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  • 251. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Duke, C.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Finnegan, G.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kertzman, M.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    LeBohec, S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McArthur, S.
    McCann, A.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Ong, R. A.
    Orr, M.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany .
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Ruppel, J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Senturk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Tesić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Tsurusaki, K.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Williams, D. A.
    Zitzer, B.
    VERITAS Observations of the TeV Binary LS I +61\deg 303 During 2008-20102011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 738, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of observations of the TeV binary LS I +61° 303 with the VERITAS telescope array between 2008 and 2010, at energies above 300 GeV. In the past, both ground-based gamma-ray telescopes VERITAS and MAGIC have reported detections of TeV emission near the apastron phases of the binary orbit. The observations presented here show no strong evidence for TeV emission during these orbital phases; however, during observations taken in late 2010, significant emission was detected from the source close to the phase of superior conjunction (much closer to periastron passage) at a 5.6 standard deviation (5.6σ) post-trials significance. In total, between 2008 October and 2010 December a total exposure of 64.5 hr was accumulated with VERITAS on LS I +61° 303, resulting in an excess at the 3.3σ significance level for constant emission over the entire integrated data set. The flux upper limits derived for emission during the previously reliably active TeV phases (i.e., close to apastron) are less than 5% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy range. This result stands in apparent contrast to previous observations by both MAGIC and VERITAS which detected the source during these phases at 10% of the Crab Nebula flux. During the two year span of observations, a large amount of X-ray data were also accrued on LS I +61° 303 by theSwift X-ray Telescope and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. We find no evidence for a correlation between emission in the X-ray and TeV regimes during 20 directly overlapping observations. We also comment on data obtained contemporaneously by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  • 252. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Bautista, M.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Butt, Y.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Celik, O.
    Cesarini, A.
    Chow, Y. C.
    Ciupik, L.
    Cogan, P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fortin, P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Gall, D.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Horan, D.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Imran, A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kieda, D.
    Kildea, J.
    Konopelko, A.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    LeBohec, S.
    Maier, G.
    McCann, A.
    McCutcheon, M.
    Millis, J.
    Moriarty, P.
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Pandel, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Petry, D.
    Pohl, M.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Smith, A. W.
    Swordy, S. P.
    Theiling, M.
    Toner, J. A.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vincent, S.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wissel, S.
    Wood, M.
    Walker, R. C.
    Davies, F.
    Hardee, P. E.
    Junor, W.
    Ly, C.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Anderhub, H.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Antoranz, P.
    Backes, M.
    Baixeras, C.
    Balestra, S.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Bastieri, D.
    Gonzlez, J. Becerra
    Becker, J. K.
    Bednarek, W.
    Berger, K.
    Bernardini, E.
    Biland, A.
    Bock, R. K.
    Bonnoli, G.
    Bordas, P.
    Tridon, D. Borla
    Bosch-Ramon, V.
    Bose, D.
    Braun, I.
    Bretz, T.
    Britvitch, I.
    Camara, M.
    Carmona, E.
    Commichau, S.
    Contreras, J. L.
    Cortina, J.
    Costado, M. T.
    Covino, S.
    Curtef, V.
    Dazzi, F.
    De Angelis, A.
    Del Pozo, E. De Cea
    Mendez, C. Delgado
    De los Reyes, R.
    De Lotto, B.
    De Maria, M.
    De Sabata, F.
    Dominguez, A.
    Dorner, D.
    Doro, M.
    Elsaesser, D.
    Errando, M.
    Ferenc, D.
    Fernndez, E.
    Firpo, R.
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Font, L.
    Galante, N.
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Gaug, M.
    Goebel, F.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Herrero, A.
    Hildebrand, D.
    Hoehne-Moench, D.
    Hose, J.
    Hsu, C. C.
    Jogler, T.
    Kranich, D.
    La Barbera, A.
    Laille, A.
    Leonardo, E.
    Lindfors, E.
    Lombardi, S.
    Longo, F.
    Lopez, M.
    Lorenz, E.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maneva, G.
    Mankuzhiyil, N.
    Mannheim, K.
    Maraschi, L.
    Mariotti, M.
    Martinez, M.
    Mazin, D.
    Meucci, M.
    Miranda, J. M.
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Moldon, J.
    Moles, M.
    Moralejo, A.
    Nieto, D.
    Nilsson, K.
    Ninkovic, J.
    Oya, I.
    Paoletti, R.
    Paredes, J. M.
    Pasanen, M.
    Pascoli, D.
    Pauss, F.
    Pegna, R. G.
    Perez-Torres, M. A.
    Persic, M.
    Peruzzo, L.
    Prada, F.
    Prandini, E.
    Puchades, N.
    Reichardt, I.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribo, M.
    Rico, J.
    Rissi, M.
    Robert, A.
    Ruegamer, S.
    Saggion, A.
    Saito, T. Y.
    Salvati, M.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Satalecka, K.
    Scalzotto, V.
    Scapin, V.
    Schweizer, T.
    Shayduk, M.
    Shore, S. N.
    Sidro, N.
    Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Sitarek, J.
    Sobczynska, D.
    Spanier, F.
    Stamerra, A.
    Stark, L. S.
    Takalo, L.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Temnikov, P.
    Tescaro, D.
    Teshima, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Turini, N.
    Vankov, H.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zandanel, F.
    Zanin, R.
    Zapatero, J.
    Radio Imaging of the Very-High-Energy gamma-Ray Emission Region in the Central Engine of a Radio Galaxy2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5939, p. 444-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.

  • 253. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Beilicke, M.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sushch, I.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    First detection of VHE gamma-rays from SN 1006 by HESS2010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 516, p. A62-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Recent theoretical predictions of the lowest very high energy (VHE) luminosity of SN 1006 are only a factor 5 below the previously published HESS upper limit, thus motivating further in-depth observations of this source. Methods. Deep observations at VHE energies (above 100 GeV) were carried out with the high energy stereoscopic system (HESS) of Cherenkov Telescopes from 2003 to 2008. More than 100 h of data have been collected and subjected to an improved analysis procedure. Results. Observations resulted in the detection of VHE gamma-rays from SN 1006. The measured gamma-ray spectrum is compatible with a power-law, the flux is of the order of 1% of that detected from the Crab Nebula, and is thus consistent with the previously established HESS upper limit. The source exhibits a bipolar morphology, which is strongly correlated with non-thermal X-rays. Conclusions. Because the thickness of the VHE-shell is compatible with emission from a thin rim, particle acceleration in shock waves is likely to be the origin of the gamma-ray signal. The measured flux level can be accounted for by inverse Compton emission, but a mixed scenario that includes leptonic and hadronic components and takes into account the ambient matter density inferred from observations also leads to a satisfactory description of the multi-wavelength spectrum.

