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  • 201.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Environmental decision-making within the steel industry: the role of individuals’ worries, knowledge and responsibility2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 202.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fagergren, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Perception of uncertainties and quality in risk assessments by people working with risk assessments2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, s. Abstract Number : 3978-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 80,000 possible contaminated sites have been identified in Sweden. Assessing the risk posed by these sites and, if necessary, remediating the soil is associated with high costs. It is thus important that these assessments are reliable. A problem with current methods is that uncertainty and variability are often not accounted for. Different individuals have different physiology and behaviour and soil composition differs at various sites which can be considered in probabilistic methods. This requires tools that are user-friendly and cost and time-efficient. Information about the perception of risk assessments, uncertainty and tools wanted by people working with risk assessments is therefore needed.

    Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether people working with risk assessments in practice find that these assessments are of sufficient quality, whether it is important to consider uncertainty and variability and which tools they may need to be able to consider these questions.

    Methods A questionnaire was sent to people working with the risk assessment of contaminated sites at government authorities and consultancies in Sweden. Results The data collected suggest that the majority of respondents find that risk assessment quality in general would need to be improved. Important factors to achieve this include a greater knowledge of the individuals involved in risk assessments, more financial resources, greater knowledge in form of new research and more time. The respondents also find it very important to characterize both uncertainty and variability, and to do this several respondents want more tools such as literature and databases with information about critical exposure factors and manuals.

    Conclusions

    According to personnel involved in the risk assessment of contaminated sites, the quality of the assessment should be enhanced and different tools would be useful to facilitate the characterization of uncertainty and variability.

  • 203.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consumption of vegetables and risk perception at contaminated glass works sites in Sweden2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, s. Abstract Number: 3980-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Glass has been produced since the 18th century in Kalmar and Kronoberg counties in an area called the Kingdom of Crystal. The production of glass has been associated with high levels of heavy metals in the soil. The most critical exposure pathways for metals are oral intake of soil, consumption of water and home-produced vegetables. The consumption of home-produced vegetables in particular is a highly site-specific exposure pathway and is therefore of interest to investigate in this geographic area.

    Aims The study aims to investigate to what extent home-produced vegetables are consumed by people living near glass work industries as well as their perception of environmental and health risks and the authorities’ risk communication.

    Methods A questionnaire including questions about personal factors, consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the perception of risks and risk communication was sent to 300 randomly selected individuals living in areas close to glass works. Results A majority of those questioned, 87%, consume vegetables or fruit from their own garden sometime during the year and more than half of the respondents eat these food items on a regular basis or several times a year. Just over 40% are concerned about that the fruit or vegetables from their own garden may be contaminated with pollutants from the glass works, but an even greater number are concerned that pollution from glass works will affect their health or the environment in general. More than half of the respondents would like to have more information about environmental and health risks.

    Conclusions

    Home-produced vegetables are frequently consumed in areas around glass work industries. Many residents are at the same time concerned and request more information about possible risks. Site-specific studies including quantities and types of vegetables ingested as well as contamination levels are needed to investigate if the exposure is actually of concern.

  • 204.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exponeringsfaktorer vid riskbedömning: Inventering av dataunderlag2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Exponering definieras som kontakten mellan ett kemiskt, fysikaliskt eller biologiskt agens och den yttre avgränsningen för en organism. Människors exponering för kemiska ämnen i miljön styrs inte bara av förekomsten av en förorening, utan även av beteende, fysiologiska egenskaper och olika yttre faktorer. De mätbara variabler som används i exponeringsmodeller för att beskriva detta benämns exponeringsfaktorer.

    Den mest omfattande sammanställningen av data för olika exponeringsfaktorer härrör från USA, men det finns även ett par europeiska sammanställningar. Beteenden, fysiologiska egenskaper och yttre miljöfaktorer skiljer dock mellan olika länder. Det finns därför skäl att sammanställa sådana data även för svenskt vidkommande. En sammanställning kan även bidra till en viss standardisering av riskbedömningar.

    I föreliggande rapport redovisas exponeringsfaktorer för olika områden och i stora stycken överensstämmer urvalet med de tidigare nämnda internationella sammanställningarna. Redovisningen och dess omfattning påverkas även i hög grad av tillgången på data. Det innebär exempelvis att variabilitet (naturlig variation) och osäkerhet inte kan anges för alla faktorer. Dessa databrister är särskilt påtagliga vad gäller konsumtion av dricksvatten och hemodlade vegetabilier samt tidsanvändning.

    Dataunderlaget är däremot gott för fysiologiska parametrar som kroppsvikt och hudyta liksom den allmänna konsumtionen av livsmedel. För dessa exponeringsfaktorer redovisas statistiska parametrar som medelvärde, standardavvikelse, skevhet och kurtosis. Dessutom anges osäkerhetsintervall för dessa parametrar. Percentiler utgör ett användbart alternativ för presentera variabilitet (naturlig variation) och även sådana redovisas tillsammans med tillhörande osäkerhetsintervall.

    Ytterligare exponeringsfaktorer som behandlas i rapporten är åldersfördelning och flyttningsfrekvens, boende och byggnader, kontakt med mark och damm och markegenskaper. Förutom tabellerade värden återfinns även referenser till de primära datakällorna så att det är möjligt att själv gå vidare och fördjupa sig i underlaget.

    I rapporten jämförs även insamlade data med remissversionen av den svenska beräkningsmodellen för riktvärden för mark. Jämförelsen med denna modell visar att valda värden för exponeringsfaktorerna ibland motsvarar en bästa skattning (medelvärde/median), ofta en konservativ skattning och ibland en mycket konservativ skattning. Det går inte att utifrån dessa jämförelser dra några säkra slutsatser om dess inverkan på den slutliga riskbedömningen och beslut avseende åtgärder.

    Det är rapportförfattarnas förhoppning att föreliggande sammanställning ska underlätta och påskynda en övergång till riskbedömningsmetoder där variabilitet och osäkerhet kan uppskattas och redovisas kvantitativt.

  • 205.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fagerberg, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Parents’ risk perception of toxic chemicals in children’s products at daycare centers2015Inngår i: Presented at: Sociology of Risk and Uncertainty Research Networks (ESA) mid-term conference, Risk, Uncertainty and Transition. 8-10 April 2015, Stuttgart, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 206.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ljunggren, Lill
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gender differences in risk management of contaminated land at a Swedish authority2014Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 353-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Any risk analysis process leading to the remediation of contaminated land will be affected by individual judgements. Many contaminated land risk assessments in Sweden are reviewed by the County Administrative Board (CAB), a regional government authority. The cost for risk assessments and eventually remediation is funded by whichever operator is legally responsible; however, when the responsible party is unknown, the cost can be met by government grants. A questionnaire was sent to all employees working with contaminated land at each of Sweden’s CABs to investigate whether gender, age and work experience, as well as funding source, affect the reviewing of risk assessments, and the employees’ perception of knowledge gained from the Sustainable Remediation (Hållbar Sanering) research programme. It was found that gender was the most significant factor, but also age and experience of the employees influenced the respondent’s answers. The reviews of risk assessments also varied depending on funding source.

