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  • 201.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Cons and Pros of Epidemiological Versus Experimental Approaches to Answer Questions About Risk and Protective Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Personal Journey2018In: SAGE Research Methods Cases, London: Sage Publications, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text is a personal account of the research process that led to a dissertation about the long-term relevance of social and emotional factors for cognitive health. It describes how research ideas and methodological concerns developed out of the first results where people who had lived alone, especially after being widowed already in midlife, had a high risk increase for Alzheimer’s disease over two decades later. A second study investigated the associations between feelings of hopelessness in midlife and cognitive health in later life. Both of these studies used an epidemiological association approach with logistic regression as the main statistical method, including adjustments for several relevant variables. To address the methodological concerns in the epidemiological association approach, primarily the risk of reverse causation and confounding variables, a subsequent study applied a randomized control experimental design. In this study, the effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels from different types of activities were measured in healthy elderly persons through a within-subject cross-over design. The case study illustrates the compromises that had to be made through this methodological shift in relation to the original research question—compromises in terms of real-life outcomes and exposures in exchange for experimental control and establishment of causality. The relative merits and limitations of three main approaches are finally summarized in light of these experiences: experimental studies on animals and on humans and epidemiological associations in humans. The examples are from research on dementia, but should be relevant for many other research questions.

  • 202.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm University.
    Ledreux, Aurelie
    Karolinska Institutet ; Medical University of South Carolina, USA.
    Daffner, Kirk
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    Terjestam, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte
    Medical University of South Carolina, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    BDNF Responses in Healthy Older Persons to 35 Minutes of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness: Associations with Working Memory Function2017In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 645-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities. We show that a single bout of physical exercise has significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice in the same persons. This is the first study on immediate BDNF effects of physical activity in older healthy humans and also the first study to demonstrate an association between serum BDNF responsivity to acute physical exercise and working memory function. We conclude that the BDNF increase we found after physical exercise more probably has a peripheral than a central origin, but that the association between post-intervention BDNF levels and cognitive function could have implications for BDNF responsivity in serum as a potential marker of cognitive health.

  • 203.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Institutet;University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    The Patient with Cognitive Impairment2018In: Treatable and Potentially Preventable Dementias / [ed] Hachinsky, Vladimir, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 52-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Hörberg, Angelica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mogren, Siri
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvecklande ledarskap som buffert mot stress: En kvantitativ studie om relationen mellan stress hos psykologer, deras arbetsengagemang och det utvecklande ledarskapet hos chefen.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine work engagement amongst psychologists and their perceived developmental leadership of the manager in relation to the psychologists perceived stress. Furthermore, the study examined which of the variables that had the most influence on the outcome of stress. A survey was conducted on 75 psychologists from various work places. The questionnaire consisted of PSS-14, UWES-9 and parts of DLQ. The results showed a significant negative correlation between developmental leadership and stress, and also between work engagement and stress. There was no significant correlation between developmental leadership and work engagement. The results also showed that developmental leadership was a significant predictor to stress. In summary, developmental leadership seems to have the greatest impact on stress amongst psychologists. The study is the first in its kind to examine these variables on psychologists, highlighting the importance of further research within the field.

  • 205.
    Isfåle, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stärkt samhörighet med Sverige genom naturalisation?: En intervjustudie om individens upplevelse i förhållande till medborgarskapslagens intention2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa empiriska studie var dels att ta del av ett antal invandrares motiv till att ansöka om svenskt medborgarskap (naturaliseras), detta för att få en ökad förståelse för vad det finns för olika skäl till ansökan om medborgarskap. Dels och huvudsakligen var syftet vidare att ta reda på huruvida individen i enlighet med medborgarskapslagens intention de facto upplever stärkt samhörighet med Sverige och det svenska folket vid erhållandet av sitt svenska medborgarskap. Insamlingsmetoden var semistrukturerade intervjuer, och analysmetoden kvalitativ (tematisk) innehållsanalys samt ett analysschema. Resultatet visade att det bland informanterna fanns tre motiv till ansökan om svenskt medborgarskap. Dessa var trygghetsskäl, praktiska skäl (erhållandet av svenskt pass) samt integrationsskäl, och praktiska skäl var det dominerande motivet i studien. Resultatet visade vidare att en majoritet av de tolv informanterna – nio stycken – de facto kände en känsla av samhörighet med Sverige, och i sex av fallen kunde denna samhörighetskänsla åtminstone delvis kopplas till erhållandet av det svenska medborgarskapet. Slutsatsen kunde därmed dras att medborgarskapslagens intention om stärkt samhörighet med Sverige och svenskarna vid erhållandet av svenskt medborgarskap var till viss del uppfylld i den här studien.

  • 206.
    Israelsson, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att vara mamma och ensamstående - ett vardagspussel: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om ensamstående mödrars subjektiva upplevelse av sin livssituation och vardag.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 207.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychology of Sport Injury: Prediction, Prevention and Rehabilitation in Swedish Team Sport Athletes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation consists of five separate studies that all have focused on different aspects of the relationship between psychological factors and sport injuries.

    In the first study the aim was to investigate female elite soccer players’ experiences of the time prior to the occurrence of an ACL injury. In the result three themes of player experiences was identified: fatigue, life stress, and worry. The players interpreted these three themes as risk factors for ACL-injury.  

    The second study aimed to investigate whether personality, stress, and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population. The result showed that an interaction between psychological variables (i.e. trait anxiety, negative life event stress and daily hassles, ineffective coping) could explain 24 % of the variance in injury occurrence. Moreover, the result showed that negative life event stress was found to have an indirect effect on injury occurrence through daily hassles.

    In the third study the aim was to investigate whether individual level and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population. The results showed that both initial level as well as change in hassle influenced injury risk. More specific, both high initial level as well as slow decrease in hassle was associated with an increased risk of injury.

