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  • 201.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy advice service as perceived by Swedish homeowners2011Inngår i: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 104-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden municipality energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. The success of energy advice service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context, we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in the summer of 2008. We found that majority of owners of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had contacted an energy adviser. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy advice service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  • 202.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Perceptional and socio-economic factors in adoption of low energy houses2009Inngår i: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of low energy houses reduces greenhouse emission from residential sector. However, adoption of such houses depends on the perception of the potential buyers. In this paper we have analyzed Swedish homeowners’ perception of low energy houses. Data was collected in 2008 from a mail-in questionnaire survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses. Results showed that about 39% of respondents, especially young, educated or whose household income was high, would consider buying a low energy house. Majority of the respondents agreed that a low energy house in comparison to a conventional house has lower operating energy cost, but higher investment cost. Majority thought that low energy houses do not have lower resale value, lower aesthetic appearance, or greater operational difficulty.

  • 203.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Policy instruments to promote energy efficiency in the building sector: Indian and Swedish experiences2008Inngår i: 14th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 21-23 September, New Delhi, India, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency measures in buildings are widely regarded as cost effective options to mitigate climate change. However, policy instruments are needed to improve the diffusion of such measures. The policy mix may be country-specific. Here, we compare and contrast the various policy instruments designed to enhance energy efficiency in the building sector in India and Sweden. The objective is to explore if the experiences of Sweden that have promoted energy efficiency in buildings for decades could be useful for India, where energy demand is forecasted to strongly increase. India and Sweden are very different, for example, in terms of development, size, priorities, population, and climatic conditions. In Sweden, policy initiatives to reduce energy use in buildings date back to the 1970s and the government is committed to significantly reduce energy use in buildings. In India, the interest in energy efficiency improvements in buildings is a recent phenomenon. The country introduced an energy conservation building code in 2007. This analysis shows that policy instruments are more prevalent in Sweden than in India where regulatory instruments are particularly lacking. Hence, Swedish buildings are more energy efficient than those in India. The Swedish experience could be useful for devising programs and implementing policy instruments to improve energy efficiency of Indian buildings.

  • 204.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, nr 7, s. 4264-4273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 205.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    The role of energy advisers on adoption of energy measures in detached houses2009Inngår i: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, 11-12 March, in connection with the ‘Energitinget 2009’, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 206.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Adoption of energy efficiency measures in swedish detatched houses2009Inngår i: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners’ need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures such as improved windows and attic and wall insulation. The results of a questionnaire surveying 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 revealed that about 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of implementing such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing installations. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improving attic insulation has more advantages than other measures, but windows were more likely to be installed than attic insulation was to be improved. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure, while environmental aspects were given lower priority. Hence, economic incentives could be useful in promoting the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies/installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to install energy efficiency measures.

  • 207.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Barriers to implement energy efficiency investment measures in Swedish co-operative apartment buildings2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 208.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings2010Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 2956-2963Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners’ preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  • 209.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses2010Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2411-2419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners’ need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70–90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  • 210.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Programme of activities: Will it break the ice for residential sector CDM projects?2008Inngår i: 14th Annual international sustainable development research conference, New Delhi, India, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 211.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Role of sellers/installers in the diffusion of energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses2010Inngår i: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 212.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy advice service as a policy instrument to promote energy efficiency in residential sector: Perception of end-users and service providers2011Inngår i: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 213.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Implementation of energy efficient windows in Swedish single-family houses2012Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 329-338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1010 homeowners in Jämtland and Västernorrland, which are two counties in central Sweden, was conducted to understand the factors influencing their decision to install energy-efficient windows. We complemented this survey with an interview of 12 window sellers/installers in the county Jämtland. The annual energy cost reduction, age, and condition of the windows were the most important reasons for the window replacement decision. Approximately 80% of the respondents replaced their windows with energy-efficient windows with U-value of 1.2 W/m2 K. Condensation problems, perceived higher prices, and lack of awareness about windows with lower U-values were important reasons for non-adoption of more energy-efficient windows. Window sellers/installers have a strong influence on homeowners’ window selection that was indicated by the 97% of homeowners who bought the windows that were recommended to them. Sellers/installers revealed that they did not recommend windows with U-value of less than 1.2 W/m2 K because they thought that investing in such windows was not economical and because windows with U-value less than 1.2 W/m2 K could cause water condensation on the external surface of window pane.

