused by the extreme temperature, and could enhance budding reproduction at optimum temperature. Moreover, benthic-pelagic coupling (strobilation) was determined by temperature but affected significantly by food conditions. Mild temperature together with optimum food conditions contributes to inducing more polyps, which may potentially bring about great ephyrae recruitments during overwintering. In contrast, heatwave events can potentially regulate plankton community structure accompanied by changes of nutritional conditions of primary and secondary producers and thus, negatively affect the population dynamics of polyps. We suggest a novel polyp tolerance curve, which can help to understand jellyfish population dynamics in different seasons and ecosystems. This sets up a baseline for understanding how anticipated global warming and food conditions may affect the population size of benthic polyps and consequently pelagic medusae.

  • 210.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Function and Adaptation of Acidophiles in Natural and Applied Communities2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidophiles are organisms that have evolved to grow optimally at high concentrations of protons. Members of this group are found in all three domains of life, although most of them belong to the Archaea and Bacteria. As their energy demand is often met chemolithotrophically by the oxidation of basic ions and molecules such as Fe2+, H2, and sulfur compounds, they are often found in environments marked by the natural or anthropogenic exposure of sulfide minerals. Nonetheless, organoheterotrophic growth is also common, especially at higher temperatures. Beside their remarkable resistance to proton attack, acidophiles are resistant to a multitude of other environmental factors, including toxic heavy metals, high temperatures, and oxidative stress. This allows them to thrive in environments with high metal concentrations and makes them ideal for application in so-called biomining technologies.

    The first study of this thesis investigated the iron-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans that is highly relevant for boreal biomining. Several unresolved nodes of its sulfur metabolism were elucidated with the help of RNA transcript sequencing analysis. A model was proposed for the oxidation of the inorganic sulfur compound tetrathionate. In a second paper, this species’ transcriptional response to growth at low temperature was explored and revealed that At. ferrivorans increases expression of only very few known cold-stress genes, underlining its strong adaptation to cold environments.

    Another set of studies focused on the environmentally friendly metal winning technology of bioleaching. One of the most important iron-oxidizers in many biomining operations is Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Despite its significance, only a draft genome sequence was available for its type strain.Therefore, in the third paper of this thesis we published a high quality, closed genome sequence of this strain for future use as a reference, revealing a previously unidentified nitrogen fixation system and improving annotation of genes relevant in biomining environments. In addition, RNA transcript and protein patterns during L. ferriphilum’s growth on ferrous iron and in bioleaching culture were used to identify key traits that aid its survival in extremely acidic, metal-rich environments. The biomining of copper from chalcopyrite is plagued by a slow dissolution rate, which can reportedly be circumvented by low redox potentials. As conventional redox control is impossible in heap leaching, paper four explored the possibility of using differentially efficient iron oxidizers to influence this parameter. The facultative heterotrophic Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was identified as maintaining a redox potential of ~550 mV vs Ag/AgCl, favorable for chalcopyrite dissolution,while L. ferriphilum caused the potential to raise far above this critical value. RNA transcript analysis was used to identify genomic features that may contribute to this behavior.

    Lastly, six fields in Northern Sweden were examined for the presence of acid sulfate soils in the fifth paper. The study revealed three acid sulfate soils. The presence of acidophiles that likely catalyze the production of acid in the soil was confirmed by community 16S gene amplicon analysis. One site that was flooded in a remediation attempt and is therefore anoxic still exhibited similar bacteria, however, these now likely grow via ferric iron reduction. This process consumes protons and could explain the observed rise in pH at this site.

    This thesis examines acidophiles in pure culture, as well as natural and designed communities. Key metabolic traits involved in the adaptation to their habitats were elucidated, and their application in mining operations was discussed. Special attention was paid to acidophiles in chalcopyrite bioleaching and in cold environments, including environmental acid sulfate soils in Northern Sweden.

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  • 211.
    Christel, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vera, Mario
    Unniversität Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Sand, Wolfgang
    Unniversität Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Herold, Malte
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Wilmes, Paul
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Universitá della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland.
    Pivkin, Igor
    Universitá della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland.
    Trötschel, Christian
    Ruhruniversität Bochum, Germany.
    Poetsch, Ansgar
    Ruhruniversität Bochum, Germany.
    Nygren, Jan
    TATAA Biocenter AB, Sweden.
    Kubista, Mikael
    TATAA Biocenter AB, Sweden.
    Systems Biology of Acidophile Biofilms for Efficient Metal Extraction2015In: Biotechnologies in Mining Industry and Environmental Engineering / [ed] M. Zaki Mubarok, Siti Khodijah Chaerun, Wahyudin Prawira Minwal, Fadhli Muhammad and Killang Pratama, 2015, p. 312-315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This European Union ERASysApp funded study will investigate one of the major drawbacks of bioleaching of the copper containing mineral chalcopyrite, namely the long lag phase between construction and inoculation of bioleaching heaps and the release of dissolved metals. In practice, this lag phase can be up to three years and the long time period adds to the operating expenses of bioheaps for chalcopyrite dissolution. One of the major time determining factors in bioleaching heaps is suggested to be the speed of mineral colonization by the acidophilic microorganisms present. By applying confocal microscopy, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, bioinformatics, and computer modeling the authors aim to investigate the processes leading up to, and influencing the attachment of three moderately thermophilic sulfur-and/or iron-oxidizing model species:Acidithiobacillus caldusLeptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans. Stirred tank reactors containing chalcopyrite concentrate will be inoculated with these species in various orders and proportions and the effects on the lag phase and rates of metal release will be compared. Meanwhile, confocal microscopy studies of cell attachment to chalcopyrite mineral particles, as well as metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics of the formed biofilms will further increase understanding of the attachment process and help develop a model thereof. By fulfilling our goal to decrease the length of the lag phase of chalcopyrite bioleaching heaps we hope to increase their economic feasibility and therefore, industrial interest in bioleaching as a sustainable technology.

  • 212.
    Christel, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fridlund, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala University.
    Watkin, Elizabeth L.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    RNA transcript sequencing reveals inorganic sulfur compound oxidation pathways in the acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans2016In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, E-ISSN 1574-6968, Vol. 363, no 7, article id fnw057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is an acidophile implicated in low-temperature biomining for the recovery of metals from sulfide minerals. Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans obtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds, and genes encoding several alternative pathways have been identified. Next-generation sequencing of At. ferrivorans RNA transcripts identified the genes coding for metabolic and electron transport proteins for energy conservation from tetrathionate as electron donor. RNA transcripts suggested that tetrathionate was hydrolyzed by the tetH1 gene product to form thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Despite two of the genes being truncated, RNA transcripts for the SoxXYZAB complex had higher levels than for thiosulfate quinone oxidoreductase (doxDA genes). However, a lack of heme-binding sites in soxX suggested that DoxDA was responsible for thiosulfate metabolism. Higher RNA transcript counts also suggested that elemental sulfur was metabolized by heterodisulfide reductase (hdr genes) rather than sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor). The sulfite produced as a product of heterodisulfide reductase was suggested to be oxidized by a pathway involving the sat gene product or abiotically react with elemental sulfur to form thiosulfate. Finally, several electron transport complexes were involved in energy conservation. This study has elucidated the previously unknown At. ferrivorans tetrathionate metabolic pathway that is important in biomining.

