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  • 201.
    Hasani, Amila
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Marinoni, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    ”What’s the difference between men and women?”: En studie av genusporträttering i TV-serien The Walking Dead2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to find out how gender roles are portrayed in the series The Walking Dead. Using a quantitative content analysis where every episode of The Walking Dead was analyzed the study shows gender role portrayal in the everyday activities done by the characters. A qualitative study based on a semiotic analysis was also executed where focus lies on analyzing the characters attributes and their trait of character. The result shows that the series maintains a stereotypical representation of men and women. The men take on the typical “manly” work and the women do the majority of the domestic work. The killing of zombier and humans are mostly done by the men in the series. Their trait of character also shows a stereotypical gender role representation where the men are portrayed as tough, fighters, protectors and providers. The women on the other hand are more weak, sensitive and dependent. 

  • 202.
    Hedberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Rindhagen, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    “– Om vi kommer till Sverige ...Där är vi välkomna, visst?”: En kvalitativ studie om hur representationen av flyktingar har förändrats över tid i genren reportage i Aftonbladet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Author: Amanda Hedberg & Julia Rindhagen  

    Title: “If we come to Sweden ...Will they welcome us?” A qualitative studie of how the representation of refugees have changed over time in the genre reportage in the newspaper Aftonbladet.

    Location: Linnaeus University 

    Language: Swedish 

    Number of pages: 41

    The aim of this study was to examine if there were any differences in how the swedish newspaper Aftonbladet represented refugees over time. The main question examined was: How do the newspaper Aftonbladet represent refugees in the genre reportage over time? We added three more questions in order to get a more precise result. The questions were: Which discourses were found in the years 1995, 2005 and 2015, were there any differences or similarities? Have the representations of the actors of the text changed?  How can the texts contribute to stereotypes of refugees in order of the postcolonial theory with focus of “us” and “them”? 

    We made a critical discourse analysis of 15 reportages over time. Five reportages of three different years; 1995, 2005 and 2015. The result showed that Aftonbladets representation of the refugees over time in the genre reportage had an up going curve in the focus area of “us” and “them”. Through all the examined years, the refugees were described as victims. In 2005 Aftonbladet started to represent the refugees as “the others” and in 2015 the refugees started to be described as “a threat”.

  • 203.
    Henningsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Aldebert, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    The Power of Influencers: Instagramanvändares syn på influencers och influencer marketing2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is now increasingly common for companies to communicate with their consumers via influencers and in recent years it has become one of the most successful marketing tools for companies. Influencers do not only have the power to influence hundreds of thousands of people at the same time, but previous research has also shown that they are credible and reliable marketers. Influencers are seen as the marketers of the future. This research investigates the audience’s view on influencers and influencer marketing with several theoretical perspectives as a basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight experienced Instagram users and the research findings show that influencers can be defined in different ways and have different meaning for different people. They are also considered to be a source of great influence. The findings also show that the view on influencer marketing is relatively negative and that influencers, with the exception of some, are not particularly credible as marketers. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the credibility of an influencer.

  • 204.
    Henriksson, Sofie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Eklund, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Gränser på sociala medier: Hur svenska universitet och högskolor sätter upp gränser för sina anställda på sociala medier 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 205.
    Hermansson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Kärnman, Kajsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    "Alltså, ställs dumma frågor ger man ofta dumma svar.": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av elitidrottares syn på den svenska sportjournalistiken.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine what Swedish elite athletes’ experiences, opinions and ideas are about Swedish sports journalism. We wanted to understand how sports journalism works through the athletes’ point of view, since there is a symbiotic relationship between professional sports and the media. To approach this we carried out a qualitative study based on seven personal interviews with elite athletes representing seven different sports. The theoretical frames used in this study are symbolic interactionism, the agenda-setting theory, framing theory and the sports media complex.The result shows that according to the athletes the journalistic content depends on a range of components, the most important being the relation between the journalists and the athletes, which is mainly based upon the journalist’s knowledge and participation. The sports media complex, which explains the symbiosis between sports and media, is very explicit in our results and so is how journalists set the agenda for the audience. We discuss whether distorted coverage and insufficient knowledge can result in the citizens not getting a chance to fully understand the reality of sports in Sweden and how stereotypical journalism communicate certain meanings and values about sports to the audience.

  • 206.
    Herrlin, Axel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Nilsson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Fotbollssupportrar i kvällspressen: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av rapporteringen efter dödsmisshandeln vid den allsvenska premiären 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have examined how Swedish tabloid newspapers portray supporters in regard to the deadly assault at the Allsvenskan premiere in Helsingborg between Helsingborgs IF and Djurgårdens IF in 2014. We have analyzed published articles in the two biggest tabloid newspapers in Sweden – Aftonbladet and Expressen.

    Our main findings show that journalists tend to generalize and stigmatize all supporters when writing about hooligans. There is also confusion regarding different groups within the supporter community. 

  • 207.
    Hertzberg, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Köping-Höggård, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Interkulturella Facebook: En studie om den potentiella inverkan på svenska studenters kultur genom interkulturella möten i en digital kontext.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 208.
    Hofflander, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Politikern, privatpersonen och pappan: En narrativanalys av dokumentärfilmerna Palme – älskad och hatad & Bildt – excellensen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Politics in today's society unfolding more and more in the media, but the media content is limited. Therefore, the media must constantly make choices, choices which are specific to each object. The purpose of this study is to examine how Olof Palme is portrayed as a politician and private individual in the documentary film Palme - älskad och hatad, and also how Carl Bildt is portrayed as a politician and private individual in the documentary film Bildt - excellensen.

    To study the documentary films I use a qualitative textual analysis with a focus on a narrative analysis. In the narrative analysis, I have been inspired by the categoricalcontent- based approach to study the documentary films. In my analysis, with the help of theories of mediatization of politics, documentaries and stories, I interpret and analyze the films to make them more understandable.

