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  • 251.
    Abramsson, Mette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson, Disa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tecken som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation i förskolan: Några förskollärares erfarenheter och åsikter om TAKK2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på några förskollärares erfarenheter och åsikter gällande TAKK (tecken som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation). Frågeställningen i studien utgår från vilka erfarenheter och åsikter förskollärare och resurspersonal uttrycker angående: TAKK´s påverkan på kommunikation barn/vuxen och hur de uppfattar kommunikationen mellan barn/barn? Personalens förhållningssätt till metoden TAKK? Användningen av TAKK i vardagen? Upplevelse av fördelar och nackdelar angående användandet av TAKK? Studien är baserad på intervjuer. Resultatet visar att TAKK upplevs som positivt för språkutvecklingen av de intervjuade förskollärarna. Fördelar som bland annat uppkommit i intervjuerna är att det alltid finns tillgängligt konkret för förskolläraren och barnet. En nackdel som framkom utifrån förskollärarnas erfarenheter är tidsbristen till att lära sig. Utifrån förskollärarnas erfarenheter upplevs TAKK som en bra metod som fungerar för alla barn oavsett om de kan tala eller inte. Det har framkommit i resultatet att metoden TAKK stimulerar barnets språk och samspel genom att barnet kan göra sig förstådd genom tecken, tal och kroppspråk. Utifrån styrdokumenten för förskolan ska förskolläraren arbeta efter att främja barnets språk- och kommunikationsutveckling, vilket de intervjuade anser är betydelsefullt eftersom en vuxen behövs för att barnet ska lära sig TAKK. Det kan ta tid för barnet att uppfatta, använda och förstå tecknets innebörd. Därför bör barnet finna mening med teckenanvändning när tecken återkommer i vardagliga situationer. Enligt förskollärarnas erfarenheter och åsikter och litteraturens argument argumenteras TAKK som en bra metod för barnets språkutveckling.

  • 252. Abreu, P C
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Odebrecht, C
    Kitzmann, D
    Proença, L A
    Resgalla Jr, C
    Effect of fish and mesozooplankton manipulation on the phytoplankton community in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil1994In: Estuaries, Vol. 17, p. 575-584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Abrezol, Caroline
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    New regionalism: the cases of NAFTA and MERCOSUR: How can regional co-operation be explained?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The end of the Cold War crucially changed the way in which the world is organised and brought an end to what is referred to as the “old” regionalism. A trend towards some form of “new” regionalism has thus been observed during the 1990s. The objective of this thesis is therefore, firstly, to outline the characteristics of the new regionalism in order to examine to what extent the phenomenon is reflected in the reality of regional organisations, and, secondly, to establish which model of co-operation the same organisations can be said to follow. Following this idea, a comparative case study is performed with the selected cases of NAFTA and MERCOSUR, on which a theoretical model for analysis is applied in order to establish whether theories of International Relations, in this case Liberalism and Realism, can explain the emergence and existence of both organisations.

    Results show that NAFTA is less inclined to show signs of the trend towards the new regionalism than MERCOSUR does, and that NAFTA to a larger extent follows a realist model of co-operation, while MERCOSUR follows a more liberal model of co-operation.

  • 254.
    Abromaitis, V.
    et al.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania ; Wetsus, European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Racys, V.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania.
    van der Marel, P.
    WLN, Netherlands.
    Ni, Gaofeng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wolthuizen, A. L.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Meulepas, R. J. W.
    Wetsus, European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Effect of shear stress and carbon surface roughness on bioregeneration and performance of suspended versus attached biomass in metoprolol-loaded biological activated carbon systems2017In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 317, p. 503-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioregeneration of activated carbon (AC) in biological activated carbon (BAC) systems is limited by sorption-desorption hysteresis and transport between the adsorbent and biomass. In this study, we investigated these limitations and whether a biofilm covering the AC surface is required. Consequently, BAC reactors were operated at different shear stress and AC surface smoothness, since this may affect biofilm formation. The experiments were carried out in BAC and blank reactors treating synthetic wastewater containing the pharmaceutical metoprolol. After start-up, all reactors removed metoprolol completely; however, after 840 h the removal dropped due to saturation of the AC. In the blank reactors, the removal dropped to 0% while in the BAC reactors removal recovered to >99%, due to increased biological activity. During the initial phase, the metoprolol was adsorbed, rather than biodegraded. At the end, the AC from the BAC reactors had higher pore volume and sorption capacity than from the blank reactors, showing that the AC had been bioregenerated. At high shear (G = 25 s(-1)), the rough AC granules (R-a = 13 mu m) were covered with a 50-400 gm thick biofilm and the total protein content of the biofilm was 2.6 mg/gAC, while at lower shear (G = 8.8 s(-1)) the rough AC granules were only partly covered. The biofilm formation at lower shear (G = 8.8 s(-1)) on smooth AC granules (R-a = 1.6 mu m) was negligible. However, due to the presence of suspended biomass the reactor performance or bioregeneration were not reduced. This showed that direct contact between the AC and biomass was not essential in mixed BAC systems. The microbial analyses of the suspended biomass and the biofilm on AC surface indicated that metoprolol was mainly biodegraded in suspension. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 255.
    Abu Daqqa, Nizar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Alan, Serkan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    On the Requirements to Implement E-maintenance Cost effectively: Survey Study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, companies started to realize the impact of a good maintenance strategy on the production process. Quality, performance as well as availability are affected by maintenance; existing maintenance strategies help to optimize the production process to achieve high quality products with a low production cost. A new strategy of maintenance has immerged recently, e-maintenance provides an easy solution to follow up with maintenance, it provides condition monitoring, documentation, and it also gives you the best maintenance solution that fits your goals and vision. Articles related to e-maintenance was studied and analyzed to know the steps to implement a cost-effective e-maintenance. The authors came up with a model that describes the implementation process in three main steps.

  • 256.
    Abudaya, Mohammed
    et al.
    Natl Res Ctr, Palestine.
    Ulman, Aylin
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Salah, Jehad
    Minist Agr, Palestine.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Manta Trust, UK;Blue Resources Trust, Sri Lanka.
    Wor, Catarina
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo
    Tethys Res Inst, Italy.
    Speak of the devil ray (Mobula mobular) fishery in Gaza2018In: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, ISSN 0960-3166, E-ISSN 1573-5184, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 229-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the giant devil ray (Mobula mobular), an endangered species endemic to the Mediterranean. Gaza is the only region where this species is targeted, hence, this fishery was studied to address the knowledge gap on fishery interactions, species behavior, and life-history traits. Devil rays have been frequenting this maritime area for at least the past 50 years for a short window from February to April. Landings are reported from 2005 to 2016, along with disc-width (DW) measurements for recent years. A total of 304 M. mobular (over 90% males) were landed in Gaza from 2014 to 2016, most which were mature and appeared to be mating (over 90% of males had sperm-filled claspers), providing critical insight that this area may serve as a mating ground. Yearly landings are shown here to closely match the allowed fishing distance from shore, which changes regularly, indicating that the rays are normally caught between 6 and 12 n.m. offshore. Width-weight conversion parameters are calculated for the first time for this species: a = 2.68 x 10(-6) and b = 4.39. Fresh protein drives this local fishery, as food security is a major issue. An export market for gill plates was reported intermittently, and is no longer possible due to strict trade restrictions. We highlight the lack of awareness of fishers regarding the IUCN's Red List 'Endangered' status of devil rays, and stress the urgent need for national protection of this species, particularly due to the species' very slow life-history traits and probable usage of this area as a mating ground.

  • 257. Accardi, L.
    et al.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Ohya, M.
    The problem of quantum-like representation in economy, cognitive science, and genetics2009In: Quantum Bio-Informatics II: from Quantum Information toBio-Informatics, Singapore: WSP , 2009, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 258. Accardi, Luigi
    et al.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Ohya, Masanori
    Quantum Markov Model for Data from Shafir-Tversky Experiments in Cognitive Psychology2009In: Open systems & information dynamics, ISSN 1230-1612, E-ISSN 1573-1324, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 371-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze, from the point of view of quantum probability, statistical data from two interesting experiments, done by Shafir and Tversky [1, 2] in the domain of cognitive psychology. These are gambling experiments of Prisoner Dilemma type. They have important consequences for economics, especially for the justification of the Savage "Sure Thing Principle" [3] (implying that agents of the market behave rationally). Data from these experiments were astonishing, both from the viewpoint of cognitive psychology and economics and probability theory. Players behaved irrationally. Moreover, all attempts to generate these data by using classical Markov model were unsuccessful. In this note we show (by inventing a simple statistical test — generalized detailed balance condition) that these data are non-Kolmogorovian. We also show that it is neither quantum (i.e., it cannot be described by Dirac-von Neumann model). We proceed towards a quantum Markov model for these data.

