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  • 251.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Self-rated health and educational level among elderly with depressive and physical disordersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Poor self-rated health (SRH) among elderly has been suggested to be more closely related to mental than to physical disorders. The aim was to investigate the association between SRH in elderly and depressive and physical disorders in relation to age, sex and educational level.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire sent to a randomised Swedish sample of individuals aged 65-80 years with a response rate of 67% (n= 6659). SRH in relation to age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, hypertension, diabetes and asthma was calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions analyses.

    Results: There was an association between good SRH and not feeling depressed (OR 9.4), to not having hypertension (OR 1.6), diabetes (OR 2.8), or asthma (OR 2.1). SRH was rated as less good with higher age. SRH was rated as better with higher educational levels and men rated their health as better than women did. The association to depressive symptoms, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were lower with higher educational level and varied with sex.

    Conclusion: Poor SRH in elderly was associated with depressive symptoms, hypertension, diabetes and asthma with the strongest association to depressive symptoms. Thus, SRH might serve as a valuable complement to other diagnostic methods in the health care of the elderly, as it also can provide health information beyond classical risk factors or medical history.

  • 252.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Engström, Sven
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fredlund, Kerstin
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköpings universitet.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Factors influencing the prescription of drugs of different price levels2013In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 286-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Socioeconomic factors have been suggested to influence the prescribing of newer and more expensive drugs. In the present study, individual and health care provider factors were studied in relation to the prevalence of differently priced drugs. Methods Register data for dispensed drugs were retrieved for 18486 individuals in a county council in Sweden. The prevalence of dispensed drugs was combined with data for the individual's gender, age, education, income, foreign background, and type of caregiver. For each of the diagnostic groups (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], depression, diabetes, and osteoporosis), selected drugs were dichotomized into cost categories, lower and higher price levels. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed using cost category as the dependent variable and the individual and provider factors as independent variables. Results In all four diagnostic groups, differences were observed in the prescription of drugs of lower and higher price levels with regard to the different factors studied. Age and gender affected the prescription of drugs of lower and higher price levels more generally, except for gender in the osteoporosis group. Income, education, foreign background, and type of caregiver affected prescribing patterns but in different ways for the different diagnostic groups. Conclusions Certain individual and provider factors appear to influence the prescribing of drugs of different price levels. Because the average price for the cheaper drugs versus more costly drugs in each diagnostic group was between 19% and 69%, there is a risk that factors other than medical needs are influencing the choice of drug. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 253.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Engström, Sven
    Arvidsson, Eva
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Participation in decision making when starting long-term medication: patients´ experiences2014In: European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare, ISSN 2052-5648, E-ISSN 2052-5656, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 282-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, aim and objective

    To achieve the beneficial effect of drug treatment and reduce unnecessary health care costs, patients must be involved in shared decision making. The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of participation in decision making when starting long-term medication.

    Method

    Nine patients at two health care centers were semi-structured interviewed about their experiences, beliefs and feelings about their participation in the decision to start long-term medication. Data was analyzed by a qualitative content method.

    Results

    Respondents stated that participating in decision making in drug treatment requires knowledge of the relevant area and requiring trusting the physician. The respondent’s responsibility and motivation facilitate adherence to drug treatment. 

    Conclusion

    Patients sought participation in the decision making of long-term medication and wished for adequate time needed for this dialogue. If they lacked sufficient knowledge, they wanted relevant and useful information from the physician. To experience trust in the physician through a good encounter increases the possibility for participation and enhancement of medication adherence. In order to participate in decision making, the patient needs the physician’s encouragement.

     

  • 254.
    Senra, Hugo
    et al.
    King's College London, UK.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Nunes, Nuno
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Balaskas, Konstantinos
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, UK;University College London, UK.
    Aslam, Tariq
    University of Manchester, UK;Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, UK.
    Costa, Emilia
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review2019In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 755-773Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To review the current literature on psychosocial and psychological interventions to prevent and treat depression and anxiety in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature evaluating psychosocial and psychological interventions for depression and anxiety in AMD patients. Primary searches of PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Science Direct were conducted to include all papers published until April 21st. 2018. Results Of a total of 398 citations retrieved, we selected 12 eligible studies published between 2002 and 2016. We found 9 randomized controlled trials (RCT), and 3 non-randomised intervention (NRI) studies. RCT studies suggested that interventions using group self-management techniques, and individual behavioural activation plus low vision rehabilitation can be effective to treat and prevent depression in AMD patients, and one study suggested that a stepped-care intervention using cognitive-behavioural techniques can be effective to manage anxiety and depression over time. NRI studies highlighted a positive effect of self-help and emotion-focused interventions to reduce depression. Conclusions Clinical practice with AMD patients can rely on some tailored cognitive-behavioural therapeutic protocols to improve patients’ mental health, but further clinical trials will generate the necessary evidence-based knowledge to improve those therapeutic techniques and offer additional tailored interventions for AMD patients.

  • 255.
    Soares, Ana Paula
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Oliveira, Helena
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ferreira, Marisa
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Comesaña, Montserrat
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ferré, Pilar
    Univ Rovira & Virgili, Spain.
    Acuña-Fariña, Carlos
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Spain.
    Hernández-Cabrera, Juan
    Univ La Laguna, Spain.
    Fraga, Isabel
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Spain.
    Lexico-syntactic interactions during the processing of temporally ambiguous L2 relative clauses: An eye-tracking study with intermediate and advanced Portuguese-English bilinguals2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-27, article id e0216779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is extensive evidence showing that bilinguals activate the lexical and the syntactic representations of both languages in a nonselective way. However, the extent to which the lexical and the syntactic levels of representations interact during second language (L2) sentence processing and how those interactions are modulated by L2 proficiency remain unclear. This paper aimed to directly address these issues by using an online technique (eye-tracking) that is highly sensitive to the lexical and syntactic processes involved in sentence reading. To that purpose, native-speakers of European Portuguese (EP) learning English as L2 at intermediate and advanced levels of proficiency were asked to silently read temporally ambiguous L2 relative clause (RC) sentences disambiguated with a High-Attachment (HA) or Low-Attachment (LA) strategy while their eye-movements were monitored. Since EP and English native speakers differ in the way they process and comprehend this syntactic structure (EP: HA, English: LA), HA preferences were used as a marker of L1 RC syntax interference. Additionally, the cognate status of the complex NP that preceded the RC was manipulated to further analyze how the lexical co-activation of both languages would also affect the syntactic representations of the non-target (L1) language. Results showed cognate facilitation in early and late reading time measures regardless of L2 proficiency, and also that the cognate status of the complex NP impacted L2 reading performance, particularly at lower levels of L2 proficiency. These findings provide compelling evidence for a bilingual reading system that seems to be highly dynamic and interactive not only within each level of processing, but, importantly, across levels of representation. They also suggested that, as the level of L2 proficiency increases, L1 RC syntax interference becomes stronger, in a syntactic parser that seems to operate in a more integrated and nonselective way, with both strategies being equally available to guide L2 reading comprehension. Results are discussed attending to the current models of bilingual syntactic processing.