  • 213.
    Christel, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fridlund, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Watkin, Elizabeth L.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3 presents little RNA transcript response related to cold stress during growth at 8 A degrees C suggesting it is a eurypsychrophile2016In: Extremophiles, ISSN 1431-0651, E-ISSN 1433-4909, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 903-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is an acidophilic bacterium that represents a substantial proportion of the microbial community in a low temperature mining waste stream. Due to its ability to grow at temperatures below 15 A degrees C, it has previously been classified as 'psychrotolerant'. Low temperature-adapted microorganisms have strategies to grow at cold temperatures such as the production of cold acclimation proteins, DEAD/DEAH box helicases, and compatible solutes plus increasing their cellular membrane fluidity. However, little is known about At. ferrivorans adaptation strategies employed during culture at its temperature extremes. In this study, we report the transcriptomic response of At. ferrivorans SS3 to culture at 8 A degrees C compared to 20 A degrees C. Analysis revealed 373 differentially expressed genes of which, the majority were of unknown function. Only few changes in transcript counts of genes previously described to be cold adaptation genes were detected. Instead, cells cultured at cold (8 A degrees C) altered the expression of a wide range of genes ascribed to functions in transcription, translation, and energy production. It is, therefore, suggested that a temperature of 8 A degrees C imposed little cold stress on At. ferrivorans, underlining its adaptation to growth in the cold as well as suggesting it should be classified as a 'eurypsychrophile'.

  • 214.
    Christel, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Herold, Malte
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Bellenberg, Sören
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Università della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Switzerland.
    El Hajjami, Mohamed
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Pivkin, Igor
    Università della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Switzerland.
    Sand, Wolfgang
    Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany;Donghua University, Peoples Republic of China;Mining Academy, Germany;Technical University Freiberg, Germany.
    Wilmes, Paul
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Poetsch, Ansgar
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany;Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Vera, Mario
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Weak Iron Oxidation by Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Maintains a Favorable Redox Potential for Chalcopyrite Bioleaching2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 3059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioleaching is an emerging technology, describing the microbially assisted dissolution of sulfidicores that provides a more environmentally friendly alternative to many traditional metal extractionmethods, such as roasting or smelting. Industrial interest increases steadily and today, circa 15-20%of the world’s copper production can be traced back to this method. However, bioleaching of theworld’s most abundant copper mineral chalcopyrite suffers from low dissolution rates, oftenattributed to passivating layers, which need to be overcome to use this technology to its full potential.To prevent these passivating layers from forming, leaching needs to occur at a lowoxidation/reduction potential (ORP), but chemical redox control in bioleaching heaps is difficult andcostly. As an alternative, selected weak iron-oxidizers could be employed that are incapable ofscavenging exceedingly low concentrations of iron and therefore, raise the ORP just above the onsetof bioleaching, but not high enough to allow for the occurrence of passivation. In this study, wereport that microbial iron oxidation by Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans meets these specifications.Chalcopyrite concentrate bioleaching experiments with S. thermosulfidooxidans as the sole ironoxidizer exhibited significantly lower redox potentials and higher release of copper compared tocommunities containing the strong iron oxidizer Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Transcriptomic responseto single and co-culture of these two iron oxidizers was studied and revealed a greatly decreasednumber of mRNA transcripts ascribed to iron oxidation in S. thermosulfidooxidans when cultured inthe presence of L. ferriphilum. This allowed for the identification of genes potentially responsible forS. thermosulfidooxidans’ weaker iron oxidation to be studied in the future, as well as underlined theneed for mechanisms to control the microbial population in bioleaching heaps

  • 215.
    Christel, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Herold, Malte
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Bellenberg, Sören
    Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    El Hajjami, Mohamed
    Ruhr Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Pivkine, Igor V.
    Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Sand, Wolfgang
    Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany;Donghua UniversityMining Academy and Technical University Freiberg, Germany, PR China;.
    Wilmes, Paul
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Poetsch, Ansgar
    Ruhr Universität Bochum, Germany;Plymouth University, UK.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Multi-omics reveal the lifestyle of the acidophilic, mineral-oxidizing model species Leptospirillum ferriphilumT2018In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 4, no 3, article id UNSP e02091-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leptospirillum ferriphilum plays a major role in acidic, metal rich environments where it represents one of the most prevalent iron oxidizers. These milieus include acid rock and mine drainage as well as biomining operations. Despite its perceived importance, no complete genome sequence of this model species' type strain is available, limiting the possibilities to investigate the strategies and adaptations Leptospirillum ferriphilumT applies to survive and compete in its niche. This study presents a complete, circular genome of Leptospirillum ferriphilumT DSM 14647 obtained by PacBio SMRT long read sequencing for use as a high quality reference. Analysis of the functionally annotated genome, mRNA transcripts, and protein concentrations revealed a previously undiscovered nitrogenase cluster for atmospheric nitrogen fixation and elucidated metabolic systems taking part in energy conservation, carbon fixation, pH homeostasis, heavy metal tolerance, oxidative stress response, chemotaxis and motility, quorum sensing, and biofilm formation. Additionally, mRNA transcript counts and protein concentrations were compared between cells grown in continuous culture using ferrous iron as substrate and bioleaching cultures containing chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Leptospirillum ferriphilumT adaptations to growth on chalcopyrite included a possibly enhanced production of reducing power, reduced carbon dioxide fixation, as well as elevated RNA transcripts and proteins involved in heavy metal resistance, with special emphasis on copper efflux systems. Finally, expression and translation of genes responsible for chemotaxis and motility were enhanced.

  • 216.
    Christel, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Lillhonga, Tom
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Högfors-Rönnholm, Eva
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Sohlenius, Gustav
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Comparison of Boreal Acid Sulfate Soil Microbial Communities in Oxidative and Reductive Environments2019In: Research in Microbiology, ISSN 0923-2508, E-ISSN 1769-7123, Vol. 170, no 6-7, p. 288-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to land uplift after the last ice age, previously stable Baltic Sea sulfidic sediments are becoming dry land. When these sediments are drained, the sulfide minerals are exposed to air and can release large amounts of metals and acid into the environment. This can cause severe ecological damage such as fish kills in rivers feeding the northern Baltic Sea. In this study, five sites were investigated for the occurrence of acid sulfate soils and their geochemistry and microbiology was identified. The pH and soil chemistry identified three of the areas as having classical acid sulfate soil characteristics and culture independent identification of 16S rRNA genes identified populations related to acidophilic bacteria capable of catalyzing sulfidic mineral dissolution, including species likely adapted to low temperature. These results were compared to an acid sulfate soil area that had been flooded for ten years and showed that the previously oxidized sulfidic materials had an increased pH compared to the unremediated oxidizied layers. In addition, the microbiology of the flooded soil had changed such that alkalinity producing ferric and sulfate reducing reactions had likely occurred. This suggested that flooding of acid sulfate soils mitigates their environmental impact.

  • 217.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Daw, Tim
    Univ E Anglia / Stockholm Univ..
    Huchery, Cindy
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Thoya, Pascal
    Kenya Marine & Fisheries Res Inst, Mombasa, Kenya.
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cedras, Maria
    Seychelles Fishing Author, Victoria, Seychelles.
    Abunge, Caroline
    Wildlife Conservat Soc, Coral Reef Conservat Program, Mombasa, Kenya.
    Winners and Losers in Marine Conservation: Fishers' Displacement and Livelihood Benefits from Marine Reserves2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 994-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine reserves can create both benefits and costs to fishers. This article explores the perceptions of fishers in Kenya and Seychelles about displacement, spillover, and overall impacts of local marine reserves on their livelihoods. We test whether these perceptions are different among fishers from different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. Sixty-six percent of fishers had been displaced from marine reserves or coastal development and 90% believed they had caught fishes that spilled over from marine reserves. Poorer fishers in Kenya were both displaced from, and also felt like they benefited from, marine reserves. This highlights how people's experiences with marine reserves, both positive and negative, are affected by a range of social considerations that may not be incorporated in typical evaluations of ecological and economic marine reserve success.