  • 259.
    Accardi, Luigi
    et al.
    Univ Rome Torvergata, Italy.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Ohya, Masanori
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Japan.
    Tanaka, Yoshiharu
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Japan.
    Yamato, Ichiro
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Japan.
    Application of Non-Kolmogorovian Probability and Quantum Adaptive Dynamics to Unconscious Inference in Visual Perception Process2016In: Open systems & information dynamics, ISSN 1230-1612, E-ISSN 1573-1324, Vol. 23, no 2, article id 1650011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently a novel quantum information formalism - quantum adaptive dynamics - was developed and applied to modelling of information processing by bio-systems including cognitive phenomena: from molecular biology (glucose-lactose metabolism for E.coli bacteria, epigenetic evolution) to cognition, psychology. From the foundational point of view quantum adaptive dynamics describes mutual adapting of the information states of two interacting systems (physical or biological) as well as adapting of co-observations performed by the systems. In this paper we apply this formalism to model unconscious inference: the process of transition from sensation to perception. The paper combines theory and experiment. Statistical data collected in an experimental study on recognition of a particular ambiguous figure, the Schroer stairs, support the viability of the quantum(-like) model of unconscious inference including modelling of biases generated by rotation-contexts. From the probabilistic point of view, we study (for concrete experimental data) the problem of contextuality of probability, its dependence on experimental contexts. Mathematically contextuality leads to non-Komogorovness: probability distributions generated by various rotation contexts cannot be treated in the Kolmogorovian framework. At the same time they can be embedded in a "big Kolmogorov space" as conditional probabilities. However, such a Kolmogorov space has too complex structure and the operational quantum formalism in the form of quantum adaptive dynamics simplifies the modelling essentially.

  • 260. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Araya, M.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Duke, C.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Imran, A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Kertzman, M.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McArthur, S.
    Moriarty, P.
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Pandel, D.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany .
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Sentürk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Te\v sić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Weng, S.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wood, M.
    Zitzer, B.
    Gamma-Ray Observations of the Be/Pulsar Binary 1A 0535+262 During a Giant X-Ray Outburst2011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 733, no 2, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giant X-ray outbursts, with luminosities of about 1037 erg s–1, are observed roughly every five years from the nearby Be/pulsar binary 1A 0535+262. In this article, we present observations of the source with VERITAS at very high energies (VHEs;E >100 GeV) triggered by the X-ray outburst in 2009 December. The observations started shortly after the onset of the outburst and provided comprehensive coverage of the episode, as well as the 111 day binary orbit. No VHE emission is evident at any time. We also examined data from the contemporaneous observations of 1A 0535+262 with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope at high-energy photons (E > 0.1 GeV) and failed to detect the source at GeV energies. The X-ray continua measured with theSwift/X-Ray Telescope and the RXTE/PCA can be well described by the combination of blackbody and Comptonized emission from thermal electrons. Therefore, the gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system. This distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from those Be X-ray binaries (such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61°303) that have been detected at GeV-TeV energies. We discuss the implications of the results on theoretical models.

  • 261. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Christiansen, J. L.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Duke, C.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Finnegan, G.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Jackson, D. J.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kertzman, M.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    McArthur, S.
    McCann, A.
    Moriarty, P.
    Newbold, M. D.
    Ong, R. A.
    Orr, M.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Ruppel, J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Sentürk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Swordy, S. P.
    Te\v sić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Tsurusaki, K.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wood, M.
    VERITAS Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by Swift2011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 743, no 1, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of 16 Swift-triggered Gamma-ray burst (GRB) follow-up observations taken with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) telescope array from 2007 January to 2009 June. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations were 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter timescale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t –1.5 time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. No significant very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.

  • 262. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Duke, C.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Finnegan, G.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kertzman, M.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    LeBohec, S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McArthur, S.
    McCann, A.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Ong, R. A.
    Orr, M.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany .
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Ruppel, J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Senturk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Tesić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Tsurusaki, K.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Williams, D. A.
    Zitzer, B.
    VERITAS Observations of the TeV Binary LS I +61\deg 303 During 2008-20102011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 738, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of observations of the TeV binary LS I +61° 303 with the VERITAS telescope array between 2008 and 2010, at energies above 300 GeV. In the past, both ground-based gamma-ray telescopes VERITAS and MAGIC have reported detections of TeV emission near the apastron phases of the binary orbit. The observations presented here show no strong evidence for TeV emission during these orbital phases; however, during observations taken in late 2010, significant emission was detected from the source close to the phase of superior conjunction (much closer to periastron passage) at a 5.6 standard deviation (5.6σ) post-trials significance. In total, between 2008 October and 2010 December a total exposure of 64.5 hr was accumulated with VERITAS on LS I +61° 303, resulting in an excess at the 3.3σ significance level for constant emission over the entire integrated data set. The flux upper limits derived for emission during the previously reliably active TeV phases (i.e., close to apastron) are less than 5% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy range. This result stands in apparent contrast to previous observations by both MAGIC and VERITAS which detected the source during these phases at 10% of the Crab Nebula flux. During the two year span of observations, a large amount of X-ray data were also accrued on LS I +61° 303 by theSwift X-ray Telescope and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. We find no evidence for a correlation between emission in the X-ray and TeV regimes during 20 directly overlapping observations. We also comment on data obtained contemporaneously by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  • 263. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Bautista, M.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Butt, Y.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Celik, O.
    Cesarini, A.
    Chow, Y. C.
    Ciupik, L.
    Cogan, P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fortin, P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Gall, D.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Horan, D.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Imran, A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kieda, D.
    Kildea, J.
    Konopelko, A.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    LeBohec, S.
    Maier, G.
    McCann, A.
    McCutcheon, M.
    Millis, J.
    Moriarty, P.
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Pandel, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Petry, D.
    Pohl, M.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Smith, A. W.
    Swordy, S. P.
    Theiling, M.
    Toner, J. A.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vincent, S.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wissel, S.
    Wood, M.
    Walker, R. C.
    Davies, F.
    Hardee, P. E.
    Junor, W.
    Ly, C.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Anderhub, H.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Antoranz, P.
    Backes, M.
    Baixeras, C.
    Balestra, S.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Bastieri, D.
    Gonzlez, J. Becerra
    Becker, J. K.
    Bednarek, W.
    Berger, K.
    Bernardini, E.
    Biland, A.
    Bock, R. K.
    Bonnoli, G.
    Bordas, P.
    Tridon, D. Borla
    Bosch-Ramon, V.
    Bose, D.
    Braun, I.
    Bretz, T.
    Britvitch, I.
    Camara, M.
    Carmona, E.
    Commichau, S.
    Contreras, J. L.
    Cortina, J.
    Costado, M. T.
    Covino, S.
    Curtef, V.
    Dazzi, F.
    De Angelis, A.
    Del Pozo, E. De Cea
    Mendez, C. Delgado
    De los Reyes, R.
    De Lotto, B.
    De Maria, M.
    De Sabata, F.
    Dominguez, A.
    Dorner, D.
    Doro, M.
    Elsaesser, D.
    Errando, M.
    Ferenc, D.
    Fernndez, E.
    Firpo, R.
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Font, L.
    Galante, N.
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Gaug, M.
    Goebel, F.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Herrero, A.
    Hildebrand, D.
    Hoehne-Moench, D.
    Hose, J.
    Hsu, C. C.
    Jogler, T.
    Kranich, D.
    La Barbera, A.
    Laille, A.
    Leonardo, E.
    Lindfors, E.
    Lombardi, S.
    Longo, F.
    Lopez, M.
    Lorenz, E.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maneva, G.
    Mankuzhiyil, N.
    Mannheim, K.
    Maraschi, L.
    Mariotti, M.
    Martinez, M.
    Mazin, D.
    Meucci, M.
    Miranda, J. M.
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Moldon, J.
    Moles, M.
    Moralejo, A.
    Nieto, D.
    Nilsson, K.
    Ninkovic, J.
    Oya, I.
    Paoletti, R.
    Paredes, J. M.
    Pasanen, M.
    Pascoli, D.
    Pauss, F.
    Pegna, R. G.
    Perez-Torres, M. A.
    Persic, M.
    Peruzzo, L.
    Prada, F.
    Prandini, E.
    Puchades, N.
    Reichardt, I.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribo, M.
    Rico, J.
    Rissi, M.
    Robert, A.
    Ruegamer, S.
    Saggion, A.
    Saito, T. Y.
    Salvati, M.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Satalecka, K.
    Scalzotto, V.
    Scapin, V.
    Schweizer, T.
    Shayduk, M.
    Shore, S. N.
    Sidro, N.
    Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Sitarek, J.
    Sobczynska, D.
    Spanier, F.
    Stamerra, A.
    Stark, L. S.
    Takalo, L.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Temnikov, P.
    Tescaro, D.
    Teshima, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Turini, N.
    Vankov, H.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zandanel, F.
    Zanin, R.
    Zapatero, J.
    Radio Imaging of the Very-High-Energy gamma-Ray Emission Region in the Central Engine of a Radio Galaxy2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5939, p. 444-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.

  • 264. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Beilicke, M.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sushch, I.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    First detection of VHE gamma-rays from SN 1006 by HESS2010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 516, p. A62-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Recent theoretical predictions of the lowest very high energy (VHE) luminosity of SN 1006 are only a factor 5 below the previously published HESS upper limit, thus motivating further in-depth observations of this source. Methods. Deep observations at VHE energies (above 100 GeV) were carried out with the high energy stereoscopic system (HESS) of Cherenkov Telescopes from 2003 to 2008. More than 100 h of data have been collected and subjected to an improved analysis procedure. Results. Observations resulted in the detection of VHE gamma-rays from SN 1006. The measured gamma-ray spectrum is compatible with a power-law, the flux is of the order of 1% of that detected from the Crab Nebula, and is thus consistent with the previously established HESS upper limit. The source exhibits a bipolar morphology, which is strongly correlated with non-thermal X-rays. Conclusions. Because the thickness of the VHE-shell is compatible with emission from a thin rim, particle acceleration in shock waves is likely to be the origin of the gamma-ray signal. The measured flux level can be accounted for by inverse Compton emission, but a mixed scenario that includes leptonic and hadronic components and takes into account the ambient matter density inferred from observations also leads to a satisfactory description of the multi-wavelength spectrum.