  • 254. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Benbow, W.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Costamante, L.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    PKS2005-489 at VHE: four years of monitoring with HESS and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations2010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 511, p. A52-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Our aim is to study the very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from BL Lac objects and the evolution in time of their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods. VHE observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 were made with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from 2004 through 2007. Three simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns at lower energies were performed during the HESS data taking, consisting of several individual pointings with the XMM-Newton and RXTE satellites. Results. A strong VHE signal, similar to 17 sigma total, from PKS 2005-489 was detected during the four years of HESS observations (90.3 h live time). The integral flux above the average analysis threshold of 400 GeV is similar to 3% of the flux observed from the Crab Nebula and varies weakly on time scales from days to years. The average VHE spectrum measured from similar to 300 GeV to similar to 5 TeV is characterized by a power law with a photon index, Gamma = 3.20 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.10(syst). At X-ray energies the flux is observed to vary by more than an order of magnitude between 2004 and 2005. Strong changes in the X-ray spectrum (Delta Gamma(X) approximate to 0.7) are also observed, which appear to be mirrored in the VHE band. Conclusions. The SED of PKS 2005-489, constructed for the first time with contemporaneous data on both humps, shows significant evolution. The large flux variations in the X-ray band, coupled with weak or no variations in the VHE band and a similar spectral behavior, suggest the emergence of a new, separate, harder emission component in September 2005.

  • 255. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Localizing the VHE gamma-ray source at the Galactic Centre2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 402, no 3, p. 1877-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inner 10 pc of our Galaxy contains many counterpart candidates of the very high energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray point source HESS J1745-290. Within the point spread function of the H.E.S.S. measurement, at least three objects are capable of accelerating particles to VHE and beyond and of providing the observed gamma-ray flux. Previous attempts to address this source confusion were hampered by the fact that the projected distances between these objects were of the order of the error circle radius of the emission centroid (34 arcsec, dominated by the pointing uncertainty of the H.E.S.S. instrument). Here we present H.E.S.S. data of the Galactic Centre region, recorded with an improved control of the instrument pointing compared to H.E.S.S. standard pointing procedures. Stars observed during gamma-ray observations by optical guiding cameras mounted on each H.E.S.S. telescope are used for off-line pointing calibration, thereby decreasing the systematic pointing uncertainties from 20 to 6 arcsec per axis. The position of HESS J1745-290 is obtained by fitting a multi-Gaussian profile to the background-subtracted gamma-ray count map. A spatial comparison of the best-fitting position of HESS J1745-290 with the position and morphology of candidate counterparts is performed. The position is, within a total error circle radius of 13 arcsec, coincident with the position of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* and the recently discovered pulsar wind nebula candidate G359.95-0.04. It is significantly displaced from the centroid of the supernova remnant Sgr A East, excluding this object with high probability as the dominant source of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  • 256. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot.
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Detection of Gamma Rays from a Starburst Galaxy2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5956, p. 1080-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of similar to 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays-tracers of such cosmic rays-from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H. E. S. S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.

  • 257. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Discovery and follow-up studies of the extended, off-plane, VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-6222011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 525, p. A45-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The detection of gamma-rays in the very-high-energy (VHE) range (100 GeV-100 TeV) offers the possibility of studying the parent population of ultrarelativistic particles found in astrophysical sources, so it is useful for understanding the underlying astrophysical processes in nonthermal sources. Aims. The discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622 is reported and possibilities regarding its nature are investigated. Methods. The H. E. S. S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) has a high sensitivity compared with previous instruments (similar to 1% of the Crab flux in 25 h observation time for a 5 sigma point-source detection) and has a large field of view (similar to 5 degrees in diameter). HESS J1507-622 was discovered within the ongoing H. E. S. S. survey of the inner Galaxy, and the source was also studied by means of dedicated multiwavelength observations. Results. A Galactic gamma-ray source, HESS J1507-622, located similar to 3.5 degrees. from the Galactic plane was detected with a statistical significance >9 sigma. Its energy spectrum is well fitted by a power law with spectral index Gamma = 2.24 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and a flux above 1 TeV of (1.5 +/- 0.4(stat) +/- 0.3(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1). Possible interpretations (considering both hadronic and leptonic models) of the VHE gamma-ray emission are discussed in the absence of an obvious counterpart.

  • 258. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
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    HESS upper limits on very high energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar GRS 1915+1052009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 508, no 3, p. 1135-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. High energy particles reside in the relativistic jets of microquasars, making them possible sources of very high energy radiation (VHE, > 100 GeV). Detecting this emission would provide a new handle on jet physics. Aims. Observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the HESS telescope array were undertaken in 2004-2008 to search for VHE emission. Methods. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results. There is no evidence for a VHE gamma-ray signal either from the direction of the microquasar or its vicinity. An upper limit of 6.1 x 10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (99.9% confidence level) is set on the photon flux above 410 GeV, equivalent to a VHE luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) at 11 kpc. Conclusions. The VHE to X-ray luminosity ratio in GRS 1915+105 is at least four orders of magnitude lower than the ratio observed in gamma-ray binaries. The VHE radiative efficiency of the compact jet is less than 0.01% based on its estimated total power of 10(38) erg s(-1). Particle acceleration in GRS 1915+105 is not efficient at high energies and/or the magnetic field is too strong. It is also possible that VHE gamma-rays are produced by GRS 1915+105, but the emission is highly time-dependent.