  • 218.
    Clima, Rosanna
    et al.
    University of Bari, Italy ; University of Bologna, Italy.
    Preste, Roberto
    University of Bari, Italy.
    Calabrese, Claudia
    European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), UK.
    Diroma, Maria Angela
    University of Bari, Italy.
    Santorsola, Mariangela
    University of Bari, Italy.
    Scioscia, Gaetano
    IBM Italia SpA, Italy ; MBLab Bari, Italy.
    Simone, Domenico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Shen, Lishuang
    Children's Hospital Los Angeles, USA.
    Gasparre, Giuseppe
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Attimonelli, Marcella
    University of Bari, Italy.
    HmtDB 2016: data update, a better performing query system and human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup predictor2017In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 45, no D1, p. D698-D706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HmtDB resource hosts a database of human mitochondrial genome sequences from individuals with healthy and disease phenotypes. The database is intended to support both population geneticists as well as clinicians undertaking the task to assess the pathogenicity of specific mtDNA mutations. The wide application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided an enormous volume of high-resolution data at a low price, increasing the availability of human mitochondrial sequencing data, which called for a cogent and significant expansion of HmtDB data content that has more than tripled in the current release. We here describe additional novel features, including: (i) a complete, user-friendly restyling of the web interface, (ii) links to the command-line stand-alone and web versions of the MToolBox package, an up-to-date tool to reconstruct and analyze human mitochondrial DNA from NGS data and (iii) the implementation of the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) as mitochondrial reference sequence. The overall update renders HmtDB an even more handy and useful resource as it enables a more rapid data access, processing and analysis. HmtDB is accessible at http://www.hmtdb.uniba.it/.

  • 219.
    Cody, Alison J.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    McCarthy, Noel D.
    Univ Oxford,UK;Hlth Protect Agcy, UK;Univ Warwick, UK;Univ Oxford, UK.
    Bray, James E.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Wimalarathna, Helen M. L.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Colles, Frances M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    van Rensburg, Melissa J. Jansen
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Dingle, Kate E.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Maiden, Martin C. J.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Wild bird-associated Campylobacter jejuni isolates are a consistent source of human disease, in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom2015In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of wild birds as a source of human campylobacteriosis was investigated in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (UK) over a 10 year period. The probable origin of human Campylobacter jejuni genotypes, as described by multilocus sequence typing, was estimated by comparison with reference populations of isolates from farm animals and five wild bird families, using the STRUCTURE algorithm. Wild bird-attributed isolates accounted for between 476 (2.1%) and 543 (3.5%) cases annually. This proportion did not vary significantly by study year (P=0.934) but varied seasonally, with wild bird-attributed genotypes comprising a greater proportion of isolates during warmer compared with cooler months (P=0.003). The highest proportion of wild bird-attributed illness occurred in August (P<0.001), with a significantly lower proportion in November (P=0.018). Among genotypes attributed to specific groups of wild birds, seasonality was most apparent for Turdidae-attributed isolates, which were absent during cooler, winter months. This study is consistent with some wild bird species representing a persistent source of campylobacteriosis, and contributing a distinctive seasonal pattern to disease burden. If Oxfordshire is representative of the UK as a whole in this respect, these data suggest that the national burden of wild bird-attributed isolates could be in the order of 10000 annually.

  • 220.
    Comte, Jerome
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Berga, Merce
    Uppsala University ; Warnemunde IOW, Germany.
    Severin, Ina
    Uppsala University ; Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University.
    Contribution of different bacterial dispersal sources to lakes: Population and community effects in different seasons2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2391-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity and composition of lake bacterial communities are driven by the interplay between local contemporary environmental conditions and dispersal of cells from the surroundings, i.e. the metacommunity. Still, a conceptual understanding of the relative importance of the two types of factors is lacking. For instance, it is unknown which sources of dispersal are most important and under which circumstances. Here, we investigated the seasonal variation in the importance of dispersal from different sources (mixing, precipitation, surface runoff and sediment resuspension) for lake bacterioplankton community and population dynamics. For that purpose, two small forest lakes and their dispersal sources were sampled over a period of 10 months. The influence of dispersal on communities and populations was determined by 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and SourceTracker analysis. On the community level direct effects of dispersal were questionable from all sources. Instead we found that the community of the preceding sampling occasion, representing growth of resident bacteria, was of great importance. On the population level, however, dispersal of individual taxa from the inlet could be occasionally important even under low water flow. The effect of sediment resuspension and precipitation appeared small.

  • 221.
    Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;CSIC, Spain.
    del Carmen Munoz-Marin, Maria
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Royo-Llonch, Marta
    CSIC, Spain.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Acinas, Silvia G.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    UCYN-A3, a newly characterized open ocean sublineage of the symbiotic N2-fixing cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa2019In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The symbiotic unicellular cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) is one of the most abundant and widespread nitrogen (N-2)-fixing cyanobacteria in the ocean. Although it remains uncultivated, multiple sublineages have been detected based on partial nitrogenase (nifH) gene sequences, including the four most commonly detected sublineages UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2, UCYN-A3 and UCYN-A4. However, very little is known about UCYN-A3 beyond the nifH sequences from nifH gene diversity surveys. In this study, single cell sorting, DNA sequencing, qPCR and CARD-FISH assays revealed discrepancies involving the identification of sublineages, which led to new information on the diversity of the UCYN-A symbiosis. 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing on single sorted cells allowed us to identify the 16S rRNA gene of the uncharacterized UCYN-A3 sublineage. We designed new CARD-FISH probes that allowed us to distinguish and observe UCYN-A2 in a coastal location (SIO Pier; San Diego) and UCYN-A3 in an open ocean location (Station ALOHA; Hawaii). Moreover, we reconstructed about 13% of the UCYN-A3 genome from Tara Oceans metagenomic data. Finally, our findings unveil the UCYN-A3 symbiosis in open ocean waters suggesting that the different UCYN-A sublineages are distributed along different size fractions of the plankton defined by the cell-size ranges of their prymnesiophyte hosts.

  • 222.
    Croll, Donald A.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Dewar, Heidi
    NOAA Fisheries, USA.
    Dulvy, Nicholas K.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Canada.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Manta Trust, UK.
    Francis, Malcolm P.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, UK.
    Galvan-Magana, Felipe
    Ctr Interdisciplinario Ciencias Marinas, UK.
    Hall, Martin
    Interamer Trop Tuna Commiss, UK.
    Heinrichs, Shawn
    Blue Sphere Media LLC, UK.
    Marshall, Andrea
    Marine Megafauna Fdn, UK.
    Mccauley, Douglas
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Newton, Kelly M.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara, Giuseppe
    Tethys Res Inst, USA.
    O'Malley, Mary
    Manta Trust, UK ; WildAid, USA.
    O'Sullivan, John
    Monterey Bay Aquarium, USA.
    Poortvliet, Marloes
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA ; Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Roman, Marlon
    Interamer Trop Tuna Commiss, UK.
    Stevens, Guy
    Manta Trust, UK ; Univ York, UK.
    Tershy, Bernie R.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    White, William T.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Vulnerabilities and fisheries impacts: the uncertain future of manta and devil rays2016In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 562-575Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Manta and devil rays of the subfamily Mobulinae (mobulids) are rarely studied, large, pelagic elasmobranchs, with all eight of well-evaluated species listed on the IUCN Red List as threatened or near threatened. 2. Mobulids have life history characteristics (matrotrophic reproduction, extremely low fecundity, and delayed age of first reproduction) that make them exceptionally susceptible to overexploitation. 3. Targeted and bycatch mortality from fisheries is a globally important and increasing threat, and targeted fisheries are incentivized by the high value of the global trade in mobulid gill plates. 4. Fisheries bycatch of mobulids is substantial in tuna purse seine fisheries. 5. Thirteen fisheries in 12 countries specifically targeting mobulids, and 30 fisheries in 23 countries with mobulid bycatch were identified. 6. Aside from a few recently enacted national restrictions on capture, there is no comprehensive monitoring, assessment or control of mobulid fisheries or bycatch. Recent listing through the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) may benefit mobulids of the genus Manta (manta rays), but none of the mobulids in the genus Mobula (devil rays) are protected. 7. The relative economic costs of catch mitigation are minimal, particularly compared with a broad range of other, more complicated, marine conservation issues. Copyright (C) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 223.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fire history in the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden during 11000 years: Relationships with past vegetation composition and human activities and implications for biodiversity issues2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies fire history over the last 11 000 years (Holocene) in central Småland, southern Sweden, on the basis of palaeoecological analyses of peat sequences from three small bogs (Notteryd, Stavsåkra and Storasjö). The main objective is to gain insights into the long-term relationships between fire, climate, human-impact, other environmental factors and the history of biodiversity in the study region. The following hypotheses are tested: 1) there are no between-site differences in i) Holocene fire history, ii) abundance of deciduous trees versus pine and forest openness over the Holocene, and iii) landscape history over the last three centuries, and 2) there are no within-site differences in the Holocene charcoal records.

