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  • 251.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Bunting, Jane
    Middleton, Richard
    Broström, Anna
    Caseldine, Christopher
    Giesecke, Thomas
    Hellman, Sophie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hicks, Sheila
    Hjelle, Kari
    Langdon, Catherine
    Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte
    Poska, Anneli
    von Stedingk, Henrik
    Veski, Sim
    The use of modelling and simulation approach in reconstructing past landscapes from fossil pollen data: a review and results from the POLLANDCAL network2008In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 419-443Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on past land cover in terms of absolute areas of different landscape units (forest, open land, pasture land, cultivated land, etc.) at local to regional scales is needed to test hypotheses and answer questions related to climate change (e.g. feedbacks effects of land-cover change), archaeological research, and nature conservancy (e.g. management strategy). The palaeoecological technique best suited to achieve quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation is pollen analysis. A simulation approach developed by Sugita (the computer model POLLSCAPE) which uses models based on the theory of pollen analysis is presented together with examples of application. POLLSCAPE has been adopted as the central tool for POLLANDCAL (POLlen/LANdscape CALibration), an international research network focusing on this topic. The theory behind models of the pollen-vegetation relationship and POLLSCAPE is reviewed. The two model outputs which receive greatest attention in this paper are the relevant source area of pollen (RSAP) and pollen loading in mires and lakes. Six examples of application of POLLSCAPE are presented, each of which explores a possible use of the POLLANDCAL tools and a means of validating or evaluating the models with empirical data. The landscape and vegetation factors influencing the size of the RSAP, the importance of pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) for the model outputs, the detection of small and rare patches of plant taxa in pollen records, and quantitative reconstructions of past vegetation and landscapes are discussed on the basis of these examples. The simulation approach is seen to be useful both for exploring different vegetation/landscape scenarios and for refuting hypotheses.

  • 252.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Does land cover matter?2012In: Public Service Review: European Union, ISSN 2046-6110, Vol. 23, p. 376-377Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Understanding climate forcing2012In: Public Service Review: Europe, no 24, p. 194-195Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 254.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mazier, F.
    The Holocene history of shallow lakes of the Great Alvar, Öland, Baltic Sea, southern Sweden.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Mazier, Florence
    University of Toulouse, France ; Lund University.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Broström, A
    Lund University.
    Hickler, T
    Lund University.
    Kaplan, J.O.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kjellström, E
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Kokfelt, U
    Lund University.
    Kunes, P
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Lemmen, C
    Miller, P
    Olofsson, J
    Poska, A
    Rundgren, M
    Smith, B
    Strandberg, G
    Fyfe, R
    Nielsen, A.B.
    Alenius, T
    Balakauskas, L
    Barnekov, L
    Birks, H.J.B.
    Bjune, A
    Bjorkman, L
    Giesecke, T
    Hjelle, K
    Kalnina, L
    Kangur, M
    van der Knaap, W.O.
    Koff, T
    Lageras, P
    Latalowa, M
    Leydet, M
    Lechterbeck, J
    Lindbladh, M
    Odgaard, B
    Peglar, S
    Segerstrom, U
    von Stedingk, H
    Seppa, H
    Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks2010In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 6, p. 483-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/landcover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs “grassland” and “agricultural land” at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data to reassess ALCC estimates for a better understanding of the land suface-atmosphere interactions.

  • 256.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Rundgren, Mats
    Smith, Benjamin
    Mazier, Florence
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    Kokfelt, Ulla
    Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Team, LANDCLIM members
    Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks: The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Gaillard, M.-J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Greisman, A.
    Olsson, F.
    The role of climate change, fire and human impact in the Holocene forest dynamics and ecosystem diversity of southern Sweden.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 258.
    García Bravo, Gabriela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Milk and dairy intake and the metabolic syndrome2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this master thesis was to get an overview on how milk and dairy consumption affect development of the metabolic syndrome, and from this review to formulate a milk product with potentially beneficial effects.