  • 214.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Influence of external actors in Swedish homeowners’ adoption of energy efficient windows2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 215.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Policy instruments to promote building energy efficiency from an end-user point of view2011Inngår i: ECEEE Summer study, Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France, 6–11 June, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 216.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Biofuels from stumps and small roundwood - Costs and CO2 benefits2008Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 897-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analysed and compared costs, primary energy use and CO2 benefits of recovering stumps and small roundwood from thinnings, together with logging residues. Small roundwood, chipped at a terminal or end-user, has a cost comparable to the chip system and a primary energy use comparable to the bundle system used for recovery of logging residues. The small roundwood system with roadside chipping is more expensive. As productivity in the cutting process improves, the small roundwood alternatives become more cost-effective. The stump system has costs in the same range as or lower than the chip and bundle systems. Forestry operations for stump and small roundwood recovery require considerable primary energy, but net recovery per hectare is much greater than for the chip and bundle systems, which means that more fossil fuel can be displaced per hectare of clearcut than with a chip or a bundle system. Stumps and small roundwood from thinnings can become as cost-effective as logging residues in the near future. Furthermore, when stumps and small roundwood from thinnings are also used to replace fossil fuels, the potential CO2 reduction will be about four times as great as when only logging residues are used with a traditional chip system.

  • 217.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Comparative analysis of wood chip and bundle systems - costs and CO2 reduction2006Inngår i: Proceedings of World Bioenergy 2006: 30 May - 1 June 2006, Jönköping, Sweden, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 218.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles – Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions2010Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 82-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO2 emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO2 emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO2 emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO2 emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects.

     

  • 219.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Costs, CO2- and primary energy balances of forest-fuel recovery systems at different forest productivity2010Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 610-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we examine the cost, primary energy use, and net carbon emissions associated with removal and use of forest residues for energy, considering different recovery systems, terrain, forwarding distance and forest productivity. We show the potential recovery of forest fuel for Sweden, its costs and net carbon emissions from primary energy use and avoided fossil carbon emissions. The potential annual net recovery of forest fuel is about 66 TWh, which would cost one billion 2005 to recover and would reduce fossil emissions by 6.9 Mt carbon if coal were replaced. Of the forest fuel, 56% is situated in normal terrain with productivity of >30 t dry-matter ha (-1) and of this, 65% has a forwarding distance of <400 m. In normal terrain with >30 t dry-matter ha (1) the cost increase for the recovery of forest fuel, excluding stumps, is around 4-6% and 8-11% for medium and longer forwarding distances, respectively. The stump and small roundwood systems are less cost-effective at lower forest fuel intensity per area. For systems where loose material is forwarded, less dry-matter per hectare increases costs by 6-7%, while a difficult terrain increases costs by 3-4%. Still, these systems are quite cost-effective. The cost of spreading ash is around 40 2005 ha (-1), while primary energy use for spreading ash in areas where logging residues, stumps, and small roundwood are recovered is about 0.025% of the recovered bioenergy.

  • 220.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Comparative Life-Cycle Analysis of Building Materials for the Thermal Upgrade of an Existing Building2019Inngår i: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, artikkel-id 012044Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing building stock is estimated to need major renovations in the near future. At the same time, the EU energy-efficiency strategy entails upgrading the energy performance of renovated buildings to meet the nearly-zero energy standard. To upgrade existing buildings, two main groups of measures can be adopted: thermally-improved building envelope and energy-efficient technical devices. The first measure usually involves additional building materials for thermal insulation and new building cladding, as well as new windows and doors. A number of commercially-available materials can be used to renovate thermal building envelopes. This study compares the life-cycle primary energy use and CO2 emission when renovating an existing building using different materials, commonly used in renovated buildings. A Swedish building constructed in 1972 is used as a case-study building. The building's envelope is assumed to be renovated to meet the Swedish passive house standard. The entire life cycle of the building envelope renovation is taken into account. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly reduce the production primary energy and associated CO2 emissions by up to 62% and 77%, respectively. The results suggest that a careful material choice can significantly contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emissions associated with energy renovation of buildings, especially when renewable-based materials are used.