  • 256.
    Steen, Christoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effekten av inducerad monokulär och binokulär dimning på stereoseende och visus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of both monocular and binocular induced visual stress with minus lenses, to see the difference of effect on visual acuity and stereopsis.

     

    The study had 14 emmetropes with mean age of 24. Stereopsis and visual acuity was measured on both 6 m and 40 cm, using logMAR visual chart for visual acuity and Randot test for stereopsis on 6 m with test chart 2000, TNO test for stereopsis and near logMAR chart for visual acuity at 40 cm. On all the test there was induced visual stress using minus lenses of power -1D, -2D and -3D on the dominant eye for monocular and for binocular.

     

    The monocular blur on stereopsis for distance was a significant difference on all lenses (p<0.05). Binocular blur on distance did not give a significant difference regarding -1D (p>0.05) but gave a significant difference on both -2D and -3D (p<0.05). Monocular blur on near gave a significant difference on all lenses (p<0.05). Binocular blur on near did not give a significant difference on -1D and -2D (p>0,05) but on -3D there was a significant difference (p<0.05). Visual acuity gave on both distance and near no significant difference in any of the tests (p>0.05).

     

    The study shows that even tough stereopsis was affected on both monocular and binocular induced visual stress there was no effect on visual acuity. It also shows that monocular induced stress affects stereopsis more than that of binocular induced stress.

  • 257.
    Sterckx, Annie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Påverkan på den ackommodativa responsen med olika ackommodativa stimuli för BKC2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka om BKC-tavlans ackommodativa stimulus ändras av att tillsätta optotyper av olika form, storlek och placering till den klassiska BKCtavlan.

    Metod: Fem olika tavlor tillverkades och jämfördes dels subjektivt med ett högneutralt BKC-test och dels objektivt med en vågfrontssensor av märket Complete Ophtalmic Analysis System (COAS HD VR™). En av tavlorna var den traditionella BKC-tavlan, de andra hade optotyper med varierande storlek, form och placering. Mätningarna utfördes på 40 cm. Mätningarna gjordes på 30 personer mellan 18 och 40 år.

    Resultat: De fem tavlorna visade ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad i ackommodativ respons, vare sig med BKC eller COAS™. En tavla med små och runda centralt placerade optotyper visade en ackommodativ respons närmst det ackommodativa stimulit, mätt med COAS™ (2,31 D). Samma tavla visade en ackommodativ respons längst ifrån stimulit med BKC (2,17 D). Ingen korrelaton fanns mellan resultaten av samma tavla med de två mätmetoderna.

    Slutsats: Det klassiska BKC-korset ger ett lika bra ackommodativt stimulus som tavlor med tillsatta optotyper. Resultatet av en BKC-mätning med en tavla med optotyper blir inte närmre det ackommodativa stimulit, än vad ett test med den vanliga BKC-tavlan blir. Metoderna BKC och COAS™ kan inte användas ombytligen eftersom de inte var korrelerade med varandra.

  • 258.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    A project to promote equality in ante-natal care for women who do not speak Swedish2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health care in Sweden aims to be equal. In antenatal care, women who do not speak Swedish have a higher rate of maternal and infant mortality (Essen et al. 2001, Wahlberg et al. 2013). Cultural and communicative problems have been identified as one reason for this disparity. Due to recent immigration, Arabic-speaking women (ASW) have been identified as a vulnerable group. Technology has the potential to solve language and cultural barriers (Haith-Cooper 2014). A pilot study in which midwives were interviewed suggested that an ‘app’ for a tablet with multimodal components could be an aid to cultural and linguistic understanding (Axelsson et al. 2016).

     

    Aim

    The aim of the project is to identify women’s and midwives’ information needs and cultural issues, and subsequently, to develop an app with norm-critical design for interactive communication in antenatal care (ANC). The app will serve as a complement to interpreters and provide essential information about ANC.

    Method

    Two data collection methods will be used. The first is to observe meetings between midwives and pregnant women. The second is to interview midwives in focus groups so that they can freely express their wishes. Following this, a trial version of the app will be constructed, which will then be tested and evaluated iteratively in midwifery practice. The material will be analysed in workshops using linguistic and norm critique methods.

    Results

    The app is expected to improve and ensure the quality of ANC for ASW and improve their understanding of pregnancy, fetal development and parenting. It will hlep midwives to be sure that women have been given the correct information and improve patient safety. We will improve our own understanding of the risks in communication that can arise when two parties do not understand each other, and of how communication can be promoted through an app.

     

    References

    Essen, B. et al. (2001) Increased perinatal mortality among sub-Saharan immigrants in a city-population in Sweden.  [Dissertation]. Malmö and Lund: Lund University; 2001.

    Haith-Cooper, M. (2014) Mobile translators for non-English-speaking women accessing maternity services. British Journal of Midwifery. 2014; 22: 795-803. http://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/bjom.2014.22.11.795

    Axelsson, C. et al. (2016). ”Det kan bli så mycket fel”: Förstudie om barnmorskors upp­levelser av kommunikation med gravida kvinnor utan funktionell behärskning av svenska. Kalmar/Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet.