    A cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia are known as the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies performed to investigate the relation between milk and dairy intake and the metabolic syndrome, suggests that low-fat milk and dairy intake have a positive effect in the prevention of the disease. Many dairy components might contribute to this effect.

    There are promising effects seen by whey amino acids on the glucose and insulin control, but the long-term effects are warranted. Low-fat milk and dairy as part of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables have the most blood pressure reducing effect. This beneficial effect is in part believed to be due to the calcium content of milk and dairy products. In addition, it is also hypothesised that calcium plays an important roll in weight management. However, the evidence up to date is contradictorily.

    Weight control, on the other hand, can be improved by affecting satiety. Acute intervention studies show that whey, in particular, alfa-lactalbumin, is more satiating than other proteins, resulting in a lower energy intake in a subsequent meal.

    It is of interest to the dairy industry to provide milk and dairy consumers with milk products that have beneficial effects on wellness and health. Therefore, based on the literatured reviewed on milk and dairy intake and the metabolic syndrome, a milk product with beneficial effects on weight was formulated and developed.

  • 259.
    Gashi, Elida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hur påverkar johannesört farmakokinetiken utav warfarin, ciklosporin, digoxin, preventivmedel och teofyllin? Vad har detta för klinisk betydelse?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    St. John’s wort extract is composed of a large number of components, about 150, but the most studied and interesting substance are hyperforin and hypericin. The herb is very popular and it is known for its pharmacological efficacy in numerous disorders. It is used for treatment of mild to moderated depression as an alternative to synthetic antidepressants. The St. John’s wort products are available in several preparations, as tablets, capsules, tea, fresh plant juice etc. Hyperforin is the part of St. John’s wort that gives the antidepressant effect through inhibition of reuptake of neurotransmitters such norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, GABA and L-glutamate.Since 1999, several case reports and clinical studies have demonstrated the interactions of St. John’s wort extract with other medical products, resulting in a decreased plasma concentration and potential therapeutics failure. The mechanism behind this is an interaction between St. John’s wort with intestinal and hepatic cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein, resulting in inducing these enzymes. In vitro investigations indicated that this induction is medicated by an interaction of hyperforin with the pregnane X receptor.Long-term co-medication of St. John’s wort extract reduces the bioavailability of wide variety of drugs, including digoxin, warfarin, cyclosporine, oral contraceptive and theophylline.The object of the present thesis was to investigate and describe the influence of St. John’s wort extract on the pharmacokinetics of the drugs mentioned above and what this pharmacokinetic interaction has for clinical consequences.Seven studies, with different numbers of participants, performed in different countries, were compiled to describe the effect of St. John’s wort on the drugs.The results from these studies showed that St. John’s wort extract affects the metabolism of these drugs by significant reducing theirs pharmacological effect. This decrease of the bioavailability and plasma concentration can be the results of intestinal and hepatic induction of CYP enzymes and p-glycoprotein. From these results I conclude that St. John’s wort should be used with caution and patients receiving these drugs should regularly monitory theirs plasma concentration.

  • 260.
    Gliszczynska, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brodelius, Peter E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sesquiterpene coumarins2012In: Phytochemistry Reviews, ISSN 1568-7767, E-ISSN 1572-980X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have a long history as therapeutic tools in the treatment of human diseases and have been used as a source of medicines for ages. In search of new biologically active natural products, many plants and herbs used in traditional medicine are screened for natural products with pharmacological activity. In this paper, we present a group of natural products, the sesquiterpene coumarins isolated from plants, and describe their wide range of biological activity. Sesquiterpene coumarins are found in some plants of the families Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asteraceae (Compositae) and Rutaceae. The coumarin moiety is often umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) but scopo- letin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin) and isofraxidin (7-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxycoumarin) are also found. These coumarins are linked to a C15 terpene moiety through an ether linkage. Another group of sesquiter- pene coumarins is the prenylated 4-hydroxycoumarins where the link between the coumarin and the C15 terpene moiety is a C–C-bond at carbon 3 of the coumarin moiety. Finally, the prenylfurocoumarin-type sesquiterpenoids are a separate group of sesquiterpene coumarins based on the suggested biosynthetic pathway. Our relatively limited knowledge on the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene coumarins is reviewed.

