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  • 201.
    Fagerberg, Nils
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Kontinuitetsskogsbruk2010In: Åter, ISSN 1650-3546, no 4, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns alternativ för skogsägare som inte vill skapa ett kalhygge inpå husknuten och som vill värna de mossor, lavar, svampar och skalbaggar som hotas av det moderna skogsbruket. Kontinuitetsskogsbruk innebär att man hela tiden behåller ett trädskikt i den skötta skogen. Genom att bedömma och styra trädens inbördes förhållanden kan man använda skogens egna mekanismer till att med små medel få mycket virke till bra kvalitet ur sin skog -samtidigt som man har den kvar.

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    Åter 2010 nr 4
  • 202.
    Fagerberg, Nils
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Skogsskötsel utan kalhyggen ger många fördelar2009In: Tingsryd Lessebo Allehanda, Vol. sep, no 22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 203.
    Fagerström Kareld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löfstedt, Ulrica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Williamsson, Ia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Quality IS: Next most important research project?2012In: IRIS 35/SCIS2012 – DESIGNING THE INTERACTIVE SOCIETY, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Fakharian, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nafisi, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Implement vibration test control system, in MATLAB for National Instrument equipment2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding non-linearity is a common application of modal testing but in this way, there is a need to control the input signal. Nowadays, commercial data acquisition software is not enough flexible in controlling the applied signals, whereas MATLAB as general software which supports National Instrument makes it possible to run modal test and control input signal via closed-loop controlling. In this work, using MATLAB commands, a modal test is run with a stepped-sine excitation and the input is controlled to achieve desired pure sinusoidal excitation which commonly is used in finding the non-linearity.

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  • 205.
    Farvid, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Berling, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Lead-time investigation and estimation2012In: Book of Abstracts: 17th International Symposium on Inventories, August 20-24, 2012, Budapest, Hungary / [ed] Attila Chikán, Budapest: OOK-Press Ltd. , 2012, p. 79-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that longer and more uncertain lead-times in a distribution system increase the need for safety stock and/or reduce the service level at lower levels. It is also well known that ordering decisions at higher level of the supply chain have an impact on the lead-time. Yet not much research has been devoted to increasing the knowledge of how exactly these decisions do influence the lead-time and there is a lack of simple methods to estimate the expected value and variance of the lead-time. Recent research that strongly indicates that it is optimal to provide a low service level at the earlier stages only emphasizes the importance of shedding a light on this issue. This as lower service levels leads to prolonged and more frequent stock outs and hence longer and more uncertain lead-time

     

    In this paper we provide a large simulation study of a two-level distribution system where different decision parameters as well as external parameters influence the lead-time are investigated. Not surprisingly, the study shows that the service level at a higher, not surprisingly, has a positive effect on both the length and variability of the lead time, i.e. they decrease with an increasing service-level. More interestingly though, is that of the other parameters it is only the order quantities that has a significant impact on the lead-time. Both the expected value and variance of the lead-time increase with the retailer’s as well as the central warehouse’s order quantity. This can be describe as an inverted bullwhip effect as the lead-time variability increase as one moves down the supply chain towards the end customer.

     

    In the paper we also develop simple methods to estimate the mean value and variance of the lead-time. The methods are based on replacing a stochastic lead-time demand at the central warehouse with a stochastic demand rate. For a given inventory position and demand rate it is shown how to compute the delay at the central warehouse due to stock-outs in a straight forward manner. These delays are then weighted together based on the probability for each combination of inventory position and demand rate to attain the estimates. The difference between the developed methods lay in how the stochastic demand rate is estimated. The above mentioned simulation study shows that the estimates exhibit a good accuracy and constitutes an improvement compared to existing methods with similar computational complexity.

  • 206.
    Farvid, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Rosling, Kaj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Customer waiting times in (nQ,R) inventory systems with compound Poisson demand2012In: / [ed] Attila Chikan, Budapest, Hungary, 2012, p. 78-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customer waiting time is a critical variable in heuristic modelling of multi-echelon inventory systems. It is not sufficiently investigated in the literature, which is large.

    The paper reviews and comments the literature and extends it by investigating customer waiting times in (nQ,R) inventory systems with continuous review and compound Poisson demand and with R+1<0 allowed. Two basic cases are considered: the waiting time for an average unit of demand assuming partial deliveries, and the waiting time for a customer demanding d units when only full deliveries are allowed.

    The probability distributions are characterized and exact and approximate formulae are derived for means and variances. There are some computational results of various heuristics for the mean and variance of waiting time in each of the cases.

  • 207.
    Farvid, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Rosling, Kaj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    The discounted (R,Q) inventory model: the Shrewd Accountant's Heuristic2012In: / [ed] Robert W. Grubbström and Hans H. Hinterhuber, 2012, p. 83-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discounted continuous-review (R,Q) inventory model with continuous and stochastic demand is investigated, generalizing and refining Hadley's (1964) work. A new optimality condition is derived, clarifying the difference to the average cost case. Based on depreciation theory, applied to the value of a set-up,a very easy and extremly precise approximation is suggested, based on the average cost model- The Shrewd Accountant's Heuristic. A few examples are worked out in detail.