    The conclusions of the study is that Palme in his role as a politician is portrayed as a humane person who cares about the individual. Palme as a private person is portrayed with a focus on a healthy appearance and with little time for his children. Bildt in his role as a politican is portrayed with an interest in the Swedish defense and being disrespectful in his way to get around. As a private person, Bildt is portrayed with an interest in war in general and being a bully who always must get right. In his role as father, Bildt is portrayed to be a bad father, and who put all his jobs and assignments in front of his children.

    Finally, the portrayal of Palme is on a level that arouses strong feelings for Palme as person, while the portrayal of Bildt become more callous and very factual with a large focus on politics instead of Bildt's personal image.

  • 209.
    Holm, Teodor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    ”Det här är en domarskandal”: En kvalitativ studie om hur medierna framställer ishockeydomare som aktörer i domarskandaler2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study wa s to investigate how referees are portrayed in the media, as participants in refereeing scandals. A study I conducted through examining how hockey referees are portrayed and represented in match texts from both local and national Swedish sports journalism, written in connection to refereeing scandals.

    I used the method of critical discourse analysis t o examine the question . Through the method I performed an in - depth analysis of how hockey referees are portrayed and represented in eight match texts , written in con nection to different refereeing scandals, from both local and nat ional Swedish sp orts journ alism.

    The result of the critical discourse analysis showed that the media depicts referees as scapegoats in refereeing scandals. It also showed that referees are portrayed as the ”b ad guys” and abusers of power. Further, my study showed that t hrough melodramatic journalistic descriptions and critical comments from players and coaches, referees are portrayed as unprofessional practicioners in the media match texts written in connection to different refereeing scandals.

  • 210.
    Holst, Simon
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Bingöl, Mizgin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Främligarna mitt ibland oss: En kritisk diskursanalys om hur asylsökande konstrueras i svenska lokaltidningar.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate how local newspapers in Sweden frame newsstories involving asylumseekers and how the asylseekers in those stories are constructed from a postcolonial theoryperspective. Furthermore this thesis aims to analys and show the connection between the written word in the articles and a larger, social dimension where ideologies compete for cultural hegemony. To match the aims of this thesis we used a critical discourse analysis, more specificly one influenced by van Dijks socio-cognitive CDA and applied it to five articles from three different newspapers.Our analysis showed that the articles constructed the asylumseekers as Others, and created a dinstinct line between the asylumseekers and the other participants in the texts. This line, based on a constructed community including the article, the reader and some of the participants but excluding the asylumseekers, got significant meaning in the articles when the asylumseekers got identified as a homogenic social group. A perspecive coming from the constructed community and not from themselfes and therefor denying the asylsumseekers their right to define themselves.

  • 211.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    ”Alternativmedier”?: En intervjustudie om mediekritik och mediemisstro2016In: Migrationen i medierna: Men det får en väl inte prata om? / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2016, p. 113-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Citizen journalism on the Swedish horizon2016In: Presented at 2016 IAMCR Conference "Memory, Commemoration and Communication: Looking Back, Looking Forward" Leicester, UK, 27-31 July 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen journalism must be understood in relation to the context in which it occurs. In some parts of the world there might be a more directly felt need for a form of journalism, produced by non-journalists, than in other parts – much depending on the quality, freedom and general trustworthiness of traditional journalism. In Sweden, citizen journalism online has not yet risen to prominence – at least not to the extent that many hoped from a country with a high level of internet access and general good level of computer skills. This might be interpreted as a sign that Swedish traditional media so far has managed to provide journalism in a  (comparably) satisfactory manner, whereas the rise of citizen journalism in other parts might be related to greater needs for alternative sources of information. What is becoming a new factor though is a plethora of alternative media channels with a distinctly right wing, populist or even more radical right wing signature. Many of these alternative media place themselves, as the blog Motpol’s motto read: “to the right of the corridor of opinion”. Swedish mainstream media has been accused of promoting an extremely narrow “corridor of opinion”, and of deliberately covering up facts that do not fit a “politically correct” agenda. In response, alternative platforms for news and views have boomed in Sweden and also reach significant audiences. Many of these also describe themselves as citizen journalists. This development needs scholarly attention and it challenges established notions about how citizen journalism has been construed by scholars in the past – and what might come in the future. In the paper I present results from studies about citizen journalism in general in Sweden and also from an ongoing study about immigration critical and right-wing alternative media in Sweden (both interviews and content analysis). These results are then discussed in relation to existing definitions of citizen journalism.

  • 213.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Completely Different or Versions of the Same?: A comparison of mainstream media (MSM) and immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) in Sweden2017In: The 67th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association: Communication Research and Practice, San Diego, 25-29 May, 2017, International communication association (ICA) , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many other european countries, alternative media with immigration-critical profiles have managed to establish themselves as new players in the media landscape in a way that challenges mainstream media (MSM) because their message is that MSM, seen as an integrated part of the political system, conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda and/or that media discourse is constrained due to taboos upheld by journalists, especially in relation to anything related to immigration. Research on these immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) is scarce and this paper presents results of a comparative quantitative content analysis, where articles from the most important ICAM is compared to articles from MSM. Through this comparison it is possible to characterize ICAM through the key points where they differ from MSM. The results suggest that they have a much narrower scope of topics (mainly politics, social issues, crime, war and conflicts) compared to MSM. They are also characterized by a much more negative tonality and critical perspective. Furthermore, the relationship between ICAM and MSM is studied through an analysis of how often ICAM refers and links to content in MSM. Over sixty precent of the ICAM articles contained references to MSM, suggesting a relationship of dependence, rather than just one of opposition. The results are discussed in relation to notions of filter bubbles, echo-chambers and cyberbalkanization.