  • 265. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Benbow, W.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Costamante, L.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    PKS2005-489 at VHE: four years of monitoring with HESS and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations2010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 511, p. A52-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Our aim is to study the very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from BL Lac objects and the evolution in time of their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods. VHE observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 were made with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from 2004 through 2007. Three simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns at lower energies were performed during the HESS data taking, consisting of several individual pointings with the XMM-Newton and RXTE satellites. Results. A strong VHE signal, similar to 17 sigma total, from PKS 2005-489 was detected during the four years of HESS observations (90.3 h live time). The integral flux above the average analysis threshold of 400 GeV is similar to 3% of the flux observed from the Crab Nebula and varies weakly on time scales from days to years. The average VHE spectrum measured from similar to 300 GeV to similar to 5 TeV is characterized by a power law with a photon index, Gamma = 3.20 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.10(syst). At X-ray energies the flux is observed to vary by more than an order of magnitude between 2004 and 2005. Strong changes in the X-ray spectrum (Delta Gamma(X) approximate to 0.7) are also observed, which appear to be mirrored in the VHE band. Conclusions. The SED of PKS 2005-489, constructed for the first time with contemporaneous data on both humps, shows significant evolution. The large flux variations in the X-ray band, coupled with weak or no variations in the VHE band and a similar spectral behavior, suggest the emergence of a new, separate, harder emission component in September 2005.

  • 266. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Localizing the VHE gamma-ray source at the Galactic Centre2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 402, no 3, p. 1877-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inner 10 pc of our Galaxy contains many counterpart candidates of the very high energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray point source HESS J1745-290. Within the point spread function of the H.E.S.S. measurement, at least three objects are capable of accelerating particles to VHE and beyond and of providing the observed gamma-ray flux. Previous attempts to address this source confusion were hampered by the fact that the projected distances between these objects were of the order of the error circle radius of the emission centroid (34 arcsec, dominated by the pointing uncertainty of the H.E.S.S. instrument). Here we present H.E.S.S. data of the Galactic Centre region, recorded with an improved control of the instrument pointing compared to H.E.S.S. standard pointing procedures. Stars observed during gamma-ray observations by optical guiding cameras mounted on each H.E.S.S. telescope are used for off-line pointing calibration, thereby decreasing the systematic pointing uncertainties from 20 to 6 arcsec per axis. The position of HESS J1745-290 is obtained by fitting a multi-Gaussian profile to the background-subtracted gamma-ray count map. A spatial comparison of the best-fitting position of HESS J1745-290 with the position and morphology of candidate counterparts is performed. The position is, within a total error circle radius of 13 arcsec, coincident with the position of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* and the recently discovered pulsar wind nebula candidate G359.95-0.04. It is significantly displaced from the centroid of the supernova remnant Sgr A East, excluding this object with high probability as the dominant source of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  • 267. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot.
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Detection of Gamma Rays from a Starburst Galaxy2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5956, p. 1080-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of similar to 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays-tracers of such cosmic rays-from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H. E. S. S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.

  • 268. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Discovery and follow-up studies of the extended, off-plane, VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-6222011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 525, p. A45-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The detection of gamma-rays in the very-high-energy (VHE) range (100 GeV-100 TeV) offers the possibility of studying the parent population of ultrarelativistic particles found in astrophysical sources, so it is useful for understanding the underlying astrophysical processes in nonthermal sources. Aims. The discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622 is reported and possibilities regarding its nature are investigated. Methods. The H. E. S. S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) has a high sensitivity compared with previous instruments (similar to 1% of the Crab flux in 25 h observation time for a 5 sigma point-source detection) and has a large field of view (similar to 5 degrees in diameter). HESS J1507-622 was discovered within the ongoing H. E. S. S. survey of the inner Galaxy, and the source was also studied by means of dedicated multiwavelength observations. Results. A Galactic gamma-ray source, HESS J1507-622, located similar to 3.5 degrees. from the Galactic plane was detected with a statistical significance >9 sigma. Its energy spectrum is well fitted by a power law with spectral index Gamma = 2.24 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and a flux above 1 TeV of (1.5 +/- 0.4(stat) +/- 0.3(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1). Possible interpretations (considering both hadronic and leptonic models) of the VHE gamma-ray emission are discussed in the absence of an obvious counterpart.

  • 269. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sushch, I.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    HESS upper limits on very high energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar GRS 1915+1052009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 508, no 3, p. 1135-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. High energy particles reside in the relativistic jets of microquasars, making them possible sources of very high energy radiation (VHE, > 100 GeV). Detecting this emission would provide a new handle on jet physics. Aims. Observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the HESS telescope array were undertaken in 2004-2008 to search for VHE emission. Methods. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results. There is no evidence for a VHE gamma-ray signal either from the direction of the microquasar or its vicinity. An upper limit of 6.1 x 10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (99.9% confidence level) is set on the photon flux above 410 GeV, equivalent to a VHE luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) at 11 kpc. Conclusions. The VHE to X-ray luminosity ratio in GRS 1915+105 is at least four orders of magnitude lower than the ratio observed in gamma-ray binaries. The VHE radiative efficiency of the compact jet is less than 0.01% based on its estimated total power of 10(38) erg s(-1). Particle acceleration in GRS 1915+105 is not efficient at high energies and/or the magnetic field is too strong. It is also possible that VHE gamma-rays are produced by GRS 1915+105, but the emission is highly time-dependent.