    Wahlberg, A. et al. (2013) Increased risk of severe maternal morbidity (near-miss) among immigrant women in Sweden: a population register-based study  Epidemiology. 2013 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala, Sweden

  • 259.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, J.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, P. A.
    Variable documentation of vital signs in an electronic health record in patients at risk of in-hospital cardiac arrest could pose a threat to patient safety2013In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 12, p. S55-S56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Sheffield.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Documentation of vital signs in electronic records: the development of workarounds2015In: Health informatics for enhancing health and well-being: Proceedings of the seventeenth International Symposium for Health Information Management Research, York, UK 24-26 June 2015 / [ed] P. Bath, H. Spring, &, B Sen, B, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workarounds are commonplace in health care settings. An increase in the use of electronic health records (EHR) has led to an escalation of workarounds as health care professionals cope with systems which are inadequate for their needs. Closely related to this, the documentation of vital signs in EHR has been problematic. The accuracy and completeness of vital sign documentation has a direct impact on the recognition of deterioration in a patient’s condition. We examined work flow processes to identify workarounds related to vital signs in a 372-bed hospital in Sweden. In three clinical areas, a qualitative study was performed with data collected during observations and interviews and analysed through thematic content analysis. We identified paper workarounds in the form of hand-written notes and a total of eight pre-printed paper observation charts. Our results suggested that nurses created workarounds to allow a smooth workflow and to ensure patients safety.

  • 261.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Dokumentation av vitalparametrar i datorjournaler: En risk för patientsäkerheten?2014In: VITALIS - Nordens ledande eHälsomöte: Vetenskapliga papers presenterade vid Vitalis konferens, Svenska Mässan, Göteborg, 8-10 april 2014, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidig upptäckt och snabb hantering av riskpatienter har betraktats som det ’första steget i kedjan till överlevnad’ i hjärtlungräddning (HLR)[1]. Patienter uppvisar ofta tecken på försämring av kliniskt tillstånd under perioden före oväntad hjärtstopp [2]. För att förbättra identifieringen av försämring i kliniskt tillstånd hos patienter har många varianter på system för snabb respons införts med fokus på mätning, rapportering och hantering av patienter med avvikande vitalparametrar [3]. Datorjournaler journaler används allt mer inom vården för i stort sett all dokumentation. Däremot är kunskapen begränsad kring betydelsen av dokumentationen i datorjournalen för att upptäcka försämring av patienternas kliniska tillstånd. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka dokumentationen av vitala parametrar i datorjournalen för sjukhusvårdade patienter, som efter inläggning drabbats av oväntat hjärtstopp.

  • 262.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Recording signs of deterioration in acute patients: The documentation of vital signs within electronic health records in patients who suffered in-hospital cardiac arrest2016In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital sign documentation is crucial to detecting patient deterioration. Little is known about the documentation of vital signs in electronic health records. This study aimed to examine documentation of vital signs in electronic health records. We examined the vital signs documented in the electronic health records of patients who had suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest and on whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation was attempted between 2007 and 2011 (n = 228), in a 372-bed district general hospital. We assessed the completeness of vital sign data compared to VitalPACTM Early Warning Score and the location of vital signs within the electronic health records. There was a noticeable lack of completeness of vital signs. Vital signs were fragmented through various sections of the electronic health records. The study identified serious shortfalls in the representation of vital signs in the electronic health records, with consequential threats to patient safety. 

  • 263.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, Peter A.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Vital sign documentation in electronic records: the development of workarounds2018In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workarounds are commonplace in health care settings. An increase in the use of electronic health records (EHR) has led to an escalation of workarounds as health care professionals cope with systems which are inadequate for their needs. Closely related to this, the documentation of vital signs in EHR has been problematic. The accuracy and completeness of vital sign documentation has a direct impact on the recognition of deterioration in a patient’s condition. We examined work flow processes to identify workarounds related to vital signs in a 372-bed hospital in Sweden. In three clinical areas a qualitative study was performed with data collected during observations and interviews and analysed through thematic content analysis. We identified paper workarounds in the form of hand-written notes and a total of eight pre-printed paper observation charts. Our results suggested that nurses created workarounds to allow a smooth workflow and to ensure patients safety.

  • 264.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping University.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Factors influencing the quality of vital signs data in electronic health records: a qualitative study2018In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, no 5-6, p. 1276-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To investigate reasons for inadequate documentation of vital signs in an electronic health record.

    Background

    Monitoring vital signs is crucial to detecting and responding to patient deterioration. The ways in which vital signs are documented in electronic health records have received limited attention in the research literature. A previous study revealed that vital signs in an electronic health record were incomplete and inconsistent.

    Design

    Qualitative study.

    Methods

    Qualitative study. Data were collected by observing (68 hr) and interviewing nurses (n = 11) and doctors (n = 3), and analysed by thematic analysis to examine processes for measuring, documenting and retrieving vital signs in four clinical settings in a 353-bed hospital.

    Results

    We identified two central reasons for inadequate vital sign documentation. First, there was an absence of firm guidelines for observing patients’ vital signs, resulting in inconsistencies in the ways vital signs were recorded. Second, there was a lack of adequate facilities in the electronic health record for recording vital signs. This led to poor presentation of vital signs in the electronic health record and to staff creating paper “workarounds.”

    Conclusions

    This study demonstrated inadequate routines and poor facilities for vital sign documentation in an electronic health record, and makes an important contribution to knowledge by identifying problems and barriers that may occur. Further, it has demonstrated the need for improved facilities for electronic documentation of vital signs.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    Patient safety may have been compromised because of poor presentation of vital signs. Thus, our results emphasised the need for standardised routines for monitoring patients. In addition, designers should consult the clinical end-users to optimise facilities for electronic documentation of vital signs. This could have a positive impact on clinical practice and thus improve patient safety.

  • 265.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Reasons for poor vital sign documentation in electronic health records: A qualitative study2017In: European Society of Cardiology Congress, Barcelona, 26-30 August, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Documentation of vital signs in electronic health records: issues for patient safety2013In: Proceedings of the sixteenth International Symposium for Health Information management Research, ISHIMR 2013: Exploiting Health Informatics for Connected, Collaborative and Customized Patient Care / [ed] Syed Sibte Raza Abidi, Peter A. Bath, Halifax: Dalhousie University & University of Sheffield , 2013, p. 153-154Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate design and poor user-interface are given as reasons for unsuccessful implementation of electronic health records (EHR) [1,2]. However, rather than designing more suitable technology, the trend has been to 'muddle through' [2] and to urge health care workers to adapt to poorly designed systems [3]. This may work to some degree but little is known about the impact this could have on patient safety. The design of vital sign charts has an impact on the ability of clinicians to detect deterioration in patients' clinical status [4-6]. Changes in a patient's vital signs may indicate a lifethreatening event [7,8] so charts should be user-friendly to support clinicians in decision-making [9,10]. The aim of this study was to examine the documentation of physiological vital signs in an EHR. In this paper, we present the results regarding accessing information on a patient's physiological vital signs.