  • 261.
    Golker, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Gustaf D.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Towards Molecular Dynamics-Based Rational Design of Polymeric Recognition Systems2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular imprinting is a technique used to design polymeric recognition materials with selectivity for a predetermined structure. The molecular imprinting process generates cavities in the polymer matrix that are complementary in size, shape and functionality to the template-structure. The recognition properties of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are comparable to those of antibodies and enzymes, which make MIPs utilizable in a wide range of application areas including biomimetic assays and biosensors [1]. Previous studies have shown that the prepolymerization step is central for the establishment of high affinity binding sites in MIPs [2]. However, our understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying MIP formation and template recognition is still limited. With the rapid increase of computational power and the development of suitable software molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods have become a valuable theoretical tool to aid our understanding of the molecular imprinting process, and even in the development of rational design strategies [2]. Recently the first simulation of a complete prepolymerization mixture was presented [3].

    Here we present 10 ns MD simulations of a series of all-component prepolymerization mixtures. The simulated systems were assembled with different molar ratios using the local anaesthetic bupivacaine as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker, 2,2’-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator and toluene as the solvent. The simulations were performed using the AMBER (v. 10.0 UCSF, San Francisco, CA) suite of programs (4) and the GAFF [6] force field. Molecular trajectories were evaluated with radial distribution functions and hydrogen bond analysis.

     

     

    References

    1. Alexander, C.; Andersson, H. S.; Andersson, L. I.; Ansell, R. J.; Kirsch, N.; Nicholls, I. A.; O´Mahony, J.; Whitcombe, J., J. Mol. Recognit. (2006), 19, 106-180
    2. Nicholls, I. A.; Andersson, H. S.; Charlton, C.; Henschel, H.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Karlsson, J. G.; O´Mahony, J.; Rosengren, A. M.; Rosengren, K. J.; Wikman, S. Biosens. Bioelectron. (2009), 25, 543-552
    3. Karlsson, B. C. G.; O´Mahony, J.; Karlsson, J. G.; Bengtsson, H.; Eriksson, L. A.; Nicholls, I. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2009), 131, 13297-13304
    4. Case, D. A.; Cheatham, T. E.; Darden, T.; Gohlke, H.; Luo, R.; Merz, K. M.; Onufriev, A.; Simmerling, C.; Wang, B.; Woods, R. J. Comput. Chem. (2009), 26, 1668-1688
    5. Wang, J.; Wolf, R. M.; Caldwell, J. W.; Kollman, P. A.; Case, D. A. J. Comput. Chem. (2004), 25, 1157-1174

     

  • 262.
    Golker, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Gustaf D.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Towards Molecular Dynamics-Based Rational Design of Synthetic Polymer Recognition Systems2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are polymeric receptors with selectivity for a predetermined structure. The molecular imprinting process generates cavities in a synthetic polymer matrix that are complementary in size, shape and functionality to the template. MIPs exhibit recognition properties analogous to their biological counterparts, such as antibodies, and can be utilized in a wide range of application areas [1]. Nonetheless, the physical mechanisms underlying MIP formation and template recognition are still poorly understood. Molecular dynamics (MD) based computer simulations are a valuable theoretical tool which may be used to aid our understanding of the molecular imprinting process, and even for the development of rational design strategies [2]. Recently the first MD simulation of a complete prepolymerization mixture was presented [3].