  • 208.
    Fawwaz, Maha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hanna, Adnan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Structural behavior of notched glulam beams reinforced by means of plywood and FRP.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, timber is widely used in construction industry thanks to its availability and good properties. The use of solid (sawn) timber is not always proper since it is only available up to certain dimensions. Therefore, the so-called Engineered WoodProducts (EWPs) have been introduced to cope with the different design needs of structures. The Glued laminated Timber (glulam) is a type of EWPs that consists of smallsections of timber laminates glued together to form beams and columns. Glulam can be manufactured in almost any size and shape; it can also be tapered or notched. However, notching a beam at its end leads to a stress concentration at the re-entrantcorner of the notch due to the sudden change in the notched beam’s cross section. The concentration of shear and tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain can lead to a catastrophic brittle failure caused by the crack propagation from the notch corner. Crack opening due to tensile stresses perpendicular to grain is the most common failure at the notch corner and it is always taken into design consideration. However,shear component is usually exists and must be also considered in design to guarantee the safety of the structure. Currently, only the normal forces perpendicular to the beam’s axis are considered in the design of the reinforcement in design handbooks. The aim of this thesis was to study the structural behavior of notched glulam beams reinforced by adhered plywood panels and FRP. The carrying capacity of the notched glulam beams at their ends is the main subject of this thesis. In addition, a review of the notched beams design, reinforcements, and analysis theories are included. Experimental series of three point bending tests with notched glulam beams withdifferent configurations of reinforcement was carried out in lab. Deformations and forces were measured both with conventional techniques and with contact-free measurement systems - ARAMIS. On the other hand, a simple model of two dimensional plane stress element has been created of the unreinforced notchedbeam in ABAQUS. The normal and shear stresses were calculated for a horizontalpath of 100 mm in length starting from the notch tip. Afterwards, the mean stresseswere determined for the same path and have been used in calculations. The Mean Stress Approach has been adopted in the hand calculations to calculate the crack length and the failure load according to the ABAQUS model. Accordingly, the failure load was about 40 kN for the unreinforced beams. Also, Eurocode 5 has been used to calculate the failure load which gave a value of 20.2 kN for the unreinforced beams. The average maximum applied load in tests was 30 kN for the unreinforced beams while it reached about two and a half times this value for the CF-reinforced and the plywood-reinforced beams.

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  • 209.
    Fjäll-Herrmann, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Elever i behov av stöd på gymnasieskolan: en studie av fem specialpedagogers/speciallärares syn på sitt arbete2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att ge fem specialpedagoger/speciallärares perspektiv på hur de stödjer elever som har behov av extra stöd för sin läroprocess och jag har valt att utföra min undersökning genom intervjuer med denna personalkategori. 

    I litteraturstudien har jag utgått från de tre största neourologiska funktionshindren som jag fann i min intervjustudie och som kan vara anledningen till många elevers behov av extra stöd för sin läroprocess. De är ADHD, Aspergers syndrom och dyslexi.

    I resultatet av min intervjusammanställning så kan man utläsa att specialpedagogerna/speciallärarna på gymnasieskolorna lägger ner stor kraft och engagemang på att ge eleverna det stöd som de behöver för sin läroprocess.

    Nyckelord

    Stöd till elever på gymnasieskolan, ADHD, Aspergers syndrom och dyslexi.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 210.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lvov Ekberg, Douglas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lyftanordning för kraftuttag2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 211.
    Fogelström, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nya frisörers utmaningar: - Ser nyexaminerade frisörer håret eller kunden i helhet som arbetsmaterial?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of chemical substances that negatively affect the biological composition of hair has increased, leading to more mistreatments in salons and hair studios. This has, consequently, led to questions arising from educators within the field regarding the knowledge levels of newly-trained hairdressers/stylists relative to the potential reactions of customers’ hair and the increasing use of preparative substances.

    Research and development conducted in the general field of hair-care is plentiful due to the huge level of production within the industry. Questions remain unanswered, however, in terms of whether those using the products within the profession have the relevant knowledge and/or if this knowledge is applied practically.

    The focus of this study is threefold:

    • The customer; a whole (an entirety) or just hair
    • The strengths and weaknesses of teaching within this field
    • The pre-requisites for practicing the profession 

    Results indicate respondents’ experiences in the relevant areas dependent upon educational focus points. Furthermore, results show disparities in the understanding of pre-requisites concerning the chemical treatment of customer’s hair dependent on the school attended. A differentiation can also be seen practically, dependent on the variety of approaches and attitudes towards hair within salons offering practical placements.

    Experiences within the processes of learning show views of what are considered good or bad teaching styles. Belief in the employment potential within the industry is a debatable issue.

    The discussion has a comparative format; results herein are placed in contrast to the industry and in relation to the perspective of the school/educational institutions.

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    Nya frisörers utmaningar - Ser nyexaminerade frisörer håret eller kunden i helhet som arbetsmaterial
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    fulltext
  • 212.
    Fornander, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Verifiering av Kedertakstolen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The Kedertruss is the loadbearing part in the Keder weatherprotectionsystem and it has been analyzed concerning its loadbearing capacity. The Kedertruss is produced and manufactured by Wilhelm Layher GmbH & Co. KG and this report has been made for their Swedish division Layher AB.  The Kedertruss, designed in Germany according to German designcode, has been recalculated concerning Swedish conditions according to Eurocodes and a ongoing European standardization project. The two-dimensional program Winstatik Frame Analysis has been used for evaluation of load effects. Capacity has been calculated by hand-calculations and it has been verified that the Kedertruss in its larger spans isn’t able to withstand the loads. The main problem is the greater snowloads which has been proofed to be the most unfavorable load for the Kedertruss. Apart from the commission from Layher AB a parametric controlled model of the Kedertruss has been made in Revit Structure

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  • 213.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous biofilter and the associated bacterial and fungal microflora.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile processes use many different chemicals, most of which ends up in wastewater. Coloring of clothes is a particularly troublesome process since both azo and anthraquinone dyes are recalcitrant to degradation, causing environmental concerns. Hence, there is a great need to investigate and develop safe and applicable systems to the water demanding industry, such as textile mills in developing countries.