    The fourth study aimed to investigate the extent to which a mindfulness and acceptance based intervention program could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of soccer players. The result showed no statistically significant differences in injury rates between the two groups, but there was a medium effect size (adjusted Cohen´s d = - 0.59).

    In the fifth study the aim was to investigate an athletic injury as a career transition through the narrative expression of successful and less successful injury experiences of a former elite handball player. The participant’s narratives made possible to identify four phases (i.e., pre-injury, injury and first reactions, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation and consequences) in the injury transition with distinct psychological content (e.g., demands, resources, barriers, and coping strategies) relevant to each phase

  • 208.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Halmstad Univ.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad Univ.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå Univ.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad Univ.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Things We Still Haven't Learned (So Far)2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 449-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is like an immortal horse that some researchers have been trying to beat to death for over 50 years but without any success. In this article we discuss the flaws in NHST, the historical background in relation to both Fisher's and Neyman and Pearson's statistical ideas, the common misunderstandings of what p < .05 actually means, and the 2010 APA publication manual's clear, but most often ignored, instructions to report effect sizes and to interpret what they all mean in the real world. In addition, we discuss how Bayesian statistics can be used to overcome some of the problems with NHST. We then analyze quantitative articles published over the past three years (2012-2014) in two top-rated sport and exercise psychology journals to determine whether we have learned what we should have learned decades ago about our use and meaningful interpretations of statistics.

  • 209.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Are all predicted relationships linear by nature?: A note about quantile regression in sport and exercise psychology2014In: Advances in Contemporary Sport Psychology / [ed] Robert Schinke, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 191-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data in sport and exercise psychology research are often analyzed based on the assumption that the relationships between two or more variables are linear in nature. But are all relationships in sport and exercise settings linear? The aim of this paper is to: a) discuss the potential shortcomings with using linear regression analysis, b) introduce quantile regression analysis (Q-regression) as an alternative to linear regression, and c) give examples of how to use Q-regression analysis in order to overcome some of the shortcomings of linear regression analysis. A comparison between the results from a linear regression analysis and a Q-regression analysis shows differences between the two methods. More specifically, the independent variables in the results of the Q-regression analysis were shown to have non-linear relationships with the dependent variable in given examples. Researchers are encouraged to consider using Q-regression analysis in studies where non-linear relationships could be expected.

  • 210.
    Jablanovic, Teea
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ifwarsson, Josefina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Livstillfredsställelse, stress och självkänsla bland äldre människor - Utifrån genusperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine wellbeing of older people (pensioners)by analyzing the relationship between perceived stress, self-esteem and life-satisfaction in relation to gender, age, educational level and marital status. The study was based on a survey where 91 older individuals participated. The survey included Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measuring stress, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) measuring self-esteem and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), measuring life satisfaction. The results showed that there were significant relationships between perceived stress, self-esteem and life satisfaction, as well as significant differences between men and women regarding stress and life satisfaction. Females experienced more stress, had lower life satisfaction and self-esteem than males. The results also showed that gender, life satisfaction and self-esteem significantly predict stress.

  • 211.
    Jan, Veronika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Det är mycket akta dig för könssjukdomar, skydda dig annars kan du inte gå klart skolan": Sex- och samlevnad - en hälsopsykologisk behovsstudie på gymnaiseungdomar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The adolescens is about to explore and develop its sexuality and identity and the school is a big support in this process. The purpose of this study was to examine which knowledge of sex and coexistence students in high school desired. The intention was likewise to examine if backgrounds variables could explain differences in requested knowledge. Method: The study was conducted through a questionnaire survey with 248 participants, whereof 154 were men and 92 were women (Mdn=18). The result demonstrated that students desired more knowledge in specific areas, for example how to managed a relationship, how sexually transmitted diseases (STD) infect and how to avoid the condom bursting. Women and students at pre-university programs expressed to a greater degree that they desired more knowledge then men and students at vocational programs. The conclusion indicated that specific groups requested more knowledge and more research requires to understand the underlying psychological aspects of the requirement. 

  • 212.
    Jernelov, S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm University.
    Blom, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    One and ten-year follow-up of insomnia severity after a randomized trial of behavioral self-help treatment for insomnia with or without therapist guidance2018In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Llenas, Milagros
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nasri, Berkeh
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Effects and clinical feasibility of a behavioral treatment for sleep problems in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pragmatic within-group pilot evaluation2019In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 19, p. 1-12, article id 226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundSleep disturbances, including insomnia, are common in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Treatment of choice for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-i), but evidence is lacking for CBT-i in patients with ADHD.The purpose of this study was to investigate if patients with insomnia and other sleep problems, at a specialist clinic for ADHD, benefit from a group delivered behavioral treatment based on CBT-i; whether insomnia severity improves following this treatment.MethodsThis pragmatic within-group pilot study with a pre to post and three-month follow-up design was set at a specialist psychiatric out-patient clinic for adult ADHD.As an adjunct to care-as-usual at the clinic, a CBT-i-based group treatment targeting several sleep problems prevalent in the ADHD-population, was offered as 10 weekly 90-min group sessions and scheduled telephone support.All outcome measures were subjectively reported by participants. Data analyzed with dependent t-tests according to intent-to-treat.ResultsNineteen patients (37 [SD 13.7] years; 68% female) with ADHD and subjectively reported sleep problems provided informed consent and pre-treatment measures. Patients had suffered from sleep problems for 15.3 [SD 13.4] years, 42% used sleep medications, 79% used stimulant medication(s).At post-treatment, insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index; score range 0-28) had improved with 4.5 points (95% CI, 2.06-6.99, p=.002), at 3months with 6.8 points (95% CI, 4.71-8.91, p<.0001) from pre-treatment.ConclusionsCBT-i adjusted for ADHD is promising for improving insomnia severity in adult patients at specialist psychiatric out-patient clinics, who suffer from ADHD and sleep disturbances.Trial registrationStudy registered with the Regional ethical review board in Stockholm, January 13th 2016, Study id: 2015/2078-31/1. Study registered retrospectively with Clinicaltrials.org, February 21st 2019, ID: NCT03852966.