  • 270.
    Acero, F.
    et al.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Aloisio, R.
    Arcetri Observatory, Italy ; University of L'Aquila, Italy ; Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    Amans, J.
    Paris Observatory, France.
    Amato, E.
    Arcetri Observatory, Italy.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Rome Observatory, Italy.
    Aramo, C.
    INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy.
    Armstrong, T.
    Durham University, UK.
    Arqueros, F.
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Asano, K.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Ashley, M.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Balazs, C.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bamba, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Barkov, M.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Benbow, W.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Beshley, V.
    Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, Lvov, Ukraine..
    Bigongiari, C.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Turin, Italy..
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Particle Phys, Schafmattstr 20, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bilinsky, A.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, UA-79000 City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
    Bissaldi, E.
    Politecn Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Biteau, J.
    Univ Paris 11, IPNO, IN2P3, CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay, France.;Univ Paris 11, UMR 8608, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay, France..
    Blanch, O.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Blasi, P.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, Florence, Italy..
    Blazek, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Boisson, C.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Bonanno, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Bonardi, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Bonavolonta, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Bonnoli, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Braiding, C.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Brau-Nogue, S.
    IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, Toulouse 4, France..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Bugaev, V.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Bulgarelli, A.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Phys, Ul Hoza 69, Warsaw, Poland..
    Burton, M.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Burtovoi, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, Padua, Italy..
    Busetto, G.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Cameron, R.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.;Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Capalbi, M.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Caproni, A.
    UCS, NAT, Rua Galvao Bueno 8687,Bloco B,Sala 16, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Caraveo, P.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
    Carosi, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, Italy..
    Cascone, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Cerruti, M.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Chaty, S.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chen, X.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo OHiggins 340, Santiago, Chile..
    Chernyakova, M.
    Dublin City Univ, Dublin 9, Ireland..
    Chikawa, M.
    Kindai Univ, Dept Phys, Higashiosaka, Osaka 5778502, Japan..
    Chudoba, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Conforti, V.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Costa, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    Covino, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Covone, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Cumani, P.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cusumano, G.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    D'Ammando, F.
    INAF IRA, INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    D'Urso, D.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Daniel, M.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Dazzi, F.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    De Angelis, A.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    De Cesare, G.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    De Franco, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    De Frondat, F.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Dal Pino, E. M. de Gouveia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    De Lisio, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Lopez, R. de los Reyes
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    De Palma, F.
    INFN, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy..
    Del Santo, M.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Delgado, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    della Volpe, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Di Girolamo, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Di Giulio, C.
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy..
    Di Pierro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, Turin, Italy..
    Di Venere, L.
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Doro, M.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    Dournaux, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Dumas, D.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Dwarkadas, V.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Diaz, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Ebr, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Golm, Germany..
    Einecke, S.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, Dortmund, Germany..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Campus Hubland Nord,Emil Fischer Str 31, Wurzburg, Germany..
    Eschbach, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Falceta-Goncalves, D.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Arles Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fasola, G.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Fedorova, E.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 60 Volodymyrska St, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Fernandez-Barral, A.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ferrand, G.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Fesquet, M.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SEDI, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fiandrini, E.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Filipovic, M. D.
    Western Sydney Univ, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia..
    Fioretti, V.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Font, L.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Unitat Fis Radiac, Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, Bellaterra, Spain.;Edifici Cc,Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Spain..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Franco, F. J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Elect, Ave Complutense Madrid, Spain..
    Freixas Coromina, L.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Fujita, Y.
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Toyonaka, Osaka 5600043, Japan..
    Fukui, Y.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Funk, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Forster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gadola, A.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Phys, Winterthurerstr 190, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Lopez, R. Garcia
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giglietto, N.
    Politecn Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Giordano, F.
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Giuliani, A.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
    Glicenstein, J.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gnatyk, R.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 60 Volodymyrska St, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Goldoni, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Obs Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, Paris 13, France..
    Grabarczyk, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Graciani, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Graham, J.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Grandi, P.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Granot, J.
    Open Univ Israel, Dept Nat Sci, 1 Univ Rd,POB 808, Raanana, Israel..
    Green, A. J.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Griffiths, S.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gunji, S.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Hakobyan, H.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Ave Espana 1680, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Hara, S.
    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
    Hassan, T.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hayashida, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Heller, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Helo, J. C.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Ave Espana 1680, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Hinton, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hnatyk, B.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 60 Volodymyrska St, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Huet, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Huetten, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Humensky, T. B.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Hussein, M.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Horandel, J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Ikeno, Y.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Inada, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Inome, Y.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Inoue, S.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Inoue, T.
    Natl Astron Observ Japan, Div Theoret Astron, Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan..
    Inoue, Y.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Ioka, K.
    Kyoto Univ, Yukawa Inst Theoret Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Iori, M.
    INFN, Sez Roma La Sapienza, Ple Aldo Moro 2, Rome, Italy..
    Jacquemier, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Janecek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung, I.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kaaret, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Katagiri, H.
    Ibaraki Univ, Fac Sci, Mito, Ibaraki 3108512, Japan..
    Kimeswenger, S.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Kimura, S.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Knodlseder, J.
    IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, Toulouse 4, France..
    Koch, B.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo OHiggins 340, Santiago, Chile..
    Kocot, J.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Kohri, K.
    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
    Komin, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave,Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, Y.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Koyama, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Kraus, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kubo, H.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Mezek, G. Kukec
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Kushida, J.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    La Palombara, N.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
    Lalik, K.
    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Landt, H.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Lapington, J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Laporte, P.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lee, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Lees, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leto, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, Berlin, Germany..
    Lombardi, S.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Univ Trieste, Trieste, Italy.;INFN, Sezione Trieste, Trieste, Italy..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Lucarelli, F.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Maier, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malaguti, G.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Mandat, D.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Maneva, G.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Mangano, S.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Marti, J.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas,Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
    Martinez, M.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB,Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Martinez, G.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Masuda, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Melioli, C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Mineo, T.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Mirabal, N.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense Madrid, Spain..
    Mizuno, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohammed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Moralejo, A.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Mori, K.
    Miyazaki Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Gakuen Kibana Dai Nishi, Miyazaki 8892192, Japan..
    Morlino, G.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
    Morselli, A.
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Italy..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Mundell, C.
    Univ Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, UK.
    Muraishi, H.
    Kitasato Univ, Sch Allied Hlth Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2288555, Japan..
    Murase, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Nagataki, S.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Naito, T.
    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
    Nakajima, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Nakamori, T.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Nemmen, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Niemiec, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
    Nieto, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Nievas-Rosillo, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Nikolajuk, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
    Nishijima, K.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
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    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
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    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Okumura, A.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Orito, R.
    Tokushima Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Technol, Tokushima 7708506, Japan..
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    INAF IRA, INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
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    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Palatka, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Pavy, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Pe'er, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Osserv Astron Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy..
    Petrucci, P.
    Univ Joseph Fourier, INSU CNRS, Inst Planetol & Astrophys Grenoble, 621 Ave Cent,Domaine Univ, Grenoble 9, France..
    Petruk, O.
    Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, Lvov, Ukraine..
    Pisarski, A.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
    Pohl, M.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Porcelli, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Prast, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Principe, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1,Erlangen, Germany..
    Prouza, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Pueschel, E.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Puelhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, Tubingen, Germany..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Technikerstr , Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Ribo, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rizi, V.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
    Rodriguez, J.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fernandez, G. Rodriguez
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy..
    Rodriguez Vazquez, J. J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Romano, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Romeo, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Rosado, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Rousselle, J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
    Sadeh, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Saito, T.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Sakaki, N.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Sanchez, D.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Sangiorgi, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Sano, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Santander, M.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    Sawada, M.
    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
    Schioppa, E. J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Schovanek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Schussler, F.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Sergijenko, O.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Shalchi, A.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Shellard, R. C.
    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Siejkowski, H.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Simone, D.
    INFN, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy..
    Sliusar, V.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Sol, H.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Starling, R.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Stawarz, L.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Pomorska Lodz, Poland..
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    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Tajima, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Takahashi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
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    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
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    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Temnikov, P.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
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    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
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    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
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    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tokanai, F.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
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    Inst Space Sci IEEC CSIC, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain.;ICREA, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain..
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    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
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    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Travnicek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, 163 Ave Luminy, Marseille, France..
    Trifoglio, M.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Tsujimoto, S.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Vagelli, V.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Vallania, P.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Turin, Italy..
    Valore, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, 500 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Vassiliev, V.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Ave Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vercellone, S.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Vergani, S.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Vigorito, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, Turin, Italy..
    Vorobiov, S.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Vrastil, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Vazquez Acosta, M. L.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea, Tenerife, Spain..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Univ Vagen 10 A, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Prospects for Cherenkov Telescope Array Observations of the Young Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-39462017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 840, no 2, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7-3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti) correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in particular X-rays and CO/H I emission. We present a series of simulated images of RX J1713.7-3946 for CTA based on a set of observationally motivated models for the gamma-ray emission. In these models, VHE gamma rays produced by high-energy electrons are assumed to trace the nonthermal X-ray emission observed by XMM-Newton, whereas those originating from relativistic protons delineate the local gas distributions. The local atomic and molecular gas distributions are deduced by the NANTEN team from CO and H I observations. Our primary goal is to show how one can distinguish the emission mechanism(s) of the gamma rays (i.e., hadronic versus leptonic, or a mixture of the two) through information provided by their spatial distribution, spectra, and time variation. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the capabilities of CTA to achieve various proposed scientific goals by observing this important cosmic particle accelerator.

  • 271.
    Acevska, Katja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Jag tillhör en muslimsk familj men jag är inte religiös: Några ungdomars förändrade syn på sin religion i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is not surprising that the massive Syrian and Afghanistan immigration three years ago, has changed their view towards Islam rules in their new identity creating. But what has been changed? That was my first question in this essay and the answers I got was rules concerned alcohol, prayer, mosque visits and food rules. All this rules requires someone to influence them to take a stand, which lead us to the next question, about how hegemony was exhibited as a factor in how my respondents answered the first question. The theory of hegemony was the analysis instrument of this study and gave me a hypothesis that hegemony probably had something to do with the change of rules, and it had. All these things that I mentioned as changed rules in their new land demands a personal asset and to be legitimized by someone who represents the hegemony.  In order for the hegemony to continue it has to be anonymous and lead for example friends or teachers. It is visible how my respondents talked about matters that had to do with how the changes where in their common sense, where probably hegemony has the strongest attachment, but also how they thought that they made own choices, was also the choice that the hegemony had done before them. Although I took into account the need to be a part of a group, here it showed how the Muslims was included in a group that only had premises from hegemony standard points. The answers for my result was given to me by six secondary school students by semi structured interviews.

     

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    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 273.
    Acharya, Om Nath
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Upadhyaya, Sabin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Space Time Coding For Wireless Communication2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the demand of high data rate is increasing, a lot of research is being conducted in the field of wireless communication. A well-known channel coding technique called Space-Time Coding has been implemented in the wireless Communication systems using multiple antennas to ensure the high speed communication as well as reliability by exploiting limited spectrum and maintaining the power. In this thesis, Space-Time Coding is discussed along with other related topics with special focus on Alamouti Space-Time Block Code. The Alamouti Codes show good performance in terms of bit error rate over Rayleigh fading channel. The performance of Altamonte’s code and MIMO capacity is evaluated by using MATLAB simulation.