    In the present study biodegradation of actual textile wastewater (containing azo and anthraquinone dyes) was evaluated in biofilters. Indigenous decolourants from rice husks were used in bioreactors and the degradation was analyzed with spectrophotometer and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to monitor metabolites, especially in the form of aromatic amines. Chemical characteristics of the water were and bacterial and fungal community composition was monitored by denaturing gradient gel glectrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA and ITS gene fragments.

    The indigenous microflora consistently performed over 90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. The molecular fingerprinting revealed the presence of bacteria such as Clostridium, Pseudomonadales, Xenophilus, Paenibacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas, all known to carry genes for azoreductases.  Furthermore, results showed that fungi were present in the biofilter, and were predominant in the aerobic reactors.

    Collectively, these results indicate that the developed biofilter with rice husks support a mixed microbial community of both bacteria and fungi, with key features contributing to an efficient and reliable degradation performance of actual textile wastewater.

  • 214.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Biodegradation of azo and anthraquinone dyes in continuous systems2011In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 227-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a complete microbiological model system for the treatment of wastewater

    from textile mills in developing countries. Arti

    fi

    cial wastewater was treated by microorganisms growing

    on wood shavings from Norway spruce during unsterile conditions. The microorganisms were inoculated

    from forest residues. Mixtures of the azo dyes Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 were degraded in

    batch as well as continuous experiments. Reactive Red 2 mixed with the anthraquinone dye Reactive

    Blue 4 was also treated in the continuous system. The system consisted of three reservoirs

     

     

    e the fi

    rst two

    with an anaerobic environment and the third with an aerobic. The dye concentrations were 200 mg l

     

     

    1

    of

    each dye in the continuous system and the retention time was approximately 4 days and 20 h per

    reservoir. Samples from the process were analysed with spectrophotometer and LC/MS to monitor the

    degradation process. 86-90% of the colour was removed after a treatment of 4 days and 23 h in the

    continuous process. Two metabolites were found in the outlets of reactors one and two, but they were

    degraded to below the detection limit in the aerobic reactor.

     

     

     

  • 215.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Biodegradation of Textile Dyes Based on Wood Carriers2010In: Proceedings of Linnaeus SCO-TecH'10 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Sandrine Arzur, Ida Tjäder, William Hogland, Linnaeus University , 2010, p. 267-277Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradation of textile dyes from the azo class by Bjerkandera sp.and microbial consortium from forest residues. Bjerkandera’s degradation ability was evaluated in unsterile environment and put out of competition from the microbial consortium inhabiting forest residues. Microorganisms from forest residues were evaluated and transferred to soft wood shavings with maintained biodegrade performance. A continuous system was created containing anaerobic and aerobic parts and a successful degradation was monitored by spectrophotometer and High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  • 216. Fransson, Jonas
    et al.
    Olsson, Axel
    Witten, Thomas
    Blom, Åsa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sandberg, Dick (red)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Svenska barr- och lövträd: - Andvändning och anatomi2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish softwoods and hardwoods – use and anatomy describe properties

    and macro- and microscopic structures for the most common species in

    Sweden. The softwood species described are pine, spruce and juniper. The

    hardwoods are birch, aspen, alder, beech, oak, ash and maple. The

    physical properties are placed in order of precedence between the different

    species, so that they easily can be compared with each other. Furthermore,

    some examples are given on uses for each species. The work is based on a

    literature survey of Swedish and international literature as well as on own

    studies of wood at a microscopic level. All the species (except aspen, alder

    and maple) are presented with our own pictures taken in a microscope.

    In the first part, the structures of the trees at a macroscopic level are

    described. Macroscopic structures that are described are for example rays,

    annual rings and vessels. This part also describes different cell types and

    the anatomy and chemistry of the cell. In the next part, a collection of

    facts about each species is included. A separation of soft- and hardwood is

    made, and the hardwoods are divided in diffuse-porous, semi-ring-porous

    and ring-porous species.

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  • 217.
    Franzén, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Att utbilda till ett yrke- en studie av Gy2011 och arbetslivets krav på administratörer:  2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete avslutar två års studier på yrkeslärarutbildningen. Som blivande yrkeslärare har jag valt att blicka in i kommande förändringar inom gymnasieskolan. Höstterminen 2011 träder reformen Gy2011 ikraft med ett flertal förändringar. Efter avslutad utbildning på yrkesprogrammen kommer eleverna att få en yrkesexamen och ett uttryckt önskemål i arbetet inför reformen är att gymnasieskolans yrkesutbildning ska leda till högre grad av anställningsbarhet.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur väl styrdokumenten i Gy2011 stämmer överens med arbetsgivarnas krav på blivande administratörer för att bli anställningsbara efter avslutad gymnasieutbildning. Hur väl stämmer skolans krav på kunskaper överens med arbetslivets krav på kunskaper?

    Min undersökning avgränsar sig till yrkesutgångarna ekonomi- och personalassistent inom inriktningen Administrativ service på Handels- och administrationsprogrammet samt avgränsar sig till tre län i södra Sverige.

    Med en jämförande dokumentanalysmetod studerar jag läroplanen för de frivilliga skolformerna Lpf 94, examensmålen för Handels- och administrationsprogrammet, ämnes- och kursbeskrivningar samt platsannonser utifrån gjorda avgränsningar och urval.

    Resultatet av min undersökning visar att styrdokumenten ställer mer krav på generella kunskaper medan platsannonser anger mer specifika krav på kunskaper. En stor skillnad är de krav på erfarenhet och de personliga egenskaper som efterfrågas i platsannonserna.