    Hypothesis 1 (i-iii) is tested using all charcoal records (three sites) and pollen-based Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) estimates of past percentage cover of plant taxa and land-use/vegetation units over the last three centuries (test of the LRA using historical maps), and the entire Holocene. Hypothesis 2 is tested using two parallel charcoal records from the same core at Notteryd. The charcoal data comprise continuous records of macroscopic charcoal (macro-C), microscopic charcoal records from pollen slides, and identification of charcoal fragments to plant taxa. Chronologies are based on series of 14C dates from terrestrial plant remains and age-depth models achieved using Bayesian statistics.

    Accumulation rates (AR) of the area of macro-C was found to be better to use than AR of the number of macro-C for interpretation of the results. Within-site differences in charcoal records exist and have to be considered. Besides climate, forest tree-composition (related to geomorphological settings) was shown to play a primordial role in Early and Mid-Holocene fire history, while land-use was a major factor in the Late Holocene. Three different histories of forest development and land-use changes within the same region are revealed, implying a multitude of landscape types over time and space. These long-term landscape histories were at the origin of the high biodiversity still existing in the 18th century. Major landscape transformations due to agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape and species biodiversity over the last two centuries.

  • 224.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stenberg, Li
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Zernova, Ganna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3555-3570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles).

  • 225.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tallinn University.
    Greisman, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jacobson, George
    The University of Malne.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University.
    The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1747-1763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a quantitative reconstruction of local forest history at two sites, Stavsåkra (hemiboreal zone) and Storasjö (southern boreal zone), in southern Sweden (province of Småland) to evaluate possible causes of contrasting Holocene fire histories in mid- and late Holocene. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to evaluate between-site differences in the relative abundance of deciduous trees and Pinus (pine) and landscape/woodland openness during the Holocene. The LRA estimates of local vegetation abundance are compared with other proxies of local vegetation, that is, plant and beetle remains. The LRA results suggest that Pinus was a major tree taxon in the woodlands of Storasjö during mid- and late Holocene, while Tilia(linden) and Betula (birch) were dominant at Stavsåkra. The contrasting fire histories are shown to be strongly related to between-site differences in tree composition during mid-Holocene, 4000–2000 BC in particular. The archaeological/historical and beetle data indicate contrasting land uses from c. 1000BC (late Bronze Age/early Iron Age), grazing in open Calluna heaths at Stavsåkra and woodland grazing at Storasjö. Between-site differences in fire historyduring late Holocene were likely due to different land-use practices. Between-site differences in tree composition in mid-Holocene are best explainedby local climatic and geological/geomorphological differences between the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of Småland, which might also be the primary cause of between-site differences in land-use histories during late Holocene. Maintenance of biodiversity at the landscape scale in the studyarea requires that existing old pine woodlands and Calluna heath are managed with fire and cattle grazing. Further climate warming might lead to higherprobabilities of climate-induces fire, in particular in pine-dominated woodlands.

  • 226.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Greisman, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Zernova, Ganna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A case study of the role of climate, humans, and ecological setting in Holocene fire history of northwestern Europe2015In: Science China. Earth Sciences, ISSN 1674-7313, E-ISSN 1869-1897, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the major results from studies of fire history over the last 11000 years (Holocene) in southern Sweden, on the basis of palaeoecological analyses of peat sequences from three small peat bogs. The main objective is to emphasize the value of multiple, continuous sedimentary records of macroscopic charcoal (macro-C) for the reconstruction of local to regional past changes in fire regimes, the importance of multi-proxy studies, and the advantage of model-based estimates of plant cover from pollen data to assess the role of tree composition and human impact in fire history. The chronologies at the three study sites are based on a large number of C-14 dates from terrestrial plant remains and age-depth models are achieved using Bayesian statistics. Fire history is inferred from continuous records of macro-C and microscopic charcoal counts on pollen slides. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) for pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of local vegetation cover is applied on the three pollen records for plant cover reconstruction over the entire Holocene. The results are as follows: (1) the long-term trends in fire regimes are similar between sites, i.e., frequent fires during the early Holocene until ca. 9 ka BP, low fire frequency during the mid-Holocene, and higher fire frequency from ca. 2.5 ka BP; (2) this broad trend agrees with the overall fire history of northwestern and western Europe north of the Mediterranean area, and is due to climate forcing in the early and mid-Holocene, and to anthropogenic land-use in the late Holocene; (3) the LRA estimates of plant cover at the three sites demonstrate that the relative abundance of pine played a primordial role in the early and mid-Holocene fire history; and (4) the between-site differences in the charcoal records and inferred fire history are due to local factors (i.e., relative abundance of pine, geomorphological setting, and anthropogenic land-use) and taphonomy of charcoal deposition in the small peat bogs. It is shown that continuous macro-C records are most useful to disentangle local from regional-subcontinental fire history, and climate-induced from human-induced fire regimes, and that pollen-based LRA estimates of local plant cover are more adequate than pollen percentages for the assessment of the role of plant composition on fire history.

  • 227.
    da Silva Ramos, Alessandro
    et al.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Pires, Jessica Pereira
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Araujo, Gabriel Espindola
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Lourega, Rogerio Vescia
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Synthesis of new CO2 hydrate inhibitors2020In: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 75, p. 1-6, article id 103166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas hydrate is a crystalline compound made of water and mainly of gases methane and carbon dioxide under specific conditions of pressure and temperature. Increasing worldwide petroleum exploitation in deep waters, where these conditions are encountered, favours the precipitation of gas hydrate in seafloor pipelines, resulting in partial or total obstruction of petroleum flow. Brazil's largest petroleum reserves of the pre-salt interval, for example, are located in ultra-deep waters (>1500 m) and may have a gas composition of up to 80% of CO2. Huge investments are necessary to inhibit the formation of gas hydrate and to assure petroleum flow in pipelines. Here we present the results of the synthesis of new organic compounds obtained from L-Threonine, which show a high potential to be used as CO2 hydrate inhibitors. This characteristic is related to the increase carbon chain in each molecule (higher hydrophobicity) leading to a reduction on CO2 solubility in water. In addition to that, our study also shows the occurrence of the “salting out effect” and reduced water activity coefficient.

  • 228.
    Dace, Elina
    et al.
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Muizniece, Indra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Blumberga, Andra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions - Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 527, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition tomove towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 229.
    Dahlström, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kan Gotland reducera en stor del av sina koldioxidutsläpp genom CCS?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing greenhouse gas emissions will lead to harmful effects on the climate of the Earth. The emissions are decreasing too slowly in order to achieve policy objectives such as the Paris Agreement, 2015. CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) is considered important to reduce industrial emissions, especially in the energy generation sector, but also in the cement industry, to reduce emissions connected to the production processes. The possibilities for CCS in an area in the southeastern Baltic Sea are investigated. The objective is to investigate the possibility that Gotland can reduce a great deal of its carbon dioxide emissions through CCS-technology. A source-to-sink match is performed by matching emissions from selected industries in Gotland with geological reservoirs in the Baltic Sea, to see if the reservoirs can store carbon dioxide. The results show that the theoretical storage capacity in the area is huge, but in practice it´s low. This shows that a study of larger areas is required. The costs of CCS technology are very high, government funding is initially required. The cost of carbon dioxide emissions should be higher than the cost of carbon dioxide storage. Technology development, social change and cooperation between countries are needed to increase the pace of CCS implementation.