    In the present work, MD simulations of a series of all-component prepolymerization mixtures were performed, using the local anaesthetic bupivacaine as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker, 2,2’-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator and toluene as the solvent. The simulated systems differed in the molar fraction of MAA. Systems were evaluated with radial distribution functions and hydrogen bond analyses. By correlating the results with the rebinding behaviour of a series of synthesized MIPs the importance of the stoichiometry between template, functional monomer and crosslinker was highlighted. The analysis of the MD simulations revealed strong competition for hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl oxygen’s of MAA and EGDMA and the amide proton of bupivacaine. Moreover, the hydrogen bonding contact between EGDMA and bupivacaine remained nearly unaffected by the varied molar fraction MAA in the different systems demonstrating the role of the crosslinker being more important as generally accepted.

     

    References

    [1]             Alexander, C.; Andersson, H. S.; Andersson, L. I.; Ansell, R. J.; Kirsch, N.; Nicholls, I. A.; O´Mahony, J.; Whitcombe, J., J. Mol. Recognit., 19, 106-180 (2006)

    [2]            Nicholls, I. A.; Andersson, H. S.; Charlton, C.; Henschel, H.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Karlsson, J. G.; O´Mahony, J.; Rosengren, A. M.; Rosengren, K. J.; Wikman, S. Biosens. Bioelectron., 25, 543-552 (2009)

    [3]            Karlsson, B. C. G.; O´Mahony, J.; Karlsson, J. G.; Bengtsson, H.; Eriksson, L. A.; Nicholls, I. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131, 13297-13304 (2009)

  • 263.
    Golker, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Gustaf D.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Towards the use of molecular dynamics as a predictive tool in the design of molecularly imprinted polymers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the rapid increase in computational power and the development of suitable software, molecular dynamics (MD) has become a promising tool for use in the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs).1 MD is a computational method based on Newtonian mechanics, which enables the simultaneous simulation of thousands of discrete molecules, and can be used to establish the states of the molecular species present in MIP-prepolymerization mixtures. As detailed understanding of the molecular basis for formation of high affinity MIP sites is still lacking and the physical mechanism underlying specific recognition is still a matter of debate, the use of MD as a tool to investigate MIP-prepolymerization mixtures is highly motivated.1 Recently the first MD simulation of an all-component prepolymerization mixture was presented, which gave a detailed picture of the underlying monomer-template interactions important for the “molecular memory” in MIPs.2

    Here, we present results obtained from a series of MD simulations representing all-component MIP/REF prepolymerization mixtures assembled with differences in stoichiometries of functional and crosslinking monomer. In these mixtures, the local anaesthetic drug bupivacaine was used as a template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer, 2,2’-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator and toluene as the solvent. Bupivacaine complexation in each system was evaluated with radial distribution functions and hydrogen bond analyses. By correlating the results with the rebinding behaviour of a series of synthesized bupivacaine-MIPs, the relationship between the degree of crosslinking and MIP-performance was highlighted.

    [1] Nicholls, I. A.; Andersson, H. S.; Charlton, C.; Henschel, H.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Karlsson, J. G.; O´Mahony, J.; Rosengren, A. M.; Rosengren, K. J.; Wikman, S. Biosens. Bioelectron., 25, 543-552 (2009)

    [2] Karlsson, B. C. G.; O´Mahony, J.; Karlsson, J. G.; Bengtsson, H.; Eriksson, L. A.; Nicholls, I. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131, 13297-13304 (2009)

  • 264. Gomila, Marga
    et al.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Falsen, Enevold
    Moore, Edward
    Lalucat, Jorge
    Kinneretia asaccharophila, gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from fresh water, a novel member of the Rubrivivax-branch of the family Comamonadaceae2010In: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, ISSN 1466-5026, E-ISSN 1466-5034, Vol. 60, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain KIN192(T), isolated from fresh water from Lake Kinneret, Israel, was examined using a polyphasic approach to characterize and clarify its phylogenetic and taxonomic position. Sequences of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes and ITS1 revealed close relationships to species of the genera Pelomonas, Mitsuaria and Roseateles, in the Rubrivivax branch of the family Comamonadaceae of the Betaproteobacteria. Physiological and biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid analysis and DNA-DNA hybridizations indicated that this strain should be assigned to a new genus and species in the Rubrivivax phylogenetic branch, for which the name Kinneretia asaccharophila gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Kinneretia asaccharophila is strain KIN192(T) (=CCUG 53117(T) =CECT 7319(T)).