  • 214.
    Johansen, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöland, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kan lycka köpas för pengar?: En experimentstudie om hur prosocialt spenderande påverkar lycka.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Can happiness be bought with money? Prosocial spending and happiness is a new field within science and has yet to be studied in Sweden. The present study aims to investigate whether prosocial spending contributes to an increased level of happiness amongst students which previous research supports and also whether sexdifferences within prosocial spending and percieved happiness exists which current research does not support. One-hundred and three undergraduates of whom 72 were women and 31 men within a human resource and management-program participated, all studying at a medium-sized university in southern Sweden. A randomized post-test-only experiment was conducted in which 51 participants carried out a task where they were instructed to donate money to charity (experimental group) and 52 participants were instructed to complete a cognitive task (control group). Subsequently the participants levels of happiness were measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale. Statistical testing using a two-way ANOVA showed no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups regarding happiness, furthermore there were no sex differences regarding happiness and prosocial spending. The results of the present study are contradictory with previous research. The discussion of the present study suggests emphasis on method and design for further studies within the area. The amount of money spent prosocially is likely to have a greater impact on happiness than the present study presumed. A lower limit to promote happiness is discussed. Furthermore the relation between the individual who is prosocially spending and the recipient is discussed and is likely to have an impact on perceived happiness.

  • 215.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Views on and Perceptions of Experiences of Touch Avoidance: An Exploratory Study2013In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 44-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of physical touch by conducting semi-structured interviews with 14 participants, nine women and five men (M (age) = 25.1). A touch avoidance screening form was used to select subjects with the highest scores on touch avoidance as well as those with the lowest scores, that is, the greatest acceptance of touch, for the interviews (n = 7 in each group). Data were analyzed using Burnard's stage-by-stage process of coding and categorization. The identified superordinate themes were labeled: 1) safe haven, 2) skill, 3) physical appearance, 4) ambivalence and 5) fear. Among other findings, touch avoiders seemed to have a greater need for bodily intimacy as a confirmation of the romantic partner relationship than did touch accepters. It was concluded that the experience of physical closeness is complex, and the relationships with attachment theory were discussed. Further research was suggested to more thoroughly investigate the present findings on touch avoidance, as well as the origins of touch avoidance and its consequences for personal relationships and communication skills.

  • 216.
    Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University.
    A touch of touch: Preschool teacher education students' reflections about physical touch2018In: Issues in educational research, ISSN 0313-7155, E-ISSN 1837-6290, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 953-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International research has shown that several countries have adopted a cautious attitude towards physical touch between educators and children. Physical touch in preschool is a sensitive and difficult issue that requires preschool teacher education to address the question in a considerate and thoughtful manner. Nevertheless, the question of how students are prepared for the touch that is part of an educational environment with children has only been investigated to a limited extent. The aim of the present study is therefore to study how students perceive that the question of touch is handled in Swedish preschool teacher education. Data was collected through surveys (N = 204) and through semi-structured interviews with students and graduates in preschool teacher education. The results show that the informants felt that their interests and needs were not met. Instead, they were forced to take their own responsibility for raising the issue. To the extent that discussions about physical contact were addressed in education, it was primarily negative aspects that were raised. The results are discussed, for instance from a gender perspective. The men in the program are more affected by the lack of a clear place for touch in the program.

  • 217.
    Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Touch the Children, or Please Don’t: – Preschool Teachers’ Approach to TouchIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Physical touch between educators and children in preschool settings is a sensitive issue in many countries. The aim of the study is to examine how future and newly graduated preschool teachers relate to touch between preschool teachers and children in the Swedish preschool context. The study was conducted using: 1) a questionnaire study (n = 204) and 2) semi-structured interviews (n = 20). The results illustrate the informants’ desire to combine physical care of children with awareness of and respect for children’s bodily integrity.

  • 218.
    Johansson, Cassandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rickardsson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hardiness som skydd mot stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has explored and explained the effect hardiness has on stress, but there is limited research on the use of physical activity in combination or in conjunction with hardiness. The present study aimed to examine if high school student's perceived stress level is affected by their level of hardiness and/or physical activity. The sample consisted of 370 high school students who were instructed to fill out a survey based on three instruments; Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-14 and Dispositional Resilience Scale, DRS-II as well as a separate self composed instrument on physical activity. A multiple regression analysis was calculated, indicating that hardiness predict stress and that there are gender differences. However, physical activity had no effect.

  • 219.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work locus of control inom arbetslivet: En kvantitativ studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employees' perceived control over their work situation varies from person to person and can to some extent depend on their age and how they perceive their environment in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible connections between Work Locus of Control and Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction and age. Data collection was performed by handing out a survey to officials with administrative duties within the public and private sectors in southern Sweden. The sample consists of 74 participants (17 men and 57 women). To measure the variables, the Work Locus of Control Scale, items from the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support and Overall Job Satisfaction, were used. The survey also included background questions. A correlation analysis of the variables yielded that the work locus of control scale has significant correlations with the studied variables. The results are in line with previous research, indicating that individuals which to a greater extent perceive themselves able to control their work situation also experience higher organizational support and higher job satisfaction, and that perceived control is higher for older individuals. A multiple regression analysis shows that a high Job Satisfaction is the best predictor of an internal Work Locus of Control. The results show no significant difference in Work Locus of Control between employees in the public and private sectors.