  • 207.
    Fjendbo Petersen, Mette
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Binning, Philip John
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale2012Inngår i: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna: Copernicus Gesellschaft , 2012, Vol. 14, s. 11892-11892Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 – 0.09 g/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 g/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact occurs at the reach downstream Grindsted city revealing that the main contaminant groundwater discharge zones are found here. The contaminant plume from the factory site north of the stream is known to impact the stream whereas the impact by the old landfill south of the stream remains to be assessed. A conceptual model of the chemical impacts by the identified sources was made, and high impact was assigned to the contaminant plume from the factory site and to the diffuse sources of urban-use and agricultural pesticides. The next step will be a quantification of the sources, which will be presented at the conference.

  • 208.
    Florén, Kajsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Miljökrav inom leverantörskedjan: En studie med utgångspunkt i värmeljuskoppar på Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ställa miljökrav inom leverantörskedjorna har blivit allt vanligare i takt med ökat miljöarbete. Det är dock bristfälligt dokumenterat hur väl eventuella miljökrav uppfylls kedjan igenom. För att organisera miljöarbetet har strategier uppkommit vilka tar hänsyn till kedjans miljöpåverkan, såsom Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). Genom en fallstudie kartlades vilka miljökrav som ställdes, om kraven var konsekventa längs leverantörskedjan och hur kraven kunde relateras till företagens övriga miljöarbete. Fallstudien hade sin utgångspunkt i Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks AB med fokus på värmeljuskoppens leverantörskedja. Genom en semistrukturerad intervju har företagen inom kedjan svarat på frågor kring bl.a. miljökrav. Dessutom har en LCA gjorts på värmeljuskoppen för att se huruvida miljökraven var adekvata med tanke på produktens miljöpåverkan. Resultatet visade att företagen ställde miljörelaterade krav. Dessa krav berörde främst leverantörens allmänna miljöarbete snarare än själva produkten. Typen av ställda krav var ej konsekvent med företagens miljöarbete. LCAn visade på att produktens största miljöpåverkan härrör från aluminiumet. Miljökraven borde således inriktas på större andel återvunnet material.

  • 209.
    Foghagen, Christer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mitigating water shortage impacts: water consump­tion and sectoral adaptations among tourism and farming enterprises in Öland, South East Sweden2018Inngår i: Tourism implications and dilemmas, 24-26 September 2018: book of abstract, 2018, s. 126-126Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism development has, for many areas, become an important means to mitigate impacts from rural restructuring and out migration. At the same time, tourism is an additional stress factor on local infrastructures, environments and water resources. The peak season for both farming and coastal tourism often coincide with the dry summer season. As a result, since both farming and tourism have a high demand for freshwater consumption, water scarcity and related issues has become an increasingly pressing matter (Gössling 2001; Gössling Et al, 2012; Cole 2014). This is especially evident for many coastal and island destinations where freshwater demand and water consumption accelerate. The increasing demand is in part a result of increasing volumes of incoming tourists, cattle livestock changes as well as the 20th century wetland reductions to feed the need of larger areas of farmland. The capacity to cope with low amounts of precipitation for periods of continuous years becomes increasingly challenging. This paper examines the awareness of water scarcity among tourism and farming businesses in Öland and Gotland, as well as measures taken to mitigate of impacts and freshwater use. Focus group interviews as well as surveys have been conducted among tourism and farming businesses and stakeholders in Öland and Gotland. The results show significant differences between tourism- and farming stakeholders regarding perception of causes and effects of water scarcity. Variation in responses is also seen in water management issues as well as matters of responsibility and solutions. There is also a difference between tourism- and farming businesses regarding mitigation and the actions and measures taken to secure freshwater their access or reduce freshwater abstraction.

  • 210.
    Forslund Hultman, Natalie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hur mycket bekämpningsmedel får vi i oss via grönsaker?: En studie av 12 olika hushåll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har som syfte att få fram ett exempel på hur mycket av de vanligaste bekämpningsmedlen vi människor i praktiken får i oss via grönsaker beroende på vad vi äter.

    En kvittoundersökning har genomförts där 27 försökspersoner från 12 olika hushåll har samlat ihop kvitton under en sexveckorsperiod. 52 % (n=14) var kvinnor, 41 % (n=11) var män och 7 % (n=2) var barn. En enkätundersökning kompletterade kvittometoden med sådana frågor som påverkar hur mycket grönsaker man äter. För att bedöma mängden bekämpningsmedel som försökspersonerna kan förväntas ha fått i sig användes mätdata från livsmedelsverkets undersökning av bekämpningsmedelshalter i frukt och grönt 2008 vilken är den senaste undersökningen där halterna publicerats.

    Resultatet i denna undersökning visade att bekämpningsmedelsbelastningen på försökspersonerna inte var över gränsen för det acceptabla dagliga intaget för enskilda substanser. Resultatet visade också att vi människor nästintill inte får i oss några bekämpningsmedel vid konsumtion av ekologiska grönsaker och att det kan vara en risk att äta konventionellt odlade grönsaker.

  • 211.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Biodegradation of azo dyes by natural microflora from forest residues chips cultivated on Swedish soft wood chips2008Inngår i: 16th European Biomass Conference& Exhibition, 2-6 June 2008, Valencia,Spain, ETA-Forence renewable energies , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of wood chips as a carrier and coal donator, azo dyes are biodegraded by the native microflora inhabiting forest residues chips from the south east part of Sweden. Due to background emissions from the forest residues chips the microflora are successfully transferred to soft sood chips from Norwegian spruce (picea abis) and Scots pine (pinus sylvestris). The azo dyes used in this study are reactive red 2 and reactive black 5 in combined artifical wastewater. The dyes are at a concentration of 200 mg/l degraded within 20 days with additional yeast extract of 1 g/l and 30 days without.

  • 212.
    Fridesjö, Jonathan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Potential energy savings through legislative development: A closer look at EU Ecodesign requirements for electric motors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    One of the legislative regulations aiming at reduced energy consumption in the European Union, is (EC) 640/2009 that imposes requirements of the efficiency of electric motors sold in the Union. This study aimed at examining the effectiveness of these legislative requirements.

    To illustrate the opportunities of reducing energy consumption by the introduction of more efficient motors, an efficiency measurement of electric motors that drive the fuel feed system in a cogeneration plant in Nybro was intended to be carried out.

    This was to enable a comparison between the efficiency of existing motors with motors which comply with the efficiency levels in (EC) 640/2009 and to calculate how much the energy consumption would decrease in this energy system if more efficient motors were introduced.

    The planed measurements could not be carried out to give a reliable result because the plant suffer from the same problem as many other industries in the EU, which is that the motors in this energy system are oversized and operate at low loads.

    Oversized motors do not operate at their rated efficiency and therefore a comparison of existing motors and motors that comply with the efficiency requirements in (EC) 640/2009 fails to give a correct result, since they would not operate at their rated efficiency if they were installed in this energy system due to the efficiency drop at low loads.