  • 214.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Gunn Enli. Mediated Authenticity. How the Media Constructs Reality. New York: Peter Lang, 2015, 164 p., ISBN: 97814331148542016In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 131-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Journalistik bortom redaktionerna?2016In: Människorna, medierna och marknaden: Medieutredningens forskningsantologi om en demokrati i förändring Stockholm (SOU 2016:30) / [ed] Oscar Westlund, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, p. 403-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Media criticism and mistrust in Swedish anti-immigration alternative media2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with media criticism and mistrust among people active in immigration critical alternative media in Sweden. Characteristic of many far-right movements is a widespread skepticism and suspiciousness towards mainstream media. The message is that mainstream media conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda. In Sweden anti-immigration movements exhibit the same attitude. Media channels (especially online participatory media) used by these movements (“alternative media”) need to be analysed in the light of its position as a perceived corrective of traditional media. In the project, the aim is to understand the rationality behind radical right media criticism by interviewing activists about their perception of mainstream media and their view of participation in democratic society. The findings will shed light on how people active in far-right counter-public spheres perceive and position themselves in relation to mainstream media.

  • 217.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Media distrust : A left-wing or right-wing specialty?: Historical perspectives on today’s debate about populism and the media2017In: Perspectives on Right-Wing Populism and the Media: Scholarship, Journalism, Civil Society. 11 and 12 September 2017 Center for Advanced Studies (CAS), LMU Munich, Germany, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common denominator among politicians who tend be called right wing populists is that their narratives often contain a high dose of criticism against the “mainstream media” (MSM), often described as biased in favour of leftist perspectives, uncritical of those in power and out of touch with ordinary people. Parallelly, a host of new “alternative media”, often with a focus on criticism of liberal immigartion politics and a harsh tone against MSM, has become an important factor in public discourse in many western countries. But is this sort of criticism really a new phenomenon? Historically, the phrase “mainstream media” has been used mostly by left-wing debaters, such as Noam Chomsky and by media scholars, “alternative media” has long been considered one of the dearest embodiments of the dream about giving ordinary citizens a way of “speaking back to power”. When looking into the rhetoric of anti MSM messages in alternative media today, it is striking how much the discourse resembles a Gramscian analysis of society and the media’s role in it. In this paper, I argue that it is crucial to distinguish between “media distrust” and “media criticism” in order to distinguish between ideological culture struggle or metapolitics on the one hand, and the sincere question if the MSM are really doing a good job in describing relevant problems.

  • 218.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Medieanvändare som nyhetsproducenter: Om medborgar- och deltagarjournalistik.2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 411-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har journalistiken genomgått en period av radikala och snabba förändringar relaterade till ekonomiska förutsättningar, yrkesrollen (Deuze, 2007). Anledningen är en kombination av teknologisk och journalistisk innovation, samt enligt många en vikande marknad (Pickard, 2011, 2013). Den traditionella, industriella journalistiken som distribueras via massmedier existerar idag vid sidan av en rad andra företeelser som liknar och konkurrerar med den (Deuze, Bruns, och Neuberger, 2007). Det som ofta beskrivs som mest slående med denna omvandling är den nya möjligheten för icke-journalister att skapa, och interagera med journalistiskt innehåll på nätet (Bruns, 2005; Bucy, 2004; Chu 2010;. Deuze, et al, Rebillard & Touboul, 2010; Domingo et al, 2008;. Gulbrandsen & Just 2011; Paulussen & Ugille 2008). Idag är det inte bara journalister som bistår allmänheten med den information den behöver, menar Jane Singer: “millions of people gather, organize and disseminate timely information every hour of every day” (Singer, 2006, s. 2). Detta har öppnat upp ett nytt och spännande forskningsfält eftersom den traditionella och professionaliserade journalistikens tidigare monopol på och kontroll över nyhetsförmedlingen inte längre är helt självklar.

  • 219.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Mediekritik bortom medierna: Om filosofi som mediekritisk resurs2014In: Mediekritik / [ed] Stiernstedt, Fredrik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 23-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Mediemisstro: där ytterkanterna möts2017In: Misstron mot medier / [ed] Truedsson, Lars, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2017, p. 117-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Medierna som inte vann valet2018In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Lars Nord, Marie Grusell, Niklas Bolin, Kajsa Falasca, Sundsvall: DEMICOM , 2018, p. 90-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 222.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    New media, new participants new ethics?2014In: Social Media in a Changing Media Environment: Lessons from the Arab world / [ed] Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l’Information, Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l’Information, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when not only journalists reach large audiences with news and commentary, new ethical questions arise. In the paper, two opposing views are discussed critically: a) the traditional elitist view, that tends to be suspicious of UGC in participatory journalism on account of the lack of solid ethical guidelines and b) participatory ethics related to the ideal of “collective intelligence”. It is argued that both views are problematic, in their own ways. In search of an ethical framework that can appropriately be applied to participatory journalism, in a liquid modernity, and globalised media reach, the paper discusses Zygmunt Bauman’s and Roger Silverstone’s readings of Immanuel Levinas, and his notion of “I-forthe-Other”.

  • 223.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Populism, metapolitics and media criticism: An analysis of identitarian construals of mainstream media2015In: New Perspectives on Populist Political Communication: COST Early Stage Researchers Think Tank. Zurich (26-30 jan 2015)., Zürich, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of metapolitical participation is presented and discussed in relation to a case study of the online identitarian dictionary Metapedia.org. While political participation traditionally entails activities such as voting, demonstrating, petitioning etc., metapolitics, as a concept used by identitarians, excludes such expressions of political participation. Instead, metapolitics, as visible in Metapedia’s slogan “Countering semantic distortion worldwide”,  is defined as a way of influencing culture and societal discourse through cultural activities, such as compiling online dictionaries. Metapolitical participation describes  a form of online participation that is not compatible with traditional notions of democratic participation.  As the aim of Metapedia is to provide alternative (identitarian) constructions of reality, the mainstream media naturally becomes the main antagonist in their cultural battle. Due to this tension between mainstream media and the metapolitical agenda,  a qualitative content analysis of the media criticism at Metapedia was performed. The empirical material consists of all articles (231 in total) in the category “massmedia” at the Swedish branch of Metapedia.org. In the articles we identified five main themes of media criticism: erroneous reporting, criticism of ownership and influence, “naming and shaming”, discursive contestations, alternative phraseology, as well as an additional theme dealing with promotion of other media outlets within the counter-public sphere. Our findings reveal that the authors at Metapedia express a deep anxiety, uneasiness, discontent and cynicism about mediated public discourse which is seen as deliberately marginalizing certain perspectives, covering up uncomfortable facts and is guided by a general principle of conformity to “political correctness”.