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    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Landt, H.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Lapington, J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Laporte, P.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lee, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Lees, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leto, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, Berlin, Germany..
    Lombardi, S.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Univ Trieste, Trieste, Italy.;INFN, Sezione Trieste, Trieste, Italy..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Lucarelli, F.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Maier, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malaguti, G.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Mandat, D.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Maneva, G.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Mangano, S.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas,Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB,Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
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    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
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    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense Madrid, Spain..
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    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Miyazaki Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Gakuen Kibana Dai Nishi, Miyazaki 8892192, Japan..
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    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
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    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Italy..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
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    Univ Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, UK.
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    Kitasato Univ, Sch Allied Hlth Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2288555, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Nagataki, S.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
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    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Nakamori, T.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Nemmen, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Niemiec, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
    Nieto, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Nievas-Rosillo, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Nikolajuk, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
    Nishijima, K.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Nogues, L.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Nosek, D.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Novosyadlyj, B.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
    Nozaki, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Ohira, Y.
    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
    Ohishi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Okumura, A.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Orito, R.
    Tokushima Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Technol, Tokushima 7708506, Japan..
    Orlati, A.
    INAF IRA, INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Palacio, J.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Palatka, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Pavy, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Pe'er, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Osserv Astron Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy..
    Petrucci, P.
    Univ Joseph Fourier, INSU CNRS, Inst Planetol & Astrophys Grenoble, 621 Ave Cent,Domaine Univ, Grenoble 9, France..
    Petruk, O.
    Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, Lvov, Ukraine..
    Pisarski, A.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
    Pohl, M.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Porcelli, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Prast, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Principe, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1,Erlangen, Germany..
    Prouza, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Pueschel, E.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Puelhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, Tubingen, Germany..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Technikerstr , Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Ribo, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rizi, V.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
    Rodriguez, J.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fernandez, G. Rodriguez
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy..
    Rodriguez Vazquez, J. J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Romano, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Romeo, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Rosado, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Rousselle, J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
    Sadeh, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Saito, T.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Sakaki, N.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Sanchez, D.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Sangiorgi, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Sano, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Santander, M.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    Sawada, M.
    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
    Schioppa, E. J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Schoorlemmer, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Schovanek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Schussler, F.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Sergijenko, O.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
    Servillat, M.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Shalchi, A.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Shellard, R. C.
    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Siejkowski, H.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Simone, D.
    INFN, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy..
    Sliusar, V.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Sol, H.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Stanic, S.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Starling, R.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Stawarz, L.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Stefanik, S.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Stephan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Stolarczyk, T.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Szanecki, M.
    Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Pomorska Lodz, Poland..
    Szepieniec, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Tagliaferri, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Tajima, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Takahashi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Takeda, J.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Tanaka, M.
    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
    Tanaka, S.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Tejedor, L. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Temnikov, P.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Terada, Y.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Tescaro, D.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    Teshima, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Testa, V.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tokanai, F.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Torres, D. F.
    Inst Space Sci IEEC CSIC, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain.;ICREA, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain..
    Torresi, E.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Tosti, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Townsley, C.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Travnicek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, 163 Ave Luminy, Marseille, France..
    Trifoglio, M.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Tsujimoto, S.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Vagelli, V.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Vallania, P.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Turin, Italy..
    Valore, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    van Driel, W.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    van Eldik, C.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, 500 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Vassiliev, V.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Ave Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vercellone, S.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Vergani, S.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Vigorito, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, Turin, Italy..
    Vorobiov, S.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Vrastil, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Vazquez Acosta, M. L.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea, Tenerife, Spain..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Univ Vagen 10 A, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Prospects for Cherenkov Telescope Array Observations of the Young Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-39462017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 840, no 2, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7-3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti) correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in particular X-rays and CO/H I emission. We present a series of simulated images of RX J1713.7-3946 for CTA based on a set of observationally motivated models for the gamma-ray emission. In these models, VHE gamma rays produced by high-energy electrons are assumed to trace the nonthermal X-ray emission observed by XMM-Newton, whereas those originating from relativistic protons delineate the local gas distributions. The local atomic and molecular gas distributions are deduced by the NANTEN team from CO and H I observations. Our primary goal is to show how one can distinguish the emission mechanism(s) of the gamma rays (i.e., hadronic versus leptonic, or a mixture of the two) through information provided by their spatial distribution, spectra, and time variation. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the capabilities of CTA to achieve various proposed scientific goals by observing this important cosmic particle accelerator.

  • 260.
    Acevska, Katja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Jag tillhör en muslimsk familj men jag är inte religiös: Några ungdomars förändrade syn på sin religion i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is not surprising that the massive Syrian and Afghanistan immigration three years ago, has changed their view towards Islam rules in their new identity creating. But what has been changed? That was my first question in this essay and the answers I got was rules concerned alcohol, prayer, mosque visits and food rules. All this rules requires someone to influence them to take a stand, which lead us to the next question, about how hegemony was exhibited as a factor in how my respondents answered the first question. The theory of hegemony was the analysis instrument of this study and gave me a hypothesis that hegemony probably had something to do with the change of rules, and it had. All these things that I mentioned as changed rules in their new land demands a personal asset and to be legitimized by someone who represents the hegemony.  In order for the hegemony to continue it has to be anonymous and lead for example friends or teachers. It is visible how my respondents talked about matters that had to do with how the changes where in their common sense, where probably hegemony has the strongest attachment, but also how they thought that they made own choices, was also the choice that the hegemony had done before them. Although I took into account the need to be a part of a group, here it showed how the Muslims was included in a group that only had premises from hegemony standard points. The answers for my result was given to me by six secondary school students by semi structured interviews.

     

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    Wisniewski, L.
    Wood, M.
    Woernlein, A.
    Xiong, Q.
    Yadav, K. K.
    Yamamoto, H.
    Yamamoto, T.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Yanagita, S.
    Yebras, J. M.
    Yelos, D.
    Yoshida, A.
    Yoshida, T.
    Yoshikoshi, T.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zanin, R.
    Zdziarski, A.
    Zech, A.
    Zhao, A.
    Zhou, X.
    Zietara, K.
    Ziolkowski, J.
    Ziolkowski, P.
    Zitelli, V.
    Zurbach, C.
    Zychowski, P.
    Introducing the CTA concept2013In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 43, p. 3-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 262.
    Acharya, Om Nath
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Upadhyaya, Sabin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Space Time Coding For Wireless Communication2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the demand of high data rate is increasing, a lot of research is being conducted in the field of wireless communication. A well-known channel coding technique called Space-Time Coding has been implemented in the wireless Communication systems using multiple antennas to ensure the high speed communication as well as reliability by exploiting limited spectrum and maintaining the power. In this thesis, Space-Time Coding is discussed along with other related topics with special focus on Alamouti Space-Time Block Code. The Alamouti Codes show good performance in terms of bit error rate over Rayleigh fading channel. The performance of Altamonte’s code and MIMO capacity is evaluated by using MATLAB simulation.