  • 267.
    Strömblad, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Compliance hos cosplayers och lajvare som bär kosmetiska kontaktlinser: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate compliance amongst wearers of cosmetic contact lenses in a population of swedish cosplayers and larpers and find out if the available information is sufficient for safe wear.

    An on-line survey was published on the social media platform Facebook, in groups that wearers of cosmetic contact lenses frequently visited. The survey was based on previous studies in the same field which the results were also compared with.

    The 54 participants cared for their cosmetic contact lenses better than expected in several aspects, for example none of the participants stored ther contacts in something other than solution. On the other hand only a smaller proportion reported rubbing their contacts while rinsing after use (35% ”always” and 14% ”often”) and many used their contacts for longer than recommended by the manufacturer (25 participants answered something other than ”never”). Only 13% of participants had been in contact with an optometrist when choosing their cosmetic contact lenses, which indicates that they get their care instructions from elsewhere.

    In conclusion: wearers of cosmetic contact lenses exhibit higher compliance than expected in several aspects, but there are some areas in which information regarding correct care of contacts appears to be lacking.

  • 268.
    Svanelind, Michaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Finns det något samband mellan styrketräning och konjunktival rodnad? Finns det något samband mellan kosttillskott och ögontorrhet?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two aims. The first aim is to investigate if strength training has any association with conjunctival redness. The second aim is to investigate if dietry supplements have any association with dry eye.

    40 participants were included in this study and were divided into two groups. One group that was examined directly after a strength training workout and one control group that did not work out that day was examined. The avarage age of the workout group was 25.9 ± 5.5 and in the control group was 24.3 ± 4.9. The participants were examined with the slit lamp and the conjunctival redness was graded according to Efron Grading Scale.

    The same subjects participated in the investigation of supplements afftecting dry eye. They answered a questionnaire to see what supplements they were using and then divided into two groups. One group that were using supplements and one that did not. The avarage age in the supplement group was 25.9 ± 5.5 and in the no-supplement group 24.2 ± 5.0. To examine their eye dryness they answered an Ocular Surface Disease Index survey.

    There was no statistical significant difference in conjunctival redness between the workout group and the control group (p>0.05). And there was no statistical significant difference in OSDI score between the supplement group and the no-supplement group (p>0.05).

    Weight training does not affect conjunctival redness in this sample. Supplements do not affect dry eye symptoms in this sample.

  • 269.
    Svensson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ackommodativa dysfunktioner hos skolbarn – eventuell korrelation med elektroniska enheter.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 270.
    Svensson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Seriffers påverkan på läshastigheten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine wheather serifs provide an advantage in reading speed. This was tested with a reading speed test (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test), two with a serif font and two with a sans serif font. The fonts used was Times New Roman and Times Sans Serif, two variants of each.

    After the participants had passed the criteria, which consisted of stereopsis of 100 sec. of arc (tested with Titmus Fly Test) and near visual aquity of 20/25 (tested with a near aquity chart), they were presented with the tests in a randomly generated order. The participants were asked to read the words out loud, and to read it as quickly as possible. After a countdown a timer started and the participants started reading. While the participants read the words, a copy of the test was silently supervised by the author to monitor any skipped or incorrectly read words. After a minute the timer stopped and the words/minute were calculated. This was repeated for the remaining 3 tests. After all the tests had been executed the participants were asked which of the two fonts they experienced as easier to read.

    There was no statistical significant difference (p=0.54) in reading speed between the two fonts. 60% of the participants had a higher reading speed with Times Sans Serif than its serif counterpart. Despite this, 51% reported that they found Times New Roman easier to read.

    The conclusion of this study found that no statistical significant difference in reading speed could be measured between serif and sans serif fonts.

  • 271.
    Svensson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förändras astigmatismen vid närarbete?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att undersöka om astigmatismen ändras eller uppstår vid närarbete och om det finns behov att korrigera patienter som visar en styrkeförändring på nära håll.

    Metod: Studien är baserad på 27 personer i åldern 18-33 år; en övre gräns på 38 år bestämdes för att exkludera patienter med mindre än 5D ackommodationsamplitud. Undersökningen inleddes med en synundersökning enligt Kvalitetsnormen version 14, därefter fick patienten med sin avståndskorrektion undersöka stråltavlor på 40 cm för att se om astigmatismen hade förändrats. Detta mättes monokulärt med hjälp av en korscylinder för att finna bästa cylinderstyrka och axelläge. Ett frostat glas placerades framför det ögat som inte undersöktes för att undvika ögonrotation.

    Resultat: I 20 % av ögonen (tre hyperoper, fem astigmatiker, två emmetroper och en myop) visades en förändring i astigmatismen vid närarbete. En av patienterna hade en förändring i axelläget och cylinderstyrka vid närarbete på båda ögonen medan tre hade endast ändring av axelläget och cylinderstyrkan på ett öga. I tre ögon ökade cylinderstyrkan -0,25 DC och i två minskade cylinderstyrkan +0,25 DC. Nio ögon som undersöktes visade en differens i axelläget mellan 5-80 grader och det var endast en patient som utvecklade en cylinderkorrektion på nära håll från en sfärisk korrektion på avstånd. Det fanns ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad i astigmatism på avstånd och nära (Paired t-test, p=0,096).

    Slutsats: Resultatet av denna studie visar att det inte fanns någon statistisk signifikant förändring av astigmatismen vid närarbete, i förhållande till avstånd. Astigmatismen ändrades för ett fåtal patienter men förändringen var för liten för att vara signifikant, därför skulle fler mer omfattande studie behövas inom detta område.