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  • 230.
    Daneshvar, Ehsan
    et al.
    Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Fisheries, Fac Nat Resources, Esfahan, Iran.
    Kousha, Masoud
    Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Fisheries, Fac Nat Resources, Esfahan, Iran.
    Sohrabi, Mohammad Salar
    Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Fisheries, Fac Nat Resources, Esfahan, Iran.
    Panahbehagh, Bardia
    Kharazmi Univ, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Younesi, Habibollah
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Fac Nat Resources, Dept Environm Sci, Noor, Iran.
    Sternberg, Steven P. K.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Chem Engn, Duluth, MN 55812 USA.
    Application of response surface methodology for the biosorption of Acid Blue 25 dye using raw and HCl-treated macroalgae2015In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 1710-1723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was conducted to optimize the various experimental conditions, such as biomass loading, initial C.I. Acid Blue 25 (AB25) dye concentration, and initial solution pH for biosorption of dye on raw and HCl-treated brown alga, Padina australis and red alga, Jania adhaerens. Biosorption process was optimized in a batch system under Box-Behnken design. Second-order polynomial equation was successfully used to describe the effects of studied variables on response. The quadratic models exhibited higher R-2 values, significant p-values, and insignificant lack-of-fit p-values showed high adequacy for predicting the response. Chemically modified red alga exhibited better AB25 dye biosorption capacity as compared to modified brown alga. Maximum dye removal efficiencies of 77.34, 71.28, 50.56, and 85.19% for P. australis, HCl-treated P. australis, J. adhaerens, and HCl-treated J. adhaerens, respectively, were obtained at optimal conditions. The surface modification on tested algal biomass was found to be strongly dependent on their cell wall constituents.

  • 231.
    Dantoft, Widad
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Esfahani, Shiva Seyedoleslami
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, Ylva
    Stockholm University.
    The POU/Oct Transcription Factor Pdm1/nub Is Necessary for a Beneficial Gut Microbiota and Normal Lifespan of Drosophila2016In: Journal of Innate Immunity, ISSN 1662-811X, E-ISSN 1662-8128, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 412-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of a stable gut microbial community relies on a delicate balance between immune defense and immune tolerance. We have used Drosophila to study how the microbial gut flora is affected by changes in host genetic factors and immunity. Flies with a constitutively active gut immune system, due to a mutation in the POU transcriptional regulator Pdm1/nubbin (nub) gene, had higher loads of bacteria and a more diverse taxonomic composition than controls. In addition, the microbial composition shifted considerably during the short lifespan of the nub1 mutants. This shift was characterized by a loss of relatively few OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and a remarkable increase in a large number of Acetobacter spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Treating nub1 mutant flies with antibiotics prolonged their lifetime survival by more than 100%. Immune gene expression was also persistently high in the presence of antibiotics, indicating that the early death was not a direct consequence of an overactive immune defense but rather an indirect consequence of the microbial load and composition. Thus, changes in host genotype and an inability to regulate the normal growth and composition of the gut microbiota leads to a shift in the microbial community, dysbiosis and early death.

  • 232. Davies, Brian E.
    et al.
    Bowman, Charlotte
    University of Victoria, Canada.
    Davies, Theo C.
    University of Venda, South Africa.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Medical geology: Perspectives and prospects2013In: Essentials of Medical Geology: Revised Edition / [ed] Olle Selinus, Springer, 2013, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is a brief history of medical geology—the study of health problems related to ‘place.’ This overview is not exhaustive; instead, it highlights some important cases that have arisen during the development of the science of medical geology. An excess, deficiency or imbalance of inorganic elements originating from geological sources can affect human and animal well-being either directly (e.g., a lack of dietary iodine leading to goitre) or indirectly (e.g., effect on metabolic processes such as the supposed protective effect of selenium in cardiovascular disease). Such links have long been known but were unexplained until alchemy evolved into chemistry in the seventeenth century, when medicine ceased to be the art of monks versed in homeopathic remedies and experimental explanations of disease was sought rather than relying on the writings of the Classical Greek philosophers, and modern geology was forged by Lyell and Hutton. In addition, the exploitation of mineral resources gathered pace in the seventeenth century and brought in its train the widespread release of toxic elements to the environment. New sciences of public health and industrial hygiene emerged and their studies have helped inform our understanding of the health implications of the natural occurrence of these elements.

  • 233.
    Davis, Stephen L.
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Roelke, Daniel L.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Withrow, Frances
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Scott, W. Casan
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Rotifer-Prymnesium parvum interactions: role of lake bloom history on rotifer adaptation to toxins produced by P-parvum2015In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prymnesium parvum is a harmful algal bloom species present in many inland water bodies of the southcentral USA, but does not form fish-killing blooms in all of them. The present study tested the hypothesis that rotifer grazing of P. parvum might influence the incidence of blooms. Three-day in-lake experiments, which focused on the size fraction of zooplankton dominated by rotifers and natural phytoplankton assemblages inoculated with P. parvum, were conducted during the time of bloom development in 2 reservoirs of the southcentral USA: Lakes Somerville and Whitney, where the latter experiences P. parvum blooms and the former does not. Toxicity at a level lethal to fish was only occasionally observed during these experiments, so our experimental treatments are considered to be at a low-toxicity level. As a whole, rotifers in Lakes Somerville and Whitney selectively grazed P. parvum. Rotifers in Lake Somerville appeared to benefit from this selective grazing, while rotifers in Lake Whitney did not. The differences between rotifer communities from these lakes might be because rotifers from Lake Somerville historically have only been exposed to low levels of toxins produced by P. parvum and were able to develop resistance to these toxins, thus enabling them to persist and perhaps contribute to the suppression of blooms there. The opportunity for this type of microevolutionary adaptation may not occur in lakes where P. parvum blooms and waters reach high toxicity levels, such as those which have occurred historically in Lake Whitney.

  • 234.
    Davydov, Roman
    et al.
    Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia.
    Sokolov, Michael
    All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, Russia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Glinushkin, A.
    All Russian Res Inst Phytopathol, Russia.
    Markaryan, A.
    The application of pesticides and mineral fertilizers in agriculture2018In: MATEC Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of using pesticides and agrochemicals application in agriculture is one of the important problem now, as also the problem of storage of mineral fertilizers and their improper using, which have negative influence on the chemical and the food security of the country. This paper discusses the features and benefits of monodisperse aerosols of pesticides in plant protection after a long-term research. A new line of development of science, engineering, industrial and innovative technologies-the author's project "Monodisperse Anthropogenic Aerosols" is proposed. The measures for its implementation are presented. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  • 235.
    de Moor, Tine
    et al.
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Dehkordi, Molood
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    van Weeren, Rene
    Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries2019In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 236.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Occurrence and ecotoxicity of endocrine disruptor chemicals in aquatic environment and sewage treatment systems2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of one selected method for indirect measurement of vitellogenin (Vtg) in fish plasma based on the quantification of alkali-labile phosphates (ALP method) to assess estrogenicity in water was investigated. The ALP method applied in this investigation was originally developed with Carassius carassius (Crucian carps). This thesis describes the first attempt of using this method with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). In a first part of the investigation, laboratory studies were conducted with water spiked with 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17b-estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) in order to assess the method sensitivity. The effects of these estrogens were investigated on the basis of both load and concentration, using experimental units with two different volumes (2 L and 130 L). After validation of the method, the estrogenicity of the following contaminated waters was assessed: (i) affluent and effluent of one large conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and one small decentralized wastewater treatment plant (Decentralized Engineered Ecosystem-DEE); (ii) surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) obtained from a gasoline-contaminated marshland; (iii) samples from a urban lagoon (LRF) located in Rio de Janeiro city with high density population and clandestine sewage discharge. An additional goal of the thesis was to assess the effect (other than endocrine disruption) caused by EE2, E2 and E1 to microalgae. Assays with single and mixed estrogens and single and combined cultures (S+) of the green microalgae P. subcapitata and D. subspicatus were carried out. The results have shown that EE2 and E2 were more estrogenic and toxic than E1 to the fishes and to the microalgae respectively. Mixed solutions of estrogens (E+) in equal proportions (EE2:E2:E1) resulted in additive effect on O. niloticus and P. subcapitata and less-than-additive effect on D. subspicatus and S+ measured as ALP (for fish) and EC50 (for microalgae). Combined cultivation of both algae species and longer exposure time (96 h) resulted in attenuation of the toxic effects caused by single (EE2, E2 or E1) and mixed (E+) estrogens according to EC50 (T0h 0.07, 0.09, 0.18, and 0.06 µg mL-1; and T96h 1.29, 1.87, 5.58, and 4.61 µg mL-1, respectively). The decentralized engineered ecosystem was more efficient than the conventional WWTP regarding estrogenicity removal from the final effluent. Estrogenicity was detected in some samples of the urban lagoon (LRF) and the surface (SW) and groundwater (GW) of the gasoline-contaminated marshland. Therefore, the investigations suggested that interactions (additive and less-than additive effect) take place when different estrogens are present in the water environment and interactions also occur between algae species, which affect the final toxicity. Additionally, the study highlighted the importance of taking into account not only concentration and dose regime but also the mass load and therefore, the volume used in the experimental units, which are rarely addressed in ecotoxicity assays. Considering the good sensitivity of O. niloticus exposed to relatively low concentrations of estrogens, the combination of the ALP method with auxiliary biomarkers (particularly micronucleus-MN) can be a suitable protocol for estrogenicity and genotoxicity detection in different contaminated waters as part of water environmental monitoring programs.