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    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
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    Univ Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Univ Aquila, Italy;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Italy.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    PSL Res Univ, France.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
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    Univ Montpellier, France.
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    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    Monash Univ, Australia.
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    Univ Geneva, Switzerland.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    Univ Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Inst Phys & Chem Res, RIKEN, Japan.
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
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    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Univ Str 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;Univ Siena, DSFTA, Sez Fis, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
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    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
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    NASU, Pidstryhach Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, UA-79060 Lvov, Ukraine..
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    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Phys Nucleaire, IN2P3,CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
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    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Politecn Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
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    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Phys Nucleaire, IN2P3,CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
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    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Boisson, C.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bonanno, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bonardi, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Bonavolonta, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia Ed G, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Bonnoli, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;Univ Siena, DSFTA, Sez Fis, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Bordas, P.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom Campus, ZA-2531 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brill, A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Bruegge, K.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Bruno, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bulgarelli, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Phys, Astron Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Burton, M.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland..
    Burtovoi, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Busetto, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Cameron, R.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, SIAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Canestrari, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Capalbi, M.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Caproni, A.
    Univ Cruzeiro Sul, Nucl Astrofis Teor, Rua Galvao Bueno 8687,Bloco B,Sala 16, BR-01506000 Libertade, SP, Brazil..
    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Caraveo, P.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Carosi, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56217 Pisa, Italy..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cascone, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Cassol, F.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France.;163 Ave Luminy, F-13288 Marseille 09, France..
    Catalani, F.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Area & Estr Municipal Campinho, Escola Engn Lorena, Area 1 Estr Municipal Campinho S-N, BR-12602810 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Catalano, O.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Cauz, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chaty, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,AIM,CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chernyakova, M.
    Dublin City Univ, Ctr Astrophys & Relat, Sch Phys Sci, Dublin 9, Ireland..
    Chiaro, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Cieslar, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Phys, Astron Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Colak, S. M.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Conforti, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Congiu, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Cortina, J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Costa, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Costantini, H.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France.;163 Ave Luminy, F-13288 Marseille 09, France..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Cristofari, P.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Cumani, P.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cusumano, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    D'Ai, A.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    D'Ammando, F.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Dangeon, L.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Da Vela, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56217 Pisa, Italy..
    Dazzi, F.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    De Angelis, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Caprio, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    de Cassia dos Anjos, R.
    Univ Fed Parana Setor Palotina, Dept Engenharias & Exatas, Rua Pioneiro 2153, BR-85950000 Jardim Dallas, Parana, Brazil..
    De Frondat, F.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    De Lotto, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    De Martino, D.
    Univ Cruzeiro Sul, Nucl Astrofis Teor, Rua Galvao Bueno 8687,Bloco B,Sala 16, BR-01506000 Libertade, SP, Brazil..
    de Naurois, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    de Souza, V
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Del Santo, M.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Delgado, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    della Volpe, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Di Girolamo, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia Ed G, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Di Pierro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Di Venere, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Diaz, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Diebold, S.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Donini, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Campus Hubland Nord,Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Doro, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Dournaux, J-L
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ebr, J.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Ekoume, T. R. N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Elsaesser, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Falceta-Goncalves, D.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Artes Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, BR-03828000 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fedorova, E.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Fegan, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Feng, Q.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Ferrand, G.
    Inst Phys & Chem Res, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Fiandrini, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS,IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.;9 Chemin Bellevue,BP 110, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Filipovic, M.
    Western Sydney Univ, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 1797, Australia..
    Fioretti, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Fiori, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Flis, S.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Fonseca, M. , V
    Fontaine, G.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Freixas Coromina, L.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Fukami, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Fukui, Y.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Funk, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gaggero, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Inst Fis Teor, CSIC, Campus Cantoblanco,C Nicolas Cabrera 13-75, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Fis Teor, Campus Cantoblanco,C Nicolas Cabrera 13-75, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Galanti, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Garcia Lopez, R. J.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gascon, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gasparetto, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Unitat Fis Radiac, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Edif C3,Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Ghalumyan, A.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Alikhanyan Natl Sci Lab, 2 Alikhanyan Bros St, Yerevan 0036, Armenia..
    Gianotti, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giglietto, N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Politecn Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Giordano, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Giroletti, M.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Gironnet, J.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Glicenstein, J-F
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gnatyk, R.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Goldoni, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gonzalez, J. M.
    Univ Andres Bello UNAB, Republ 252, Santiago, Region Metropol, Chile..
    Gonzalez, M. M.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Ciudad De Mexico 04510, Mexico..
    Gourgouliatos, K. N.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Grabarczyk, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, PL-30950 Krakow, Poland..
    Granot, J.
    Open Univ Israel, Dept Nat Sci, 1 Univ Rd,POB 808, IL-43537 Raanana, Israel..
    Green, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Greenshaw, T.
    Univ Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab, Liverpool L69 7ZE, Merseyside, England..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, IN2P3, CNRS,UMR 5797, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Gueta, O.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Hassan, T.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hayashida, M.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Heller, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Hinton, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hiroshima, N.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
    Hnatyk, B.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Horvath, P.
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, RCPTM, 17 Listopadu 1192-12, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Hrabovsky, M.
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, RCPTM, 17 Listopadu 1192-12, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Hrupec, D.
    Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Trg Svetog Trojstva 3, Osijek 31000, Croatia..
    Humensky, T. B.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Huetten, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Inada, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Iocco, F.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, ICTP South Amer Inst Fundamental Res, Inst Fis Teor, Rua Dr Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, BR-01140070 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Ionica, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Iori, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, Piazza Aldo Moro 5 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Iwamura, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, PL-30348 Krakow, Poland..
    Janecek, P.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jean, P.
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, CNRS, INSU, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Jouvin, L.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Jurysek, J.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic.;Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, RCPTM, 17 Listopadu 1192-12, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Kaaret, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Kadowaki, L. H. S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Karkar, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Kieda, D.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Kimeswenger, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Tech Str 25-8, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Knapp, J.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Knodlseder, J.
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, CNRS, INSU, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Kobayashi, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Koch, B.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo O Higgins 340, Santiago, Chile..
    Kocot, J.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, PL-30950 Krakow, Poland..
    Komin, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kong, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Kowal, G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Artes Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, BR-03828000 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Krause, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kubo, H.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Kushida, J.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, 4-1-1 Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Kushwaha, P.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    La Parola, V
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    La Rosa, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Lallena Arquillo, M.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Lang, R. G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Lapington, J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Le Blanc, O.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,AIM,CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.
    Univ Fed ABC, Ctr Ciencias Naturais & Humanas, Rua Santa Adelia 166, BR-09210170 Santo Andre, SP, Brazil..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, IN2P3, CNRS,UMR 5797, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Leto, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lico, R.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lombardi, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Lopez, A.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez-Oramas, A.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Loporchio, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Lagunillas S-N,Edif A3, Jaen 23071, Spain..
    Lyard, E.
    Univ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Observ Geneva, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Mach, E.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Maggio, C.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Unitat Fis Radiac, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Edif C3,Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Malaguti, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mallamaci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Mandat, D.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Maneva, G.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Boul Tsarigradsko Chaussee, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Manganaro, M.
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Mangano, S.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Marculewicz, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, PL-15254 Bialystok, Poland..
    Mariotti, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Marti, J.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Lagunillas S-N,Edif A3, Jaen 23071, Spain..
    Martinez, M.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Martinez, G.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Martinez-Huerta, H.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Masuda, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Mazin, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Meunier, J-L
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Meyer, M.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, SIAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Micanovic, S.
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Millul, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Minaya, I. A.
    Univ Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab, Liverpool L69 7ZE, Merseyside, England..
    Mitchell, A.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Mizuno, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Moralejo, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Morcuende, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Morlino, G.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Morselli, A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Munar, P.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis & Planetol Spaziali IAPS, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Mundell, C.
    Univ Bath, Dept Phys, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, England..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nagai, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Naito, T.
    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
    Nakamori, T.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Nemmen, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Niemiec, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Nieto, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Rosillo, M. Nievas
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nikolajuk, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, PL-15254 Bialystok, Poland..
    Ninci, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Nishijima, K.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, 4-1-1 Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Nosek, D.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Noethe, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Nozaki, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Ohishi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Ohtani, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Okumura, A.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Orienti, M.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Orito, R.
    Tokushima Univ, Grad Sch Technol Ind & Social Sci, Tokushima 7708506, Japan..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, PL-30348 Krakow, Poland..
    Otte, N.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Ou, Z.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Phys Nucleaire, IN2P3,CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
    Oya, I
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Pagliaro, A.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Palatiello, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Palatka, M.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Paoletti, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;Univ Siena, DSFTA, Sez Fis, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Pareschi, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Parmiggiani, N.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Patricelli, B.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56217 Pisa, Italy..
    Pe'er, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Pech, M.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Penil Del Campo, P.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Perez-Romero, J.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Inst Fis Teor, CSIC, Campus Cantoblanco,C Nicolas Cabrera 13-75, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Fis Teor, Campus Cantoblanco,C Nicolas Cabrera 13-75, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Perri, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Persic, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Domaine Univ, CNRS, Inst Planetol & Astrophys Grenoble, 414 Rue Piscine, F-938041 Grenoble 9, France..
    Petruk, O.
    NASU, Pidstryhach Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, UA-79060 Lvov, Ukraine..
    Pfrang, K.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS,IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.;9 Chemin Bellevue,BP 110, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Pietropaolo, E.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Pohl, M.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Polo, M.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Poutanen, J.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland..
    Prandini, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Produit, N.
    Univ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Observ Geneva, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Prouza, M.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Przybilski, H.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Queiroz, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raino, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Rando, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Razzaque, S.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Phys, Univ Rd,POB 524, ZA-2006 Auckland Pk, South Africa..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Tech Str 25-8, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renault-Tinacci, N.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Renier, Y.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Ribeiro, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Ribo, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rizi, V
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Fernandez, G. Rodriguez
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J. C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Rodri-guez Vazquez, J. J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Romano, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Romeo, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Roncadelli, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Rosado, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Rugliancich, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56217 Pisa, Italy..
    Rulten, C.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Sadeh, I
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Saha, L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Saito, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Sakurai, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Greus, F. Salesa
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Sangiorgi, P.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Sano, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Gallalee Hall,Box 870324 Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Santos-Lima, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Sanuy, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Saturni, F. G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Sawangwit, U.
    Natl Astron Res Inst Thailand, 191 Huay Kaew Rd, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand..
    Schlenstedt, S.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schovanek, P.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Scuderi, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Sedlaczek, K.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Sergijenko, O.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Seweryn, K.
    Polish Acad Sci, Space Res Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18A, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Shalchi, A.
    Univ Manitoba, Dept Phys & Astron, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Shellard, R. C.
    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Siejkowski, H.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, PL-30950 Krakow, Poland..
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sironi, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Sliusar, V
    Univ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Observ Geneva, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Slowikowska, A.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Torun Ctr Astron, Ul Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Sol, H.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Spengler, G.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Stamerra, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Stanic, S.
    Univ Nova Gor, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Vipavska 11c, Ajdovscina 5270, Slovenia..
    Stawarz, L.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, PL-30348 Krakow, Poland..
    Stefanik, S.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,AIM,CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Straumann, U.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Suomijarvi, T.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Phys Nucleaire, IN2P3,CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
    Swierk, P.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Szepieniec, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, PL-30950 Krakow, Poland..
    Tagliaferri, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Tajima, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Tam, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Tavecchio, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Taylor, L.
    Univ Wiscosin, 500 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tejedor, L. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Temnikov, P.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Boul Tsarigradsko Chaussee, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Terzic, T.
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Testa, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, CNRS, INSU, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Todero Peixoto, C. J.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Area & Estr Municipal Campinho, Escola Engn Lorena, Area 1 Estr Municipal Campinho S-N, BR-12602810 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Tokanai, F.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Tomankova, L.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Univ Str 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany..
    Tonev, D.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Boul Tsarigradsko Chaussee, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Torres, D. F.
    CSIC, Inst Space Sci, ICE, Campus UAB,Carrer Magrans S-N, Barcelona 08193, Spain.;IEEC, Barcelona 08034, Spain.;ICREA, Barcelona, Spain..
    Tosti, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Tosti, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Tothill, N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 1797, Australia..
    Toussenel, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Tovmassian, G.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Ciudad De Mexico 04510, Mexico..
    Travnicek, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Trichard, C.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Umana, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Vagelli, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Valentino, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia Ed G, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Vallage, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Vallania, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Strofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Valore, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia Ed G, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wiscosin, 500 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Varner, G. S.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, 2500 Campus Rd, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Vassiliev, V.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Vazquez Acosta, M.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.;Univ Groningen, KIV, Ctr Adv Radiat Tech, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vercellone, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Vergani, S.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Vettolani, G. P.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Viana, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vigorito, C. F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vitale, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Voelk, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vollhardt, A.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Vorobiov, S.
    Univ Nova Gor, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Vipavska 11c, Ajdovscina 5270, Slovenia..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Walter, R.
    Univ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Observ Geneva, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Will, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Williams, D. A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Wischnewski, R.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yang, L.
    Univ Nova Gor, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Vipavska 11c, Ajdovscina 5270, Slovenia..
    Yoshida, T.
    Ibaraki Univ, Fac Sci, Mito, Ibaraki 3108512, Japan..
    Yoshikoshi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Univ Str 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany..
    Zampieri, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Zavrtanik, M.
    Univ Nova Gor, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Vipavska 11c, Ajdovscina 5270, Slovenia..
    Zavrtanik, D.
    Univ Nova Gor, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Vipavska 11c, Ajdovscina 5270, Slovenia..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zechlin, H.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Zenin, A.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Zhdanov, V. , I
    Zimmer, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Tech Str 25-8, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Monte Carlo studies for the optimisation of the Cherenkov Telescope Array layout2019In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 111, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the major next-generation observatory for ground-based veryhigh-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will improve the sensitivity of current ground-based instruments by a factor of five to twenty, depending on the energy, greatly improving both their angular and energy resolutions over four decades in energy (from 20 GeV to 300 TeV). This achievement will be possible by using tens of imaging Cherenkov telescopes of three successive sizes. They will be arranged into two arrays, one per hemisphere, located on the La Palma island (Spain) and in Paranal (Chile). We present here the optimised and final telescope arrays for both CTA sites, as well as their foreseen performance, resulting from the analysis of three different large-scale Monte Carlo productions.