  • 265. González, J. M.
    et al.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fernández-Gómez, B.
    Coll-Lladó, M.
    González-Velázquez, M.
    Puigbò, P.
    Jaenicke, S.
    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089.
    Fernàndez-Guerra, A.
    Goesmann, A.
    Pedrós-Alió, C.
    Genomics of the proteorhodopsin-containing marine flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. strain MED1342011In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 77, no 24, p. 8676-8686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of marine cyanobacteria and proteobacteria genomes has provided a profound understanding of the life strategies of these organisms and their ecotype differentiation and metabolisms. However, a comparable analysis of the Bacteroidetes, the third major bacterioplankton group, is still lacking. In the present paper, we report on the genome of Polaribacter sp. strain MED152. On the one hand, MED152 contains a substantial number of genes for attachment to surfaces or particles, gliding motility, and polymer degradation. This agrees with the currently assumed life strategy of marine Bacteroidetes. On the other hand, it contains the proteorhodopsin gene, together with a remarkable suite of genes to sense and respond to light, which may provide a survival advantage in the nutrient-poor sun-lit ocean surface when in search of fresh particles to colonize. Furthermore, an increase in CO2 fixation in the light suggests that the limited central metabolism is complemented by anaplerotic inorganic carbon fixation. This is mediated by a unique combination of membrane transporters and carboxylases. This suggests a dual life strategy that, if confirmed experimentally, would be notably different from what is known of the two other main bacterial groups (the autotrophic cyanobacteria and the heterotrophic proteobacteria) in the surface oceans. The Polaribacter genome provides insights into the physiological capabilities of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria. The genome will serve as a model to study the cellular and molecular processes in bacteria that express proteorhodopsin, their adaptation to the oceanic environment, and their role in carbon-cycling.

  • 266.
    Granath, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Läkemedelslistan i patientjournalen: Kan den förbättras för läkemedel ordinerade mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Om patienten tar sin medicin på ett felaktigt sätt kan detta leda till läkemedelsrelaterade problem. Läkemedelslistan i patientjournalen är en informationskälla från sjukvården till patienten om läkemedelsbehandlingen. I studier har det hittats avvikelser mellan vad som anges i läkemedelslistan och vad patienten i realiteten använder.

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att jämföra vilka läkemedel som var ordinerade enligt läkemedelslistan mot vad patienten själv uppgav sig använda. I studien riktades fokus mot läkemedel vid hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar.

    Som metod användes intervjuer med patienter, som bokat läkarbesök på en Hälsocentral i Kalmar län. Dessa patienter indelades i två grupper. Patienterna i den ena gruppen, benämnd "egenavstämning", fick före sitt läkarbesök sin läkemedelslista från sjukvårdsjournalen hemskickad för att själva jämföra de ordinationer som där var angivna mot sin egna aktuella. Patienterna i den andra gruppen, benämnd "läkemedelsverifiering", gick igenom och justerade sin läkemedelslista tillsammans med en farmaceutstudent på hälsocentralen före läkarbesöket.

    De inaktuella ordinationerna mot hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar minskade genom med egenavstämning med 5,5 % och genom läkemedelsverifiering med 6 %. Det är således marginellt bättre med läkemedelsverifiering än med egenavstämning. Genom att oftare uppdatera läkemedelslistan kan risken för felaktig läkemedelsanvändning och läkemedelsrelaterade problem minskas.