     

  • 237.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ, Brazil.
    Quantification of alkali-labile phosphate groups in the plasma of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to intermittent discharges of oestrogens: effect of concentration vs. load2014In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 94, no 11, p. 1161-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitellogenin protein (Vtg) in Oreochromis niloticus plasma has been indirectly quantified through protein-bound phosphate groups also known as alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) using a recently modified method. Such method as described in the literature was originally applied to Crucian carp and resulted in lower detection limits (3.2 mu g PO(4)(3-)per mL). In this study, O. niloticus males were exposed to intermittent doses of oestrogens for 15 days using different concentrations (converted to loads) of 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) (two different aquarium volumes), oestrone (E1) and 17 beta-oestradiol (E2) individually and in combination (1:1:1). The induction of physiologic and genotoxic effects in erythrocytes was investigated. For the tested oestrogen (EE2), load proved to be more relevant than concentration in determining the oestrogenicity. O. niloticus males proved to have lower ALP baseline (4.11 mu g PO43-/mL plasma, IQ(25)=3.38; IQ(75)=5.18) than other fish species, including Crucian carp, which makes it suitable for oestrogenicity detection in water. Exposure to E2, EE2 separately and in combination (1:1:1) all induced significant increases in the ALP levels at loads >= 0.72 mu g/fish. This load was three times lower than the E1 load required to increase ALP (>= 2.2 mu g/fish). All oestrogens with loads >= 0.072 mu g/fish caused significant increase in micronucleus frequency (>= 2 parts per thousand) compared with the control (0.1 +/- 0.4 parts per thousand). The study highlighted the importance of taking into account not only concentration and dose regime but also the mass load and therefore, the volume used in the experimental units, which is rarely addressed in ecotoxicity assays. Considering the good sensitivity of O. niloticus exposed to relatively low concentrations of oestrogens, the combination of the ALP method with auxiliary biomarkers (particularly micronucleus) can be used as a protocol for oestrogenicity and genotoxicity detection in different contaminated waters as part of water environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 238.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Soroldoni, Sanye
    Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bila, Daniele
    Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Effects of single and mixed estrogens on single and combined cultures of D. subspicatus and P. subcapitata2014In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0007-4861, E-ISSN 1432-0800, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effect of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) individually and mixed at equal proportions (1:1:1) on Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in single and combined cultures (S+) at different exposure times basedon algal growth (in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence and cell counting) and coenobium formation. EE2 and E2 were more toxic to individual and combined (S+) cultures than was E1. The frequency of coenobium formation by D. subspicatus increased significantly for all estrogens and all concentrations. After 96 h, D. subspicatus prevailed in S+. The results of the exposure to E+ suggested a less-than-additive effecton D. subspicatus and S+ and additive effect on P. subcapitata. Toxic effects occurred for both species exposed to E+ with individual estrogen concentrations below the NOEC of each species. Assays must include changes in response due to the exposure of more than one species to more than one estrogen.

  • 239.
    de Sá Salomão, André Luís
    et al.
    Laboratory of Bioremediation and Phytotechnologies ; Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Laboratory of Bioremediation and Phytotechnologies ; Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Estrogenicity and Genotoxicity Detection in Different Contaminated Waters2015In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1793-1809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Owing that Oreochromis niloticus is resistant to different aquatic environments,four contaminated sites were selected: decentralized engineered ecosystem(DEE) and conventional wastewater treatment plants(WWTP); urban lagoon; and gasoline-contaminated marshland. Endocrine disruption was assessed by alkali-labile phosphate(ALP) quantification,genotoxicity by micronuclei frequency,and morphological changes by hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indexes. The ALP baseline of non-exposed O. niloticus males was low,compared with other fish species in the literature. Endocrine disruption was observed in fish exposed to raw wastewater of WWTP and DEE,discharge point of channeled river in the urban lagoon,and water from gasoline-contaminated marshland. After treatment in the DEE,the endocrine disruption effect was removed. The micronuclei frequency corroborated with the ALP results in most cases and proved to be a useful tool to assess genotoxicity in fish. The exposure time of 15 days was not enough to provoke morphological effects in most samples. However,in all gasoline-contaminated samples,the fishes showed an increase in the hepatosomatic index followed by a decrease in the gonadosomatic index. The tested biomarkers showed feasibility,sensibility,reproducibility,and were complementary in the assessment of chronic ecotoxicity; therefore,we recommend them to compose a suitable protocol for aquatic monitoring programs.

  • 240.
    Dearing, JA
    et al.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Acma, B
    Anadolu University, Turkey.
    Bub, S
    University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany.
    Chambers, FM
    University of Gloucestershire, UK.
    Chen, X
    China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), China ; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Cooper, J
    British Museum, UK.
    Crook, D
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dong, XH
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Dotterweich, M
    GEOarch – Applied Geoarchaeology, Germany ; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Edwards, ME
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Foster, TH
    University of Tulsa, USA.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Galop, D
    Toulouse Jean Jaures University, France.
    Gell, P
    Federation University Australia, Australia.
    Gil, A
    Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael, Argentina.
    Jeffers, E
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Jones, RT
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Anupama, K
    French Institute of Pondicherry, India.
    Langdon, PG
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Marchant, R
    University of York, UK.
    Mazier, F
    Toulouse Jean Jaures University, France.
    McLean, CE
    Youngstown State University, USA.
    Nunes, LH
    State University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Sukumar, R
    Indian Institute of Science, India.
    Suryaprakash, I
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India.
    Umer, M
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Yang, XD
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Wang, R
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Zhang, K
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Social-ecological systems in the Anthropocene: The need for integrating social and biophysical records at regional scales.2015In: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, E-ISSN 2053-020X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 220-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding social-ecological system dynamics is a major research priority for sustainable management of landscapes, ecosystems and resources. But the lack of multi-decadal records represents an important gap in information that hinders the development of the research agenda. Without improved information on the long-term and complex interactions between causal factors and responses, it will be difficult to answer key questions about trends, rates of change, tipping points, safe operating spaces and pre-impact conditions. Where available long-term monitored records are too short or lacking, palaeoenvironmental sciences may provide continuous multi-decadal records for an array of ecosystem states, processes and services. Combining these records with conventional sources of historical information from instrumental monitoring records, official statistics and enumerations, remote sensing, archival documents, cartography and archaeology produces an evolutionary framework for reconstructing integrated regional histories. We demonstrate the integrated approach with published case studies from Australia, China, Europe and North America.