  • 263.
    Achek, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Geometri: Hur lärare undervisar i geometri i de tidigare skolåren2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A number of both international and national enquires shows that Swedish pupils are getting worse results in mathematics. One area that’s frequently pointed out is geometry. This enquiry intends to find out how the subject of geometry has developed in the Swedish school and witch methods and concepts teachers who teach in preschool and the early school years grade use in their teaching. This enquiry is based upon eight semi structured interviews and from studying previous curriculums. The result shows that teachers use a great deal of concepts and methods in their teaching but that there are a need for further education among teachers. The enquiry also shows that the significance of the subject has changed over time.

  • 264.
    Achilleos, Achilleas
    et al.
    Frederick University, Cyprus.
    Mettouris, Christos
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Yeratziotis, Alexandros
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Papadopoulos, George
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Huber, Florian
    SYNYO GmbH, Austria.
    Jäger, Bernhard
    SYNYO GmbH, Austria.
    Leitner, Peter
    SYNYO GmbH, Austria.
    Ocsovszky, Zsófia
    BioTalentum Ltd, Hungary.
    Dinnyés, András
    BioTalentum Ltd, Hungary.
    SciChallenge: A Social Media Aware Platform for Contest-Based STEM Education and Motivation of Young Students2019In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific and technological innovations have become increasingly important as we face the benefits and challenges of both globalization and a knowledge-based economy. Still, enrolment rates in STEM degrees are low in many European countries and consequently there is a lack of adequately educated workforce in industries. We believe that this can be mainly attributed to pedagogical issues, such as the lack of engaging hands-on activities utilized for science and math education in middle and high schools. In this paper, we report our work in the SciChallenge European project, which aims at increasing the interest of pre-university students in STEM disciplines, through its distinguishing feature, the systematic use of social media for providing and evaluation of the student-generated content. A social media-aware contest and platform were thus developed and tested in a pan-European contest that attracted >700 participants. The statistical analysis and results revealed that the platform and contest positively influenced participants STEM learning and motivation, while only the gender factor for the younger study group appeared to affect the outcomes (confidence level – p<.05).

  • 265. Achinger, Christine
    et al.
    Brunow, Dagmar
    Hamburg University, Germany ; Lund University.
    Jentz, Janina
    Mühlhäuser, Regina
    Engendering Airwaves: Zur Konstruktion von Geschlecht im Radio2001In: Radio-Kultur und Hör-Kunst: Zwischen Avantgarde und Popularkultur 1923-2001 / [ed] Andreas Stuhlmann, Würzburg: Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, 2001, p. 24-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Achten, Kathleen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Environmentally Displaced Persons: A Game Theoretic View2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of environmentally displaced persons (EDPs) has not received much attention yet. However, the amount of EDPs will increase significantly in the future as a consequence of climate change. This increase could be prevented if developed countries would take adaptation measures, however at the moment they do not take any action.

     

    This desk study looks at the current situation of no action through the Basic Explanatory Framework developed by Scharpf. This framework uses game theory and provides an explanation for the lack of action concerning EDPs, namely the free-rider effect and the prediction that there will be no action. Furthermore, this thesis contains a comparison of the case of EDPs with the case of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. Both cases show many similarities but there has been action concerning climate change namely the Kyoto Protocol.

     

    The comparison enforces the prediction that has been made concerning EDPs. Both in the climate change case and the EDPs case, countries will act as free-riders. The Kyoto Protocol has only symbolic value and thus, developed countries have also free-rid in the case of climate change. Furthermore, eight policy options are provided in this thesis that could increase the incentives for developed countries to take action concerning EDPs: increase incentives, issue linkages, transfers, increase willingness to pay among voters, consensus treaty, coalitions, setting deadlines and supranational organisations. 

  • 267.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Context and ideology of entrepreneurship education in practice2014In: Becoming an entrepreneur / [ed] Susanne Weber, Fritz K. Oser, Frank Achtenhagen, Michael Fretschner and Sandra Trost, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2014, 1, p. 91-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary knowledge economy, with academia as a major producer and distributor of formal knowledge, process and product innovation – e.g. in form of designing and enacting new curricula – is extremely important. In this spirit, we here report how an internationally recognized master program in entrepreneurship has been developed and put into practice.

  • 268.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jönköping University.
    Games in entrepreneurship education to support the crafting of an entrepreneurial mindset2015In: Economics: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, IGI Global, 2015, 1, Vol. 1-3, p. 34-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of education institutions, including many universities and colleges, are offering entrepreneurship education. This development is driven by the hope that more entrepreneurs could be "created" through such efforts, and that these entrepreneurs through their newly founded ventures will contribute to economic growth and job creation. At higher education institutions, the majority of entrepreneurship courses rely on writing business plans as a main pedagogical tool for enhancing the students' entrepreneurial capabilities. In this chapter, the authors argue instead for the need for a pedagogy that focuses on supporting students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset as the basis for venturing activities. They discuss the potential role of games in such entrepreneurship education and present the example of an entrepreneurship game from the Swedish context, which was developed by a group of young female entrepreneurs. The authors describe the game and discuss their experiences of playing it with a group of novice entrepreneurship and management students at the master's level, and they review the effectiveness of the game in terms of how it supports students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset. The authors conclude the chapter by outlining how entrepreneurship games could be integrated into a university curriculum and suggest some directions for future research. © 2015, IGI Global. All rights reserved.

  • 269.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jönköping University.
    Games in Entrepreneurship to support the Crafting of an Entrepreneurial Mindset2013In: New Pedagogical Approaches in Game Enhanced Learning: Curriculum Integration / [ed] Sara de Freitas, Michaela Ott, Maria Magdalena Popescu, Ioana Stanescu, Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 20-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of education institutions, including many universities and colleges, are offering entrepreneurship education. This development is driven by the hope that more entrepreneurs could be “created” through such efforts, and that these entrepreneurs through their newly founded ventures will contribute to economic growth and job creation. At higher education institutions, the majority of entrepreneurship courses rely on writing business plans as a main pedagogical tool for enhancing the students’ entrepreneurial capabilities. In this chapter, the authors argue instead for the need for a pedagogy that focuses on supporting students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset as the basis for venturing activities. They discuss the potential role of games in such entrepreneurship education and present the example of an entrepreneurship game from the Swedish context, which was developed by a group of young female entrepreneurs. The authors describe the game and discuss their experiences of playing it with a group of novice entrepreneurship and management students at the master’s level, and they review the effectiveness of the game in terms of how it supports students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset. The authors conclude the chapter by outlining how entrepreneurship games could be integrated into a university curriculum and suggest some directions for future research.