    Instead the load factor was determined with the Input Power Estimation Method that showed that all motors were operated far below their rated power, thus making this an inefficient energy system. This is a common problem, and an impediment for the directive to achieve its full potential energy savings because the efficiency of motors drops substantially if they are operated below their rated power. The results show that guidelines to avoid motor misapplications is just as important as raising the efficiency of electric motors.

    In the studied case higher energy savings can be achieved by replacing the tested motors to smaller motors instead of introducing new motors of the same size with a higher efficiency.

  • 213.
    Fröne, Joel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Buss eller spårvagn?: Miljövänligare infrastruktur för lokaltrafik i Jönköpings kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet är en LCA-studie vilken jämför transportslagen dieselbuss, gasbuss samt spårvagn. Studien behandlar dagens kollektivtrafiksystem i Jönköping jämförande ett realistiskt beräknat trafiksystem med spårvagn under ett 5- respektive 30-årigt perspektiv. Litteraturstudierna har främst inriktats på vetenskapliga arbeten och likvärdigt material. Eftersom buller från spårburen trafik hamnar längst ned på bullertrappan vid likvärdig ekvivalent ljudnivå och att alstringen av elektromagnetiska fält som fordras för driften eller funktionen är små, framstår den spårburna trafiken som ett miljövänligare alternativ i stadsmiljöer än bussar. Resultaten visar att spårvagnen har relativt mindre miljöpåverkan och behov av tillförd energi än bussar i relation till utfört transportarbete. Genom, en övergång till spårtrafik kan energianvändningen för kollektivtrafiken minska tillsammans med omkostnaderna, för att på sikt bli ett betydligt hållbarare alternativ än det nuvarande. Införande av effektivare och kostnadseffektiva transportslag kan innebära ytterligare positiva aspekter likt i den tyska staden Freiburg am Breisgau där man fått mindre antal bilar, fler cyklister men framför allt ett ökat nyttjande av kollektivtrafiken samt fler gående medborgare i de centrala stadsdelarna.

  • 214.
    Furvall, Camilla
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Reningstekniker för reducering av ammoniumkväve i rökgaskondensat.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utsläpp av kväveoxider (NOx) från förbränningsanläggningar har kraftigt minskat sedan kväveoxidavgiften infördes. Berörda anläggningar använder därför oftast rökgasrening med selektiv icke-katalytisk reduktion (SNCR). Metoden innebär att man tillsätter ammoniak i rökgaserna för att reducera NOx-halterna. Detta resulterar dock i att oreagerad ammoniak följer med ut i rökgaserna som därmed ger höga ammoniumhalter i rökgaskondensatet. Många anläggningar har villkor på ammonium i kondensatet som kräver att detta renas bort innan vattnet släpps ut till en recipient.

    Genom samarbete med kraftvärmeverket i Kiruna har deras anläggning använts som objekt att utgå ifrån eftersom de är i behov av att rena ammonium ur rökgaskondensatet för att i framtiden klara de kommande utsläppsvillkoren. Därmed undersöker detta arbete vilken reningsteknik som är mest lämplig för Kirunas värmeverk. Genom detta arbete har fyra olika reningstekniker för ammoniumkväve, samt en alternativmetod till detta undersökts. Reningsteknikerna är ammoniakstripper, kontaktmembran, återföring av ammoniakhaltigt vatten till eldstaden samt rening med RO. Alternativmetoden är att installera en slip-SCR som tar hand om överbliven ammoniak i rökgaserna.

    Resultaten visar att alla reningstekniker har en reningsgrad på ca 90%. Den mest lämpliga reningstekniken för Kirunas värmeverk är enligt denna undersökning en ammoniakstripp som också är den vanligaste och mest beprövade tekniken. 

  • 215. Fältmarsch, Rasmus
    et al.
    Österholm, Peter
    Greger, Maria
    Åström, Mats E.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Metal concentrations in oats (Avena sativa L.) grown on acid sulphate soils2009Inngår i: Agricultural and Food Science, ISSN 1459-6067, E-ISSN 1795-1895, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 45-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of soil chemistry on the concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe in oats (Avena saliva L. cv. Fiia) grown on Finnish acid sulphate (AS) soils with varying geochemical characteristics. Twenty two soil profiles, which were sampled to a depth of 1 m (five 20 cm section splits), and 26 composite oat grain samples were collected on a total of five fields. The concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn and Mn in the grains were correlated with the NH(4)Ac-EDTA-extractable concentrations in the soils. However, as these four chalcophilic metals are in general easily lost to drains and not retained as a large pool in the soil in easily-extractable form, also the concentrations in the oats were not in general elevated as compared with average values on other soils. On one of the fields, however, the Co and Ni concentrations in the soil, and thus also in the oats, were clearly elevated. Copper and Fe displayed no correlation between the soil and oat concentrations, indicating that the plant-uptake mechanisms are much more important than variations in geochemistry. It was suggested that the NH(4)Ac-EDTA solution was not efficient in extracting Fe and Cu, which shows that these metals are bound in relatively immobile oxyhydroxides.

  • 216.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fyfe, Ralph
    University of Plymouth, UK.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mazier, Florence
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Rossby Centre.
    Sugita, Shinya
    University of Tallinn, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    From land cover-climate relationships at the subcontinental scale to land cover-environment relationships at the regional and local spatial scale – the contribution of pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm approach2014Inngår i: Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past: Open PAGES Focus 4 Workshop Human-Climate-Ecosystem Interactions University of Leuven, Belgium 3-7 February 2014, 2014, s. 25-26Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (Sugita 2007a,b) includes two models, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) that estimates vegetation abundance (% cover) within an area of ca. 100 km x 100 km, and LOVE (LOcal Vegetation Estimates) that estimates vegetation abundance at the local spatial scale, i.e. within the Relevant Source Area of Pollen (RSAP sensu Sugita, 2004) that is the smallest area around the study site for which the reconstruction is valid. The RSAP is estimated by the LOVE model and varies between sites and vegetation settings; so far, it was estimated to vary between < 1 - < 10 km in most ecological settings of the Holocene in NW Europe. We used the REVEALS model and over 600 pollen records from pollen data bases and individual researchers to reconstruct land-cover in NW Europe N of the Alps for key time windows of the Holocene in order to assess model-based reconstructions of anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) (e.g. Kaplan et al., 2009) and model (LPJ-GUESS) simulations of past potential (climate-induced vegetation), and to study past land cover – climate interactions using a regional climate model (RCA3). We used the REVEALS model and the complete LRA approach (REVEALS + LOVE models) along with two pollen records from large lakes and three pollen records from small bogs to reconstruct the local-scale land-cover in central Småland, southern Sweden, to study the relationship between vegetation composition, fire, climate and human impact at the regional and local spatial scales with the objective to discuss biodiversity issues. Our results suggest that i) past subcontinental to regional ALCC did influence regional climate through biogeophysical processes at the landatmosphere interface (Strandberg et al., submitted), and ii) local land-cover change, both natural and anthropogenic, govern environmental changes such as fire and biodiversity (Cui et al., 2013; Cui et al., submitted).