  • 224.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Right-wing alternative media2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a fresh perspective on central questions related to right-wing alternative media: Can right-wing media be alternative? Why do they exist? Are they a threat to the existing order and what have the reactions been from mainstream politicians and media actors?

    The rise and success of right-wing populism in the political life of many western countries, along with several new and apparently successful alternative media operations on the right, has caused surprise and confusion among researchers and debaters. How should this challenge to mainstream politics and media be understood? Journalistic, political and academic discourse has struggled to explain these tendencies and tend to focus on sensational and extreme examples, with little attention directed towards other aspects. This book critically discusses existing theoretical frameworks related to alternative media in general, analysing a wide scope of cases to illustrate the diversity of voices in alternative media on the right and highlighting the importance of intellectual coolness and common sense in discussions about this important but ideologically and politically charged area.

    An important addition to the current discourse of contemporary media, Right-Wing Alternative Mediais ideal for researchers, students and anyone interested in politics and public discourse.

  • 225.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Sentenced to the snipping–tool?: Some thoughts from a media scholar’s perspective on Big Data and online media criticism in far right counter-public spheres2015In: Big Data: från hype till handling, 4 december, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Shaking the foundations of the “corridor of opinion”?: Towards a framework for analysing Immigration Critical Alternative Media (ICAM) in Sweden2017In: ECPR 2017 General Conference, Oslo: Oslo 6-9 September, 2017, ECPR Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a range of new alternative media outlets with a special focus on criticizing immigration politics and mainstream media, have emerged. The blog Avpixlat†, the online newspaper Fria†Tider†and the paper weekly Nya†Tider†are examples of media with quite different ideological profiles, but a clear and critical focus on immigration and mainstream journalistic representations of reality in common. Their message is that mainstream medi conceal or distort information about negative societal and cultural consequences of immigration and that mainstream journalists have teamed up with the political elites and engage in wichhunts of ordinary people who are critical, while ignoring abuses by those in power. Such media outlets (especially online participatory media) need to be analysed in the light of its position as perceived corrective of traditional media. Even though they have this in common, it is important to be able to discuss them together while at the same time take their differences into account. In the paper, the aim is to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the rationality behind this kind of criticism, building on interviews with people who are active in the most important immigration critical alternative media (ICAM) in Sweden about their perception of mainstream media and their view of participation in democratic society. The findings will shed light on how people active in Swedish ICAM perceive and position themselves in relation to mainstream media - and to each other. Based on these insights, it is possible to distinguish differences between them as well as common traits and to take the question of their influence on public discourse further.

  • 227.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Skilda verkligheter?: ”Internets undervegetation” vs ”PK-maffian”2016In: Migrationen i medierna: Men det får en väl inte prata om? / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2016, p. 150-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    The Religious Dimension of Kierkegaard's Media  Criticism: “Authentic Fait"  vs “The Phantom Public”2015In: Mediatization of Religion: Historical and Functional Perspectives / [ed] Victor Khroul, Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 2015, p. 30-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper S. ren Kierkegaard’s “Two ages” is analysed as an example of early modern media criticism. Existentialist thinkers have dealt with the authenticity of the self, and the ideal of staying true to the uniqueness of one’s own being in spite of societal or cultural obstacles. Media has often been seen as a part of the increasingly artificial landscape of modern society. For Kierkegaard, however, the criticism of media had a clearly religious dimension. There is an intimate link between his objections to the Christianityof his time and his criticism of the emerging mediascape of the nineteenth century. Kierkegaard disliked the press because it offered a shortcut to forming own opinions by presenting readymade thoughts and shallow entertainment instead of helping people in facing reality. The media offered escape from reality into fiction, from personal experiences into someone else’s and as a consequence, was a threat to religious life. He saw media as an intervening agency, blocking people’s way to true experiences, authenticity and, ultimately, God.

  • 229.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Berggren, Ludvig
    Södertörns högskola.
    Ivar Harrie, 1899–19732017In: Svenskt Översättarlexikon / [ed] Lars Kleberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    de la Brosse, Renaud
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Médias antisystèmes et tentatives de ‘réinformation’ du public: Regards croisés sur les expériences suédoise et française2017In: Presented at Les journalistes dans le débat démocratique Théofraste Network, Tunis, Tunisia 23-25 October 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Au cours des dernières années, une série de nouveaux médias alternatifs sont apparus qui se sont particulièrement intéressés à la critique des politiques d'immigration et des médias traditionnels. Le blog Avpixlat (maintenant: samnytt.se), le journal en ligne Fria Tider et l'hebdomadaire de presse Nya Tider sont des exemples de médias avec: profils idéologiques assez différents, mais un accent clair et critique sur l'immigration et les représentations journalistiques dominantes de la réalité en commun. Leur message est que les médias traditionnels dissimulent ou faussent l'information sur les conséquences sociétales et culturelles négatives de l'immigration et que les principaux journalistes ont fait équipe avec les élites politiques et se livrent à la chasse de gens ordinaires sans tenir compte des abus commis par ceux qui sont au pouvoir. Ces médias (en particulier les médias participatifs en ligne) doivent être analysés à la lumière de leur position de correcteurs perçus des médias traditionnels. Même s'ils ont beaucoup en commun, il est important de pouvoir en discuter de l’ensemble tout en tenant compte de leurs différences. Le but de ce document est de développer un cadre théorique pour comprendre la rationalité de ce type de critique et de discuter de leur impact sur le discours public de manière plus nuancée. En s'appuyant sur des entretiens avec des personnes actives dans les médias alternatifs critiques vis-à-vis de l’immigration (ICAM) les plus importants en Suède, sur leur perception des grands médias et leur vision de la participation à la société démocratique.