  • 275.
    Achek, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Geometri: Hur lärare undervisar i geometri i de tidigare skolåren2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A number of both international and national enquires shows that Swedish pupils are getting worse results in mathematics. One area that’s frequently pointed out is geometry. This enquiry intends to find out how the subject of geometry has developed in the Swedish school and witch methods and concepts teachers who teach in preschool and the early school years grade use in their teaching. This enquiry is based upon eight semi structured interviews and from studying previous curriculums. The result shows that teachers use a great deal of concepts and methods in their teaching but that there are a need for further education among teachers. The enquiry also shows that the significance of the subject has changed over time.

  • 276.
    Achilleos, Achilleas
    et al.
    Frederick University, Cyprus.
    Mettouris, Christos
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Yeratziotis, Alexandros
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Papadopoulos, George
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Huber, Florian
    SYNYO GmbH, Austria.
    Jäger, Bernhard
    SYNYO GmbH, Austria.
    Leitner, Peter
    SYNYO GmbH, Austria.
    Ocsovszky, Zsófia
    BioTalentum Ltd, Hungary.
    Dinnyés, András
    BioTalentum Ltd, Hungary.
    SciChallenge: A Social Media Aware Platform for Contest-Based STEM Education and Motivation of Young Students2019In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific and technological innovations have become increasingly important as we face the benefits and challenges of both globalization and a knowledge-based economy. Still, enrolment rates in STEM degrees are low in many European countries and consequently there is a lack of adequately educated workforce in industries. We believe that this can be mainly attributed to pedagogical issues, such as the lack of engaging hands-on activities utilized for science and math education in middle and high schools. In this paper, we report our work in the SciChallenge European project, which aims at increasing the interest of pre-university students in STEM disciplines, through its distinguishing feature, the systematic use of social media for providing and evaluation of the student-generated content. A social media-aware contest and platform were thus developed and tested in a pan-European contest that attracted >700 participants. The statistical analysis and results revealed that the platform and contest positively influenced participants STEM learning and motivation, while only the gender factor for the younger study group appeared to affect the outcomes (confidence level – p<.05).

  • 277. Achinger, Christine
    et al.
    Brunow, Dagmar
    Hamburg University, Germany ; Lund University.
    Jentz, Janina
    Mühlhäuser, Regina
    Engendering Airwaves: Zur Konstruktion von Geschlecht im Radio2001In: Radio-Kultur und Hör-Kunst: Zwischen Avantgarde und Popularkultur 1923-2001 / [ed] Andreas Stuhlmann, Würzburg: Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, 2001, p. 24-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Achten, Kathleen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Environmentally Displaced Persons: A Game Theoretic View2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of environmentally displaced persons (EDPs) has not received much attention yet. However, the amount of EDPs will increase significantly in the future as a consequence of climate change. This increase could be prevented if developed countries would take adaptation measures, however at the moment they do not take any action.

     

    This desk study looks at the current situation of no action through the Basic Explanatory Framework developed by Scharpf. This framework uses game theory and provides an explanation for the lack of action concerning EDPs, namely the free-rider effect and the prediction that there will be no action. Furthermore, this thesis contains a comparison of the case of EDPs with the case of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. Both cases show many similarities but there has been action concerning climate change namely the Kyoto Protocol.

     

    The comparison enforces the prediction that has been made concerning EDPs. Both in the climate change case and the EDPs case, countries will act as free-riders. The Kyoto Protocol has only symbolic value and thus, developed countries have also free-rid in the case of climate change. Furthermore, eight policy options are provided in this thesis that could increase the incentives for developed countries to take action concerning EDPs: increase incentives, issue linkages, transfers, increase willingness to pay among voters, consensus treaty, coalitions, setting deadlines and supranational organisations. 

  • 279.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Context and ideology of entrepreneurship education in practice2014In: Becoming an entrepreneur / [ed] Susanne Weber, Fritz K. Oser, Frank Achtenhagen, Michael Fretschner and Sandra Trost, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2014, 1, p. 91-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary knowledge economy, with academia as a major producer and distributor of formal knowledge, process and product innovation – e.g. in form of designing and enacting new curricula – is extremely important. In this spirit, we here report how an internationally recognized master program in entrepreneurship has been developed and put into practice.

  • 280.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jönköping University.
    Games in entrepreneurship education to support the crafting of an entrepreneurial mindset2015In: Economics: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, IGI Global, 2015, 1, Vol. 1-3, p. 34-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of education institutions, including many universities and colleges, are offering entrepreneurship education. This development is driven by the hope that more entrepreneurs could be "created" through such efforts, and that these entrepreneurs through their newly founded ventures will contribute to economic growth and job creation. At higher education institutions, the majority of entrepreneurship courses rely on writing business plans as a main pedagogical tool for enhancing the students' entrepreneurial capabilities. In this chapter, the authors argue instead for the need for a pedagogy that focuses on supporting students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset as the basis for venturing activities. They discuss the potential role of games in such entrepreneurship education and present the example of an entrepreneurship game from the Swedish context, which was developed by a group of young female entrepreneurs. The authors describe the game and discuss their experiences of playing it with a group of novice entrepreneurship and management students at the master's level, and they review the effectiveness of the game in terms of how it supports students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset. The authors conclude the chapter by outlining how entrepreneurship games could be integrated into a university curriculum and suggest some directions for future research. © 2015, IGI Global. All rights reserved.