  • 267.
    Grankvist, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan en manuell keratometer (Topcon OM-4) och en corneal topograf (Topcon CA-100)2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 268.
    Granström, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Den simulerade fluoresceinbilden: Hur väl överensstämmer den med verkligheten?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka hur väl den fluoresceinbild som linstillpassningsprogrammeti topografen Top Con CA-100 simulerar överensstämmde med den verkliga fluoresceinbilden.

    Metod: Mätning med topograf utfördes på båda ögonen hos 12 patienter. Av dessafullföljde 10 patienter deltagandet i studien. Topografens linstillpassningsprogram fick sedan välja ut de bäst passande parametrarna för en A90AS och Conflex Air stabilkontaktlins för vardera ögat (denna funktion kallas ”auto fit”), och simulera fluoresceinbilden för dessa linser. Linser av samma design och parametrar som simuleratstillpassades sedan på patientens ögon. Efter att linserna fått sätta sig i 25-30 min. droppadesfluorescein i ögonen och bilder på fluoresceinmönstret togs med digitalkamera. De olika fluoresceinbilderna jämfördes sedan med hjälp av en mall, vilken gav ett mått på hur stordel av linsens area som de olika bilderna överensstämmde.

    Resultat: 21 av de 39 fluoresceinmönstrena bedömdes överensstämma helt (100%), 6 mönster stämde för 81,25% respektive 62,50%. 2 mönster stämde till 75% och ett mönsterstämde till vardera 56,25%; 43,75%; 25% och 18,75%. P <0,05 (Wilcoxons teckenrangtest)och visar att det finns en skillnad mellan simulering och verklig fluoresceinbild.

    Slutsats: Simulering av fluoresceinbild är ett användbart redskap men det är inte 100% tillförlitligt och det har inte ersatt behovet av en skicklig kliniker.

  • 269.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsen, Bente
    University of Oslo, Dept. of Biology.
    Roelke, Daniel L
    Texas A&M University, Departments of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences and Oceanography.
    Hagström, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The ecophysiology and bloom dynamics of Prymnesium spp.2012In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 14, no SI, p. 260-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of Prymnesium belong to the division Haptophyta, class Prymnesiophyceae, order Prymnesialesand family Prymnesiaceae. As most haptophytes, members of the genus Prymnesium are unicellular andplanktonic. The most known of these species is the ichthyotoxic P. parvum, which may form nearlymonospecific dense blooms in coastal and inland waters. This species possesses extraordinary plasticityconcerning life survival strategies, and is specifically addressed in this review.Toxins produced by P. parvum have hemolytic properties, that not only kill fish but also co-existingplankton. These substances are allelopathic (when other algae are killed) and grazer deterrent (whengrazers are killed). Allelopathy enables P. parvum to utilize inorganic nutrients present in the surroundingwater without competition from other algal species; and by eliminating its grazers P. parvum reduces celllosses. The paralized microalgae and/or zooplankton, are therefter ingested by the P. parvum cells, aprocess called phagotrophy. P. parvum is also able of osmotrophy, i.e. utilization of dissolved organicmatter. In this review, the cellular characteristics, life cycles, bloom formation, and factors affectingtoxicity, allelopathy, phagotrophy, and osmotrophy of P. parvum are discussed.

  • 270.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Esplund, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Blågrönalger i Östersjön (Blue-green algae in the Baltic Sea, In Swedish)2010In: Havet 2010, ISSN 1654-6741, p. 35-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Blomningar av blågrönalger i Östersjön är inget nytt fenomen. De förekom redan för 8000 år sedan, i samband med att Östersjön blev ett brackvattenhav. Blomningarna har dock ökat i såväl utbredning som intensitet under de senaste femtio åren. Med mycket stor sannolikhet är det vi människor som ligger bakom ökningen. Det är inte heller bara en bov i dramat, utan tre; övergödning, överfiske och klimatförändring.