  • 220.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Richardson, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighet och preferens: En kvantitativ studie av gymnasieelevers personlighet och deras preferens för personlighet hos lärare2015Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 221.
    Johansson, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Livstillfredsställelse och självmedkänsla: En kvantitativ studie om äldre2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The understanding of a successful aging is getting more important since the group of older adults is expected to grow over the next years. Even if the relationship between well-being and self-compassion is documented, no known studies have been made to investigate the relationship in a Swedish population of older adults.

    In this study the relationship between life-satisfaction and self-compassion was explored with participants from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care – SNAC. Furthermore the difference between women and men was also studied. The results showed no differences between men and women in life-satisfaction, but men valued themselves to have more self-compassion than women did. A positive relationship between life-satisfaction and self-compassion was confirmed. Self-compassion and age proved to be of importance for predicting a successful aging.

  • 222.
    Johansson Ljuhs, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empati och altruistiskt motiverat hjälpande beteende2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 223.
    Johansson, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Widlund, Gabriella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effekter av Affektskola: En utvärdering av Affektskola inom vuxenpsykiatrin i Region Kronoberg2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is an evaluation of the treatment method Affect School in the context of adult psychiatry. The aim is to examine the effects of the Affect School on mental ill-health and affect consciousness, and how stable these effects are. The participants consist of 13 patients in psychiatric outpatient care with varying disorders, including mood disorders, ADHD and personality disorders. Assessments with the instruments TAS-20, HADS and KASAM-29 were performed on four occasions; before the start and by the completion of the Affect School and eight and sixteen weeks after completion. At the end of the study, an additional questionnaire regarding subjective experiences of the effect of the Affect School was distributed. The results indicate trends of increased affect consciousness as well as reduced mental ill-health and that these effects are stable and increases over time. Participants report a moderate degree of subjectively perceived change regarding emotions and mental health, and that they attributed Affect School these changes in a moderate to large extent. Overall, the study indicates that the Affect School has a positive effect on affect consciousness and mental health.

  • 224.
    Johansson, Maude
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Postpartum depression, depressive symptoms and parental stress in mothers and fathers 25-30 months after child birth: A family perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the prevalence of postpartum depression and parental stress 25 - 30 months after delivery. The first study was conducted 25 months after delivery. The aims were to investigate the prevalence of postpartum depression and the associations between postpartum depression and parental stress in two areas of study; spouse relationship problems and feelings of incompetence in parenthood. Seven hundred mothers and 646 fathers answered a questionnaire. The results showed that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was more than 11% for mothers and nearly 5% for fathers and that parents with postpartum depressive symptoms experienced more feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems than parents without postpartum depressive symptoms.

    The second study included 176 mothers and 146 fathers. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, and if parental stress and attachment style affected postpartum depression in mothers and fathers 30 months after birth. The prevalence rate of postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers was 14.9 %, while for fathers it was 11.5 %. We observed a difference with the preoccupied and fearful attachment style in terms of parents with postpartum depressive symptoms and parents without postpartum depressive symptoms. However, the differences were not significant. Furthermore, parental stress outperformed attachment styles as a predictor for postpartum depressive symptoms in both the mothers and the fathers.

    Study III was a qualitative interview study explored the lived experiences of mothers and fathers, their experiences of postpartum depression, and parental stress. Five prominent themes were identified. Both mothers and fathers described experiences of inadequacy as the most stressful. Experiences of problems during pregnancy or a traumatic delivery contributed to depressive symptoms and anxiety in mothers, and affected fathers’ wellbeing.

    Thus, identifying depressive symptoms with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Scale (EPDS), mothers described varying experiences of child health care support. Depressive symptoms seemed to affect the spouses’ relationships. Experiences of emotional problems and insecure upbringing in the parents’ family of origin may contribute to vulnerability that led to long-term problems for mothers.

    The overall conclusion of this thesis was that postpartum depression and parental stress had a significant impact on the everyday lives and that postpartum depression does not seemed to decline 25- 30 months after childbirth.

  • 225.
    Johansson, Maude
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Massoudi, Pamela
    University of Gothenburg.
    Depressive Symptoms and Parental Stress in Mothers and Fathers 25 Months after birth2017In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems and their mutual relations. Data from a Swedish parent–infant population-based cohort 25 months after childbirth was used. A questionnaire containing Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a modified Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) regarding depression and parental stress was answered by 646 fathers and 700 mothers. Parents with depressive symptoms experienced more feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems than parents without depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (EPDS 􏰀 12) was more than11% for mothers and nearly 5% for fathers in the sample, 25 months after childbirth. The result indicated that feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems could be important constructs for understanding parental stress and depressive symptoms in the parents of young children. In conclusion, it is important that Child Health Care is attentive to both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms and parental stress after the first year.

  • 226.
    Jonell, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attityd till användande av e-journaler och grad av neuroticism hos studenter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to broaden the knowledge about how different background factors influences attitude towards e-journals. The main focus of the study was to examine if the psychological variable, neuroticism, influences students attitude towards e-journals. The current study had 118 participants, every one of them were students from a university in the southern part of Sweden. All participants filled out a questionnaire with 23 questions and the answers were categorized in to two groups, one with low, and one with high neuroticism. The data were analyzed with an independent U-test, Mann-Whitney. The result showed a significant difference between the two groups concerning how the participant felt and thought of e-journals. The result didn’t show any differences between the groups in how they planned using the e-journals or how positive/negative they were towards e-journal. The main result points to an overall positive attitude towards e-journals and that the majority is interested in using e-journals.