  • 281.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jönköping University.
    Games in Entrepreneurship to support the Crafting of an Entrepreneurial Mindset2013In: New Pedagogical Approaches in Game Enhanced Learning: Curriculum Integration / [ed] Sara de Freitas, Michaela Ott, Maria Magdalena Popescu, Ioana Stanescu, Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 20-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of education institutions, including many universities and colleges, are offering entrepreneurship education. This development is driven by the hope that more entrepreneurs could be “created” through such efforts, and that these entrepreneurs through their newly founded ventures will contribute to economic growth and job creation. At higher education institutions, the majority of entrepreneurship courses rely on writing business plans as a main pedagogical tool for enhancing the students’ entrepreneurial capabilities. In this chapter, the authors argue instead for the need for a pedagogy that focuses on supporting students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset as the basis for venturing activities. They discuss the potential role of games in such entrepreneurship education and present the example of an entrepreneurship game from the Swedish context, which was developed by a group of young female entrepreneurs. The authors describe the game and discuss their experiences of playing it with a group of novice entrepreneurship and management students at the master’s level, and they review the effectiveness of the game in terms of how it supports students in crafting an entrepreneurial mindset. The authors conclude the chapter by outlining how entrepreneurship games could be integrated into a university curriculum and suggest some directions for future research.

  • 282.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jönköping International Business School.
    The making of an intercultural learning conext for entrepreneuring2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, ISSN 1742-5360, E-ISSN 1742-5379, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from the standpoint that internationalisation needs to become a more explicit part of assessing the quality of academic activity (i.e., education, research, and (business) community interaction), we elaborate upon how the intercultural composition of a student cohort could be leveraged as a road to the advancement of entrepreneurship education at the graduate level. We argue that the very heterogeneity of the students with respect to their socio-cultural background and personal experiences offers a rich potential for mutual social learning that reinforces formal education activities. Creating awareness of this collective resource opens up for self-organising processes among the students as they craft an entrepreneurial identity which guides them in their learning throughout the master programme.

  • 283.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The reflexivity grid: exploring conscientization in entrepreneurship education2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 62-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Studies on women's entrepreneurship from Nordic countries and beyond2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 4-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to recent research on women's

    entrepreneurship, focusing on Nordic countries.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper encourages research that investigates how context, at the micro, meso and macro level, is related to women's entrepreneurship, and acknowledges that gender is socially constructed.

    Findings

    – This paper finds evidence that recent calls for new directions in women's entrepreneurship research are being followed, specifically with regard to how gender is done and how context is related to women's entrepreneurial activities.

    Originality/value

    – This paper assesses trends in research on women's entrepreneurship, mainly from the Nordic countries.

  • 285.
    Ackermann, Daniel
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Kruisman, Tim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Public attitudes towards the use of marketing and communication by global non-profit organizations2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Public attitudes towards the use of marketing and communication by global non-profit organizations

    Background: The importance of the non-profit sector and the commercialization in it is increasing. The organizations have to deal with more competition in the fundraising market on the one hand, and they are on the other hand confronted with people who are blocking the recognition of conventional marketing expressions. Guerrilla marketing is seen as a possibility to penetrate the jungle of marketing and create word of mouth about the organization and its activities.

    Purpose: This thesis evaluates the public attitudes towards the increasing use of marketing and communication by global non-profit organizations and investigates for which objectives the use of guerrilla tactics in the marketing and communication mix would be accepted.

    Limitations: Though the data for this thesis was collected through questionnaires in Sweden, Germany and The Netherlands, there are no country dependent differences investigated.

    Theory: Classification of NPOs; aims of NPOs; basic model of communication; dynamic model of expectations; relationship between expectation, satisfaction and donations; marketing mix; guerrilla marketing; viral marketing; live buzz marketing; promotional mix; word of mouth.

    Method: Survey with more than 100 participants; interview with the fundraising responsible of Greenpeace Germany

    Findings and Conclusions: The public accepts the use of marketing and communication and the therefore necessary expenditures for the purpose to spread the message and gain donators. Openness and honesty in the NPOs’ behaviour are considered more important than the use of less money for marketing and communication. Guerrilla marketing is not suitable for all aims of a NPO, but is accepted in order to spread the message and increase the media coverage.

  • 286. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Albert, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Brigida, M.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    D’Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Essig, R.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Kamae, T.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Lionetto, A. M.
    Llena Garde, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, O.
    Roth, M.
    Sbarra, C.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgrò, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Snyder, A.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Fermi LAT search for dark matter in gamma-ray lines and the inclusive photon spectrum2012In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 86, no 2, article id 022002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross-section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  • 287. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Belfiore, A.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hayashi, K.
    Hays, E.
    Jóhannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Martin, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Stanford University, USA..
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgrò, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strong, A. W.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Bontemps, S.
    A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6059, p. 1103-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through theambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

  • 288.
    Ackerot, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Rask, Joakim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Varför bli yrkeslärare?: Vilka uppfattningar har yrkeslärare om den motivation, som behövs för att studera till yrkeslärare?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning är att med bakgrund av att yrkeslärare inom gymnasieskolan beskrivs som en bristvara, och med tanke på det framtida behovet då bristen på yrkeslärare kommer att öka. Det vi vill belysa är vad som är motivationen och drivkraften för den enskilde individen i att bli yrkeslärare och även vilka drivkrafter som kan få obehöriga lärare att vilja bli behörig. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats. Ett klusterurval gjordes var efter intervjuer genomfördes. Empiriska undersökningen gick ut på att med en halvstrukturerad intervjuguide intervjua ett antal olika personer. I dataanalysen användes Burnards (1991) 5 steg i den så kallade innehållsanalysen, vilket skapade olika teman. Resultatet efter vår undersökning, att den motivation och de drivkrafter som behövs för bli yrkeslärare eller att börja studera för att bli behörig yrkeslärare, är att man skall försöka lyfta fram de positiva sidorna med yrket och det givande mötet med ungdomarna i samhällsdebatten och media. Det är ett fantastiskt trevligt jobb. Att lönen och statusen kan bli bättre samt att det bör vara lättare för den som har goda yrkeskunskaper att komma in på en yrkeslärarutbildning. Oavsett längd på utbildningen så behövs det ett batteri av hjälp och stöd för att man skall klara av utbildningen samtidigt som man kanske både har familj och arbete.

     

  • 289.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?: The children's pictures of the Swedish preschool class.2010In: Transition from pre-school to school: Emphasizing early literacys - Comments and reflections by researchers from eight European countries., Lifelong Learning Programme , 2010, p. 38-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?

    The children’s pictures of the Swedish preschool class

     

    In Sweden, children’s transition from preschool to compulsory school is made through the preschool class. This study aims to highlight this Swedish transition zone through the eyes of the children. What is focused in the preschool class from the children’s point of view?

    The children have been painting pictures of their days in the preschool class. The focus of analysis is what the children chose to highlight as central in the pedagogic practice. The pictures are therefore seen as communicative narratives, since the children represent and communicate their experiences of the world through the pictures. Ten preschool classes participated in the study, and a total of 172 pictures were analyzed.

    Over half of the pictures showed playing children and included (free) play both indoors and outdoors, pictures that describes the preschool class as an “oasis to rest in” between preschool and school. Yet another extensive category was outlined that showed different types of learning and education foremost in activities as circle time.

    The result shows that the pictures reflects the preschool class as a playful child-centred educational practice at the crossroads between preschool and compulsory school. The conclusion is that the preschool class may be just a seamless transition from preschool to compulsory school, with both “formal” schooling and playful learning.

  • 290.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?: The children’s pictures of the Swedish preschool class.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract OMEP aug 2010

     

    A seamless transition or an oasis to rest in?

    The children’s pictures of the Swedish preschool class

     

    Helena Ackesjö

    ___________________________________________________________________________

     

    In Sweden, children’s transition from preschool to compulsory school is made through the preschool class. This study aims to highlight this Swedish transition zone through the eyes of the children. What is focused in the preschool class from the children’s point of view?

    The children have been painting pictures of their days in the preschool class. The focus of analysis is what the children chose to highlight as central in the pedagogic practice. The pictures are therefore seen as communicative narratives. Through the pictures the children represent and communicate their experiences of the world. Ten preschool classes participated in the study, and a total of 172 pictures were analyzed.

     

    Over half of the pictures showed playing children and included (free) play both indoors and outdoors, pictures that describes the preschool class as an “oasis to rest in” between preschool and school. Yet another extensive category was outlined, that showed different types of learning and education foremost in activities as circle time.

     

    The result shows that the pictures reflects the preschool class as a playful child-centred educational practice at the crossroads between preschool and compulsory school. The conclusion is that the preschool class may be just a seamless transition from preschool to compulsory school, with both “formal” schooling and playful learning.

  • 291.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass: Gränser, identiteter och (dis-)kontinuiteter2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to gain knowledge of how the transitions to and from preschool class are described and understood by children. Previous research has indicated that transitions between different school forms can be seen as both problematic and threatening. Transitions should be facilitated and "smooth", something that indicates that continuity is important. Of interest for this study is to gain knowledge of children's perspective of continuities: which continuities and discontinuities children express intransitions.