    För att bli anställningsbara är arbetet som ligger bakom under utbildningstiden fram till examen av betydelse. Det handlar om vilka kunskaper som förmedlas inom skolan och vilkakunskaper som förmedlas under elevernas arbetsplatsförlagda lärande. Det handlar om att skolan kan ge de rätta förutsättningarna för att eleverna ska få kunskap om yrket och inte minst att eleverna själva tar tillvara på givna förutsättningar och gör det bästa av dem.

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    exarb Helena Franzén
  • 218.
    Fredhav, Dennis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Briggert Sjöstrand, Carl Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Beräkning av värmeenergiförluster i flerbostadshus genom analys av den totala fjärrvärmeenergianvändningen: 2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out on behalf of IV Produkt AB and intends to set an average ratio of thermal energy losses in apartment buildings that were built during the 1960-1990. This shall be derived by analyzing the total district energy consumption that has been divided into three parts: heat energy losses (the actual heating requirements), the heating of domestic hot water and heating energy consumption for the controlled ventilation.

    Three different residential areas that were built during the years 1962-1966 and one that was built in 1993 has been analyzed. All residential areas are located in Växjö urban and contains between four and six apartment buildings.

    The analyzed objects have a mechanical exhaust ventilation systems and district heating as the heating method. No own laboratory work or experiments have been done in this thesis, the calculations have been done on the basis of parameters from VEAB, interviews with property managers, and literature studies. By calculations, we have got a result that is reported in Chapter 6. The result is given as a thermal energy loss as a percentage of the total heat consumption.

    In this thesis there has also been a review of the rules on requirements for the specific energy consumptions in buildings, indoor environment and indoor temperature from the National Board of Housing and the National Board of Health and Welfare.

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  • 219.
    Giraud, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Svensson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Effektivisering, utveckling och utformning av återvinningscentral i Växjö.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet studerar de problem som uppstår på dagens återvinningscentraler i Växjö, Ljungby och Linköping. Resultatet redovisas i form av en ny återvinningscentral i Växjö som löser problemen.

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  • 220.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Gustafsson, Per Johan
    Lunds tekniska högskola, Byggnadsmekanik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Finite element modelling of shear walls using connector shear elements based on continuum plasticity2010In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology / [ed] B.H.V. Topping, J.M. Adam, F.J. Pallarés, R. Bru and M.L. Romero, Stirlingshire, Scotland: Civil-Comp Press , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-frame timber buildings are often stabilised against lateral loads by using diaphragm action of roofs, floors and walls. The mechanical behaviour of the sheathing-to-timber joints has a significant impact on the structural performance of shear walls. Most sheathing-to-framing joints show non-linear load-displacement characteristics with plastic behaviour. This paper is focused on the finite element modelling of shear walls. The purpose is to present a new connector shear element based on the theory of continuum plasticity. The incremental load-displacement relationship is derived based on the elastic-plastic stiffness tensor including the elastic stiffness tensor, the plastic modulus, a function representing the yield criterion and a hardening rule, and another function representing the plastic potential. The plastic properties are determined from experimental results obtained from testing actual connections. Load-displacement curves for shear walls are calculated using the connector shear model and they are compared with experimental and other computational results. Also, the ultimate horizontal loadcarrying capacity is compared to results obtained by an analytical plastic design method. Good agreements are found.

  • 221.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Andreasson, Sverker
    Plastisk dimensionering av horisontalbelastade skiv-regelstommar i trä2010In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 5, p. 45-48Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 222.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Daerga, Per Anders
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Recommendations for design of anchoring devices for bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls2010In: Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Timber Engineering / [ed] Ario Ceccotti, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 223.
    Gislén, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Knäck koden på gymnasiet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study discusses a plurality of different aspects of study approaches from the perspective an imaginary digital learning process. It discusses teaching goals and practices related to digital platforms.

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  • 224.
    Granlund, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Fornander, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Skilda världar? : En studie av skolans respektive restaurangbranschens krav på nyutbildade kockar 2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur stämmer kraven mellan skolans hotell- och restaurangprogram samt restaurangbranschen överens utifrån de styrdokument som utbildningen är uppbyggd av och hur representanter från näringslivet ser på vad som krävs av nyutbildade kockar. Undersökningen är genomförd enligt en kvalitativ metod bestående av intervjuer samt dokumentanalys. Studien visar på att skolan och branschen till stor del har två olika synsätt av de krav och kunskaper som ställs på nyutbildade kockar.

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  • 225.
    Greenster, Petra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Peterson, Ingrid Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Entreprenörskap/ Entreprenöriellt lärande- Hur ska de definieras?: Modeord eller framtid?2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how school leaders and local politicians choose to define enterprise learning and entrepreneurship in schools. What we are investigating, is if there´s a difference in definition, but also what enterprise learning and entrepreneurship in schools means as a pedagogic concept in a wider sense.

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  • 226.
    Gregeby, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Design och uppbyggnad av satsvisa och kontinuerliga reaktorsystem för anaerob teströtning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete innefattar planering, uppbyggnad och inkörning av teströtningsanläggning för biogasproduktion, bestående av batch- och tankreaktorsystem. Arbetet inbegriper även utförandet av experiment, på batchreaktorsystem, som syftar till att ge en första inblick och vägledning för vidare studier kring optimering av processen med inriktning på tillsats av kolkälla och justering av kvoten mellan kol och kväve. Utifrån de resultat som erhållits vid försök på batchreaktorsystemet observerades en positiv effekt, gällande ökad nedbrytning av VFA, vid tillsats av glukos till systemet. Igångkörning av tankreaktorsystemet gav erfarenheter gällande handhavandet av anläggningen samt driftsäkerheten, vad gäller t.ex. återstart efter strömavbrott, loggning av gasflödesdata, pålitlig substratdosering och substratuttag utan syreläckage in i systemet.