  • 231.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Grusell, Marie
    What is unethical advertising?: An analysis of complaints to the Swedish Advertising Ombudsman 2009-2012.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advertising constitutes a significant portion of the total amount of mediated messages that are disseminated daily through available channels in today’s omnipresent and multifarious media landscape. Because of it’s prevalence, reach and impact, many scholars have argued that advertising should not only be construed as a specific form of market communication – in which it is implied that advertising is foremost concerned with presenting products to potential customers. Instead, advertising should rather be viewed as an integrated part of people’s daily cultural consumption through media, and as such also have a potentiality for impacting people’s minds, culture and society in ways that extend beyond the borders of serving customers with information about products. Advertising does not simply mirror society - it also shapes it by normalising and legitimizing practices, by creating ideals and stereotypes. Viewing advertising from this angle raises ethical questions that lie somewhat beside the main focus covered by ICC’s codes of ethics for advertising and market communication, since they are primarily developed as a tool for self-regulation and for the facilitation of marketing. In such a setting, the determination of what unethical advertising is, becomes a matter for negotiation between the public, who might react negatively to advertising for a plethora of reasons, and those who have authority to deem it unethical or not, based on an interpretation of the ICC codes. Since the practice of advertising ombudsmen is a quite new phenomena, there is a need for research about the outcome of this negotiation so far.

    In this paper, we examine all cases reported to the advertising ombudsman (Reklamombudsmannen, hereafter RO) in Sweden, who was instated in 2009, and tries cases reported as unethical by citizens. The question we ask in this paper is firstly what kind of advertising upsets people enough to report them to RO? Secondly, we ask what the common traits are of those cases that have been tried and convicted by RO. Following this question, we ask what the common traits are among those cases who were tried and not convicted. Lastly, we want to see if there is a discrepancy between what is considered unethical by those who report the cases on the one hand, and RO on the other hand. These questions will be answered through content analysis of all the cases handled by RO, the complainers’ motivations and RO’s statements. In the final section of this paper we discuss the theoretical implications of the results, and especially focus on how to interpret the complaints in relation RO’s authority as official interpreter of the ICC code.

  • 232.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Haller, André
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    The Populist Communication Paradox of PEGDIA: Between “Lying Press” and Journalistic Sources2016In: Presented at the 66th annual ICA conference "Communicating with power". Fukuoka, Japan, 9-13 june. Preconference: Populism in, by, and Against the Media, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the end of 2014 a protest movement called “Patriotic Europeans against the Islamization of the Occident” (German abbreviation: PEGIDA) caused public conflicts (Kepplinger, 2009) about Islamization as well as about the question if PEGIDA is a racist organization. Though PEGIDA was a major issue in German media coverage, there was only one official media appearance of a PEGIDA spokesperson in the TV talk show Günther Jauch on January the 18th 2015 (Das Erste, 2015). Since its founding PEGIDA officially refused to talk to journalists as the movement denounced all established media as “lying press” (German: “Lügenpresse”). Branches of PEGIDA in other countries follow the same pattern and communicate with members and the public mainly through their official facebook pages. This basically means that PEGIDA leaders do not focus on mass media communication, for example by using press statements or organizing press conferences.

    Tsfati & Cohen (2003) define media skepticism as a sense of “alienation and mistrust toward the mainstream media” which involves the “feeling that journalists are not fair or objective in their reports about society and that they do not always tell the whole story” (p. 67) and that mainstream journalists “will sacrifice accuracy and precision for personal and commercial gains” (p. 67). Media criticism of a skeptic brand is therefore quite different from other types of criticism, where the focus is primarily on criticising for the sake of “improving” the quality of various aspects of media work or products. However, if certain groups in society choose to abstain from participation in the mainstream platforms of public discourse (the “agora”) and instead entrench themselves in “counter-public spheres” (Downey & Fenton, 2003) where discourses of alienation and mistrust in conventional democratic channels are fostered and amplified, it can be deeply problematic from a democratic perspective. (Sunstein, 2007).

    Against this background we interpret the recent occurrence of a plethora of alternative media platforms that are outspokenly anti-mainstream media and that also promote populist and/or far right movements or parties. In Sweden sites like Avpixlat.info, Friatider.se, and in Germany pi-news.net and metropolico.org (former Blu-NEWS) have become increasingly bold in their discourse and also show signs of increasing reach in readership (Borgs, 2015). In this paper, we want to look into how the PEGIDA movement relates to both mainstream media and alternative right wing media in their official communication with readers and the public through their facebook posts. This paper analyses PEGIDA in Germany, Sweden, Norway and Austria.

  • 233.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Haller, André
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    What Does ‘Lügenpresse’ Mean?: Expressions of Media Distrust on PEGIDA’s Facebook Pages2017In: Tidsskriftet Politik, ISSN 1604-0058 , Vol. 20, no 4, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyze the protest movement PEGIDA’s criticism of the press (i. e. ‘Lügenpresse’, the ‘liar press’) on Facebook. What are the main points of criticism of the press and what are the reasons expressed for this criticism, and how do they refer to traditional media in the postings? We conduct a qualitative content analysis of PEGIDA’s Facebook pages in Germany, Austria, Sweden, and Norway. The study shows that there are two main types of references: affirmative references to prove one’s own positions and contesting references which comprise media criticism.

  • 234.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet.
    How are citizen journalists telling the news?: An inventory of Swedish online citizen journalism sites2013In: Nordmedia 2013: Defending Democracy, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, situated in Sweden, we examine what actual communities that are served by digital citizen community journalism in an everyday context. The results show that there are very few cases of citizen journalism and that they are situated in the same legacy media logic that they allegedly should be an alternative to. Moreover, the study shows that the citizen journalists focus on business news, entertainment and sports and do not cover local authorities. When sources are used they are few and originate from social institutions such as business, media, authorities and politics rather than citizens. All in all, this empirical study suggests that the reality of citizen journalism fall very short from the expectations expressed in much of the scholarly debate.