  • 221.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Energy and carbon balance of materials used in a building envelope renovation2019Inngår i: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, artikkel-id 012045Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) are a priority waste stream in EU's polices, accounting for about 30% of all waste generated. At the same time, according to the EU energy-efficiency directive, existing buildings subject to significant renovation need to be upgraded in their thermal building envelope in order to meet higher energy performance standard. This involves additional building materials and hence increases the CDW generation. This study investigates the energy and CO2 emission balance of building envelope renovation when using different building materials, taking into account the production and end-of-life stages. The study is based on a Swedish case-study building assumed to be upgraded to the passive house standard. Benefits from waste recovering are considered, including construction and demolition wastes. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly affect the primary energy and CO2 emission balances. Depending on the material alternative the end-of-life primary energy use and net CO2 emission can be reduced by 5%-21% and 2%-24%, respectively, compared to the initial primary energy use and net CO2 emission. Therefore, a careful material choice at the design stage, as well as an efficient waste management, can contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission associated with energy renovation of existing buildings.

  • 222.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Retrofitting with different building materials: life-cycle primary energy implications2020Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 192, s. 1-13, artikkel-id 116648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy retrofitting of existing buildings reduces the energy use in the operation phase but the use ofadditional materials influence the energy use in other life cycle phases of retrofitted buildings. In thisstudy, we analyse the life cycle primary energy implications of different material alternatives whenretrofitting an existing building to meet high energy performance levels. We design retrofitting optionsassuming the highest and lowest value offinal energy use, respectively, for passive house standardsapplicable in Sweden. The retrofitting options include the thermal improvement of the building enve-lope. We calculate the primary energy use in the operation phase (operation primary energy), as well asin production, maintenance and end-of-life phases (non-operation primary energy). Our results showthat the non-operation primary energy use can vary significantly depending on the choice of materialsfor thermal insulation, cladding systems and windows. Although the operation energy use decreases by63e78%, wefind that the non-operation energy for building retrofitting accounts for up to 21% of theoperation energy saving, depending on the passive house performance level and the material alternative.A careful selection of building materials can reduce the non-operation primary energy by up to 40%,especially when using wood-based materials

  • 223.
    Pingoud, Kim
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Cowie, Annette
    Bird, Neil
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Rüter, Sebastian
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Soimakallio, Sampo
    Türk, Andreas
    Woess-Gallasch, Susanne
    Bioenergy: Counting on Incentives: (In Letters)2010Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 327, nr 5970, s. 1199-1200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 224.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Forest biomass residues and their use to mitigate climate change in north-central Sweden2011Inngår i: 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Berlin, Germany, June 6-10, 2011, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 225.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Bergh, Johan
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lundström, Anders
    Hyvonen, Ritta
    Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 106-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify the potential effects of intensive forest management activities on forest production in north-central Sweden over the next 100 years, and calculate the potential climate change mitigation feedback effect due to the resulting increased carbon stock and increased use of forest products. We analyze and compare four different forest management scenarios (Reference, Environment, Production, and Maximum), all of which include the expected effects of climate change based on SRES B2 scenario. Forest management practices are intensified in Production scenario, and further intensified in Maximum scenario. Four different models, BIOMASS, HUGIN, Q-model, and Substitution model, were used to quantify net primary production, forest production and harvest potential, soil carbon, and biomass substitution of fossil fuels and non-wood materials, respectively. After integrating the models, our results show that intensive forestry may increase forest production by up to 26% and annual harvest by up to 19%, compared to the Reference scenario. The greatest single effect on the carbon balance is from using increased biomass production to substitute for fossil fuels and energy intensive materials. Carbon stocks in living tree biomass, forest soil and wood products also increase. In total, a net carbon emission reduction of up to 132 Tg (for Maximum scenario) is possible during the next 100 years due to intensive forest management in two Swedish counties, Jamtland and Vasternorrland