  • 227.
    Jones, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Norrby, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skilda examinationers påverkan på gymnasieelevers stressupplevelse2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to examine which form of examination that influence the students stress-level the most and if there’s a significant difference between genders. In relation to recent studies, hypotheses were formed that the oral exam should have the highest scores of stress, that students with better score on coping should have lower stress and that girls would score higher than boys. The study was conducted through a self-created survey that measured the students stress-levels in three different forms of examination, oral exam, written home-assignment and written classroom exams. The study was made at a school in southern Sweden with 95 respondents. The results showed that the oral examination caused highest scores in stress and that girls had significantly higher scores than boys. This study can be an enlightenment and guidance for teachers in their planning for examinations to ease the students raising stress-levels.

  • 228.
    Jonsson, Linda S.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping Univ.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedin, Carl Goran
    Linköping Univ.
    Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1245-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  • 229.
    Joo, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schematerapeuters arbete med modes: Hur arbetar de med modes och vad lär modesmodellen deras patienter?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien undersöktes schematerapeuters arbete med modes, vilket är ett begrepp som utvecklats för att klassificera dimensionella tillstånd av vår personlighet. Syftet var att få en djup bild av hur terapeuterna använder sig av modesmodellen samt hur de anser att den kommer patienten till nytta. Dessutom har studien syftat till att ta reda på hur terapeuterna använder sig av sina egna modes i terapirummet och vilka fallgropar det finns i modellen. En kvalitativ, semistrukturerad metod användes och fem certifierade schematerapeuter intervjuades. Datan är analyserad utifrån en tematisk analys med fyra teman, vilka är terapeutens användningsområde av modes, modellens funktionalitet för patienten, terapeutens modes och fallgropar.

    I resultatet rörande terapeutens användningsområde av modes framkom att terapeuterna arbetar med modes utifrån två huvudinriktningar. Dels använder de sig av modes som förståelsemodell för att få en tydlig bild av patienten och sig själva i terapin, samt att de integrerar patienten i arbetet kring modes. Vad gäller temat om modellens funktionalitet för patienten framkom två kategorier, nytt synsätt och struktur. Terapeuterna ansåg att patienterna lärde sig ett nytt synsätt och att modellen gav struktur. I underkategorierna framkom att patienterna fick en flerdimensionell syn på sig själva, att modellen erbjöd dem alternativ, dämpade deras inre kritiker och lärde dem att se när de blev ”kidnappade” av ett mode. Terapeuterna ansåg också att patienterna hade mycket lätt att ta till sig modesmodellen, att den kunde hjälpa patienter även med enklare problematik och att den kunde vara till hjälp för att patienterna skulle få tillgång till sin sårbara sida. Under temat schematerapeuters egna modes framkom två kategorier, hur de använder sig av sina egna modes och vilka av deras egna modes som kan påverka terapin negativt. Resultatet visade att terapeuter använder sina egna modes genom att analysera dem i terapisamtalet, att de använde sin egen sårbarhet för att skapa kontakt med patienten samt för att avgöra vilket mode patienten befann sig i. De modes som de kunde hamna i som var negativa för patienten var dysfunktionella copingmodes och dysfunktionella internaliserade föräldermodes. Temat fallgrop visade att det kan vara svårt att skilja modes ifrån varandra.

     

  • 230.
    Juslin, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Harmat, László
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University;Uppsala university.
    The wisdom of the body: Listeners' autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions(e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicitprocessing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20–55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of thespeaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterialblood pressure, pulse rate). Unbeknownst to the listeners, the blocks consisted of two types of emotional speech: spontaneous and posed clips. Aspredicted, spontaneous clips yielded higher arousal levels than posed clips, suggesting that listeners implicitly distinguished between the two kinds ofexpression, even in the absence of any requirement to retrieve emotional information from the voice. We discuss the results with regard to theories ofemotional contagion and the use of posed stimuli in studies of emotions.

  • 231.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bemötande av barn vars föräldrar har separerat utifrån ett professionellt perspektivEn kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina
    et al.
    Makerere Univ, Uganda;Mulago Hosp, Uganda.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kristensson, Krister
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Juliano, Sharon L.
    Uniformed Serv Univ Hlth Sci, USA.
    Lutwama, Julius J.
    Uganda Virus Res Inst, Uganda.
    Emerging Viral Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Developing Nervous System: A Mini Review2018In: Frontiers in Neurology, ISSN 1664-2295, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 9, article id 82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system. Here, we briefly summarize studies on the developing brain by West Nile, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses, which are mosquito-borne and have spread worldwide out of SSA. They can all be neuroinvasive, but their effects vary from malformations caused by prenatal infections to cognitive disturbances following perinatal or later infections. We also highlight Ebola virus, which can leave surviving children with psychiatric disturbances and cause persistent infections in the non-human primate brain. Greater awareness within the neuroscience community is needed to emphasize the menace evoked by these emerging viruses to the developing brain. In particular, frontline neuroscience research should include neuropediatric follow-up studies in the field on long-term or late-onset cognitive and behavior disturbances or neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies on pathogenetic mechanisms for viral-induced perturbations of brain maturation should be extended to the vulnerable periods when neurocircuit formations are at peaks during infancy and early childhood.

  • 233.
    Kalmendal, André
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindfulness and working memory: Evaluating short-term meditation effects on working memory related tasks and self-reported health benefits2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of short-term meditation is a debated subject. There is studies that indicates that there is none or limited effect. Research of mindfulness meditation has also shown positive effects on working memory related tasks and sustained attention, but it can also show reduction of stress and depression. This study evaluate the effects of short-term guided meditation in a group of 10 persons in comparison with a control group. Results indicated no difference in memory tasks such as digit-span but the experimental group showed significant improvements in self-reported stress and mindful assets such as Acting with awareness and Acceptance without judgement. The results are consistent with previous research in this area. 