  • 235.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet.
    Om journalistikens existentiella kris: behövs verkligen journalister när vem som helst kan bli publicist?2014In: IKAROS tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Aldrig förr har journalister tagit så mycket så mycket plats i offentligheten som i våra dagar. Exempel: Valrörelserna 2014 i Sverige prägla(de)s i högre utsträckning än någonsin tidigare av en ohejdad journalistisk kommentarlusta. Ett typiskt nyhetsinslag innehåller ofta ett kort uttalande av någon politiker, följt av en lång diskussion med kanalens politiska kommentatorer. Klyftan mellan de politiska partierna och den intet ont anande allmänheten fylls till bredden av journalistisk analys, tyckande, reflekterande och debatt med andra journalister. Många har frågat sig om vi medborgare verkligen får en chans att fundera själva över vad politikerna egentligen menar, innan en journalistisk expert har hunnit förklara det oss. Samtidigt pågår en annan utveckling journalistiken befinner sig 1 sedan cirka ett decennium tillbaka i en existentiell kris.2 Just nu pågår en fas som präglas av ett stort behov av att definiera vad en journalist egentligen är, varför de finns och vilken uppgift de förvänts fylla i samhället. Anledningen är att den teknologiska utveckingen, parallellt med stora ekonomiska svårigheter för många mediehus, skapat helt nya förutsättningar för en verksamhet som under decennier präglats av rutin och förutsägbarhet.3 Mitt i detta skeende dyker de sociala medierna upp, där bloggare och twittrare utan journalistisk skolning tävlar med de professionella journalisterna om att tycka och tänka – och inte minst att leverera nyheter.

  • 236.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism. Karlstad universietet.
    Is anyone out there?: Assessing Swedish citizen-generated community journalism2015In: Community journalism midst media revolution / [ed] Robinson, Sue, Routledge, 2015, p. 52-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, situated in Sweden, citizen community journalism in 290 municipalities is evaluated. The results reveal that there are very few cases of citizen journalism at a community level, and that the existing citizen journalists focus on business news, entertainment and sports. When sources are used, they are few and originate from social institutions such as business, media, authorities and politics rather than citizens. Furthermore, there are only a few occasions when local authorities are included at all, even less so scrutinised, in the news stories. All in all, the study indicates that Swedish citizen community journalism has trouble either providing information that maintains the community or being the watchdog of that community.

  • 237.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University.
    “Random acts of journalism?”: How citizen journalists tell the news in Sweden2015In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 1795-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the results from a content analysis of four Swedish online citizen journalism outlets are presented and discussed. The analysis focuses on new digital venues for news-making in theory and the question of the political relevance of citizen journalism in reality. This broad question is operationalized by asking more specifically how citizen journalists tell the news, according to established distinctions between variations in topic dimensions, focus, and presentational style. Our results show that citizen journalists tend to tell soft news. They rarely report on policy issues, local authorities, or people affected by decisions being made by them. Furthermore, the news focuses on individual relevance and is mostly episodic in nature. The style of writing is predominantly impersonal and unemotional. In sum, our results suggest that citizen journalism in Sweden is not yet at a stage where it can be considered a plausible alternative to traditional journalism.

  • 238.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Lundell, Patrik
    Lund University.
    Mistrusting the media – now and then: A historical comparison of far right media criticism in Sweden2015In: Political Agency in the Digital Age: Media, Participation and Democracy, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristic of many contemporary far right movements is a deeply rooted skepticism and suspiciousness towards mainstream media. During the PEGIDA marches in Dresden, Germany, “Lügenpresse” is a common slogan. The message is that hegemonic mainstream media conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda. In Sweden far right movements, ranging from right wing populist parties such as the Sweden Democrats (SD) to more extreme identitarian think-tanks such as Motpol.nu exhibit the same attitude. (Holt, 2015) Radical right media channels therefore need to be analysed in the light of its position as a perceived corrective of traditional media and constrained public discourse. But is this a new phenomenon? In this paper we compare findings from two separate studies of radical right wing media criticism from different periods: the online contemporary identitarian wictionary Metapedia.org (Holt & Rinaldo, 2014) and media criticsm in the journal Sweden-Germany (1938-58) published by the pro-German National Society Sweden-Germany (RST). (Lundell, 2015) Our aim is to study historical antecedents to today’s far right media criticism and discuss contemporary far right media criticism in the light of what can be learned from history.

  • 239.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Rinaldo, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Exploring the Dark Side of Participatory Online Media: A Case Study of Metapedia(dot)org2014In: Communication & Mass Media Abstracts: 12th Annual International Conference on Communication and Mass Media 12-15 May 2014, Athens, Greece / [ed] Gregory T. Papanikos, 2014, p. 63-63Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional media is often described as currently being in a state of decline. Historically, it has repeatedly been pointed out that it has failed, in various ways, in its task of providing truthful and relevant news and that it has not managed to engage the public in the sort of active participation that is required in order for any democracy to thrive. Recently, much has been written about the possibilities offered by new participatory online media, such as citizen journalism, in search of alternatives to the old, struggling media channels. (Barlow, 2010; Bruns, 2010; Carpenter, 2010; Fico et al., 2013; Goode, 2009; Meadows, 2012; Reich, 2008). Online participatory media content is generally thought to be unexpensive to produce since it is performed and published by non-paid laymen. Furthermore, it can offer news, information and perspectives without the constraint of traditional media-logic and from different perspectives than traditional media. It is therefore often construed as an important alternative that could enrich public discourse. On top of that, participatory features of new media can involve citizens in the very process of producing content, and therefore has a potential to boost civic engagement in public discourse. Although careful not to dismiss the democratic possibilities of online participatory media, we argue that the focus on these aspects has, in part, guided the spotlight of research to certain areas of online participation – where it is obvious that these democratic gains have a possibility of being realised (Karlsson & Holt, 2013). In turn, other uses of participatory media, have been neglected. Examples abound on the internet, of a darker side of participation. After all, groups of people could well – and do – pool their resources, collaborate in networks, produce, share and edit content that is aimed at achieving common goals that are far from democratic. The most striking example of this is the Wikipedia-like dictionary Metapedia(dot)org. It has borrowed its collaborative and participatory structure, way of working and even layout from Wikipedia. But it has a “metapolitical purpose, to influence the mainstream debate, culture and historical view” by providing an alternative description of the world, one that is in correspondence with racist ideology. If one looks up the term “holocaust”, for example, the definition is revisionist and states that it is a fraudulent term used to spread “germanophobia”. The network behind Metapedia is clearly working according to the principles of “collective intelligence”, often mentioned in connection with the democratic potential of new participatory online media. But their aim is obviously contrary to what is often assumed about these types of media. This “dark side” of participation is in need of scholarly attention. Theoretically, it forces us as media scholars to rethink concepts such as “collective intelligence”, in order to come to terms with the ways in which participatory media are used.