  • 226.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mid Sweden University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Climate change mitigation through increased biomass production and substitution: A case study in north-central Sweden2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we perform an integrated analysis to calculate the potential increases in forest biomass production and substitution as an effect of climate change and intensive management. We use the BIOMASS model to simulate change in Net Primary Production due to climate change. Then we estimate the development of forest biomass growth and harvest by using the HUGIN model, the change in soil carbon stock by the use of the Q-model, and the biomass substitution benefits by the use of an energy and material substitution model. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C could increase annual whole tree forest biomass production by 32% and harvest by 29% over the next 100 years. Intensive forest management including climate effect could increase whole tree biomass production by 58% and harvest by 47%. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 89 Tg C and 182 Tg C over 100 years is possible due to climate change effect only and due to climate change plus intensive forestry, respectively. The carbon stock in standing biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase, but the carbon stock changes are less significant than the substitution benefits.

  • 227. Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Sathre, Roger
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Integrated carbon analysis of forest production and utilization in north-central Sweden2010Inngår i: XXIII IUFRO World Congress, 23-28 August (Abstract proceeding), Seoul, South Korea, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 228.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden2011Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 4340-4355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate change mitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel.

  • 229. Robertson, K. A.
    et al.
    Schlamadinge, B
    Bradley, D
    Cowie, A. L
    Faaij, A
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Fijan-Parlov, S
    Kwant, K
    Mann, M
    Matthews, R
    Heding, N
    Pingoud, K
    Savolainen, I
    Solberg, B
    Bioenergy, carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases: project case studies carried out by IEA Bioenergy Task 382002Inngår i: Proceedings. 12th European Conference & Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 230.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lippke, Bruce
    University of Washington, Seatle.
    Marlanda, Gregg
    Appalachian State University.
    Masanet, Eric
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Solberg, Birger
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Werner, Frank
    Environm & Dev, Zurich.
    Comment on “Material nature versus structural nurture: the embodied carbon of fundamental structural elements"2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 3595-3596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 231.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    A state-of-the-art review of energy and climate effects of wood product substitution2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we address multiple aspects of wood substitution, which can be defined as “any use of wood that replaces other inputs of production in providing equivalent service or function.” We focus on wood product substitution, or the use of wood to replace other materials such as concrete, steel or bricks, rather than wood fuel substitution. We briefly describe the historical uses of wood in the context of sustainable material cycles, and we suggest that wood material may increase in relative importance in the future, due to environmental concerns and the exhaustion of non-renewable raw materials and fuels. We conduct a comprehensive literature survey of previous studies on wood substitution, including fundamental research and case study analyses, as well as reviews and syntheses of previous works. We provide a brief synopsis of each item of literature. We then describe the methodological issues involved in wood substitution analysis, including the definition of functional units and the establishment of effective system boundaries in terms of activities, time, and space. We report on a meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood substitution, in which 20 separate studies were analyzed and compared to determine the range of efficiency with which using wood instead of other materials can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we report the results of an analysis of large-scale wood substitution, in which we estimate the greenhouse gas emission reduction and energy use reduction resulting from a full substitution of wood-based materials in both single-family houses and multi-family apartment buildings at the country level (Sweden) and the regional level (EU-25).