  • 272.
    Svensson, Robert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Is there a difference between the Magnitude and the Decay Time of NITM in Different Refractive Groups.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Myopia is a worldwide renowned public health problem. There are myopic after effects known to occur after a neartask. One of those is Transient myopia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any difference in the magnitude and the duration of the myopic after effect (NITM) between LOM, EOM and EMM when NITM was clinically induced. Methods: Young-adults (n = 30) divided into an emmetropic (EMM) group (n = 10), a Late Onset Myopia (LOM) group (n = 8), and an Early Onset Myopia (EOM) group (n = 12) performed a reading task at 20 cm to clinically induce NITM. Distance refraction errors were measured objectively with an autorefractor ( Nikon speedy - K) to calculate the magnitude of the initial NITM. The decay time was calculated as the time when the posttask distance refraction had gone back to the pretask baseline. Result: The initial NITM was higher in the EOM with a mean value of 0.28D compared to the LOM (0.11D) and EMM (0.14D) but with no statistical significant difference. The two myopic groups were combined into one myopic group with a mean initial NITM of 0.21D but there were no significant difference between EMM and Myopes. The decay time of the EOM was slightly higher with an average time of 35 s but there were no significant difference compared to the EMM group, which had an average time of 22 s. Neither was there any significant difference when the EMM and LOM were compared, the LOM had an average time of 16 s. Neither could any significant difference be found when the two myopic groups were combined into one group with an average decay time of 27 s. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the NITM between EMM and Myopes. There was also no significant difference in the decay time between EMM and Myopes. EOM had slightly higher magnitude of NITM and longer decay time than EMM and LOM but it was not significant.

  • 273.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Sörman, Yelene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of Age on Amplitude of Accommodation in a Swedish Population2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Thelandersson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Rumsbelysningens betydelse för refraktionen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studien var att undersöka om rumsbelysningen hade någon betydelse för resultatet av den binokulära subjektiva refraktionen.

    Metod: I den här studien deltog 30 personer med en medelålder på 22±2 år. En binokulär subjektiv refraktion genomfördes i tre olika belysningsnivåer, ljust (350 lux), dimmat (90 lux) och mörkt (2,5 lux). Den sfäriska ekvivalenten jämfördes sedan mellan de olika belysningarna. Syntavlan var en datoriserad skärm med samma luminans vid alla mätningar.

    Resultat: Studien visade ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad (p>0,05) på den sfäriska ekvivalenten mellan ljus och dimmad, ljus och mörk eller mellan dimmad och mörk belysning. Pupillstorleken gav en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan de tre olika belysningarna (p<0,01) där den mörka belysningen gav störst pupiller och den ljusa belysningen gav minst pupillstorlek. Synskärpan gav en statistisk signifikant skillnad (p>0,05) på vänster öga mellan ljus och mörk och mellan ljus och dimmad men ingen skillnad mellan dimmad och mörk belysning (p<0,05). Skillnaden var inte kliniskt signifikant. Höger öga gav ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad av synskärpan mellan belysningarna (p>0,05).

    Slutsats: Resultatet av refraktionen är oberoende av rumsbelysningen om syntavlan som används har samma luminans genom alla mätningar.  

  • 275.
    Thorwaldsson, Max
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effekten av reducerad pupill genom pinholekontaktlinser för emmetropa presbyoper2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att förbättra synen för närseendet för emmetropa presbyoper med tillpassade opaka infärgade pinhole linser (2 mm) och sen mäta hur dessa påverkar synskärpa, stereoseende och kontrastseende, samt jämföra detta med okorrigerad och korrigerade förhållanden för alla mätningar.

    Material och metoder: Mätningar för synskärpa på nära, terminal och avstånd samt stereoseende och kontrastseende utfördes tre gånger. Först utan korrektion sedan med korrektion och slutligen med opaka pinhole linsen från Nordiska Linser AB (dia 14,0 mm och baskurva 8,6 mm) i det odominanta ögat. Detta utfördes på 10 personer varav 3 exkluderades, på grund av de refraktiva kriterierna. Studiens kriterier var emmetropa presbyoper med åldersspann på 40-60 års ålder samt ej mindre pupill än 3 mm vid illumination på 85 cd/m2.

    Resultat: Resultatet av studien för avståndseende visade en signifikant skillnad mellan okorrigerad (-0,03 logMAR) och pinhole linsen (-0,12 logMAR) med ett p-värde på 0,05. Det fanns ingen skillnad mellan linsen och full korrektion (-0,17 logMAR). Studien visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan okorrigerad och pinhole kontaktlinsen i de andra mätningarna (terminal p = 0,591, läsavstånd: p = 0,773, stereoseende p = 0,476, kontrastkänslighet p = 0,530).

    Slutsats: Pinhole kontaktlinsen visade en signifikant förbättring endast i binokulär avståndssyn jämfört med ingen korrektion. Pinhole kontaktlinser är lite bättre än okorrigerad på när- och mellanavstånd men inte lika effektiva som vid full korrigering på när- och mellanavstånd.

  • 276.
    Throfast, Victoria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    e-Learning for the elderly on drug utilization: a pilot study2019In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the attitudes of elderly people to the use of electronic educational technology (e-learning) on drug utilization, with particular emphasis on the layout, usability, content, and level of knowledge in the tool. e-Learning modules were evaluated by a group of elderly people (aged ⩾65 years, n = 16) via a questionnaire comprising closed and open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the responses showed mostly positive reviews. The results indicate that the e-learning modules are a suitable tool for distributing information and education and that they can be managed by elderly individuals who are familiar with computers, allowing them to learn more about medication use.

  • 277.
    Thunberg, Alvida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Påverkas läshastighet och läsavstånd vid läsning på tre olika enheter; smartphone, surfplatta och papper?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study were two fold. First, the study investigated whether the reading speed and reading distance changed depending on which device was used. The other part of this study evaluated whether there was any correlation between the reading distance and the participants refractive errors. This was accomplished by measuring reading speed and reading distance during reading on different devices; smartphone, tablet and an A4-paper.

    The participants (n=26) first went through an eye examination and additional measurements to see if they met the criteria that was required for taking part in this study. After that the participants read six texts from the Swedish version of the standardized reading test IReST on three different devices; smartphone, tablet and paper. They read two texts per device where the first round tested the reading speed and the second round tested the reading distance. Later the reading distance for the different devices were compared with the participants refractive errors.