  • 240.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Rinaldo, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Exploring the dark side of participatory online media: Online participation, identitarian discourse and media criticism at Metapedia.org2014In: Journalism in Transition: Crisis or opportunity?, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of metapolitical participation is presented and discussed in relation to a case study of the online identitarian dictionary Metapedia.org. While political participation traditionally entails activities such as voting, demonstrating, petitioning etc., metapolitics, as a concept used by identitarians, excludes such expressions of political participation. Instead, metapolitics, as visible in Metapedia’s slogan “Countering semantic distortion worldwide”,  is defined as a way of influencing culture and societal discourse through cultural activities, such as compiling online dictionaries. Metapolitical participation describes  a form of online participation that is not compatible with traditional notions of democratic participation.  As the aim of Metapedia is to provide alternative (identitarian) constructions of reality, the mainstream media naturally becomes the main antagonist in their cultural battle. Due to this tension between mainstream media and the metapolitical agenda, we conducted  a qualitative content analysis of the media criticism at Metapedia. The empirical material consists of all articles (231 in total) in the category “massmedia” at Metapedia.org. In the articles we identified five main themes of media criticism: erroneous reporting, criticism of ownership and influence, “naming and shaming”, discursive contestations, alternative phraseology, as well as an additional theme dealing with promotion of other media outlets within the counter-public sphere. Our findings reveal that the authors at Metapedia express a deep anxiety, uneasiness, discontent and cynicism about mediated public discourse which is seen as deliberately marginalizing certain perspectives, covering up uncomfortable facts and is guided by a general principle of conformity to “political correctness”.

  • 241.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Ustad Figenschou, Tine
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Frischlich, Lena
    University of Münster, Germany..
    Key Dimensions of Alternative News Media2019In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a definition of alternative news media and suggests routes for further research. It complements and extends previous conceptualizations in research on alternative media and outlines an umbrella definition of this phenomenon aimed to inspire contemporary research and scholarly debate. Previous research has been guided by a “progressive” perspective as a form of resistance against “bourgeois” hegemonic discourse. Such normative evaluations have in turn limited how the phenomenon has been studied empirically, by limiting the scope of research so that important contemporary phenomena fall outside the theoretical map. Conceptualizing alternative news media in the present hybrid and polarized media environment, we first propose a non-normative, multilevel relational definition: Alternative news media position themselves as correctives of the mainstream news media, as expressed in editorial agendas or statements and/or are perceived as such by their audiences or third-parties. This counter-hegemonic alternativeness can emerge on the macro-level of societal function, the meso-level of organizations and/or the micro-level of news content and producers. Second, demonstrating why this umbrella definition is fruitful in the changing media environment characterized by boundary struggles, crisis in legacy news media and mushrooming of alternative news outlets, we highlight research gaps and propose future research.

  • 242.
    Hosshage, Clara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Levin, Sophie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    "Jaha, nu har en halv miljon människor varit inne och tittat på fisken": Journalisters tankar om att anpassa sig efter klick2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computational techniques have transformed the journalistic approach. Journalists now have the opportunity to integrate user-statistics from the news website with their work. Singer (2011) argues that journalists seem particularly afraid of items, which they perceive as trivial or otherwise unsavory, will prove popular - potentially creating management pressures to produce more of those stories. She describes this practice as ‘‘traffic whoring’’. This phenomenon could affect journalists democratic function and their public responsibility. Through qualitative interviews we seek to answer the question: how do journalist perceive traffic whoring and how does it affect their journalistic work? Our study reveals that the interviewed journalists don’t consider themselves to be influenced by traffic whoring. On the contrary, their given statements describes the opposite. Partly due to the visibility of user-preferences, but also due to an increasing management demand to generate high numbers and statistics.

  • 243.
    Huang, Ling-Yi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    New Business Models for Digital Journalism?: Cases of Gift Economy in China and Sweden2017In: Presented at the Second International Conference on Communication & Media Studies, 16-17 November, 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Huang, Ling-Yi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Populism in a Post-truth World: Anti-immigrant voices on Twitter in Sweden2018In: Presented at the 12th Annual International Conference of the Asia Association for Global Studies, March 2-4, 2018 Kyoto, Japan, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Hugo, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Sidvall, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Sverigedemokraterna i valrörelsen 2014: En jämförande studie av 10 tidningars rapportering och gestaltning av partiet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan Sverigedemokraternas inträde i den politiska debatten har det diskuterats hur medierna ska bemöta partiet. I ett brev från Jimmie Åkesson till chefredaktörer runt om i landet i samband med valet 2010 vädjade han att Sverigedemokraterna skulle bli behandlat som övriga partier. Samma år kom partiet in i riksdagen och har sedan dess fått ett allt starkare väljarstöd i främst Skåneregionen samtidigt som stödet varit svagt i framförallt Stockholm, Västerbotten och Gotland.

     

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka hur tidningarna gestaltade och rapporterade om Sverigedemokraterna fyra månader före valet 2014 i regionerna där partiet fick högst respektive lägst väljarstöd i samma val. Vi har gjort en kvantitativ innehållsanalys baserat på 464 artiklar från tio tidningar. Vi har analyserat fem tidningar från Skåneregionen och fem tidningar från Stockholm, Västerbotten och Gotland. Tidningarna vi undersökte som fått representera Skåneregionen var Sydsvenskan, Helsingborgs Dagblad, Skånska Dagbladet, Ystads Allehanda och Kvällsposten. Tidningarna som fått representera Stockholm, Västerbotten och Gotland var Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet, Västerbottens-Kuriren och Gotlands Tidningar.