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  • 227.
    Gregeby, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Provrötning av marina substrat i laboratorie- och pilotskala: Delstudie i projektet Biogas – Nya substrat från havet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar delstudie 4 av projektet Biogas-Nya substrat från havet. Inom delstudien har ett antal provrötningar av substrat från havet (vass, musslor, alger och skrapsill) genomförts. Syftet med delstudien var att få fram metanpotentialen för de olika substraten och att öka kunskapen kring hur dessa substrat uppför sig i en biogasprocess. Projektet var ett samverkansprojekt delfinansierat av EU Regionala fonden för Småland och öarna. Projektledare var Regionförbundet i Kalmar län. Inledningsvis genomfördes ett antal satsvisa försök med samtliga substrat. Metanpotentialerna för vassen, musslorna, algerna respektive skarpsillen var 400, 270, ca 210 och 460 Ndm3/kg VS. Ymp hämtades från Kalmar Biogas ABs industriella rötkammare. Vassen samrötades också med industriellt avfall i ett kontinuerligt våtrötningsförsök. Försöket genomfördes i två total omrörda tankreaktorer med volymen 30 l/st. Tillsatsen av vass gav en utökad metanproduktion med 220 Ndm3/kgVS.

    Vassen och musslorna studerades också i torrötningsförsök. Försöken i laboratorieskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioteknik i Lund medan försöket med musslor i pilotskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik, Linnéuniversitet. Metanpotentialen för vassen var i torrötningsförsöket ca 220 Ndm3/kg VS vilket är lika med potentialen i våtrötningsförsöket. För musslorna erhölls en metanpotential på 330 Ndm3/kg VS i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Pilotskaleförsöket visade att hydrolysen etablerades på likartat sätt som i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Metanhalten var ca 70 %. En visuell inspektion av musslorna efter rötningen visade också att endast skalen återstod. Det är dock inte möjligt att ange en metanpotential från detta försök beroende på ett antal tekniska problem med processen. Processen byggdes inför detta försök och det fanns inte tid att testköra den samma före försökets start.Arbetet med de satsvisa försöken och det kontinuerliga våtrötningsförsöket av vass genomfördes i samarbete med Kalmar Biogas AB. Detta bland annat genom att Kalmar Biogas AB tillhandahöll sin försöksanläggning med satsvisa och kontinuerliga reaktorer till projektet.

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  • 228.
    Gregeby, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    The influence of mixing, addition of buffer, silage and chicken manure on the biogas production from cattle manure2010In: 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 3-7 May, Lyon, ETA Renewable Energies and WIP Renewable Energies , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of batch experiements were performed in order to evaluate the biogas production from cattle manure adter addition of buffer, silage or chicken manure. Some experiments were also performed to investigate the effect of mixing. All experiments were performed at 35 C. The results showed that the extent of mixing did not affect the biogas production to any larger extent. The addition of buffer speeds up the start of the process and increased the volume of biogas produced. The methane content was approximately the same independently on if a buffer was added or not. Chicken manure inhibited the process adn addition of silage gave an increase in the amount of biogas produced. No significant effect of silage addition was found on the methane content of the biogas.

  • 229.
    Greén, Linus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Stensson-Bohman, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Passivhus - Vikten av lufttäthet och attityder hos boende2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 230.
    Grönborg, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Ungdomskultur, ungdomsstil, idenitet och kroppsutsmyckning2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My purpose is to create more understanding and knowledge about youth styles and youth culture so that I easier and better can meet my pupils in my profession as a teacher. I have searched the most common youth styles that usually tends in our society today and the most common garments that the youths are wearing and what kind of tattoo/body piercing are most common among the youths today. My methods are qualitative methods and they are literary studies in the subject, observation, questionnaire study among high school students. Youths often feel the fast current changes in the society, which creates new lifestyles and new youth´s styles. The creation of youth styles means at lot for their identity work, therefore friends and group influence has an important meaning and impression for them. The youths express for their surroundings their group belonging of their youth style and they are showing it through different kind of clothes, hair styles, accessories, colors, symbolic and tattoos/ body piercing.

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    Ungdomskultur, ungdomsstil, identitet och kroppsutsmyckning
  • 231.
    Gröndahl, Jessica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jakobsson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nornan blomstrar igen: nybyggnation i kulturhistoriskt känslig miljö2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På fastigheten Nornan 13 i Tingsryd, Kronobergs län, finns idag en mangårdsbyggnad från mitten av 1800-talet. Då ett flertal ekonomibyggnader på fastigheten tidigare förstörts i en brand, funderar fastighetsägaren på att komplettera tomten med nya byggnader i form av flerbostadshus. Denna rapport utreder möjligheterna och förutsättningarna för nybyggnation på Nornan 13, samt ger utifrån dessa villkor förslag på hur sådan byggnation bör och kan utformas. Förslaget presenteras med hjälp av ritningar, illustrationer och beskrivningar.

    Eftersom samtliga byggnader på Nornan 13 och närliggande fastigheter är av äldre karaktär bedöms området som känsligt för ny modern bebyggelse. Av den anledningen genomförs en områdesanalys för att kunna identifiera områdets kulturhistoriska värden, samt undersöka hur nybyggnation kan tillvarata dessa. Områdesanalysen genomförs med stöd av DIVE-metoden.