  • 217.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kaplan, Jed O
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Germany.
    Nielsen, Anne Brigitte
    Lund University.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    Rossby Centre.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Rossby Centre.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Has anthropogenic land-cover change been a significant climate forcing in the past?: An assessment for the Baltic Sea catchment area based on a literature review2015Inngår i: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2015, Vol. 17Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed the recent published scientific literature on land cover-climate interactions at the global and regional spatial scales with the aim to assess whether it is convincingly demonstrated that anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) has been (over the last centuries and millennia) a significant climate forcing at the global scale, and more specifically at the scale of the Baltic Sea catchment area. The conclusions from this review are as follows: i) anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response in the past is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects, and to the biogeochemical vs biogeophysical effects; ii) there is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback; iii) several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes; iv) palaeoecological studies indicate a major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the study region occurring between 6000 and 3000/2500 calendar years before present (cal. BP) (1) ; v) the only modelling study so far of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in Europe suggests that a deforestation of the magnitude of that reconstructed for the past (between 6000 and 200 cal BP) can produce changes in winter and summer temperatures of +/- 1, the sign of the change depending on the season and the region (2). Thus, if ALCC and their biogeophysical effects did matter in the past, they should matter today and in the future. A still prevailing idea is that planting trees will mitigate climate warming through biogeochemical effects. Therefore, there is still an urgent need to better understand the biogeophysical effects on regional and continental climate of afforestation in the hemiboreal and boreal regions, and their significance in relation to the biogeochemical effects.

  • 218.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    LandCover6k, Interim Steering Group
    LandCover6k: Global anthropogenic land-cover change and its role in past climate2015Inngår i: PAGES News, ISSN 1811-1602, E-ISSN 1811-1610, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 38-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 219.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lézine, A.-M.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France.
    Morrison, K.
    University of Chicago, USA.
    LandCover6k, Steering Group
    Launching workshop of PAGES' working group LandCover6k: Workshop Report2015Inngår i: PAGES News, ISSN 1811-1602, E-ISSN 1811-1610, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 81-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 220.
    Gargano, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Palermo, Italy.
    Tamburino, Lucia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Bagarello, Fabio
    University of Palermo, Italy ; INFN National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Large-scale effects of migration and conflict in pre-agricultural groups: Insights from a dynamic model2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id e0172262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice. The model outcomes under different conditions were compared with recently available demographic data for prehistoric South America. Only under conditions that include migration among cells and conflict was the model able to consistently reproduce the empirical data at a continental scale. We argue that the interplay between resource competition, migration, and conflict drove the population dynamics of South America after the colonization phase and before the introduction of agriculture. The relation between population and resources indeed emerged as a key factor leading to migration and conflict once the carrying capacity of the environment has been reached.

  • 221. Gaydarova, P N
    et al.
    Yurukova, L
    Donev, E
    Wiman, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Notes on the Natural Resources and Biogeochemistry of the Bulgarian South Black Sea Coast2000Inngår i: 1999 Arrhenius Seminar: / [ed] B.L.B. Wiman & L. Pettersson, Kalmar: Högskolan i Kalmar , 2000, s. 65-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 222.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Frey, Ulrich
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany.
    Theesfeld, Insa
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.
    Self-organization in the commons: An empirically-tested model2017Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 96, s. 30-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A appropriate bottom-up rule system can support the sustainability of common-pool resources such as forests and fisheries. The process that leads to the developments of such institutional settings requires the considerations of multiple social, physical, and institutional factors over long time horizons. In this paper, we present the SONICOM model as a general exploratory model of CPR systems. The model can be configured to represent different CPR systems in order to explore what kind of institutional settings result in stable systems, i.e. situations where the resource and the appropriators are in a state of well-being. We use a large-N-dataset of CPR management institutions to validate the model. The results show numerous correlations between various parameters of the system such as rule compliance, social influence and resource growth rate which help explaining the process of institutional emergence as well as unveiling the conditions under which systems are stable.

  • 223.
    Giongo, Adriana
    et al.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Haag, Taiana
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Lopes Simao, Taiz L.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Medina-Silva, Renata
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Utz, Laura R. P.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Bogo, Mauricio R.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Bonatto, Sandro L.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Zamberlan, Priscilla M.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho H.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Lourega, Rogerio V.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Sbrissa, Gesiane F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Kowsmann, Renato O.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Freire, Antonio F. M.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Miller, Dennis J.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Viana, Adriano R.
    Petrobras SA, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Eizirik, Eduardo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Discovery of a chemosynthesis-based community in the western South Atlantic Ocean2016Inngår i: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 112, s. 45-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemosynthetic communities have been described from a variety of deep-sea environments across the world's oceans. They constitute very interesting biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, and also given their potential as indicators of the presence and abundance of consistent hydrocarbon-based nutritional sources. Up to now such peculiar biotic assemblages have not been reported for the western South Atlantic Ocean, leaving this large region undocumented with respect to the presence, composition and history of such communities. Here we report on the presence of a chemosynthetic community off the coast of southern Brazil, in an area where high-levels of methane and the presence of gas hydrates have been detected. We performed metagenomic analyses of the microbial community present at this site, and also employed molecular approaches to identify components of its benthic fauna. We conducted phylogenetic analyses comparing the components of this assemblage to those found elsewhere in the world, which allowed a historical assessment of the structure and dynamics of these systems. Our results revealed that the microbial community at this site is quite diverse, and contains many components that are very closely related to lineages previously sampled in ecologically similar environments across the globe. Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaeal groups were found to be very abundant at this site, suggesting that methane is indeed an important source of nutrition for this community. In addition, we document the presence at this site of a vestimentiferan siboglinid polychaete and the bivalve Acharax sp., both of which are typical components of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities. The remarkable similarity in biotic composition between this area and other deep-sea communities across the world supports the interpretation that these assemblages are historically connected across the global oceans, undergoing colonization from distant sites and influenced by local ecological features that select a stereotyped suite of specifically adapted organisms. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 224. Golsteijn, Laura
    et al.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Cassani, Stefano
    Hendriks, Harrie W. M.
    Kovarich, Simona
    Papa, Ester
    Rorije, Emiel
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Huijbregts, Mark A. J.
    Assessing predictive uncertainty in comparative toxicity potentials of triazoles2014Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 293-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTPs) quantify the potential ecotoxicological impacts of chemicals per unit of emission. They are the product of a substance's environmental fate, exposure, and hazardous concentration. When empirical data are lacking, substance properties can be predicted. The goal of the present study was to assess the influence of predictive uncertainty in substance property predictions on the CTPs of triazoles. Physicochemical and toxic properties were predicted with quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), and uncertainty in the predictions was quantified with use of the data underlying the QSARs. Degradation half-lives were based on a probability distribution representing experimental half-lives of triazoles. Uncertainty related to the species' sample size that was present in the prediction of the hazardous aquatic concentration was also included. All parameter uncertainties were treated as probability distributions, and propagated by Monte Carlo simulations. The 90% confidence interval of the CTPs typically spanned nearly 4 orders of magnitude. The CTP uncertainty was mainly determined by uncertainty in soil sorption and soil degradation rates, together with the small number of species sampled. In contrast, uncertainty in species-specific toxicity predictions contributed relatively little. The findings imply that the reliability of CTP predictions for the chemicals studied can be improved particularly by including experimental data for soil sorption and soil degradation, and by developing toxicity QSARs for more species. (c) 2013 SETAC