  • 232.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    A system approach to comparing the environmental performance of wood and non-wood products2008Inngår i: ECOWOOD-2008, 3rd internationl conference on environmentally-compatible forest products. Porto, Portugal. September 10-12, 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 233.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Economic competitiveness of wood construction material under a climate change mitigation tax regime2005Inngår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, [Florence]: ETA-Renewable Energies , 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 234.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Effects of energy and carbon taxes on building material competitiveness2007Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 488-494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between building material competitiveness and economic instruments for mitigating climate change are explored in this bottom-up study. The effects of carbon and energy taxes on building material manufacturing cost and total building construction cost are modelled, analysing individual materials as well as comparing a wood-framed building to a reinforced concrete-framed building. The energy balances of producing construction materials made of wood, concrete, steel, and gypsum are described and quantified. For wood lumber, more usable energy is available as biomass residues than is consumed in the processing steps. The quantities of biofuels made available during the production of wood materials are calculated, and the cost differences between using these biofuels and using fossil fuels are shown under various tax regimes. The results indicate that higher energy and carbon taxation rates increase the economic competitiveness of wood construction materials. This is due to both the lower energy cost for material manufacture, and the increased economic value of biomass by-products used to replace fossil fuel.

  • 235.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Energy and carbon balances of multi-functional wood biomass usage2005Inngår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, [Florence]: ETA-Renewable Energies , 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 236.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Energy and carbon balances of wood cascade chains2006Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 332-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the energy and carbon balances of various cascade chains for recovered wood lumber. Post-recovery options include reuse as lumber, reprocessing as particleboard, pulping to form paper products, and burning for energy recovery. We compare energy and carbon balances of chains of cascaded products to the balances of products obtained from virgin wood fiber or from non-wood material. We describe and quantify several mechanisms through which cascading can affect the energy and carbon balances: direct cascade effects due to different properties and logistics of virgin and recovered materials, substitution effects due to the reduced demand for non-wood materials when wood is cascaded, and land use effects due to alternative possible land uses when less timber harvest is needed because of wood cascading. In some analyses we assume the forest is a limiting resource, and in others we include a fixed amount of forest land from which biomass can be harvested for use as material or biofuel. Energy and carbon balances take into account manufacturing processes, recovery and transportation energy, material recovery losses, and forest processes. We find that land use effects have the greatest impact on energy and carbon balances, followed by substitution effects, while direct cascade effects are relatively minor.

  • 237.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Process-based analysis of added value in forest product industries2009Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 65-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing products with greater added value is increasingly viewed as a strategic goal of forest products industries. Added value is defined here as the difference in economic value between the physical inputs and outputs of a production process, and is generally analysed at the firm or national economy level. In this study we identify and discuss issues involved in quantifying added value at the industrial process level, and develop a bottom-up method to estimate the value added by forest industry processes. We calculate the value added by 14 traditional and emerging processes within the Swedish forest products industries, and express the results using various indices. We find that the type of biomass input strongly influences the potential for adding value, with sawlogs allowing more added value and being less sensitive to input price fluctuations than pulpwood and forest residues. Structural wood products such as lumber and glue-laminated beams are found to give the greatest value added. Co-production of multiple products from a single raw material increases total value added. Integrating the value chain of pulp and paper production significantly increases the value added to pulpwood. Multiple conversion processes exist for using forest residues as fuel, with a range of potential added value. Consideration of the climate benefits of forest product use, through the application of a carbon tax, significantly increases the added value.

  • 238.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels2011Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, nr 7, s. 2506-2516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 239.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Using wood products to mitigate climate change: external costs and structural change2007Inngår i: Proceedings. 3rd International Green Energy Conference IGEC-III, Västerås, Sweden, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 240.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change2009Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 2, s. 251-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-à-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should tend to encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products.

  • 241.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization2010Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 572-581Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO2equiv if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  • 242.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Report on methodological issues in determining primary energy and greenhouse gas balances over a building life cycle. Methodological report of Work Package 1 for €CO2 project2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 243.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Time Dynamics and Radiative Forcing of Forest Bioenergy Systems2013Inngår i: Forest BioEnergy Production: Management, Carbon Sequestration and Adaptation, Springer, 2013, s. 185-206Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we explore the temporal dynamics of using forest bioenergy to mitigate climate change. We consider such issues as: growth dynamics of forests under different management regimes; the substitution effects of different bioenergy and biomaterial uses; temporary carbon storage in harvested biomass; the availability of different biomass fractions at different points of a wood product life cycle; and changes in carbon content of forest soils. We introduce the metric of radiative forcing, which quantifies the accumulating energy due to the global greenhouse effect, and we describe a method to estimate quantitatively and to compare the cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of forest bioenergy systems and reference fossil energy systems. In three case studies, we describe the time dynamics and estimate the CRF profiles of various forest biomass systems.