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  • 232.
    Gudheimsson, Joel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Svenska restaurangmenyer: En jämförande studie av språkbruket2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utforma en framgångsrik och vinstgivande restaurangmeny kräver såväl kunskap som erfarenhet inom restaurangbranschen. Språkbruket utgör en viktig del i skapandet av en meny. Denna studie undersöker hur 60 restauranger använder sig av formord och innehållsord med hjälp av data från ett egenhändligt sammanställt s.k. korpus. Resultaten visar att restauranger använder sig av formord främst för att länka ihop ingredienser och att de mest frekvent förekommande innehållsorden presenterar dyra och lyxiga råvaror. Tydliga skillnader kan återfinnas i hur restauranger använder sig av innehållsord: Å ena sidan kan innehållsorden användas för att skapa en meny som anspelar på klassiska rätter och tillagningsmetoder, å andra sidan kan de användas för att få en meny att framstå som innovativ och nytänkande. Det är viktigt att restaurangelever besitter kunskap om skillnader mellan olika typer av restauranger och hur detta avspeglas i deras respektive menyer, något som denna studie kan bidra till ökad förståelse av.

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    JoelGudheimsson-Svenska restaurangmenyer
  • 233. Gueguen, Yann
    et al.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Grins, Jekabs
    Rouxel, Tanguy
    Viscosity of high-nitrogen content Ca–Si–O–N glasses2010In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 30, no 16, p. 3455-3458Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The viscosity of three high-nitrogen content Ca–Si–O–N glasses, with 30–58 e/o N and 36–39 e/o Ca, was determined by micro-indentation. The measurements were made using an automated set-up, designed and built in-house, capable of measurements up to 1200 °C with applied loads of 0.01–15 N. The viscosity increases significantly with the nitrogen content and reaches viscosity values close to reported values for rare-earth silica oxynitride glasses. The glass transition temperatures range between 878 and 995 °C and are in very good agreement with values measured by differential thermal analysis. The apparent viscosity activation energies are very high, ranging from 855 to 2170 kJ/mol. The glasses can accordingly be classified as being both very refractory and very fragile. Implications of the viscosity values and mechanical properties of the glasses for their structures are discussed.

  • 234.
    Gunnarsson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Taxibranschens syn på taxitrafikskursen PESTAX02011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att undersöka taxitrafikskursens innehåll och jämföra dessa styrdokument med arbetsgivarnas krav på eleverna för att de skall kunna anses som anställningsbara efter fullgjord utbildning. Genom att jämföra de bägge identifiera likheter och skillnader. En slutsats som kan göras utefter denna undersökning är att trots en god samstämmighet mellan arbetsgivarnas krav på kunskaper och skolverkets styrdokument så behöver skolverket förtydliga hur rullstolsresenärer skall prioriteras i kurserna samt vilka krav som skall ställas på rullstolar och fastsättning av dessa. Denna slutsats kan dras efter intervjuer med taxiägare samt tidigare studier inom området.

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  • 235.
    Gunnarsson, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Samhällskunskap på gymnasieskolans byggprogram2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 236.
    Gunnarsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lucchesi, Robert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Utbytesplan för kvicksilverlampor åt fastighetsbolag2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Underlaget till den här studien är ett ekodesignkrav fastställt på EU-nivå om att alla kvicksilverlampor ska förbjudas år 2015. Tanken är att studien skall ge läsaren vägledning och visa på exempel hur en konkret utbytesplan skulle kunna se ut.

    Studien innehåller ekonomiska kalkyler som visar att utbyte av kvicksilverlampor bör ses som en investering som på sikt kan ge stora besparingar, snarare än som en kostnad.

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    Lucchesi och Gunnarsson
  • 237.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of particulate matter from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through biomass gasification, biomass can be converted at high temperature to a product gas rich in carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. After cleaning and upgrading, the product gas can be converted to biofuels such as hydrogen; methanol; dimethyl ether; and synthetic diesel, gasoline, and natural gas. Particulate matter (PM) is formed as a contaminant in the gasification process, and the aim of this work was to develop and apply a method for sampling and characterization of PM in the hot product gas.

     

    A particle measurement system consisting of a dilution probe combined in series with a bed of granular activated carbon for tar adsorption was developed, with the aim of extracting a sample of the hot product gas without changing the size distribution and composition of the PM. The mass size distribution and concentration, as well as the morphology and elementary composition, of PM in the size range 10 nm to 10 µm in the product gas from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier and an indirect BFB gasifier using various types of biomass as fuel were determined.

     

    All gasifiers and fuels displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in the <0.5 µm size range and a coarse mode in the >0.5 µm size range. Compared with the mass concentration of the coarse mode the mass concentration of the fine mode was low from all gasifiers. The evaluation of the results for the fine-mode PM was complicated by condensing potassium chloride for the CFB gasifier when using miscanthus as fuel and by condensing tars for the indirect BFB gasifier when using wood C as fuel. The mass concentration of the coarse-mode PM was higher from the CFB gasifier than from the two BFB gasifiers. The coarse-mode PM from the BFB gasifier when using wood A as fuel was dominated by char. In the CFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash and bed material when using all fuels. The coarse-mode PM from the indirect BFB gasifier when using wood C as fuel was mainly ash.

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  • 238.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Seemann, Martin C.
    Rodin, Jennie
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Particulate Matter in the Hot Product Gas from Indirect Steam Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasification of Wood Pellets2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1781-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study characterized the particulate matter (PM) formed during the indirect steam bubbling fluidized bed gasification of wood pellets at atmospheric pressure. A system including a dilution probe, a bed of granular activated carbon, and a thermodenuder was used to sample the PM at high temperature with the aim of separating it from condensing inorganic vapors and tars. The particle mass size distribution was bimodal with a fine mode in the <0.5-μm size range and a dominating coarse mode in the >0.5-μm size range. The coarse mode was representatively characterized while condensing inorganic vapors and tars complicated the evaluation of the results for the fine-mode PM. Morphological analysis of the PM indicated that the char content was low. The inorganic fraction was dominated by potassium and chlorine for fine-mode PM and calcium and silicon for coarse-mode PM.