  • 225.
    Gradén, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kornstorleksfraktionen och analysmetodens betydelse vid analys av metallförorenade fyllnadsmassor och mulljord2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att studera hur metallhalten i två olika sorters förorenade jord, fyllnadsmassor och mulljord, varierar beroende på valet av analyserad kornstorleksfraktion och analysmetod. För att studera variationerna utfördes kvalitativa korrelationsberäkningarna med fokus på två kornstorleksfraktioner och tre analysmetoder. Storleksfraktionerna inkluderade en < 2 mm och en < 0,075 mm fraktion. Analysmetoderna inkluderar två stycken syrauppslutningar, med antingen salpetersyra eller kungsvatten, samt en XRF-analys. Korrelationsstudierna i detta examensarbete har visat god samstämmighet med redan publicerad litteratur.

    Utförda beräkningar bekräftar även delvis det schablonmässiga antagandet om att metallhalterna i en storleksfraktion < 2 mm är cirka 2/3 jämfört med metallhalten i en storleksfraktion < 0,063 mm. Studierna i detta examensarbete visar dock att det finns en tydlig avvikelse för jordar med lägre halter av tungmetaller. Vid beräkningarna av metallhaltskvoterna mellan den finare och grövre storleksfraktionen påvisades att storleken av kvoten ökade markant vid en metallhalt < 100 mg/kg.

    För jordar med lägre halter av tungmetaller, visar beräkningar att metallhalterna i de finare storleksfraktionerna kan utgöra en betydande faktor vid hälsoriskbedömningar och exponeringsberäkningar. De förhöjda metallhalterna i finfraktionerna kan för fyllnadsmassorna delvis förklaras av dess kornstorleksfördelning. Metallhaltskvoten mellan de båda storleksfraktionerna varierade även med avseende på analyserad metall, där koppar utmärkte sig extra mycket, speciellt i den förorenade mulljorden. En trolig orsak till de observerade variationerna hos de olika metallerna kan bero på jordarnas organiska innehåll, geokemiska egenskaper samt metallernas affinitet för olika jordtyper.

    Slutsatsen dragen utifrån studierna i detta examensarbete är att vid riskbedömningar av metallförorenade jordar bör skillnaden i metallhalt mellan de olika storleksfraktionerna beaktas. Detta gäller speciellt för jordar med en lägre föroreningsgrad av tungmetaller, där halterna kan vara väsentligt mycket högre i finfraktionen än vad som antas schablonmässigt. Att beakta halterna i de olika fraktionerna ökar möjligheterna till säkrare riskbedömningar som underlag för beslutsfattare för att utvärdera och klassificera markområden inför exempelvis olika saneringsåtgärder.

  • 226.
    Gren, Amanda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Är fytoremediering en realistisk metod för att rena marken runt Glasriket på arsenik, kadmium och bly?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoremediation is a technique using the ability of plants to absorb pollutants in their biomass from contaminated soils and remediate it. The plants are then harvested and the soil gets purified. This method is more environmental-friendly than the normally used methods for soil remediation. Glasriket in Småland is an area with large amount of pollutants including arsenic, cadmium and lead. This area must be cleaned from these metals because of the high threat to the environment ant the health of people who live here. This work has been carried out to investigate whether phytoremediation is a realistic remediation method for Glasriket or not. Phytoremediation is affected by many factors such as the environment, soil characteristics and the metals bioavailability. But the key determinant for the method is the choice of plants. The chosen plants must have the ability to survive at the location but also have a high biomass and a good ability to absorb heavy metals. Plants with these criteria do not generally grow in Sweden, which leads to the conclusion that phytoremediation not are a realistic option for Glasriket. But phytoremediation can be used as a second method or in a combination with other methods. 

  • 227.
    Grieger, Khara Deanne
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off?2010Inngår i: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 118, nr 3-4, s. 165-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situapplications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a ‘best’ and ‘worst’ case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency, bioaccumulation, toxicity) are generally unknown. We recommend that in cases where nZVI may be chosen as the ‘best’ treatment option, short and long-term environmental monitoring is actively employed at these sites. We furthermore recommend the continued development of responsible nZVI innovation and better facilitated information exchange between nZVI developers, nano-risk researchers, remediation industry, and decision makers.

  • 228.
    Grönfors, Sara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Klimatförändringar på ön Fongafale, Tuvalu: En analys av miljöpåverkan och attityder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed to investigate how a rising sea level would affect the livable area of the island Fongafale, Tuvalu. Through the IPCC stabilization scenarios it was examined which areas of the island that would be affected by flooding. The local population’s perceptions of the effects of climate change were studied to see how the consequences of a world-wide problem such as global warming affect people's lives. The paper clarified the Tuvaluans place in the discussion of climate refugees, explained IPCC's work and described the results of previous studies concerning people in Fongafales perceptions and concerns about climate-related changes. The result shows already flooded areas with important buildings, such as airport and government buildings and that with a rising sea level, an increasing part of the island will suffer. The survey shows a stronger tendency to concern for lack of water and work than for a climate-related sea level rise, and that the main reason for a possible emigration would primarily be work-related.

  • 229. Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca
    et al.
    Maas, Ger
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries2013Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 220-232Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 230.
    Gunnarsson, Helene
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Livscykelanalys: Förbränning av hushållsavfall kontra biogas: miljömässiga och ekonomiska perspektiv med utgångspunkt i Oskarshamns kommun2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det möjligt att reducera utsläppen av växthusgaser och samtidigt nå en hållbar utveckling? Regionförbundet i Kalmar län antog utmaningen 2006 och är därmed en föregångsregion i arbetet med detta. Till år 2030 är målet att Kalmar län ska bli en fossilbränslefri region. Den största potentialen anses finnas inom nya alternativ till fordonsbränsle. Hushållens sopor innehåller organiskt matavfall som skulle kunna bli fordonsgas. Allt fler biogasmackar öppnas och gasen har vunnit framgång i takt med att kollektivtrafiken gjort satsningar.

    I Oskarshamns kommun sker i dagsläget ingen utsortering av organiskt matavfall. Hushållsavfallet skickas tillsammans med det organiska matavfallet till förbränning med energiutvinning i Linköping. Syftet med min studie är att göra en utvärdering av miljöpåverkan utifrån två scenarier; förbränning av allt hushållavfall jämfört med att producera biogas av matavfallet och förbränna resterande. Detta sett utifrån potentialen för området i Oskarshamns kommun. Syftet är även att titta på ekonomiska aspekter.

    Detta är en livscykelanalys där två metoder har använts, Global Warming Potential med ett 100 års perspektiv samt ReCiPe Endpoint. Den funktionella enheten är 1 ton hushållsavfall.