  • 271.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Esplund, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Ekenäs, Finland.
    Minimizing economical losses with the help of “real-time” algal surveillance2012In: Eco-Tech 2012 Proceedings, 2012, p. 550-555Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial blooms covering almost the entire Baltic Sea is a yearly feature during July-August. For the tourism industry at Öland island, SE Sweden, the economical losses during the summer 2005 amounted to 17-23 million euros. Remote sensing satellite images show that all the Öland beaches are covered with decomposing algae. In reality, these blooms rarely reach the western side of the island. To more accurately inform the public on the quality of the water for swimming, with the help of volunteers, a daily real-time surveillance of the algal densities on the beaches was performed. The volunteers (from 15 years old to pensioners) were trained at the Linnaeus University, from simple laboratory techniques, to more complicated ones such as identification and enumeration of the toxic cyanobacteria species. By latest 9.00 a.m., the public had access to information on the algal situation on 17 beaches. We could show that: 1) although remote sensing images showed Öland being surrounded by the blooms, our surveillance showed no algal accumulations on the beaches 2) that the real-time warning system boosted public confidence in the local water quality and during the first “Miss Algae”-summer 2006, the economical losses by the tourism industry turned in profits, the gain amounting to 17 million euros, 3) this kind of real-time surveillance is economical feasible due to low-costs involved, but also, the project has a great social value for the volunteers who mostly were pensioners. The volunteers who participated in “Miss Algae” had a good knowledge about the area they monitored (as their houses are located nearby) and could disseminate knowledge to the public in these areas. This kind of project also render a lot of interest regional, national and international, and can be used in advertising campaigns to increase tourism in the areas affected by algal blooms.

  • 272.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Factors influencing allelopathy and toxicity in Prymnesium parvum2010In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 46, p. 108-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some microalgae are able to kill or inhibit nutrient-competing microalgae, a process called allelopathy. Inhibiting or killing competitors enable these species to monopolize limiting resources, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Prymnesium parvum is known to produce such allelopathic compounds, substances that seem identical to the ichthyotoxins identified from this species. Biotic and abiotic environmental factors influence not only growth rates but also toxin/allelopathic compounds production by P. parvum cells. Toxin production, as well as allelopathy, including grazer deterrence, increases dramatically in light, temperature, or nutrient stressed P. parvum cells. Correspondingly, toxicity and allelopathy may decrease, or cease completely, if cells are grown with high amounts of N and P in balanced proportions. However, even under nutrient (N and P) sufficient conditions, P. parvum is able to produce toxins/allelopathic compounds, with negative effects on other phytoplankton species or grazers, if cells densities of P. parvum are high relative to other species. This negative effect might shift the plankton community to more toxin resistant species. Filtrates from nutrient-deficient P. parvum cultures have almost the same strong negative effect on grazers and other phytoplankton species as when Prymnesium cells are grown together with the target organisms. Eutrophication, the increased input of N and P to aquatic ecosystems, besides increasing nutrient concentrations, is usually provoking unbalanced N:P condition for the optimal growth of phytoplankton, deviating from the Redfield ratio, i.e., the phytoplankton cellular nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, N:P = 16:1 (by atoms) or 7.2:1 (by weight). Eutrophication thus both enhances P. parvum growth and increases production of toxins and allelopathic compounds. Supplying N-deficient or P-deficient P. parvum cells with the deficient nutrient reduces toxicity to less than half within 24 h after additions. As P. parvum is mixotrophic, uptake of dissolved or particulate organic N (DON or PON) can also reduce toxicity and allelopathy in the same manner as addition of inorganic N to N-starved cells. In conclusion, P. parvum, by increasing its toxicity and allelopathic ability under poor environmental conditions, outcompetes the co-occurring phytoplankton species.