  • 241.
    Degerman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Occurrence and habitat use of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in running waters: lessons for improved monitoring, habitat restoration and stocking2019In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 639-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the management of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in freshwater, it is essential to define important lotic habitats. Electrofishing data from 289 wadeable, hard-bottom sites in 69 Swedish coastal rivers and streams, originally surveyed for salmonid monitoring, were used to evaluate the effects of sampling- and habitat-related factors on eel occurrence. Probability of eel occurrence, as influenced by sampling procedure (sampled area, number of consecutive runs and ambient water temperature) and habitat characteristics (size of catchment, dominating bottom substrate, shade, water velocity, mean depth), was evaluated for small (total length <= 150 mm) and large (>150 mm) yellow eels. Data were analysed in a mixed presence/absence generalized linear model with dispersal (distance to mouth from sampled site), habitat and sampling-related variables as covariates. The two models explained variation in occurrence to 81.5% for small eel and 76.2% for large eel. Probability of eel occurrence decreased with distance from the river mouth, and increased with sampled area, number of runs, water temperature, coarser substrate and size of river. We suggest that future eel habitat restoration should focus on lower reaches of larger rivers with suitable coarse bottom habitats. Stocking of young eel should be carried out in comparable accessible habitats in the upper reaches where eel densities are low. The results also strongly indicate that eel may be sampled together with young salmonids with DC electrofishing in wadeable habitats.

  • 242. Degerman, Rickard
    et al.
    Dinasquet, Julie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Luna, Sara Sjostedt
    Andersson, Agneta
    Effect of resource availability on bacterial community responses to increased temperature2013In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 131-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is predicted to cause higher temperatures and increased precipitation, resulting in increased inflow of nutrients to coastal waters in northern Europe. This has been assumed to increase the overall heterotrophy, including enhanced bacterial growth. However, the relative importance of temperature, resource availability and bacterial community composition for the bacterial growth response is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated effects of increased temperature on bacterial growth in waters supplemented with different nutrient concentrations and inoculated with microbial communities from distinct seasonal periods. Seven experiments were performed in the northern Baltic Sea spanning an entire annual cycle. In each experiment, bacterioplankton were exposed to 2 temperature regimes (in situ and in situ + 4 degrees C) and 5 nutrient concentrations. Generally, elevated temperature and higher nutrient levels caused an increase in the bacterial growth rate and a shortening of the response time (lag phase). However, at the lowest nutrient concentration, bacterial growth was low at all tested temperatures, implying a stronger dependence on resource availability than on temperature for bacterial growth. Furthermore, data indicated that different bacterial assemblages had varying temperature responses and that community composition was strongly affected by the combination of high nutrient addition and high temperature. These results support the concern that climate change will promote heterotrophy in aquatic systems, where nutrient levels will increase considerably. In such environments, the bacterial community composition will change, their growth rates will increase, and their response time will be shortened compared to the present situation.

  • 243.
    del Carmen Munoz-Marin, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Shilova, Irina N.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;Second Genome Inc, USA.
    Shi, Tuo
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;Xiamen Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Maria Cabello, Ana
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    The Transcriptional Cycle Is Suited to Daytime N2 Fixation in the Unicellular Cyanobacterium “Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa” (UCYN-A)2019In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-17, article id e02495-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbiosis between a marine alga and a N-2-fixing cyanobacterium (Cyanobacterium UCYN-A) is geographically widespread in the oceans and is important in the marine N cycle. UCYN-A is uncultivated and is an unusual unicellular cyanobacterium because it lacks many metabolic functions, including oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation, which are typical in cyanobacteria. It is now presumed to be an obligate symbiont of haptophytes closely related to Braarudosphaera bigelowii. N-2-fixing cyanobacteria use different strategies to avoid inhibition of N-2 fixation by the oxygen evolved in photosynthesis. Most unicellular cyanobacteria temporally separate the two incompatible activities by fixing N-2 only at night, but, surprisingly, UCYN-A appears to fix N-2 during the day. The goal of this study was to determine how the unicellular UCYN-A strain coordinates N-2 fixation and general metabolism compared to other marine cyanobacteria. We found that UCYN-A has distinct daily cycles of many genes despite the fact that it lacks two of the three circadian clock genes found in most cyanobacteria. We also found that the transcription patterns in UCYN-A are more similar to those in marine cyanobacteria that are capable of aerobic N-2 fixation in the light, such as Trichodesmium and heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, than to those in Crocosphaera or Cyanothece species, which are more closely related to unicellular marine cyanobacteria evolutionarily. Our findings suggest that the symbiotic interaction has resulted in a shift of transcriptional regulation to coordinate UCYN-A metabolism with that of the phototrophic eukaryotic host, thus allowing efficient coupling of N-2 fixation (by the cyanobacterium) to the energy obtained from photosynthesis (by the eukaryotic unicellular alga) in the light. IMPORTANCE The symbiotic N-2-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A, which is closely related to Braarudosphaera bigelowii, and its eukaryotic algal host have been shown to be globally distributed and important in open-ocean N-2 fixation. These unique cyanobacteria have reduced metabolic capabilities, even lacking genes for oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation. Cyanobacteria generally use energy from photosynthesis for nitrogen fixation but require mechanisms for avoiding inactivation of the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzyme by ambient oxygen (O-2) or the O-2 evolved through photosynthesis. This study showed that symbiosis between the N-2-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A and its eukaryotic algal host has led to adaptation of its daily gene expression pattern in order to enable daytime aerobic N-2 fixation, which is likely more energetically efficient than fixing N-2 at night, as found in other unicellular marine cyanobacteria.

  • 244.
    del Valle, Daniela A.
    et al.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Martínez-García, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Hawaii, USA.
    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Kiene, Ronald P.
    University of South Alabama, USA ; Dauphin Island Sea Lab, USA.
    Karl, David M.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Methionine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as sources of sulfur to the microbial community of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre2015In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methionine (Met) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are 2 important substrates that can serve as sources of sulfur and carbon to microbial communities in the sea. We studied the vertical and diel distributions and the assimilation rates of dissolved Met (dMet) and dissolved DMSP (dDMSP) into proteins of different microbial groups at Stn ALOHA, in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Concentrations of dMet never exceeded 50 pM and were at their daily minimum during the night-time (<0.17 pM). dMet assimilation into proteins accounted for <30% of the dMet lost from the dissolved pool, suggesting that other metabolic pathways were also important. Concentrations of dDMSP ranged from 0.35 to 1.0 nM in surface waters and did not present a distinguishable diel pattern. Cell-sorted Prochlorococcus, high nucleic acid (HNA), and low nucleic acid (LNA) non-pigmented bacteria showed a clear diel pattern for dMet and dDMSP assimilation, with higher rates during the night-time. Among the different groups, HNA bacteria had the highest per-cell assimilation rate for dMet and dDMSP, but when accounting for cell numbers in each group, the HNA and LNA bacterial group assimilation rates were comparable for both dDMSP and dMet. Integrated water column (0 to 125 m) dDMSP assimilation rates by the entire microbial assemblage were 1.7- To 5.3-fold faster than those for dMet, suggesting that dDMSP constitutes a more important source of sulfur than dMet to the microbial community of the NPSG during the time of our study.

  • 245.
    Denafas, G.
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Bučinskas, A
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Dace, E
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bazienė, K
    Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania.
    Horttanainen, M
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Havukainen, J
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Kaartinen, T
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Finland.
    Rosendal, R
    Danish Waste Solutions, Denmark.
    Kriipsalu, M
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Investigation for landfill mining feasibilities in the Nordic and Baltic countries: overview of project results2016In: CYPRUS 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, At Limassol, Cyprus, 23–25 June 2016., 2016, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Dervisevic, Admir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Luftburna partiklar PM10 i Örebro stad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Luften som vi andas idag innehåller hälsofarliga partiklar. Partiklarna finns runt omkring oss och de kan variera i storlek. Flera av dem går under namnet PM10- partiklar, som är ett samlingsnamn på alla partiklar med medeldiameter under 10 μm. Vägtrafikens bidrag till partiklar mätt som PM10 i utomhusluften är väsentligt i stadsmiljöer.