    Genom att röta det organiska hushållsavfallet och förbränna det övriga kan man minska miljöpåverkan till 74,6 % jämfört med att förbränna allt tillsammans. Växthusgaserna minskar då med 780 kg koldioxidekvivalenter per ton hushållsavfall. Den främsta miljövinsten blir i form av minskande klimatförändringar men att det fordrar ganska omfattande ekonomiska investeringar.

  • 231.
    Gustafsson, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Växthusgaskartläggning för ABB AB High Voltage Cables2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens utsläpp av växthusgaser är ett globalt problem att räkna med. Om inget görs kommer jordens klimat bli allt varmare och varmare. För att motverka detta behöver levnadsmönster förändras men också industrins produktionmönster. Det finns synergier mellan dessa mönster: t.ex. att ändra och minimera energiförbrukning, att ändra sättet vi människor och varor transporteras på.I denna rapport beskrivs ett företags växthusgasutsläpp. Vilka källor som utsläppen sker från, hur stora utsläppen är samt varför utsläppen uppstår. Baserat på kartläggningen diskuteras tänkbara åtgärder för att minska utsläppen.

    Företaget, High Voltage Cables (HVC), är en del av ABB koncernen och tillverkar bl. a högspänningskabel som används till t.ex. havsbaserade vindkraftverk runt om i Europa. Företagets produkter är en viktig länk i omställningen av Europas energiproduktion så att denna utvecklas på ett hållbart sätt.

    Att kartlägga verksamhetens växthusgasbidrag är ett led i arbetet med att få verksamheten mer hållbar och att produkterna som lämnar fabriken är tillverkade på ett så miljövänligt sätt som möjligt. Företaget är på god väg men har några områden som utmanar:Energiförbrukning, godstransporter och användandet av Svavelhexafluorid (SF6).

    Företaget har genomfört en energikartläggning som resulterat i olika förbättringsåtgärder. Som ett resultat av detta har mängden förbrukad energi per ton producerad kabel minskat med 17 % mellan år 2010 och 2011. Företagets inleveranser av gods sker i nuläget med lastbil. Om transporterna istället kunde ske med t.ex. fartyg skulle CO2-utsläppen reduceras med så mycket som 81 %.I samband med högspänningsprovning av kablar används gasen SF6 som är en kraftfull växthusgas. Så kraftfull att ett läckage direkt påverkar företagets utsläppsbild. Det senaste utsläppet var på nära 95 kg vilket motsvarar en tredjedel av den totala mängden utsläppta växthusgaser under ett år från företaget.

    Då företaget står inför en expansion finns stora möjligheter att adressera dessa källor på ett bra sätt vilket kommer att ge utdelning. Minskade utsläpp är bra för klimatet och miljön men kommer också att vara positivt för affärerna.

  • 232.
    Gustavsson, Caroline
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Biogaspotentialen av matavfall sorterat ur hushållsavfall.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve the Government's milestones for 2018, which means that 50 % of food waste shall be separated from household waste and undergo biological treatment (composting or anaerobic digestion).   

    Hultsfred, Högsby and Vimmerby are three adjacent municipalities of Kalmar, county Småland. During 2012 and 2013 analyzes were performed on their household waste to determine its composition. The household waste is currently collected in one fraction. The work, examines how much food waste the household waste contains. From the amount of food waste, the biogas potential is examined - how much food waste biogas generates and how much energy it corresponds to.   

    Food waste is broken down by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions (anaerobic digestion) in a biogas plant. The final product of the digestion of food waste is raw biogas and biofertilizer. The work has only considered biogas production.      

    Biogas potential is chosen to be investigated because no previous studies on this have been made. It provides the actual municipalities with an insight about how much biogas and energy that their food waste could generate if they separated food wastes from their household waste.     

    The results of the survey showed that the biogas potential in the three municipalities comprises 247 000 m3/year, corresponding to an energy value of 1,6 GWh/year. The current biogas production in Sweden is at an energy value of 1 473 GWh, which means that the biogas potential in the municipalities is low.

  • 233.
    Gällerspång, Rickard
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Framtidens begravningskoncept: Tradition i kombination med utveckling?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att jordens befolkning ökar kommer det i framtiden krävas bättre, mer effek­tiva och hållbara begravningskoncept. De nuvarande alternativen har en del oönskade bieffekter som att: vid jordfästning tar graven upp mark under mer eller mindre långtid, på begravningsplatser sker utsläpp till mark och grundvatten av organiska och oorganiska ämnen, vid kremering sker utsläpp av luftföroreningar, samt i enlighet med den nu gällande Begravningslagen (1990:1144) så samlas metallresterna som blir över i askan ihop och jordfästs på kyrko­gård. I Sverige uppgår dessa metallrester till 22 ton per år.

    För att komma tillrätta med situationen tillsatte regeringen i Sverige den 29 november 2012 en särskild utredare. Utredaren kom i sitt betänkande fram till att man bör börja återvinna metallerna som blir över efter en kremation om det kan göras etiskt, ekonomiskt och miljömässigt korrekt samt att nya begravningsmetoder bör kunna användas i framtiden efter att de granskats och godkänts.

    Genomförda intervjuer, enkätundersökning samt litteraturgenomgång visade på att det finns en negativ miljöpåverkan från de nuvarande begravningsmetoderna, det finns en skepsis mot nya begravningsmetoder, en majoritet av de som deltog i undersökningarna är för återvinning av metaller efter kremering. 

  • 234.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gömarkens skogsdynamik som biologisk resurs2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 235.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Habitatmodeller simulerar ingrepp i naturen2009Inngår i: Biodiverse, nr 2, s. 5-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 236.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Sustainable transportation in the national parks2015Inngår i: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 1120-1121Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 237.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Dept Serv Management & Serv Studies,Sweden ; Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Choi, Andy S.
    Univ Queensland, Australia ; Natl Inst Ecol, South Korea.
    Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles2015Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 113, s. 106-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cities of the world, bicycle infrastructure projects are implemented to foster more sustainable transportation systems. However, such projects have often raised questions regarding their public funding, as they entail considerable costs. This paper reviews cost-benefit analysis (CBA) frameworks as these are presently used to assess bicycle infrastructure projects. Specific focus is on the CBA framework developed in Copenhagen, Denmark, a self-declared "city of cyclists". In this framework, costs and benefits of car and bicycle, the two major urban transport modes, have been assessed and are compared across accidents, climate change, health, and travel time. The analysis reveals that each km travelled by car or bike incurs a cost to society, though the cost of car driving is more than six times higher (Euro 0.50/km) than cycling (Euro 0.08/km). Moreover, while the cost of car driving is likely to increase in the future, the cost of cycling appears to be declining. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Copenhagen CBA framework to advance sustainable transport planning and to motivate and justify urban restructuring. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 238.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Lund University ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Fichert, Frank
    Worms Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Forsyth, Peter
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Subsidies in Aviation2017Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 8, artikkel-id 1295Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector's importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies.