  • 239.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characteristics of aerosol particles from steam and oxygen gasification of various biofuels2010In: 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition: From resarch to industry and markets, ETA Renewable Energies and WIP Renewable Energies , 2010, p. 900-902Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated how the characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) from steam and oxygen gasification of biomass were affected by the biofuel used. The results show that the biofuel had a large impact on the fine mode PM generated during the gasification, both on the particle size distribution and on the elementary composition. When using miscanthus as fuel, high concentrations of ultrafine particles consisting of potassium chloride were formed compared to when using high- and low-quality wood (wood A and wood B) as fuels. The impact of the biofuel on the coarse mode PM was less in this study. Large amounts of bed material dominated the coarse fraction. However, heavy metals were detected in the coarse mode PM when using wood B, constituting treated wood, as fuel.

  • 240.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier Using Different Types of BiomassManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study characterized the particulate matter (PM) formed during gasification of different types of biomass in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Two systems were used to sample the PM, and both on- and offline analysis techniques were used to characterize the PM. Four different instruments were used to measure the particle mass size distribution and concentration in the size range 0.01–30 µm. The agreement between the instruments was good, and the particle mass size distributions upstream of any cleaning device were bimodal, dominated by the coarse mode (>0.5 µm). The particle mass concentration of the fine mode (<0.5 µm) varied, depending on which biomass was used. The variation in particle mass concentration of the coarse mode was less, and was due to different loads of bed material and various ash contents in the biomass. The morphological analysis of the PM showed that the char content was low and that the PM was dominated by ash and bed material. The coarse-mode PM was rich in magnesium and calcium, while potassium and chlorine were prevalent in the fine-mode PM. The elementary composition of the PM varied between the different types of biomass used and heavy metals, that is, zinc and lead, were detected in low concentrations when using demolition wood as fuel.

  • 241.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of particulate matter in the hot product gas from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, p. 71-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the hot product gas from three different atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers: a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier, and an indirect BFB gasifier (the latter integrated with a CFB boiler). All gasifiers displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in the <0.5 μm size range and a coarse mode in the >0.5 μm size range. Compared with the mass concentration of the coarse mode the mass concentration of the fine mode was low in all gasifiers. For both the BFB and CFB gasifiers the fine-mode PM had a similar inorganic composition, indicating an origin from the ash and the magnesite bed material used in both gasifiers. In the indirect BFB gasifier the fine-mode PM was instead dominated by potassium and chlorine, and the tar fraction properties evoked tar condensation in the sampling system that affected mainly the fine-mode PM. The coarse-mode PM in the BFB gasifier was dominated by char fragments abraded from the pyrolyzed wood pellets. In the CFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash and magnesite bed material that passed through the process cyclone. In the indirect BFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash, probably originating both from the BFB gasifier and the CFB boiler.

  • 242.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Simeone, Eleonora
    Technical University of Delft.
    de Jong, Wiebren
    Technical University of Delft.
    Müller, Michael
    Forschungszentrum Jülich.
    Porbatzki, Dirk
    Forschungszentrum Jülich.
    Report of Particle Size and Composition Classificationduring Atmospheric Pressure Gasification2010Report (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Further development and testing of a method for characterization of particles from biomass gasification using a laboratory scale gasifier2008In: 16th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition: From research to industry and markets, 2008, p. 1037-1040Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a laboratory scale gasifier was used to further develop and test a method for characterization of particles from biomass gasification. It was found that when an inlet temperature to the bed of activated carbon, used for tar adsorption, of 200ºC was used, particles with low volatility were produced since they vaporized when heated to 300ºC, indicating condensation of tars. When an inlet temperature of 300ºC was used, the particles were stable when heated to 300ºC. This indicates that the tars had been kept in vapour phase and been adsorbed in the carbon bed. The particles were further heated in steps of 100ºC to 700ºC in order to study the change in particle size distribution and total concentration. The particles were stable up to 400ºC, indicating low tar content. The total particle concentration decreased between 400-700ºC probably due to oxidation of carbonaceous material, for example soot, or volatilisation of alkali chlorides. The particles present after heating to 700ºC were most likely inorganic ash. The concentration of fine particles decreased more than the concentration of coarse particles when heated to 700ºC. This could be due to a higher content of carbonaceous material in the fine particles and more ash-rich coarse particles.

  • 244.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Method for High-Temperature Particle Sampling in Tar-Rich Gases from the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass2010In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 2042-2051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass produces compounds in both gas and particle phases that may be regarded as contaminants. These contaminants include both particulate matter (e.g., fly ash, soot, and fragmented nonvolatilized material) and volatilized metals and tars that condense and form particulate matter during cooling. In this study a method for high-temperature particle sampling in tar-rich gases from the thermochemical conversion of biomass was developed and tested. Both a bed of granular activated carbon and a denuder were used for tar adsorption. First, the transport efficiency of particles was determined both theoretically and experimentally using a K2SO4 reference aerosol, and the losses were found to be smaller in the denuder than in the bed of granular activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was then tested using a model aerosol of K2SO4 and diethyl-hexyl-sebacate (DEL-IS). The adsorption capacity of the bed of granular activated carbon was found to be higher than that of the denuder. The adsorption capacity was also tested using a model aerosol of K2SO4 particles and tar-rich gas from a laboratory-scale gasifier. As for DEHS, the result indicated that the capacity of the bed of granular activated carbon was higher than that of the denuder; it was also found that the adsorption was incomplete when the tar concentrations increased. In addition, the bed of granular activated carbon was successfully tested during experiments using a 100 kW circulating fluidized bed gasifier. The results indicate that the tar adsorption capacity is dependent not only on the total tar concentration but also on the tar composition