  • 234.
    Kalmendal, André
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mühlmeister, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predicting the replicability of experimental research in Work and Organizational Psychology published in the Journal of Applied Psychology2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 235.
    Kamber, Saiwan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skillnader i valet av Copingstrategier: En kvantitativ undersökning om köns- och åldersskillnader i valet av copingstrategier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En enkätundersökning genomfördes för att undersöka om det förekom köns- och åldersskillnader i individernas val av copingstrategier. Respondenterna i denna undersökning bestod av 101 personer. Undersökningen visade att det endast i ett fall förekom könsskillnader i valet av copingstrategi, nämligen kognitivomstrukturering, där män använde sig av denna copingstrategi i signifikant högre grad än kvinnor. Åldersskillnader upptäcktes i tre fall, där unga i signifikant högre grad än vuxna använde sig av copingstrategin undvikande, ålderskategorin medelålder använde sig av problemlösning i signifikant högre grad än unga, och vuxna använde sig av copingstrategin distraktion i signifikant högre grad än ålderskategorin medelålder. Inga åldersskillnader upptäcktes i respondenternas val av copingstrategin sök av stöd.

  • 236.
    Karimi, Marziyeh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internet usage within the workplace and teachers’ job satisfaction: role of Age and Gender2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the Internet has made many changes to different aspects of individuals’ professional and personal lives. It is used in different professions for various reasons such as improving communication, increasing efficiency and access to more resources and opportunities. Furthermore, improved conditions at work can help increase employee’s job satisfaction and the positive feeling toward their job. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Internet use on Job satisfaction for teachers and the potential moderating effects of gender and age on this relationship. To conduct this study, a sample including 71 teachers was used and a survey was used to collect the information from the teachers. Two regression analyses were carried out and three hypotheses were tested. The results from these analyses did not support the idea of an effect of Internet use on teachers’ job satisfaction or moderating effects of age and gender on the relationship. However, there was some evidence that teachers in the sample viewed the Internet as positive for their job. It should be mentioned that the conclusions are limited by methodological problems such as questionnaire design and sampling.

  • 237.
    Karlsson, Felicia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schloenzig, Rebecka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Torstensson, Mathilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interpersonella konflikter på arbetsplatsen: En kvantitativ studie om verksamma arbetstagares upplevda interpersonella konflikter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interpersonal conflict may have a significant impact in organizations since blue collar-workers can spend time and effort on other things then their main duties. This can lead to less profitability for the organizations, that is why this is something worth exploring. Previous studies shows that many factors work together to create interpersonal conflicts between blue collar-workers. The purpose of this study was to examine if interpersonal conflicts has any significant correlation with interpersonal relations, experienced supervisor support, well-being, age and years in the workplace and if there is any gender differences.

    Methodology: This study was implemented on 67 blue-collar workers (42 men and 25 women) from five different organizations in the south of Sweden. To examine the result this study used a survey. The survey had three demographic questions: gender, age and years in the workplace. Four validated questionnaires was used as instruments to measure if interpersonal conflicts had any correlation with the examined variables: Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale (ICAWS), Interpersonal Conflict in Organization Scale (ICOS), Social Support Scale (SSS) and Job-related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS)

    Result: The result showed that interpersonal conflicts had a significant correlation with interpersonal relationships, experienced supervisor support, well-being and years at workplace. The result showed that interpersonal conflicts had no significant correlation with age. The gender differences were further tested in the variables but did not find any statistically significant differences.

    Conclusion: The result of this study confirms that interpersonal conflicts correlates with interpersonal relations, experienced supervisor support, well-being and years in the workspace.

  • 238.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur påverkar de nya medierna allmänhetens syn på rättsväsendet?: En kvalitativ studie som genom intervjuer undersöker hur dokumentärer och poddar som berör kriminalfall påverkar allmänhetens uppfattning om rättsväsendet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att med kvalitativ forskningsmetod undersöka vilka tankar och känslor allmänheten som brukar poddar och dokumentärer som behandlar mord- och rättegångar har kring själva tittar/lyssnarupplevelsen och hur deras förtroende för rättsväsendet påverkas efter denna konsumtion, samt undersöka hur allmänheten och polisen påverkas av negativ media om rättsväsendet/polisen ur allmänhetens synpunkt. Elva personer intervjuades och intervjudatan analyserades med tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att allmänheten påverkas av att lyssna/titta på poddar och dokumentärer om mord och/eller rättegångar på ett eller annat sätt. En del menade att förtroendet för rättsväsendet sjönk. Alla respondenterna ansåg att dessa typer av medier väckte känslor, dock var dessa känslor relativt individuella. Respondenterna hade liknande åsikter om hur polis och allmänheten påverkas av negativ media. De var överens om att de påverkar förtroendet för polisen och skadar deras arbete samt att allmänheten påverkas mer negativt än vad polisen gör.  Slutsatsen är att konsumtionen av poddar och dokumentärer som behandlar mord- och rättsfall kan spela en viktig roll för att forma individers attityd och uppfattningar om rättsväsendet.

  • 239.
    Karlsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Castell, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsmotivation: En jämförande studie mellan olika anställningsformer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Job satisfaction in the workplace can be characterized by a good working environment, increased responsibility and that the manager and the employees strive to achieve the same goal. In modern working life, the job market changed with effectiveness and leaner organizations. A sanction is that the proportion of temporary employees has increased as a form of employment. The purpose of the study was to get an expanded knowledge of the factors that may affect the work satisfaction with the illustration of any differences in motivation between different forms of employments. The study was conducted at five facilities within bath and healthcare organisation in the south of Sweden with 114 persons, permanent and temporary employees. To measure job satisfaction developed a scale based on the QPS Nordic 34+ (General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychology and Social Factors at Work), designed to study psychological and social factors at work. From this scale was seven domains chosen: Job requirement, Control at work, Social interaction, Organizational culture, Leadership, Commitment to the organization, and Job designs, along with three questions about gender, age and working position. The results showed no significant difference in job satisfaction between forms of employment. There was however a positive significant correlation between age and organizational commitment, job requirement and organizational culture.  The results did not show any significant differences in job satisfaction between forms of employment. The results confirm previous research showing that older people are more motivated than younger employees.