  • 239.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway;Lund University.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Litman, Todd
    Victoria Transport Policy Inst, Canada.
    Metzler, Daniel
    Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Effects of Perceived Traffic Risks, Noise, and Exhaust Smells on Bicyclist Behaviour: An Economic Evaluation2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 1-15, artikkel-id 408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Active mode (walking, bicycling, and their variants) users are exposed to various negative externalities from motor vehicle traffic, including injury risks, noise, and air pollutants. This directly harms the users of these modes and discourages their use, creating a self-reinforcing cycle of less active travel, more motorized travel, and more harmful effects. These impacts are widely recognized but seldom quantified. This study evaluates these impacts and their consequences by measuring the additional distances that bicyclists travel in order to avoid roads with heavy motor vehicle traffic, based on a sample of German-Austrian bicycle organization members (n = 491), and monetizes the incremental costs. The results indicate that survey respondents cycle an average 6.4% longer distances to avoid traffic impacts, including injury risks, air, and noise pollution. Using standard monetization methods, these detours are estimated to impose private costs of at least Euro0.24/cycle-km, plus increased external costs when travellers shift from non-motorized to motorized modes. Conventional transport planning tends to overlook these impacts, resulting in overinvestment in roadway expansions and underinvestments in other types of transport improvements, including sidewalks, crosswalks, bikelanes, paths, traffic calming, and speed reductions. These insights should have importance for transport planning and economics.

  • 240.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Metzler, Daniel
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma2017Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, s. 418-428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80-95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002-2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector:

  • 241.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Lund Univ, Sweden ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Peeters, Paul
    NHTV Breda Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands ; Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands ; Wageningen Univ, Netherlands .
    Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900-20502015Inngår i: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 639-659Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its past, current, and future contributions to global resource use is a central requirement for sustainable tourism assessments. The paper introduces the concept of resource use intensities (RUIs), which represent tourism's resource needs per unit of consumption (e.g. energy per guest night). Based on estimates of RUIs, a first assessment of tourism's global resource use and emissions is provided for the period 1900-2050, utilizing the Peeters Global Tourism Transport Model. Results indicate that the current (2010) global tourism system may require c.16,700 PJ of energy, 138 km(3) of fresh water, 62,000 km(2) of land, and 39.4 Mt of food, also causing emissions of 1.12 Gt CO2. Despite efforts to implement more sustainable forms of tourism, analysis indicates that tourism's overall resource consumption may grow by between 92% (water) and 189% (land use) in the period 2010-2050. To maintain the global tourism system consequently requires rapidly growing resource inputs, while the system is simultaneously becoming increasingly vulnerable to disruptions in resource flows.

  • 242.
    Hagenby, John
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sura sulfatjordar och vattenkvalitet Vattenmätningar från Vörå å 1969–20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sura sulfatjordar (SSJ) bildas på tidigare havsbottnar med sulfidhaltiga sediment som med landhöjningen har lyfts upp ur havet och genom grundvattensänkande aktiviteter  exponerats för syre. Vörå å är ett vattendrag  i västra Finland som är kraftigt SSJ-påverkat. Närings-, trafik- och miljöcentralen i Österbotten har gjort vattenmätningar i Vörå å i flera decennier och syftet med detta arbete var att strukturera, beskriva och tolka tidigare obehandlade data från vattenmätningar som gjorts mellan 1969 och 2017 och därmed synliggöra årstidsvariationer och förändringar i vattnets kemiska sammansättning över tid. Vattenkvaliteten i Vörå å var allra sämst under höst och vår: pH <5, höga sulfathalter och konduktivitet om 25–100 mS/m.  Suspenderat material och turbiditet var som högst i april medan pH, konduktivitet, järnhalt och COD var som högst under sommaren. Variationerna i vattnets kemiska sammansättning var minst under våren och störst under sommaren då flera variabler uppvisade en mycket stor spridning. I slutet av mätperioden uppvisade många variabler en liten bättring och vad denna beror på är oklart. I och med klimatförändringar har årsmedeltemperaturerna i Finland stigit vilket skulle kunna tänkas påverka tiden för högflöden. Det finns tecken i datan som tyder på sådana förändringar sedan 1970-talet. Metallmätningar som gjorts under 2000-talet jämfördes mot bakgrundsvärden, vissa uppvisade förhöjda värden. 

  • 243.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland ; Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    Univ Helsinki, Finland ; Kazan Fed Univ, Russia.
    Penttinen, O. -P
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, s. 30-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 244.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Penttinen, Olli-Pekka
    Egfors, Angelica
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Environmental toxicity of glassworks landfill soils2016Inngår i: Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2016: Book of Abstracts : The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World. / [ed] Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland, Linnaeus University Press, 2016, s. 241-242Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following over 200 years of industrialization, soil contamination is a widespread problem in many countries. Contaminants, especially heavy metals and persistent organic compounds, can still be found at high concentrations decades after the emissions have ceased. One important part of this industrial heritage is the heavy metal contamination of soil and landfills around glass factories, with complex relationships between contaminants, the natural hydrogeochemical environment and biota. In southeastern Sweden lies the so called “Kingdom of Crystal”, with a long tradition of artistic glass production and elevated concentrations of a range of metals found in soil and landfills of the glassworks sites. Because high total concentrations may not always translate into a high mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity, research on biological effects has been deemed necessary to delineate the severity of contamination.

    For the present study, soil samples from landfills and control areas were collected at five glassworks in the Kingdom of Crystal (Bergdala, Målerås, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors). Each landfill site was heavily contaminated with various metals. As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were the major contaminants, exceeding the guideline values of Swedish legislation. Total concentrations were found in the range 64-7800 mg As kg-1, 30- 600 mg Ba kg-1, 0.16- 3 mg Cd kg-1, 160-38000 mg Pb kg-1, 0.40-56 mg Sb kg-1, and 45-1100 mg Zn kg-1. To test for biotoxicity, a battery of tests with species of varying sensitivities and exposure pathways were applied. Evaluation of plant toxicity to Lepidium sativum demonstrated the lack of difference between biomass production between the soils from contaminated landfill sites and control areas. Similarly, elutriates from both metal contaminated and reference soils implied low toxicity to the photobacterium Vibrio fisheri. However, significant reduction in the numbers and biomass of enchytraeids was observed in the landfill sites of Bergdala, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors. Also the numbers of nematodes tended to be reduced in landfill sites. Altogether, the obtained results provide a better understanding of the complex historical contamination by evaluating biological responses at different levels.

  • 245. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Hultman, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Tourism mobility, locality and sustainable rural development2010Inngår i: Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe: Approaches to Development. / [ed] McLeod, D. and Gillespie, S., London: Routledge, 2010, s. 28-42Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural Europe is a highly developed tourism region, representing advanced tourism experience and supposed modern approaches to this industry. That said, it remains highly sensitive and fragile in terms of environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts. This volume focuses on rural Europe as a fascinating example of how tourism development impacts on the communities and the environment of rural regions and offers insights into how long term sustainability could be achieved in this specific region and correspondingly in other rural parts of the world.

    Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe contains contributions from leading international scholars that review and analyse the concept and practice of sustainable tourism in this region through a multidisciplinary approach that embodies the view that sustainable tourism warrants a holistic approach in terms of its impacts and development potential. Divided into three sections: Key Themes and Issues; The State and Development; The Local Community and Development, this book addresses contentious and vital issues through theory, detailed research and case studies, offering real world approaches to sustainable development, showing problems including local politics which challenge abstract models. It introduces cutting edge research dealing with contemporary developments throughout Europe and consequential lessons/implications for other rural parts of the world.

    This volume will be of interest to students, researchers and academics in the areas of Tourism, Geography and Environmental Studies.

  • 246. Hameed, Mahmood
    The ecological Culture as a civilizing necessity for the Family2003 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ar]

    قد أضحت قضية التثقيف البيئي قضية حضارية وإنسانية عامة تهم البشر بأي لون كانت جلودهم وبأي لغة انطلقت بها ألسنتهم وذلك في ضوء ما يشهده عالمنا المعاصر من تحديات تخل بالتوازن البيئي الذي بدأت عواقبه الوخيمة تزداد يوما بعد يوم. هذا ويتوجب على الإنسان العصري الإلمام بالمشاكل البيئية التي خلقها التقدم التكنلوجي الذي ينعم بمنجزاته. كما غدا الوعي البيئي على صعيد المجتمع وليكون عنصرا فعالا في حماية البيئة حاملا على عاتقه نقل أمانة الحفاظ عليها. إن هذا الكتاب هو معين مبسط يقدم للإنسان عبر سلسلة من المحاضرات شرحا للمشاكل البيئية بأسلوب سلس يستطيع من خلاله استيعاب المخاطر البيئية المحدقة بكوكبنا وذلك من خلال التطرق لمسببات هذه المشاكل ونتائجها وطرق التصدي لها وعلاجها وذلك وذلك بهدف الوعي البيئي لدى مواطنينا مهما اختلفت مستوياتهم التعليمية.                                   

  • 247. Hameed, Mahmood
    The most ecological Problems in the modern world1995 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ar]

     

    أهم المشكلات البيئية في العالم المعاصر: يقدم هذا الكتاب شرحا مفصلا لأهم المشكلات البيئية التي يرزح تحتها عالمنا المعاصر من تلوث للهواء والتربة والماء والغذاء مع اسقاط الضوء على مشكلتي الاحتباس الحراري وثقب الأوزون: حيث يتم طرح المشكلة مع بيان أسبابها والأضرار الناجمة عنها وطرق علاجها.

  • 248.
    Hammarsten, Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almers, Ellen
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Avery, Helen
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Tobias
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Developing ecological literacy in a forest garden: children’s perspectives2019Inngår i: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 227-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, cities become more dense, green spaces disappear and children spend less time outdoors. Research suggests that these conditions create health problems and lack of ecological literacy. To reverse such trends, localities are creating urban green spaces for children to visit during school time. Drawing on ideas in ecological literacy, this study investigates school children’s perspectives on a forest garden, a type of outdoor educational setting previously only scarcely researched. Data were collected through walk-and-talk conversations and informal interviews with 28 children aged 7 to 9. Many children in the study expressed strong positive feelings about the forest garden, the organized and spontaneous activities there, and caring for the organisms living there. We observed three aspects of learning in the data, potentially beneficial for the development of children’s ecological literacy: practical competence, learning how to co-exist and care, and biological knowledge and ecological understanding.

  • 249.
    Hansson, Dag
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Utveckla enhetlig miljömålsuppföljning: En fallstudie av kommunerna i Kalmar län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljön är något som påverkar alla människors vardag och det är därför viktigt att kommuner, länsstyrelser och centrala myndigheter i Sverige arbetar tillsammans för att lyckas med att uppnå de nationella miljömålen. För att utveckla det miljöarbete som sker är det viktigt att kontinuerligt arbeta med uppföljning av miljömålen. Studien genomfördes via ett samarbete med Länsstyrelsen Kalmar län och syftet var att ta reda på hur kommunerna i Kalmar län kan arbeta mer enhetligt med miljömålsuppföljningen. För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställningar undersöktes nuläget i kommunerna samt vilka visioner som fanns för framtiden. I studien skedde en intervjuserie där utvalda politiker och tjänstepersoner i nyckelroller från samtliga av Kalmar läns kommuner deltog. Studien visar att det finns flera likheter mellan hur kommunerna idag arbetar samt hur de i framtiden vill prioritera miljöarbetet och det är dessa likheter som bör ligga som en gemensam grund för utvecklingen av miljömålsarbetet. Hur kommunens egna organisation är uppbyggd och vikten av att samverka över kommungränserna är några faktorer som verkar spela en avgörande roll för hur väl de lyckas med miljömålsarbetet. I studien påvisas ett behov av att extra resurser satsas inom området och att detta är ett måste för att vi tillsammans ska lyckas bättre med att uppnå målen inom Agenda 2030 jämfört med hur det hittills gått med att nå de nationella miljömålen. Förhoppningen är att om resultatet från studien faller väl ut, kan den bidra till att stärka Sveriges arbete med på kort sikt de nationella miljömålen och på längre sikt arbetet medatt uppnå målen i Agenda 2030 och en hållbar framtid.

  • 250.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Reduction of Pollutants in Stormwaterand Processwater from the WoodIndustry by Electrocoagulation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Although wood floor production does not use water in the production process, water consumptionis related to cleaning and washing of floor and machineries in different steps of the process line,which generate a number of small flows that are highly polluted.Besides this, the industry has a need to store large amounts of wood outside to be able to havecontinuity in the production. This takes up a lot of space outdoors and once it rains the water thathas been in contact with wood, oil and metals forms stormwater, which transports pollutants.Stormwater has for a long time not been seen as a problem and has often been discharged intorecipient water bodies without any treatment. During cold seasons, this also involves snowmelt thatcan transport high concentrations of different pollutants.This report describes the composition of process- and stormwater from a wood floor industry inNybro, Sweden regarding parameters such as COD, phenol, tannin and lignin. The concentrationsof phenols in the stormwater were found in a range considered toxic to marine life.Regarding the process water, high values was found for COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and forother substances and elements potentially toxic (e.g. formaldehyde, wood resins, detergents andmetals). If these waters are directly released to a sewage treatment plant without any pre-treatmentprocess it can disturb the plant treatment efficiency; if released to a recipient water body, it cancause oxygen deficiency and consequently, death to marine life.The possibility of reducing the levels of pollutants through the use of electrocoagulation has beenexamined in this study. This has been done both for process water and stormwater from the woodfloor industry. A 250 ml batch unit for electrocoagulation EC was setup with iron (Fe) andaluminium (Al) electrodes for treating process water and stormwater. The results show that the ECprocess can reduce COD concentration from stormwater at least 70%. On the other hand, lessefficiency of EC for treating process water was observed.A method for simulating a snowmelt period in lab scale was also developed. Snow collected from awood floor industry was melted according to real temperature and the quality of these samples hasthen been compared to on-site samples of stormwater

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