  • 245.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Measurement of Aerosol Particles from Steam and Oxygen Blown Gasification of Wood Pellets in a 20 kW Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidised Bed (ABFB) Gasifier2007In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition: From Research to Market Deployment, ETA-Renewable Energies and WIP-Renewable Energies , 2007, p. 1128-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the particle number and mass size distributions from two measurements on steam and oxygen blown atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed (ABFB) gasification (20 kW) of wood pellets are presented. The total particle number concentration determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) varied between 5.1x10^5-6.6x10^6 particles/cm3 (mobility equivalent diameter (dB) 10-670 nm), with the largest variation for particles with dB<100 nm. The particle number size distributions were bimodal with modes at 20-30 nm and at 260-410 nm. The particle mass concentrations determined using a low pressure impactor (LPI) varied between 60-310 mg/m3 for particles with aerodynamic diameter (dae)<5 µm, with modes at 0.2-0.3 µm and at 2-3 µm.

  • 246.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Physical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosol Particles Formed during the Thermochemical Conversion of Wood Pellets Using a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier2007In: Energy Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 3660-3667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product gas obtained through biomass gasification can be upgraded to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. The synthesis gas can be further converted to liquid or gaseous fuels. However, the raw product gas contains both gas- and particle-phase impurities that can negatively affect both catalysts and hot-gas filters used for upgrading and cleaning. The present study aimed to characterize, both physically and chemically, aerosol particles formed during the steam- and oxygen-blown biomass gasification of wood pellets in an atmospheric 20 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier. The product gas from the gasifier was sampled upstream from the cyclone at 500 °C. The particle number size distribution determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was bimodal, with modes at 20–30 and 400 nm, mobility equivalent diameters (dB). The total mean number concentration of particles with dB = 15–670 nm was approximately 7 × 10^5 particles/cm3; however, the concentration of particles with dB < 80 nm fluctuated. The particle mass size distribution determined using a low-pressure impactor (LPI) was bimodal, and the total mass concentration of particles with aerodynamic diameters (dae) < 5 µm was 310 mg/m3. Microscopy analysis of particulate matter on the lower LPI stages, expected to sample particles with dae < 0.4 µm, revealed structures approximately 10 µm in diameter. In addition, the mass concentration of particles with dae < 0.5 µm determined using a LPI was higher than that estimated using a SMPS, possibly because of the bounce-off or re-entrainment of coarser particles from higher LPI stages. Elementary analysis of the particulate matter indicated that it was dominated by carbon. The collected particulate matter was stable when heated in nitrogen to 500 °C, indicating that the carbon was not present as volatile tars but more likely as char or soot. The particulate matter collected on all LPI stages contained a small percentage of ash (noncarbonaceous inorganic material), with calcium as the dominant element.

  • 247.
    Gustafsson Ivemon, Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lundgren, Robert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Energieffektiviseringar för energi- och miljöcertifiering av Smaland Airport AB2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal is to identify and provide complete proposals for actions on energy efficiency to reduceenergy usage by 25 % and thus achieve the requirements for Green Building. The proposals shallaccount for economic, environmental as well as health aspects.To meet the objective of the thesis a consistent approach was used to identify potential energyefficiency of Smaland Airport. With help of the underlying study "Energy Efficiencies of SmalandAirport, 2010-2011" the airport's systems and processes were surveyed and analyzed.The total energy savings of Smaland Airport amounting to 646.1 MWh or 22.04% which falls withinthe framework of Sweden's climate goals with a lower consumption of 20% until 2020 from 2008levels. The requested investment to achieve these savings amounts to 2.78 million crowns. Theannual reduction of carbon dioxide obtained by the proposed energy efficienciesamounts to 49.53 tonnes. The average pay-off period for proposed investments is 7.6 years whichindicates that the energy efficiency work at Smaland Airport is considered to be economicallyjustified, as seen from a long term perspective.Energy savings from green building based on the amount to 556MWh or 23.15% is not enough tomeet the primary objective of 25% which is required to obtain property Green Building certified. Toachieve the main goal requires more energy efficiency measures identified and implemented.

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    Energieffektiviseringar för energi- och miljöcertifiering av Smaland Airport AB
  • 248.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Johnny, Johansson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hur reducerar vi miljöpåverkan inom utbildning och yrkesliv?: En undersökning inom el och måleribranschen gällande strävan att nå hållbar utveckling för att lyfta in kunskapen i undervisningen2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 249.
    Gustafsson, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Törnqvist, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Energieffektiv byggnad i stadsmiljö2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will present an energy efficient building in the centre of Kalmar city. It will

    become energy efficient because of the worldwide goal to reduce our energy using in our

    buildings.

    The values of architecture have been given a great part in this report. The building is supposed to be placed in Kvarnholmen in a unique environment in centre of Kalmar city.

    Because of the placement it is very important to show respect to the surroundings and the history of Kalmar.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 250.
    Gustafsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Adre, Linus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Alternativ utformning av WTC i Växjö2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stationsområdet i Växjö genomgår omfattande förändringar, där bland annat planer för ett WTC finns. Ett förslag på nämnda byggnad har tagits fram, men det fick kritik. Man menade att det inte stämde in i stadsbilden. Vårt syfte och mål har därför varit att ta fram alternativa förslag på utformning av ett WTC, med hänsyn till kritiken. Vår metod bestod i att sätta oss in befintliga detaljplaner och utföra eget skissningsarbete. Detta har resulterat i två förslag på utformning, som sedan jämförs och analyseras utifrån en uppsättning värderingspunkter. Från detta följer en diskussion där vi dragit en del slutsatser, som blir vårt inlägg i den pågående diskussionen om detaljplanen.

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    fulltext
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