  • 240.
    Karlsson, Mathilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av den egna identiteten och identitetsskapandet: En kvalitativ studie om personer med funktionsnedsättning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 241.
    Karlsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krav, kontroll och stöd: En kvantitativ studie av budget- och skuldrådgivarens upplevda stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka samband som finns mellan upplevd stress, kontroll, krav och stöd hos kommunernas budget- och skuldrådgivare. Hypotesen var att budget- och skuldrådgivare som upplever en hög stressnivå upplever högre krav, mindre grad av kontroll och mindre socialt stöd än de budget- och skuldrådgivare som upplever en lägre stressnivå. Den andra hypotesen var att kön, ensamarbete, hög arbetsbelastning, delad tjänst, deltidsarbete och frånvaro av handledning visar samband med en högre stressnivå. Ett frågeformulär konstruerades utifrån Perceived Stress Scale, The Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire samt frågor om kön, tjänstgöringsgrad, kollegor, delad tjänst, väntetid för besök och tillgång till handledning. Frågeformuläret förmedlades till 326 budget- och skuldrådgivare där svarsfrekvensen var 24 %. Resultatet visade att hög arbetsbelastning, höga krav, låg kontroll och lågt socialt stöd visar ett samband med hög stressnivå.

  • 242.
    Karlsson, Oliver
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symtomutveckling hos vårdsökande barn och ungdomar med psykiatrisk problematik i Kronoberg: En tvärsnittsstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In national surveys of mental illness in Sweden in the group of children and adolescents, an increase in prevalence has been observed. To our knowledge there are no regional surveys in the area. The purpose of the present study was to map symptom distribution among applicants to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in Sweden and to map how mental illness is distributed on the basis of demographic variables in order to contribute to increased knowledge of mental illness among children and adolescents in Sweden. In this study data from conducted interviews from year 2010 - 2017 in a child and adolescent clinic was analyzed. The results showed a significant difference among the number of applicants between the first and last measurement of the measurement period, year 2010 and 2017, for adhd and anxiety-like symptoms. Regarding depressive symptoms, no significant difference was found. The most frequent symptom group was depressive symptoms. The results also showed differences due to the socio- economic group in which socio-economically weak areas had a larger share of applicants. The conclusion was that the national increase also occurs at regional level and that the spread of mental illness confirms previous research that socio-economic family factors affect the behavior of children and adolescents. Further research on etiology can supplement this study in order to work preventively with children and adolescents with mental illness.

  • 243.
    Karyotaki, Eirini
    et al.
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Ebert, David Daniel
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Donkin, Liesje
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Riper, Heleen
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Twisk, Jos
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Burger, Simone
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Rozental, Alexander
    UCL, UK;Karolinska Institutet.
    Lange, Alfred
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Williams, Alishia D.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Zarski, Anna Carlotta
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Geraedts, Anna
    HumanTotalCare, Netherlands.
    van Straten, Annemieke
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Kleiboer, Annet
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Meyer, Bjoern
    Gaia AG, Res Dept, Germany;City Univ London, UK.
    Ince, Burgin B. Unlu
    Middle East Tech Univ, Turkey.
    Buntrock, Claudia
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lehr, Dirk
    Leuphana Univ Luneburg, Germany.
    Snoek, Frank J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Andrews, Gavin
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Choi, Isabella
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Ruwaard, Jeroen
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Klein, Jan Philipp
    Luebeck Univ, Germany.
    Newby, Jill M.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia;MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, UK.
    Schroder, Johanna
    Univ Med Ctr Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany;Inst Sex Res & Forens Psychiat, Germany.
    Laferton, Johannes A. C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Van Bastelaar, Kim
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Imamura, Kotaro
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Linköping University.
    Boss, Leif
    Leuphana Univ Luneburg, Germany.
    Sheeber, Lisa B.
    Oregon Res Inst, USA.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Berking, Matthias
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Tito, Nickolai
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University;Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Kenter, Robin
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Perini, Sarah
    St Vincents Hosp, Australia.
    Moritz, Steffen
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Nobis, Stephanie
    Leuphana Univ Luneburg, Germany.
    Berger, Thomas
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bjorkelund, Cecilia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Do guided internet-based interventions result in clinically relevant changes for patients with depression?: An individual participant data meta-analysis2018In: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 63, p. 80-92Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about clinically relevant changes in guided Internet-based interventions for depression. Moreover, methodological and power limitations preclude the identification of patients' groups that may benefit more from these interventions. This study aimed to investigate response rates, remission rates, and their moderators in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of guided Internet-based interventions for adult depression to control groups using an individual patient data meta-analysis approach. Literature searches in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library resulted in 13,384 abstracts from database inception to January 1, 2016. Twenty-four RCTs (4889 participants) comparing a guided Internet-based intervention with a control group contributed data to the analysis. Missing data were multiply imputed. To examine treatment outcome on response and remission, mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used. Response and remission rates were calculated using the Reliable Change Index. The intervention group obtained significantly higher response rates (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.17-2.85) and remission rates compared to controls (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 2.07-2.79). The moderator analysis indicated that older participants (OR = 1.01) and native-born participants (1.66) were more likely to respond to treatment compared to younger participants and ethnic minorities respectively. Age (OR = 1.01) and ethnicity (1.73) also moderated the effects of treatment on remission.Moreover, adults with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline were more likely to remit after receiving intemet-based treatment (OR = 1.19). Guided Internet-based interventions lead to substantial positive treatment effects on treatment response and remission at post-treatment. Thus, such interventions may complement existing services for depression and potentially reduce the gap between the need and provision of evidence-based treatments.