  • 270.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jönköping International Business School.
    The making of an intercultural learning conext for entrepreneuring2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, ISSN 1742-5360, E-ISSN 1742-5379, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from the standpoint that internationalisation needs to become a more explicit part of assessing the quality of academic activity (i.e., education, research, and (business) community interaction), we elaborate upon how the intercultural composition of a student cohort could be leveraged as a road to the advancement of entrepreneurship education at the graduate level. We argue that the very heterogeneity of the students with respect to their socio-cultural background and personal experiences offers a rich potential for mutual social learning that reinforces formal education activities. Creating awareness of this collective resource opens up for self-organising processes among the students as they craft an entrepreneurial identity which guides them in their learning throughout the master programme.

  • 271.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The reflexivity grid: exploring conscientization in entrepreneurship education2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 62-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Studies on women's entrepreneurship from Nordic countries and beyond2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 4-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to recent research on women's

    entrepreneurship, focusing on Nordic countries.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper encourages research that investigates how context, at the micro, meso and macro level, is related to women's entrepreneurship, and acknowledges that gender is socially constructed.

    Findings

    – This paper finds evidence that recent calls for new directions in women's entrepreneurship research are being followed, specifically with regard to how gender is done and how context is related to women's entrepreneurial activities.

    Originality/value

    – This paper assesses trends in research on women's entrepreneurship, mainly from the Nordic countries.

  • 273.
    Ackermann, Daniel
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Kruisman, Tim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Public attitudes towards the use of marketing and communication by global non-profit organizations2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Public attitudes towards the use of marketing and communication by global non-profit organizations

    Background: The importance of the non-profit sector and the commercialization in it is increasing. The organizations have to deal with more competition in the fundraising market on the one hand, and they are on the other hand confronted with people who are blocking the recognition of conventional marketing expressions. Guerrilla marketing is seen as a possibility to penetrate the jungle of marketing and create word of mouth about the organization and its activities.

    Purpose: This thesis evaluates the public attitudes towards the increasing use of marketing and communication by global non-profit organizations and investigates for which objectives the use of guerrilla tactics in the marketing and communication mix would be accepted.

    Limitations: Though the data for this thesis was collected through questionnaires in Sweden, Germany and The Netherlands, there are no country dependent differences investigated.

    Theory: Classification of NPOs; aims of NPOs; basic model of communication; dynamic model of expectations; relationship between expectation, satisfaction and donations; marketing mix; guerrilla marketing; viral marketing; live buzz marketing; promotional mix; word of mouth.

    Method: Survey with more than 100 participants; interview with the fundraising responsible of Greenpeace Germany

    Findings and Conclusions: The public accepts the use of marketing and communication and the therefore necessary expenditures for the purpose to spread the message and gain donators. Openness and honesty in the NPOs’ behaviour are considered more important than the use of less money for marketing and communication. Guerrilla marketing is not suitable for all aims of a NPO, but is accepted in order to spread the message and increase the media coverage.

  • 274. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Albert, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Brigida, M.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    D’Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Essig, R.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Kamae, T.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Lionetto, A. M.
    Llena Garde, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, O.
    Roth, M.
    Sbarra, C.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgrò, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Snyder, A.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Fermi LAT search for dark matter in gamma-ray lines and the inclusive photon spectrum2012In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 86, no 2, article id 022002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross-section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  • 275. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Belfiore, A.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hayashi, K.
    Hays, E.
    Jóhannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Martin, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Stanford University, USA..
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgrò, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strong, A. W.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Bontemps, S.
    A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6059, p. 1103-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through theambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

  • 276.
    Ackerot, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Rask, Joakim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Varför bli yrkeslärare?: Vilka uppfattningar har yrkeslärare om den motivation, som behövs för att studera till yrkeslärare?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning är att med bakgrund av att yrkeslärare inom gymnasieskolan beskrivs som en bristvara, och med tanke på det framtida behovet då bristen på yrkeslärare kommer att öka. Det vi vill belysa är vad som är motivationen och drivkraften för den enskilde individen i att bli yrkeslärare och även vilka drivkrafter som kan få obehöriga lärare att vilja bli behörig. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats. Ett klusterurval gjordes var efter intervjuer genomfördes. Empiriska undersökningen gick ut på att med en halvstrukturerad intervjuguide intervjua ett antal olika personer. I dataanalysen användes Burnards (1991) 5 steg i den så kallade innehållsanalysen, vilket skapade olika teman. Resultatet efter vår undersökning, att den motivation och de drivkrafter som behövs för bli yrkeslärare eller att börja studera för att bli behörig yrkeslärare, är att man skall försöka lyfta fram de positiva sidorna med yrket och det givande mötet med ungdomarna i samhällsdebatten och media. Det är ett fantastiskt trevligt jobb. Att lönen och statusen kan bli bättre samt att det bör vara lättare för den som har goda yrkeskunskaper att komma in på en yrkeslärarutbildning. Oavsett längd på utbildningen så behövs det ett batteri av hjälp och stöd för att man skall klara av utbildningen samtidigt som man kanske både har familj och arbete.

     

  • 277.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?: The children's pictures of the Swedish preschool class.2010In: Transition from pre-school to school: Emphasizing early literacys - Comments and reflections by researchers from eight European countries., Lifelong Learning Programme , 2010, p. 38-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?

    The children’s pictures of the Swedish preschool class

     

    In Sweden, children’s transition from preschool to compulsory school is made through the preschool class. This study aims to highlight this Swedish transition zone through the eyes of the children. What is focused in the preschool class from the children’s point of view?

    The children have been painting pictures of their days in the preschool class. The focus of analysis is what the children chose to highlight as central in the pedagogic practice. The pictures are therefore seen as communicative narratives, since the children represent and communicate their experiences of the world through the pictures. Ten preschool classes participated in the study, and a total of 172 pictures were analyzed.

    Over half of the pictures showed playing children and included (free) play both indoors and outdoors, pictures that describes the preschool class as an “oasis to rest in” between preschool and school. Yet another extensive category was outlined that showed different types of learning and education foremost in activities as circle time.