    Transitions are theoretically considered as social processes that are constructed, shared and reconstructed together with others. In these processes, children mark and construct borders through speech and action. Their border markings (for example, expression of differences and/or similarities between different communities and between different school forms) also become part of a child's identity constructions.

    The thesis is based upon the research described in three articles. The empirical data underlying these studies was constructed in a longitudinal ethnographic inspired field work where children have been observed in two transitions between three different school forms: preschool, preschool class and compulsory school.

    Results suggest that from children’s perspectives the transitions between different school forms contain challenges, opportunities, limitations, changes and preservation. However, the transitions also involve expressions concerning security, risk-taking and include visual markings between the different school forms.

    One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this work is that it isn’t enough to turn to policy level, such as curricula or even teachers’ aims or aspirations to facilitate these transitions. The child’s perspectives need to be taken into account. Through children's narratives, we have gained knowledge about the opportunities transitions can offer, but also how transitions can be considered as threats or be difficult to interpret for children. This study has also increased our understanding of the importance of continuity as well as discontinuity to mark borders between different school forms.

  • 292.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Becoming, Un-being and becoming an Ex: Preschool children’s border work and constructing of (new) identities in the transition to school2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Borde svenska lärare bli mer franska?: En essä med reflektioner över lärararbetets gränser, structure och communitas2019In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 70-83Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna essä diskuteras lärarprofessionens gränser. Bakgrunden hämtas ifrån att allt fler larmrapporter om sjukskrivna lärare, den hotande lärarbristen och lärares upplevt minskade  handlingsutrymme  når  oss.  Lärare  har  fått  ett  utsträckt  uppdrag  och  diskussioner förs om hur professionen kan avlastas. I essän jämförs exempel från den svenska  skolan  med  exempel  från  den  franska.  Avsikten  är  föra  en  kontrasterande  och  teoretisk  diskussion  om  lärarprofessionens  gränser.  I  beskrivningarna  används  teorier  om  communitas  och  structure  som  förklaringsmodeller  för  skolan  som  system. Inom communitas betraktas alla individer för vilka de är; här faller rang, titlar och formalia bort. Communitas baseras istället på närhet, intimitet och känslor. Alla har huvudrollen och är lika viktiga. Inom structure är förhållandet det motsatta. Här uppträder människorna i förhållande till och i enlighet med regler och rutiner på en spelplan.  Inom  structure  synliggörs  skillnader  och  hierarkier  och  man  uppträder  formellt och i överensstämmelse med olika roller, vilka har väldefinierade positioner på spelplanen. Det är värt att reflektera över hur de olika teoretiska strukturerna kan inspireras  av  varandra  i  syfte  att  avlasta  lärarna  en  del  av  det  utsträckta  uppdraget.  Vad händer om man tydligare skiljer på spelplanerna hem och skola samt rollerna elev, lärare  och vårdnadshavare?  Avslutningsvis  förs  en  diskussion  om  ifall  stärkta  gränser  skulle kunna leda till avlastning av lärare, och möjligen också till ökad auktoritet och professionalitet.

  • 294.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Children crossing borders in transition: School visits as initial incorporation rites in transition to preschool class2012In: European Early Childhood Conference, Porto aug 29-sept 01, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children Crossing Borders: School Visits as Initial Incorporation Rites in Transition to Preschool Class2013In: International Journal of Early Childhood, ISSN 0020-7187, E-ISSN 1878-4658, Vol. 45, p. 387-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research about transition in educational settings describes how children enter into new contexts, especially transition from preschool to school. However, the overall research focus in this article is to gain knowledge about how the transition process can be characterized at the end of the preschool period prior to the actual transition. The data reported in this article was generated through visits to preschool class which have the intention to prepare children prior to the transition. The results support the conclusion that the transition process can be characterized as circular rather than linear, or maybe a spiral process that loops back and forth. The children in this study engage in a number of border encounters and border crossings between preschool and preschool class during the spring semester prior to the actual entering. After each border crossing they return to preschool and seem to reconstruct their experiences and expectations of preschool class. This looping movement highlights the identity deconstructions as a social learning process over time. It is shown that children enter the transitions process long before they actually (physically) enter or visit school. The results also propose that the transition is a period when the constructing of identities as ex preschool children may be important. In this process, the teachers in preschool have an important role in order to facilitate the children’s disengagement from preschool. The study also implies the need for teacher collaboration in order to make the transition transparent and explicit for the children.

  • 296.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children’s Play and Teacher’s Playful Teaching: A Discussion about Play in the Preschool Class2017In: British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, ISSN 2278-0998, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1-13, article id BJESBS.31653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the play used in preschool class education is discussed. On the one hand, research has shown that there seems to be a positional shift towards a more academic and schoolpreparatory positioning of the preschool class education. On the other hand, this is still a voluntary school form that shall be based on preschool traditions and play. In addition, research has shown that there actually is a weak emphasis on care provision and play in this educational practice. There is also a lack of knowledge about how play is used and conditioned. The purpose for this study is therefore to analyze the play used in preschool class education. Data for the study is extracted from an 11 months ethnographic case study and the original empirical material consists of 1013 minutes of recorded film in addition to 224 A4-pages of field notes constructed during one year in one preschool class. Examples of common, ordinary and recurring play situations during the school year were selected from this material. Inspired by qualitative content analysis the selected play situations were joined together in three different categories: 1) The optional play, 1) The cultural play, and 3) The educational play. In line with previous research, the results show that play in preschool classes never is “free”. Rather, it is conditioned and framed by the teachers (present or not present); children are committed to play in a certain way and a certain time. In addition, there is a future perspective in the use of play. Playing activities seems often to be closely linked to educational goals.

  • 297.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children’s transition from preschool to school: Expectations, experiences and (re)constructions of identities when crossing borders.2013In: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education: Abstract book, NFPF & NERA , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic

    Most research about transition describes children’s entering into new contexts, especially transition from preschool to school. However, the overall research focus in this study is to describe how the transition process can be characterized at the end of the preschool period.

     

    Theoretical and Methodology framework

    The study aims to approach the children’s perspectives of transition, and the data is constructed through both observations and conversations with children. The theoretical framework providing the basis for this study includes theories of transition, borderland theories and theories of identity constructions. The study adopts the theoretical position that children pass through certain institutional borders in transition from preschool to the preschool class. Transition is a phase in which individuals start to re-define their perception of who they are as they enter new social contexts. One assumption is that children themselves can influence, challenge and stretch those borders, or even create their own borders.

     

    Main findings

    The results support the conclusion that transition is a circular process rather than linear, or maybe as a spiral that loops back and forth. It is shown that children enter the transitions process long before they actually enter or visit school, but it is also shown that the transition process isn’t all clear for all children. The study also proposes that transition is a period when the constructing of identities as Ex preschool children is important.

     

    Relevance for Nordic Educational Research

    The transition from preschool to school is managed in different ways and at different times in children’s life across the world. This study puts the spotlight on the Swedish preschool class that is placed at the crossroads, in the borderland, between preschool and primary school.

  • 298.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children's transitions to and from preschool class: Borders, identities and (dis-)continuities2015In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, Marketisation and differentiation in education.: 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic: Research suggests a tension around transitions in the early years: while borders between school forms have become more clearly marked, there are also ambitions that transitions between them should be “soft” – that is, not posing potential threats for children. The overall purpose of the research is to gain knowledge of how transitions to and from preschool class can be understood from children’s perspectives in terms of border crossings, identities and continuities. Theoretical and Methodology framework: The study aims to approach the children’s perspectives of transition, and the data is constructed through both observations and conversations with children. The theoretical framework providing the basis for this study includes theories of transition, borderland theories and theories of identity constructions. The study adopts the theoretical position that children pass through certain institutional borders in transition from preschool to the preschool class. Transition is a phase in which individuals start to re-define their perception of who they are as they enter new social contexts. One assumption is that children themselves can influence, challenge and stretch those borders, or even create their own borders. Main findings: The results show that transitions between school forms can be considered as threats for children in terms of social discontinuity. The results also show that a smooth transition appears to be a spiral process in which children have the opportunity to commute back and forth across borders between different school forms, and engage in different communities in different arenas. In addition, the results show that children desire educational continuity. However, this appears to be difficult to construct in preschool class as the educational landscape is changing and preschool and school is moving closer to each other in terms of content and focus. Relevance for Nordic Educational Research: Children’s transitions from preschool to school are managed differently across the world. This study puts the spotlight on the Swedish preschool class that is placed in the borderland between preschool and primary school.

  • 299.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Children’s transitions to school in a changing educational landscape: Borders, identities and (dis-)continuities2014In: International journal of transitions in childhood, ISSN 1833-2390, Vol. 7, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports findings from research on children’s perspectives of the transitions from preschool to compulsory school via the preschool class. In this article transitions as possible threats, continuity and ‘smooth transition’ and are discussed. As in many countries around the world, there are indications that preschool and school in Sweden are moving closer together in terms of assignments and content - movements that are likely to affect even the youngest children. The results highlight the complexity of transitions and its implications for educational practice, but also shed light on the organizational conditions which children have to cope with in transitions.

  • 300.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Den komplexa väven: Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass2015In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions.

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