    There was a statistical significant difference for the reading distance between smartphone and tablet (p=0,026) and smartphone and paper (p=0,004). However there was no statistical significant difference in reading distance between tablet and paper (p=0,60). The study showed no statistical significant difference in reading speed between the different devices (p>0,05). A completed comparison between the reading distance of the different devices and the participants refractive error showed no statistical significant correlation (r<0,80).

    The study showed that there was an impact in reading distance due to which device that were used. There was a statistical significant difference in reading distance between smartphone and tablet and smartphone and paper. However, there was no difference in reading speed between the different devices. The correlation between the reading distance for the different devices and the participants refractive error was not statistically significant.

  • 278.
    Trankvist, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förekomsten av ögontorrhet bland hjälpsökande i Peru2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 279.
    Varg, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ackommodationsamplitud, ackommodationsfacilitet och vergensfacilitet hos barn i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 280.
    Vasicheva, Valentina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    An investigation of quality of organisational merger and employees emotions: evidence from academics in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pioneer research is to present a new quality assurance model (5Qs) and to examine the major factors affecting employees' perception of set of rational and emotional outcomes of the merger partnership between academic institutions. A questionnaire contains a total of 41 items (attributes), five quality dimensions (5Qs) was the data collection tool. A total of 104 complete and usable questionnaires were received. Frequency analysis, factor analysis and reliability analysis is used for analysing the data collected. Inspection of screen plot and eigenvalues enabled the analysis to reduce the 41 quality attributes into four factors. The rational-related dimensions object (Q1) and infrastructure (Q2) are most significant to explain the most significant factors affecting employees overall satisfaction of the quality of the merger relationship followed by merger process (Q3) which is a mix of rational and emotional-related dimension. It was not expected that the more emotional-related factors such as interaction (Q4) and atmosphere (Q5) are much less important than Q1 and Q2.

  • 281.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Lundström, Linda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Optical Correction and Stimulus Motion to Improve Vision in Eccentric Preferred Retinal Locus2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 12, article id Meeting Abstract: 5175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Unsbo, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Linda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Peripheral resolution and contrast sensitivity: Effects of stimulus drift2017In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 133, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal temporal modulation of the stimulus can improve foveal contrast sensitivity. This studyevaluates the characteristics oftheperipheral spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity function in normal-sighted subjects.The purpose is to identify a temporal modulation that can potentially improve the remaining peripheral visual function in subjects with central visual field loss. High contrast resolution cut-off for grating stimuli with four temporal frequencies (0, 5, 10 and 15 Hz drift) was first evaluated in the 10° nasal visual field.Resolution contrast sensitivity for all temporal frequencies was then measured at four spatial frequencies between 0.5 cycles per degree (cpd) and the measured stationary cut-off. All measurements were performed with eccentric optical correction. Similar to foveal vision, peripheral contrast sensitivity is highest for a combination of low spatial frequency and 5 to 10 Hz drift. At higher spatial frequencies, there was a decrease in contrast sensitivity with 15 Hz drift.Despitethis decrease, the resolution cut-off did not vary largely between the different temporal frequencies tested. ​ Additional measurements of contrast sensitivity at 0.5 cpd and resolution cut-off for stationary (0 Hz) and 7.5 Hz stimuli performed at 10, 15, 20 and 25° in the nasal visual field also showed the same characteristics across eccentricities.

  • 283.
    Vingevik, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Påverkar colored overlays de ögonrörelser som används vid läsning hos dyslektiker?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 284.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. KU Leuven.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    BoConnect – Reliable Assistive Technologies to Empower Elderly People to Live Independently Longer2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BoConnect was a multi-disciplinary collaborative research project between Linnaeus University and Växjö and Kalmarmunicipalities in Sweden. The project had a budget of 3 MSEK; it stated Jan. 2015 and ended Dec. 2016.The project studied reliable assistive technologies to support elderly people. In contrast to existing work in this areathatis often limited to small-scale technology-driven pilots that are poorly embedded in the social living context, the BoConnect project took a holistic perspective on assistive technologies and put user needs and reliability of the solutions in focus, both from a technological and organizational perspective. This report summarizes the main results of the project.

  • 285.
    Wikander, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Två linsrengöringsmetoders påverkan på hornhinnan i samband med användande av kontaktlinsvätskan Opti-Free® Express®2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of contact lens cleaning on cornea using two different methods. The study compared the manufacturer’s recommended usage for Opti-Free® Express®, with the alternative cleaning method that involves rubbing the lens, a method often recommended by Optometrists.

    The participants were seen twice to evaluate the cornea. The values found on the first visit were used as baseline values. The participants were given a new pair of contact lenses and were told to clean them in two different ways for the upcoming two weeks. The first method was to follow the recommended instructions by the manufacturer. A method that involves rinsing the lens for five seconds per side. The alternative method was to rub both sides in shape of the letter L. This procedure was repeated five times per side followed by rinsing for five seconds. The participants were seen for a second visit after two weeks. Evaluations were once again made. The values found were compared with the baseline values as well with each other. 

    In those cases where the lenses had been cleaned by rubbing, the value of found staining decreased from 140179 at the baseline to 12185 after two weeks (p = 0,68). The baseline value for the eyes where the lenses were cleaned by rinsing was 125149. Those values increased to 214179 after two weeks (p = 0,03).

    A comparison between the two groups later values showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two types of cleaning, where the eyes that were only rinsed contained a higher amount of staining (p = 0,046).

    In those eyes where lenses had been cleaned only by rinsing there were found a higher amount of staining compared to the ones cleaned by rubbing. The difference in found staining between the two cleaning methods were statistically significant.

  • 286. Wilde Björling, Camilla
    et al.
    Lagerlund, Magnus
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Widell, Ingela
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Surfplattor stärker patienters ställning i vården : Ett samarbetsprojekt mellan patienter, vård och forskning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Individualized treatment and control of bacterial infections2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infectious diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality, exacerbated by increasing antibiotic resistance. In critically ill patients, recent studies indicate a substantial variability in β-lactam antibiotic levels when standardized dosing is applied. New methods for characterizing nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections are needed to limit transmission. The goals of this thesis were to investigate new strategies towards individualized treatment and control of bacterial infections. 