    The result shows that the pictures reflects the preschool class as a playful child-centred educational practice at the crossroads between preschool and compulsory school. The conclusion is that the preschool class may be just a seamless transition from preschool to compulsory school, with both “formal” schooling and playful learning.

  • 278.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?: The children’s pictures of the Swedish preschool class.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract OMEP aug 2010

     

    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?

    The children’s pictures of the Swedish preschool class

     

    Helena Ackesjö

    ___________________________________________________________________________

     

    In Sweden, children’s transition from preschool to compulsory school is made through the preschool class. This study aims to highlight this Swedish transition zone through the eyes of the children. What is focused in the preschool class from the children’s point of view?

    The children have been painting pictures of their days in the preschool class. The focus of analysis is what the children chose to highlight as central in the pedagogic practice. The pictures are therefore seen as communicative narratives. Through the pictures the children represent and communicate their experiences of the world. Ten preschool classes participated in the study, and a total of 172 pictures were analyzed.

     

    Over half of the pictures showed playing children and included (free) play both indoors and outdoors, pictures that describes the preschool class as an “oasis to rest in” between preschool and school. Yet another extensive category was outlined, that showed different types of learning and education foremost in activities as circle time.

     

    The result shows that the pictures reflects the preschool class as a playful child-centred educational practice at the crossroads between preschool and compulsory school. The conclusion is that the preschool class may be just a seamless transition from preschool to compulsory school, with both “formal” schooling and playful learning.

  • 279.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass: Gränser, identiteter och (dis-)kontinuiteter2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to gain knowledge of how the transitions to and from preschool class are described and understood by children. Previous research has indicated that transitions between different school forms can be seen as both problematic and threatening. Transitions should be facilitated and "smooth", something that indicates that continuity is important. Of interest for this study is to gain knowledge of children's perspective of continuities: which continuities and discontinuities children express intransitions.

    Transitions are theoretically considered as social processes that are constructed, shared and reconstructed together with others. In these processes, children mark and construct borders through speech and action. Their border markings (for example, expression of differences and/or similarities between different communities and between different school forms) also become part of a child's identity constructions.

    The thesis is based upon the research described in three articles. The empirical data underlying these studies was constructed in a longitudinal ethnographic inspired field work where children have been observed in two transitions between three different school forms: preschool, preschool class and compulsory school.

    Results suggest that from children’s perspectives the transitions between different school forms contain challenges, opportunities, limitations, changes and preservation. However, the transitions also involve expressions concerning security, risk-taking and include visual markings between the different school forms.

    One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this work is that it isn’t enough to turn to policy level, such as curricula or even teachers’ aims or aspirations to facilitate these transitions. The child’s perspectives need to be taken into account. Through children's narratives, we have gained knowledge about the opportunities transitions can offer, but also how transitions can be considered as threats or be difficult to interpret for children. This study has also increased our understanding of the importance of continuity as well as discontinuity to mark borders between different school forms.

  • 280.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Becoming, Un-being and becoming an Ex: Preschool children’s border work and constructing of (new) identities in the transition to school2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Children crossing borders in transition: School visits as initial incorporation rites in transition to preschool class2012In: European Early Childhood Conference, Porto aug 29-sept 01, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children Crossing Borders: School Visits as Initial Incorporation Rites in Transition to Preschool Class2013In: International Journal of Early Childhood, ISSN 0020-7187, E-ISSN 1878-4658, Vol. 45, p. 387-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research about transition in educational settings describes how children enter into new contexts, especially transition from preschool to school. However, the overall research focus in this article is to gain knowledge about how the transition process can be characterized at the end of the preschool period prior to the actual transition. The data reported in this article was generated through visits to preschool class which have the intention to prepare children prior to the transition. The results support the conclusion that the transition process can be characterized as circular rather than linear, or maybe a spiral process that loops back and forth. The children in this study engage in a number of border encounters and border crossings between preschool and preschool class during the spring semester prior to the actual entering. After each border crossing they return to preschool and seem to reconstruct their experiences and expectations of preschool class. This looping movement highlights the identity deconstructions as a social learning process over time. It is shown that children enter the transitions process long before they actually (physically) enter or visit school. The results also propose that the transition is a period when the constructing of identities as ex preschool children may be important. In this process, the teachers in preschool have an important role in order to facilitate the children’s disengagement from preschool. The study also implies the need for teacher collaboration in order to make the transition transparent and explicit for the children.

  • 283.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children’s Play and Teacher’s Playful Teaching: A Discussion about Play in the Preschool Class2017In: British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, ISSN 2278-0998, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1-13, article id BJESBS.31653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the play used in preschool class education is discussed. On the one hand, research has shown that there seems to be a positional shift towards a more academic and schoolpreparatory positioning of the preschool class education. On the other hand, this is still a voluntary school form that shall be based on preschool traditions and play. In addition, research has shown that there actually is a weak emphasis on care provision and play in this educational practice. There is also a lack of knowledge about how play is used and conditioned. The purpose for this study is therefore to analyze the play used in preschool class education. Data for the study is extracted from an 11 months ethnographic case study and the original empirical material consists of 1013 minutes of recorded film in addition to 224 A4-pages of field notes constructed during one year in one preschool class. Examples of common, ordinary and recurring play situations during the school year were selected from this material. Inspired by qualitative content analysis the selected play situations were joined together in three different categories: 1) The optional play, 1) The cultural play, and 3) The educational play. In line with previous research, the results show that play in preschool classes never is “free”. Rather, it is conditioned and framed by the teachers (present or not present); children are committed to play in a certain way and a certain time. In addition, there is a future perspective in the use of play. Playing activities seems often to be closely linked to educational goals.

  • 284.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children’s transition from preschool to school: Expectations, experiences and (re)constructions of identities when crossing borders.2013In: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education: Abstract book, NFPF & NERA , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic

    Most research about transition describes children’s entering into new contexts, especially transition from preschool to school. However, the overall research focus in this study is to describe how the transition process can be characterized at the end of the preschool period.

     

    Theoretical and Methodology framework

    The study aims to approach the children’s perspectives of transition, and the data is constructed through both observations and conversations with children. The theoretical framework providing the basis for this study includes theories of transition, borderland theories and theories of identity constructions. The study adopts the theoretical position that children pass through certain institutional borders in transition from preschool to the preschool class. Transition is a phase in which individuals start to re-define their perception of who they are as they enter new social contexts. One assumption is that children themselves can influence, challenge and stretch those borders, or even create their own borders.