     

    Resultatet visade på att det fanns små skillnader i hur de skånska och övriga tidningarna gestaltade Sverigedemokraterna. Artiklarna var till största del gestaltade ur ett spelperspektiv i regionerna. Vi fann dock skillnader gällande rapporteringen av partiet. Sverigedemokraterna fick större exponering i de skånska tidningarna sett till antalet artiklar och storleken på artiklarna.

  • 246.
    Häger, Emelie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Magounakis, Penelope
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Setting the News Agenda: Women’s Influence and Status in Dar es Salaam’s Radio Newsrooms2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread presence of radio in Tanzania suggests that the news being broadcasted nationally has a large public and political impact. In this thesis we examine what roles a few women journalists hold in Dar es Salaam’s radio newsrooms. Our research question concerns how these women journalists perceive their influence in the newsroom during the agenda setting process. We interviewed seven women journalists, who hold varying positions in different radio newsrooms in Dar es Salaam, concerning their perception of their own informal status in the office hierarchy. We then present and analyze key quotes from our respondents using Bourdieu’s theory of social fields and perspective on male domination, Hirdman’s stereotypical gender contract and a postcolonial feminist perspective. Our repondents told us of the importance of empowering other women at the editorial office as well as putting gender issues revolving women and girls on the news agenda. In this way they demonstrate the importance of a gender equal representation in the newsroom and in the news content. We come to the conclusion that our respondents do indeed perceive themselves to have influence over the news agenda and they use different strategies to gain status and recognition in the newsroom. 

  • 247.
    Hägglöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Flyktingkrisen 2015 - en internationell diskussion eller en mänsklig katastrof?: En kritisk diskursanalys av Aftonbladets nyhetsartiklar.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to examine how the swedish newspaper Aftonbladet constructed the discourse of the refugee crisis in Europe during the year 2015. By using a critical discourse analysis of nine articles the study was able to show how the newspaper portrayed the power relationship between the characters.

     

    The following questions was examined:

    • How does Aftonbladet construct the refugee crisis as an event?
    • How is the relationships between the characters within the text portrayed?

     

    The result showed that there were five different discourse patterns that appeared which constructed the refugee crisis as a problem and a threat for the European Union and the member countries. The relationship between the different characters within the text was embossed by hegemony because the refugees was represented as helpless and the authoritative countries talked about how the refugees affected their everyday life.

     

    Therefore Aftonbladet embedded the refugees in archetypes and like they were subordinate to the national states, which lead to a portrayal of the crisis as a international discussion more than a catastrophy for humanity. 

  • 248.
    Högberg, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Larsson, Jimmie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Laget före jaget - de stora sporternas dominans hos TT: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av innehållet i TT Nyhetsbyråns sportmaterial2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to show which content that is most common in the Swedish News Agency TT Nyhetsbyrån’s sports coverage. It also shows if the coverage is concentrated to for example any special sports, clubs, people or topics.

    This study uses a quantitative content analysis and the result is based on texts from 28 systematically selected days during one year. In total, the study includes 906 texts.

    The result of this study shows that the sports content of TT Nyhetsbyrån’s news feed is mainly concentrated to two sports, football/soccer and ice hockey. Several studies of other Sports Media show the same result as this study in terms of news content. 

    One of the conclusions is that the sports coverage is focused on athletes and teams at a professional level. Only a few sports, almost entirely practiced by men, is represented in the reporting. There are also other attributes that seem important for the news coverage. One of the most common attributes is that a big part of the news texts includes Swedish Athletes. Another important attribute is that the news can be related to a country that is close to Sweden in culture. 

  • 249.
    Iacovoni, Natalie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Åhré, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Att bygga kundengagemang och relationer i sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie av organisationers strategiska kommunikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s organizations can not avoid social media. Previous research focuses on how organizations should communicate in general, and not how communication between organizations and customers is expressed to build customer engagemant and relationships. Social media provides an unique oppurtunity to create customer engagement through the interactivety possibilities of the medium.

    This study aims to expand the research field with the pourpose of studying how Swedish companies perceive social media as a communication tool to engage and build relationships with their customers. This research takes on the organization’s perspective and intends to answer how organizations communicate to build customer engagement and customer relationships.

    In order to answer the main question, nine qualitative interviews were conducted with nationwide Swedish companies that work with social media. In addition to the interviews, a feasibility study was implemented in the form of a netnographic observation of participating organizations’ social media accounts.

    According to the theoretical framework, the excellence theory is not supported in this study, since the participating companies prefer to exercise two-way assymmetrical communication in social media. The stakeholder approach is used by the organizations since they strive to keep the customers satisfied with the communication. The research did not reveal that they communicated according to the interactive communications model, however, their communication did show similarities with Shannon & Weavers model of communication. The study also showed that, according to Evans model for engagement, the organizations focus lies on the second level of engagement, curation. Thus, the organization’s investigated in this study communicate through creating content correlated with customers demands in order to create customer engagement and relationships, and to set the agenda for the dialogue.

  • 250.
    Ihse, Carolina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Kvarnlid, Linnéa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Att kommunicera i kris: En kvalitativ fallstudie om anpassad kriskommunikation i samband med en extraordinär händelse2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to explain and discover how a Swedish commune works with their external crisis communication during a large crisis. The case study revolved around a simulation exercise with Mjölby commune that was and organized by the company VSL Systems AB. The study addresses the difficulties that arise within the crisis communication, and shows witch factors that are important to consider, when you are responsible for an entire community.

    Our result shows that the relationship with media could be utilized in a better way and both parties could benefit from cooperation. The commune could have used varied communication channels to create more effective crisis communication which had reached a bigger group of people. The information was not adapted to the different groups to the extent it could have been.

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