    In Paper I we confirmed high variability in β-lactam antibiotic levels among intensive care unit (ICU) patients from southeastern Sweden, where 45 % failed to reach treatment targets (100 % fT>MIC). Augmented renal clearance and establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteria were important for evaluating the risk of not attaining adequate drug levels. In Paper II a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 11 commonly used antibiotics was developed and tested in clinical samples. Performance goals (CV<15%) were reached. A microbiological method for quantification of β-lactam antibiotics in serum was developed in Paper III. The method could be important for hospitals without access to an LC-MS method. Paper IV and Paper V investigated ligation-mediated qPCR with high resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), for transmission investigation of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and other common bacterial pathogens. Results comparable to the reference method (PFGE) could be achieved within one day in a closed system and confirmed a nosocomial outbreak in Kalmar County. In Paper VI whole genome sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis resolved transmission links within a nosocomial outbreak due to improved discriminatory power compared to LMqPCR HRMA.

    The high proportion of ICU patients with insufficient β-lactam drug levels emphasizes the need for individualized treatment by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). TDM is enabled by a highly sensitive method, such as UPLC-MS/MS, but if unavailable, also by a microbial method. Molecular typing methods used for transmission investigation can detect nosocomial outbreaks. LMqPCR HRMA can be used for screening purposes. For enhanced resolution, whole genome sequencing should be used, but always together with a rigorous epidemiological investigation. 

  • 288.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hallgren, A.
    Linköping University.
    Borgström, S.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Kullberg, F.
    Central Hospital Växjö.
    Wimmerstedt, A.
    Central Hospital Växjö.
    Oscarsson, A.
    Linköping University ; Linköping University Hospital.
    Nordlund, P.
    Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping.
    Lindholm, M-L
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, L.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Carlsson, B.
    Linköping University.
    Schon, T.
    Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping University.
    High target attainment for beta-lactam antibiotics in intensive care unit patients when actual minimum inhibitory concentrations are applied2017In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 553-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk for suboptimal levels of beta-lactam antibiotics, possibly leading to poor efficacy. Our aim was to investigate whether the actual minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to the more commonly used arbitrary epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) would affect target attainment in ICU patients on empirical treatment with broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics and to identify risk factors for not reaching target. In a prospective, multicenter study, ICU patients ae<yen>18 years old and treated with piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, or cefotaxime were included. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Serum trough antibiotic levels from three consecutive days were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The target was defined as the free trough concentration above the MIC (100% fT(> MIC)). MICECOFF was used as the target and, when available, the actual MIC (MICACTUAL) was applied. The median age of the patients was 70 years old, 52% (58/111) were males, and the median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 48.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The rate of patients reaching 100% fT > MICACTUAL was higher (89%, 31/35) compared to the same patients using MICECOFF (60%, p = 0.002). In total, 55% (61/111) reached 100% fT > MICECOFF. Increased renal clearance was independently associated to not reaching 100% fT > MICECOFF. On repeated sampling, > 77% of patients had stable serum drug levels around the MICECOFF. Serum concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics vary extensively between ICU patients. The rate of patients not reaching target was markedly lower for the actual MIC than when the arbitrary MIC based on the ECOFF was used, which is important to consider in future studies.

  • 289.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ryberg, Anna
    Växjö Central Hospital.
    Berglind, Linda
    Region Jönköping County.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital;Linköping University.
    Söderman, Jan
    Region Jönköping County.
    Epidemiological characterization of a nosocomial outbreak of extended spectrum -lactamase Escherichia coli ST-131 confirms the clinical value of core genome multilocus sequence typing2017In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 125, no 12, p. 1117-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced precision of epidemiological typing in clinically suspected nosocomial outbreaks is crucial. Our aim was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and core genome (cg) multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data would more reliably identify a nosocomial outbreak, compared to earlier molecular typing methods. Sixteen isolates from a nosocomial outbreak of ESBL E.coli ST-131 in southeastern Sweden and three control strains were subjected to WGS. Sequences were explored by SNP analysis and cgMLST. cgMLST clearly differentiated between the outbreak isolates and the control isolates (>1400 differences). All clinically identified outbreak isolates showed close clustering (2 allele differences), except for two isolates (>50 allele differences). These data confirmed that the isolates with >50 differing genes did not belong to the nosocomial outbreak. The number of SNPs within the outbreak was 7, whereas the two discrepant isolates had >700 SNPs. Two of the ESBL E.coli ST-131 isolates did not belong to the clinically identified outbreak. Our results illustrate the power of WGS in terms of resolution, which may avoid overestimation of patients belonging to outbreaks as judged from epidemiological data and previously employed molecular methods with lower discriminatory ability.

  • 290.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ryberg, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Billström, Hanna
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Anita
    Linköping University.
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linköping University.
    Marklund, Britt-Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping university.
    Evaluation of High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR, a Rapid Method for Epidemiological Typing of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter Species) Pathogens2014In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 4339-4342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks.

  • 291.
    Wångklev, Maximilian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Närsyntas närarbete mätt med Viviors Visual Behavioral Monitor: en pilotstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 292.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Cognitive and Brain Reserve (CBR): Tools to Reduce the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer2018In: Advances in Alzheimer's Diseases, ISSN 2210-5727, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 93-102, article id 88472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study was performed to examine and assess the impact of the education, occupation and leisure time on building brain and cognitive reserves (CBR). A cross sectional study of 132 persons at age between 40 to 70 years old has been conducted. A structuredquestionnaire covering multiple constructs was used to collect the data. Multivariate regression results show that the three independent variables (LE, OC and ED) were statistically significant in the models with CBR as dependent variable. Leisure time and activities (LE) makethe strongest unique contribution (0.683) followed by occupation (0.261) and the weak contribution of the education (0.198) to explainthe dependent variable cognitive and brain reserve (CBR).The Brain and Cognitive Reserve hypothesesassumes that a rich intellectual measures and abilities a person have during her/his life enable this person to copewith difficult cognitive tasks and social events in life.