     

    Main findings

    The results support the conclusion that transition is a circular process rather than linear, or maybe as a spiral that loops back and forth. It is shown that children enter the transitions process long before they actually enter or visit school, but it is also shown that the transition process isn’t all clear for all children. The study also proposes that transition is a period when the constructing of identities as Ex preschool children is important.

     

    Relevance for Nordic Educational Research

    The transition from preschool to school is managed in different ways and at different times in children’s life across the world. This study puts the spotlight on the Swedish preschool class that is placed at the crossroads, in the borderland, between preschool and primary school.

  • 285.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children's transitions to and from preschool class: Borders, identities and (dis-)continuities2015In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, Marketisation and differentiation in education.: 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic: Research suggests a tension around transitions in the early years: while borders between school forms have become more clearly marked, there are also ambitions that transitions between them should be “soft” – that is, not posing potential threats for children. The overall purpose of the research is to gain knowledge of how transitions to and from preschool class can be understood from children’s perspectives in terms of border crossings, identities and continuities. Theoretical and Methodology framework: The study aims to approach the children’s perspectives of transition, and the data is constructed through both observations and conversations with children. The theoretical framework providing the basis for this study includes theories of transition, borderland theories and theories of identity constructions. The study adopts the theoretical position that children pass through certain institutional borders in transition from preschool to the preschool class. Transition is a phase in which individuals start to re-define their perception of who they are as they enter new social contexts. One assumption is that children themselves can influence, challenge and stretch those borders, or even create their own borders. Main findings: The results show that transitions between school forms can be considered as threats for children in terms of social discontinuity. The results also show that a smooth transition appears to be a spiral process in which children have the opportunity to commute back and forth across borders between different school forms, and engage in different communities in different arenas. In addition, the results show that children desire educational continuity. However, this appears to be difficult to construct in preschool class as the educational landscape is changing and preschool and school is moving closer to each other in terms of content and focus. Relevance for Nordic Educational Research: Children’s transitions from preschool to school are managed differently across the world. This study puts the spotlight on the Swedish preschool class that is placed in the borderland between preschool and primary school.

  • 286.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children’s transitions to school in a changing educational landscape: Borders, identities and (dis-)continuities2014In: International journal of transitions in childhood, ISSN 1833-2390, Vol. 7, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports findings from research on children’s perspectives of the transitions from preschool to compulsory school via the preschool class. In this article transitions as possible threats, continuity and ‘smooth transition’ and are discussed. As in many countries around the world, there are indications that preschool and school in Sweden are moving closer together in terms of assignments and content - movements that are likely to affect even the youngest children. The results highlight the complexity of transitions and its implications for educational practice, but also shed light on the organizational conditions which children have to cope with in transitions.

  • 287.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Den komplexa väven: Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass2015In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions.

  • 288.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Det är ju ingenting vi bett om...: En studie av en integrationsprocess mellan förskoleklass och skola, med fokus på personal i förändring2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major purpose of this master thesis is to follow a collaboration project of pre-school and compulsory school at one school during one school year. The survey is focused on the teachers and school administrators perception of the activities during the process of change before, during and after the physical integration. The main focus is to study how different groups and cultures of the teachers and the teachers historical and traditional background affect the perception. The survey is based on action research. The method allows triangulation, and during the data collection conversation, observations, diarys and questionnaires has been used. The results shows that the process was affected by the fact that compulsory school teachers eventually subordinated to the reform of collaboration. The pre-school teachers however regressivly balkanized themselves and created a room for acting. The process was thereby affected by a silent power struggle amongst the teachers, in terms of internal traditional and historical ranking and of educational methods. By subordination the compulsory school teachers took the power over the collaboration. No spontanious collaboration was established during the first school year.

  • 289.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Fritidshemmet som en kontinuitetsskapande arena2017In: Barns övergångar: Förskola, förskoleklass, fritidshem, grundsärskola och grundskola / [ed] Anne Lillvist och Jenny Wilder, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 99-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    "From a big and competent preschool child to a small school child in need of care": Parent's perspectives on their children's transition to preschool class.2015In: Abstract book. Innovation, Experimentation and Adventure in Early Childhood, 25th EECERA Annual Conference, Barcelona September 7-10, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to examine parent’s expectations and concerns about upcoming transitions, as well as how parents describe their children in transition. Research has shown that the time before and after school start can be seen as an important period of life. Transitions can also pose a particular strain. Although children often are well prepared, they can “get lost in transition” when exit and entry processes in different school forms are floating into each other. Therefore, support from parents and teachers could be considered as crucial. The analysis is built on theories of transition and socio-cultural perspectives where surroundings, relationships, critical events and contexts become important. The data consists of 173 questionnaires answered by parents to children who are about to make the transition to school. The questionnaires were answered a few months prior to the actual transition, when the head masters invited the parents to visit school and to get informed about the preschool class. The parents could choose whether they wanted to participate in the study or not. The results show that even though the parents seem excited about their children’s next step on the educational ladder they also describe certain concerns. The most reoccurring theme in the narratives is the descriptions of the big and competent preschool child who becomes a small school child in need of care after the transition to preschool class.  Hearing parent’s concerns and understandings about their children in transition informs us how we can prepare both children and parents for transitions.

  • 291.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Från förväntningar till motstånd och anpassning: Fyra barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass2013In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 6, no 15, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses the Swedish preschool class and the transitions from preschool to compulsory school, out from children’s perspectives. The study indicates that children, in these transitions, are constructing identities such as future pupils, Ex preschoolers, playful preschool class children and adjusted and responsible pupils. It’s indicated that children’s ways of defining themselves, and their markings of borders between the institutions, are changing over time and are depending on the current context. The study also highlights how Swedish children conduct two school entries where they have to reconstruct both their identities and their understanding of institutional borders.

  • 292.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Förskoleklassen: En ö eller en bro mellan förskola och skola?2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Förskoleklassen som skolform, en kunskapsöversikt.2010In: I rättan tid? Om ålder och skolstart: SOU 2010:67, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2010, p. 293-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Förskoleklassen som övergångszon: Väntrum eller genomfart?2011In: Psykisk Hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 3, p. 38-43Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 295.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Förskoleklasslärare som gästarbetare: Gränsmarkeringar via sociala stängningar2010In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preschool class is an educational programme that has been created through an educational reform in Sweden in the late 1990s. The purpose was to construct a bridge between preschool and primary school, where the two institutions together would create a “new pedagogy”. My study of teacher identities in preschool class shows that the teachers are using strategies to mark their differences to other teachers. One strategy is to enhance in-groups and out-groups. These strategies also construct the preschool class as a security zone where the teachers distance themselves from other teachers, in contrast to the educational reform.