  • 244.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Pingoud, Kim
    Greenhouse gas balance implications of recovered construction wood in Sweden and Finland2004Inngår i: European COST E31 Conference Management of Recovered Wood : Recycling ... Bioenergy ... and other Options: European COST E31 Conference ; (Thessaloniki) : 2004.04.22-24, Thessaloniki: University Studio Press , 2004, s. 361-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 245.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Climate effects of electricity production fuelled by coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture2017Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 122, s. 711-723Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the climate implications of producing electricity in large-scale conversion plants using coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS). We calculate the primary energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission profiles, and the cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of different systems that produce the same amount of electricity. We find that using slash or waste for electricity production instead of coal somewhat increases the instantaneous CO2 emission from the power plant, but avoids significant subsequent emissions from decaying slash in forests or waste in landfills. For slash used instead of coal, we find robust near- and long-term reductions in total emissions and CRF. Climate effects of using waste instead of coal are more ambiguous: CRF is reduced when CCS is used, but without CCS there is little or no climate benefits of using waste directly for energy, assuming that landfill gas is recovered and used for electricity production. The application of CCS requires more fuel, but strongly reduces the CO2 emissions. The use of slash or waste together with CCS results in negative net emissions and CRF, i.e. global cooling.

  • 246. Schlamadinger, B
    et al.
    Apps, M
    Bohlin, F
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Jungmeier, G
    Marland, G
    Pingoud, K
    Savolainen, I
    Towards a Standard Methodology for Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems in Comparison with Fossil Energy Systems1997Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 359-376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 247. Schlamadinger, B.
    et al.
    Byrne, K.
    Cowie, A.
    Daugherty, E.
    Faaij, A.
    Heding, N.
    Fijan, S.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Hatton, T.
    Kwant, T.
    Matthews, R.
    Pingoud, K.
    Ringer, M.
    Robertson, K.
    Savolainen, I.
    Should we trade biomass, bioelectricity, CO2 credits or green certificates?2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 248.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Carbon balances for a low energy apartment building with different structural frame materials2019Inngår i: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, s. 4254-4261Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the life cycle carbon implications of a building, with structural frame of prefabricated concrete, prefabricated modular timber or cross laminated timber (CLT) elements, designed to meet the Swedish passive house criteria. The analysis covers non-biogenic carbon flows related to the building alternatives, over an assumed life time of 80 years. The building alternatives are all modelled to have the same housing service and operation energy demand. Substitution factors, showing the efficiency of CO2 emissions reductions when wood alternatives are used instead of non-wood alternatives, are calculated for the CLT and modular alternatives with reference to the concrete alternative. The results show that the CLT and modular buildings give less carbon emissions to the atmosphere during production and when the buildings are demolished at the end-of-life. Moreover, the wood residues from the production and end-of-life activities for the timber alternatives far exceed that for the concrete alternative. The substitution factors differ slightly between the CLT and the modular alternatives, and are significantly lower when fossil gas is substituted by wood residues instead of fossil coal. In summary, the life cycle carbon emissions are significantly lower for the timber alternatives.

  • 249.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Design strategies and measures to minimise operation energy use for passive houses under different climate scenarios2019Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 299-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, the implications of different design strategies and measures in minimising the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden are analysed under different climate change scenarios. The analyses are conducted for recent (1996-2005) and future climate periods of 2050-2059 and 2090-2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in Southern Sweden. The considered design strategies and measures encompass efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, solar shading of windows, window size and properties, building orientation and mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand as well as risk of overheating increases under future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies and measures are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window U-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40-51%, and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy use for operation decreased by 42-54%. This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climates.

  • 250.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Design strategies for a Swedish residential building to minimize primary energy use and CO2 emission2016Inngår i: The 11th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems : SDEWES 2016: September 4-9, 2016. Lisbon, Portugal, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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