    Jag har fått tillgång till mätdata på PM- 10 partiklarnas utsläpp som registrerats under år 2011vid mätstation på Rudbecksgatan i Örebro. Mätningar som utförs på Rudbecksgatan i Örebro visar att överskridandet sker under vissa årsperioder, men att halterna PM10 ligger inom MKN (Miljökvalitetsnormer) totalt per år. Bidraget är starkt årstids- och väderberoende. Under sen höst, vinter och framför allt under upptorkningsfasen på våren, kan partiklar från däckslitage och trafik uppvirvling stå för en totalt dominerande del av PM- 10 partikelhalterna i luften i gaturummet.

    För att begränsa partiklarnas förekomst har en miljökvalitetsnorm inrättas. Sedan 2010 är miljömålet att årsmedel inte får överskrida 20 en miljondels gram per kubikmeter luft (μg/m3), och dygnsmedel 35 μg/m3 inte får överskridas 37 gånger per år av halter PM10 i luften.

    Mätningar visade att vid flera tillfällen har PM-10 partikel mängden i luften överskridit MKN under år 2011. Främsta orsaken var vägtrafik och användning av dubbdäck.

    Ökade mängder av partiklar har dålig påverkan på människans hälsa. Flera studier visar att PM10- partiklar ger upphov till astma och andningsproblem. I vissa fall ger luftföroreningar upphov till försämring av sjukdomstillstånd och förtid död. Åtgärder för att minska emissionerna är av två slag: minska bildningen av slitagepartiklar och minska uppvirvling av partiklar.

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  • 247.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Asokan, Shilpa
    Stockholm University.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University.
    Johansson, Emma
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.
    Juston, John
    Stockholm University.
    Levi, Lea
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Biogeochemical Transformation Pathways through the Land-water Geosphere2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water on land undergoes and participates in many biogeochemical exchanges and changes. A bits-and-pieces approach to these may miss essential aspects of change propagation and transformation by land-water through different segments of the Earth system. This paper proposes a conceptualization of the entire land-water geosphere as a scale-free catchment-wise organised system (Figure 1), emphasizing four key new system aspects compared to traditional hydrosphere/water cycle view: i) distinction of coastal divergent in addition to traditional convergent catchments; ii) physical and social-ecological system coupling through four main nodal zones/interfaces (surface, subsurface, coastal, observation); iii) flow-transport pathways as system coupling agents; iv) multiple interactions with the anthroposphere as integral system parts. Utilizing this conceptualization, we identify distinct patterns of direct anthropogenic change in large-scale water and waterborne nutrient fluxes, emerging across different parts of the world. In general, its embedment directly in the anthroposphere/technosphere makes land-water a key geosphere for understanding and monitoring human-driven biogeochemical changes. Further progress in system-level understanding of such changes requires studies of land-water as a continuous yet structured geosphere following the proposed spatiotemporal pathways of change propagation-transformation.

  • 248.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Balfors, Berit
    The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Juston, John
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Levi, Lea
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden ; University of Split, Croatia.
    Olofsson, Bo
    The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Needs and means to advance science, policy and management understanding of the freshwater system: A synthesis report2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmented and inconsistent understanding of the freshwater system limits our ability to achieve water security and sustainability under the human-driven changes occurring in the Anthropocene. To advance system-level understanding of freshwater, gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge, data, representations and links of processes and subsystems need to be identified and bridged under consideration of the freshwater system as a continuous whole. 

    Based on such identification, a freshwater system conceptualization is developed in this report, which emphasizes four essential, yet often neglected system aspects:

    i) Distinction of coastal divergent catchments.

    ii) Four main zones (surface, subsurface, coastal, observation) of different types of freshwater change.

    iii) Water pathways as system-coupling agents that link and partition water change among the four change zones.

    iv) Direct interactions with the anthroposphere as integral system pathways across the change zones.

    We explain and exemplify some key implications of these aspects, identifying in the process also distinct patterns of human-driven changes in large-scale water fluxes and nutrient loads.

    The present conceptualization provides a basis for common inter- and trans-disciplinary understanding and systematic characterization of the freshwater system function and its changes, and of approaches to their modeling and monitoring. This can be viewed and used as a unifying checklist that can advance science, policy and management of freshwater and related environmental changes across various scales and world regions.

  • 249.
    di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo
    et al.
    Tethys Research Institute, Italy.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Manta Trust, UK ; Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Adnet, Sylvain
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Cappetta, Henri
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Jabado, Rima W.
    Gulf Elasmo Project, UAE.
    Devil rays (Chondrichthyes: Mobula) of the Arabian Seas, with a redescription of Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes in Muller and Henle, 1841)2017In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 197-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Devil rays (genus Mobula) are pelagic elasmobranchs widely distributed throughout tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate waters. Their occurrence and distribution remains poorly documented in the Arabian Seas region. A review is provided of species occurrence in these water bodies along with a synthesis of regional information on their biology and ecology. Based on the available evidence, five Mobula species occur in the region (M. eregoodootenkee, M. japanica, M. kuhlii, M. tarapacana, and M. thurstoni). Of these, three (M. eregoodootenkee, M. tarapacana and M. thurstoni) were found to occur in the Red Sea, and three (M. eregoodootenkee, M. japanica, and M. kuhlii) were found to occur in the Arabian/Persian Gulf. Mobula japanica and M. kuhlii are reported here for the first time in Gulf waters. All five species were found in the Indian Ocean waters between the Gulf of Aden and Pakistan. To address the still uncertain taxonomy of M. kuhlii, a redescription of this species is provided based on a sample of fresh specimen material. Mobula diabolus is a nomen ambiguum, never used to unambiguously designate any newly described species, and its use should be avoided. Considering the life-history traits that make these species particularly vulnerable to fishing pressure, current levels of exploitation in by-catch fisheries are unlikely to be sustainable, despite the fact that the trade in gill plates does not seem to be prevalent in this region. Critical knowledge gaps unfortunately still exist, crippling effective management and conservation actions. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 250.
    Dinasquet, Julie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Substrate control of community composition and functional adaptation in marine bacterioplankton2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A drop of sea-water is teeming with a million of bacteria, on which pelagic food-webs and biogeochemical cycles depend. These bacteria thrive on a wide range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced through biotic and abiotic processes. Molecular analyses have over the past decades shown that specific bacterial taxa differ in their capacity to exploit DOC, suggesting a tight link between bacterial community composition (BCC) and ocean biogeo-chemistry. Therefore, an understanding of how resource availability and mortality agents drive BCC and bacterial functional adaptation is a prerequisit for predictions of how marine ecosystems will respond to future global change.

    In this thesis, I have studied BCC and bacterial functionality in response to various controlling factors relevant in an environmental changes perspective. For instance, the extensive regional warming in Antarctica induces the proliferation of icebergs. By investigating the bacterioplankton in the surrounding of a drifting iceberg, hydrographical perturbations driven by the iceberg were found to affect BCC, functionality and the capacity of indigenous taxa to utilize specific DOC compounds. Furthermore, a study of community succession during DOC utilization assays demonstrated that bacterial assemblages adapt to the gradual exhaustion of available DOC through community compositional succession. In addition, the variation in substrate availability and temperature may also affect BCC in eutrophic systems.

    While substrate availability can have an important impact on BCC and bacterial functionality, it is also important to study the cascading effects of higher trophic levels on bacteria. During a mesocosm experiment, the presence of an invasive gelatinous top-predator was shown to have only limited effects on the structure and function of the bacterial community in the Baltic Sea due to nutrient limiting conditions and to the overall complexity of the food-web. However, this top-predator may have direct bottom-up impact on bacteria in its close surrounding.

    The results presented in this thesis show that the bacterioplankton is sensitive to the availability of substrates and that bacterial community composition responds to contemporary environmental conditions. These results contribute to our understanding of how ecosystem disturbances affect marine bacterioplankton; insights of relevance to biogeochemistry and food-webs in the oceans.

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