  • 293.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Patient self-efficacy and health2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How patients cope with and manage their chronic condition when not under direct medical supervision makes a difference in their quality of life, their health, and their utilization of the healthcare system—and such self-efficacy and self-management can be both time-consuming and complex.

    The concept of self-efficacy is receiving increasing recognition as a predictor of health behavior change and maintenance. The purpose of this speech is to facilitate a clearer understanding of both the concept and its relevance for health behaviour, practice, healthcare quality, patient safety and quality of life in general. A patient who believes in being able to produce a desired effect can conduct a more active and self-determined life course. Health specific self-efficacy is a person’s optimistic self-belief about being capable to resist temptations and to adopt a healthy lifestyle. A co-creating Health program enables clinicians and patients to make their interactions and healthcare institutions/system as productive as possible.

  • 294.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Transformational leadership behavior, emotions, and outcomes: Health psychology perspective in the workplace2017In: Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, ISSN 1555-5240, E-ISSN 1555-5259, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 14-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the transformational leadership styles, emotions, and organizational outcomes among different professionals in different sectors. The transformational leadership and emotions theories were utilized and tested in a sample of 128 leaders in Sweden. The main objectives of the study are (1) to determine which of the transformational leadership styles (TLS) are best at predicting effective outcomes (OUT) of extra effort by employees (EXE), leader effectiveness (EFE) and job satisfaction (SAT) and (2) to examine which TLS predict significant positive emotions (TEMO). Results of the study reveal that TLS and most of the outcome scales (SAT, EXE, SAT) are positively and significantly correlated. Charisma (C) and idealized influence (II) are not correlated with EFE. The results further supported that inspirational motivation leaders behavior could produce greater amounts of SAT (r = .54**), EXE (r = .41**). Individualized consideration (IC) also generates great SAT, r = .42. The study also found that only inspirational motivation (I) and intellectual stimulator leadership styles made a significance for TEMO such as being enthusiastic, hopeful, proud, happy, attentive, and inspiring with beta = 26 and beta = 17, respectively. Inspirational transformational leaders' behavior and emotions are the most capable in increasing the organizational overall outcomes by boosting employees' job satisfaction, additional effort, and effectiveness. Hence, these improve and enhance the mental and psychological health inside and outside the workplace.

  • 295.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Eman, Ismail J.K.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    The impact of resource-based practices on strategic alliance motivations in engineering and construction sector2016In: International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, ISSN 1756-6444, E-ISSN 1756-6452, Vol. 5, no 3/4, p. 234-244, article id 83328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study comprehensively evaluates the links between the resource-based theory and strategic alliance motivations and firm performance in engineering and construction sector. Results based on a sample of 159 manufactures indicate that there are statistical significances for the strategic motivations and management motivations and very acceptable statistical significance for the financial motivations. The regression model could not show any statistical relevance regarding the Technological motivations. This means that hypotheses H1, H2 and H3 are confirmed. The correlation between all variables was strong more than r = 0.3, p < 0.00. Support for predictions that the impact of resource-based approach on motivations and performance is in part contingent on their interrelationships and links with competitive strategy was limited.

  • 296.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Singh, Sanjay Kumar
    Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates.
    Editorial2016In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 165-167Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Vasicheva, Valentina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    A new approach to measure the outcomes of university mergers2017In: International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, ISSN 1756-6444, E-ISSN 1756-6452, Vol. 6, no 1/2, p. 40-49, article id 89840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic alliances and mergers (SAMs) are well-known organisational instruments to increase the pool resources, competitive advantages, strengthen the power and strategic positioning for achieving synergy effects (SEF). This study aims to explore and measure the possible SEF of mergers using the 5Qs approach. Data for this study was collected from questionnaires. The data was analysed using a multiple regression model in order to test the effect of the independent variables related to mergers and the dependent variable of SEF. The results indicate that not all qualities were significant but the infrastructure-oriented construct (INFRA) and the process-oriented construct (PROC) are the most significant in the regression models for obtaining better SEF of the merger relationship. The study extracts the valuable lessons that might help others to effectively utilise mergers and strategic alliances between corporations and higher education institutions.

  • 298.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Vasicheva, Valentina
    Bellarusian National Tecnical University, Belarus.
    Marriage versus Strategic Alliance: Soft and Hard dissatisfaction and Failure Factors2016In: International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, ISSN 1756-6444, E-ISSN 1756-6452, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 22-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marriage can be defined as a social-institutional agreement or an institution or organisation in which interpersonal relationships are acknowledged. Divorce is an epidemic, and so is strategic alliance. Both are based on the actions and reactions between people in the context of interpersonal relationships. The number of marriages is going down and correspondingly divorces seem to occur at a more rapid rate, and this phenomenon is found in strategic alliance partnership too. Hence, just like marriages in the recent times, a majority of institutional partnerships fail. What makes a marriage, or a strategic alliance, tick initially? Many, which include romance and mutual desires, goals, and expectations as well as name and fame in the eyes of the public and in general life filled with happiness. However, just like most marriages, strategic alliance partnerships fail too at some point in time, marred by failure, dissatisfaction, bitterness, and yes, eventually, end in divorce. This article discusses findings derived from an empirical survey to identify critical soft and hard factors that negatively influence partnership or relationship dynamics. The article suggests remedial measures that may be used to avoid factors that lead to dissatisfaction and failure in the context of inter-organisational relationships.

  • 299.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Vasicheva, Valentina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    Technological Tools for Value-Based Sustainable Relationships in Health: Emerging Research and Opportunities2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reach of technological advances can be found in many aspects of life, including the world of medical and healthcare. It is essential to understand these technologies so that those in healthcare professions can create and maintain bonds with the patients that rely on them as well as to identify the right tools for to support the improvement of patient care.

    Technological Tools for Value-Based Sustainable Relationships in Healthcare: Emerging Research and Opportunities is a critical scholarly resource that examines the effects of social and healthcare technologies on human interaction, on health, on life sciences and on well-being in a complex healthcare context. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics such as, e-health, patient and medical relationship approaches, health information technology (HIT), cypernization of healthcare organizations and patient safety. This book is geared toward academicians, practitioners, students, and researchers seeking current research on the correlation between social and medical technologies and the cultivation of connections through those technologies especially in the healthcare field.

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