  • 296.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. University of Gothenburg.
    Gränsers påverkan på lärares identitetskonstruktioner i förskoleklass2009In: Centrum för professionsstudier, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:I studien av läraridentiteter i förskoleklass har förskoleklassen teoretiskt placerats i gränslandet mellan förskola och skola. Detta görs för att förskoleklassen är en frivillig skolform som i verksamheten ska utgå ifrån förskolans pedagogiska traditioner, men ingår i skolans läroplan. Syftet har varit att studera vilka läraridentiteter som konstrueras i detta gränsland och hur dessa konstrueras.

    Metod:Data för studien har konstruerats med inspiration av dialogseminarier. Genom att skriva egna texter, läsa och berätta för andra lärare i grupper, engagerades lärarna i vad som skulle kunna kallas för narrativt teoretiserande, vilket kan leda till att man kan upptäcka och skapa sina professionella identiteter.

    Resultat:Resultaten visar att lärarna i identitetskonstruktionen positionerar sig emot de två omgivande kulturerna, förskolans och skolans. Identitetskonstruktionen utgörs i flera fall av vi-dom-markeringar. Vikten av och möjligheten till delaktighet och acceptans i skolgemenskapen blir centralt. I resultatet skapas två centrala samtalsteman; inom samverkanstemat konstruerar lärarna gränsöverskridande identiteter genom sitt kryssande mellan de olika kulturerna, och inom särartsteman konstruerar lärarna transformativa identiteter i det kulturella mellanrummet mellan de omgivande kulturerna.

    Konklusioner:Konstruktionen av särartstemat, där lärarna placerar sig i mellanrummet mellan kulturerna och framhåller sin unikhet, kan indikera att gränserna mellan förskola och skola har förstärkts istället för att öppnas. Förskoleklassen kan därför ses som en säkerhetszon, i vilken lärarna kan distansera sig från övriga lärare i skola och förskola och konstruera sina identiteter genom att markera sin särart i utbildningssystemet. Allt detta tvärtemot förskoleklassreformens intentioner.

  • 297.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Läraridentiteter i förskoleklass.: Berättelser från ett gränsland.2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Medspelare och ordningsvakter.: Barns bilder av fritidspedagogens yrkesroller på fritidshemmet och i skolan.2011In: Fritidspedagogik.: Fritidshemmets teorier och praktiker. / [ed] Anna Klerfelt och Björn Haglund., Stockholm: Liber, 2011, 1, p. 182-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Mind the Gap!: Children’s transition from preschool to school: the Swedish example.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores children’s transition from preschool to school in the Swedish context. Continuity in transition between school forms has often been stressed by for example national and international policy makers. But what is continuity? This concept is seldom defined. The paper is based on results from my forthcoming thesis, which explores children’s perspectives on the Swedish preschool class and children’s transition from preschool to school. When re-analyzing the empirical data in search for indications of continuity, I found that children in transition to school enhances that this process includes gaps and discontinuities – discontinuities that children put forward as positive.

  • 300.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. University of Gothenburg.
    Narrative teacher identities in preschool class: Stories from a borderland2008In: ECER 2008, From Teaching to Learning?, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims & methodA new arena, the preschool class, is arising between preschool and compulsory school. One can assume that new teacher identities are formed in this new borderland. This study, which is in its introduction phase, aims to search for answers about how the teachers chose to describe themselves as teachers in preschool class, how they are talking about themselves, who they are today and who they want to be tomorrow. In other words, which teacher identities these variations contain.

    In the study the teacher identities will be investigated by their narratives in interaction with and between teachers in focus groups. Bruners (1986) starting point is that narratives creates and recreates relations and identities, and that narrative telling can be seen as an act of reality making.  The narratives render possible definitions of identities in the social life.

    The identities the teachers in preschool class assume is not static, instead they can change constantly on the basis of experiences and reflections. The identities constitute a part of the teachers aims to create meaning in their actions in the pedagogical practice, both historical, current and according to their goals for the future (Beijaard m.fl., 2004; Geijsel & Meijers, 2005). In the study the teacher identities are connected to their actions in the pedagogical practice (ex. Irisdotter, 2006; Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004 & Säljö, 2000).

    The theoretical perspectives in the studyThe study is built on sociocultural theories, social constructionism and border theories. In sociocultural theories meaning making can be seen as mediated through language, where our meaning making processes can be seen as reactions on cultural, historical and social circumstances and where we create ourselves in a narrative praxis (ex. Bruner, 1990 & Rogoff, 2003).

    The preschool class can be considered as a borderland between preschool and compulsory school, hence border theories can be productive in a study of teachers in preschool class. We all live in a world, where (invisible) borders control our lives. Frontiers, borders and borderlands used in geographical literature have a big relevance on our lives and social interactions. The borders creates transition zones to which people from both sides of the border are given permission and where hybrid groups with hybrid identities permits to grow (Newman, 2003). The individual narratives and identities are changing when an activity is transferred to a new territory. Thereby, when individuals are moving from one category or area to another they can experience a form of transition hybridity, where they has assimilated “the new” at the same time as they sustain a great part of  “the old” (Newman, 2006b).

    The contribution from the social constructionism to this study is the starting point that teacher identities can’t be found passively inside the teacher, instead the teacher identity is created in a social act and in a specific practice.  Hence, the focus in this study is on what happens in the relations between people, and what is communicated and expressed in this communication (Shotter, 2005).

    MethodsFocus groups are used as the research method. Approximately 15 teachers working in preschool class are participating, and they are divided into three focus groups. Each group is gathered three times, and each time a main theme for discussion is presented from me as the researcher and moderator of the groups. Data is produced via interaction between the teachers and their narratives are recorded by audio technique. The narratives are then analyzed with focus on the content in the discussions and with the aim to make the variation of the teacher’s identities in preschool class visible. 

    Expected outcomesThis study can make a contribution to the research on professional identities in general and teachers’ professional identities in particular. It has the potential to generate new hypothesis about the construction of “teachers”. Firstly by focusing on a “new” teacher profession, and secondly by connecting border theories to research on professional identities.

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