  • 244.
    Kastbom, Åsa A.
    et al.
    Linköping University Hospital ; Linköping University.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund University.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University.
    Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study2016In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut.

    RESULTS: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut.

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  • 245.
    Kastbom, Åsa A.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping Univ.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping Univ.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund Univ.
    Svedin, Carl-Göran
    Linköping Univ.
    Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods: A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results: Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Conclusion: Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers.

  • 246.
    Katungu, Christopher
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional intelligence, job insecurity and organizational commitment in organizations in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to examine and analyze the relationship on emotional intelligence with job insecurity and organizational commitment in organizations. Sample participants were 109 employees from various public and private sector organizations in Småland county, Sweden, with females representing 69.72% (N =76). Three instruments were used in the online study survey to collect data and these were Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQ), Job Insecurity Questionnaire and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Results indicated that emotional intelligence and job insecurity were negatively correlated; emotional intelligence and organizational commitment were positively correlated; job insecurity and organizational commitment were negatively correlated. Emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between job insecurity and organizational commitment. Given the results, organizations may need to consider developing affective organizational commitment of employees and consider addressing job insecurity among employees in Sweden and promote emotional intelligence. Therefore, emotional intelligence may be worth the investment for employees in organizations in Sweden.

    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, job insecurity, organizational commitment, affective commitment, downsizing, psychological contract.

  • 247.
    Keryakuz, Helda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Regjaj, Egzona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En kvalitativ undersökning om hur socialsekreterare arbetar med bedömningar av stöd inom äldreomsorgen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to see how care managers take care of the elders and how they supply to their needs. We gathered our data from five semi-structured interviews. All the participating care managers work in Stockholm. The material from the interviews were analyzed using Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Clayton Alderfer's needs hierarchy and the theoretical concept empowerment. We divided all the data into four different categories; needs, the law, guidelines and economy. The results provide knowledge about how caretakers work in Swedish old age care. The results indicate that the caretakers were caught between catering to the needs of the patients and the demands of the organization, which includes the economy. The needs of the elderly had an impact on the law and the guidelines. It also had an impact on how the law was superior to guidelines. Based on the study we could also see differences on how care managers use the guidelines. Some used them to avoid responsibility while others used them as a guide in their work.

  • 248.
    Khawaled, Adam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work-Related Information & Communication Technology Use and Occupational Burnout: The Mediating Role of Recovery Experiences2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has changed the relationship between work and life and allowed work to engage in our home lives. It is no longer the case that when the working day is over people switch off, rather it is when people go home and remain connected. In a culture where people are always connected via information and communication technology (ICT) the line between work and life has blurred. The present study investigated the relationship between ICT and occupational burnout with the mediating role of recovery experiences and their importance in the relationship. The study was conducted in Southern Sweden in Växjö.The study included 101 participants both male (N=53) and female (N=48) from public and private sectors where participants used ICT on a regular basis to perform job-related tasks. Data was collected using a self-reported web-based questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that there is no significant correlation between ICT and occupational burnout. However, it was found that there is a significant negative correlation between ICT and recovery experiences and a strong significant negative correlation between and recovery experiences and occupational burnout. It was concluded that occupational burnout results from insufficient recovery from work-related stressors and not the stress itself.

    Keywords: work-related ICT, occupational burnout, recovery experiences, employee psychological well-being

  • 249.
    Kinnvall, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    How does high school teachers experience students with mental illness?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur lärare kunde identifiera och stötta elever med psykiska störnignar, med en särskild tonvikt på affektiva störningar. Studien utgjordes av semi – strukturerade intervjuer och innefattade fem lärare från gymnasium i södra Sverige samt Mellansverige. Intervjuerna analyserades utifrån en induktiv tematisk analys. Under analysen framkom tre teman; Att se eleverna, Förhållande till eleverna och Åtgärder. Dessa visade att lärare kunde identifiera elever som mår dåligt till viss mån, men att stora skolor kunde försvåra denna process. Studien visade även att huvudansvaret för en elev som mår dåligt ligger på mentorerna, samt att det finns en risk att dessa mentorer tog på sig en psykologroll. Slutligen visade resultatet att de åtgärder som görs för elever med psykisk ohälsa inbegriper att ändra examinationsform för att underlätta för eleven samt att hjälpa eleven till professionell hjälp, ofta i form av elevvårdsteam. Slutsatsen av studien visade att det behövs mer resurser inom elevhälsovården för att lärarna ska kunna få hjälp och stöd att handskas med psykiskt sköra elever, samt att mindre skolor som satsar på elevhälsan är det optimala för elever med psykiska störningar; dock kräver det senare ytterligare forskning. 

  • 250.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet ; Karolinska University Hospital ; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    A Rare Success against Alzheimer's2017In: Scientific American, ISSN 0036-8733, E-ISSN 1946-7087, Vol. 316, no 4, p. 32-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]
    • Two hundred experimental drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease have failed in the past 30 years. Without new therapies, the number of patients worldwide will increase dramatically by 2050.
    • A ray of hope has come recently from a clinical trial that showed that dementia's cognitive impairment might be prevented by paying close attention to various health factors.
    • Participants in the study who followed a regimen of health-related steps registered improvements on cognitive measures such as memory and mental-processing speed.
    • Results of this research suffice for health care professionals to begin making a series of recommendations to patients on diet, exercise and levels of social engagement that may help prevent dementia.
2345678 201 - 250 of 465
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