  • 273.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vidyarathna, Nayani K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Funari, Enzo
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Cumaranatunga, PRT
    University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.
    Scenati, Raffaele
    National Institute of Health, Rome Italy.
    Can increases in temperature stimulate blooms of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata?2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo is an epiphytic, toxic dinoflagellate, inhabiting tropical and sub-tropical waters worldwide and also in certain temperate waters such as the Mediterranean Sea. Toxic blooms of O. ovata have been reported in SE Brazil in 1998/99 and 2001/02 and the French-Italian Riviera in 2005 and 2006. These blooms had negative effects on human health and aquatic life. Chemical analyses have indicated that O. ovata cells produce palytoxin, a very strong toxin, only second in toxicity to botulism. Increase in water temperature by several degrees has been suggested as the reason for triggering these blooms. Four laboratory experiments were performed with O. ovata isolated from Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy to determine the effects of water temperature and co-occurring algae on the cell growth and/or the toxicity of O. ovata. The cells were grown under different temperatures ranging from 16 °C to 30 °C, and cell densities, growth rates and the cell toxicities were studied. Results indicated high water temperatures (26-30 °C) increased the growth rate and biomass accumulation of O. ovata. In mixed cultures of O. ovata with other co-occurring algae, biomass decreased due to grazing by ciliates. Cell toxicity on the other hand was highest at lower temperatures, i.e., between 20 and 22 °C. The present study suggests that sea surface temperature increases resulted by global warming could play a crucial role inducing the geographical expansion and biomass accumulation by blooms of O. ovata.

  • 274.
    Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Engvall, Eva
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni from broilers2010In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 140, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from a national Swedish Campylobacter monitoring in broilers were characterized by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) in order to study the genetic diversity of this bacterial population. Isolates were initially characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). One hundred were chosen for MLST genotyping. PFGE identified 69 distinct types compared to 44 different sequence types (STs) identified with MLST. Eighteen STs had not been described previously, while the remaining 26 STs were assigned to previously known clonal complexes. The majority of isolates were of genotypes noted in broilers and in humans in earlier studies. However, three clonal complexes, ST-206 complex, ST-677 complex and ST-1034 complex, previously associated with wild bird and environmental samples, were among the genotypes found. This study shows that most of the Swedish broiler isolates were of genotypes noted as common in broilers. However, it also highlights the potential influence of environmental sources on the broiler C jejuni genotypes.

  • 275.
    Gross, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Lund University.
    Tillmann, Urban
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, Germany.
    Allelochemical interactions among aquatic primary producers2012In: Chemical Ecology in Aquatic Systems / [ed] Christer Brönmark, Lars Anders Hansson, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 1, p. 196-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allelopathy is the study of biochemically-driven organismic interactions among primary producers. One organism affects others by the release of allelochemicals that are transported to the target cells, and cause a negative (or positive) response. Most aquatic allelochemicals are amphiphilic, thus have a sufficient solubility in the water, and at the same time can bind to and penetrate lipophilic cell membranes. Allelopathic interactions are not static but are influenced by variable environmental stressors. Resource availability can both affect the production and release of allelochemicals by the producing organism, but also influence the susceptibility of the target cells. The biosynthesis and excretion of allelochemicals might involve costs for the producing organism, and these costs will only be balanced if a net gain, i.e. better resource availability such as space or nutrients or secondary benefits, e.g. predator deterrence, are achieved. Allelopathic effects against cooccurring organisms might lead to coevolutionary responses, i.e. a lower susceptibility of target cells or to more advanced allelochemicals. Target organisms from different habitats might be more susceptible, especially if they are not acquainted with the allelochemicals. The transfer of laboratory results on allelopathy to realistic field conditions is complex, and might in the long run benefit from advanced analytical and molecular methods identifying specific target cell responses in situ.

  • 276. Guan, Y.
    et al.
    Webby, R.
    Capua, I.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    H5N1: How to track a flu virus2012In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 483, no 7391, p. 535-536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277. Guevara-Fiore, P.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Endler, J.A.
    Sex as moderator of early life experiences: interaction between rearing environment and sexual experience in male guppies2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 1023-1029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of learning have been neglected in studies of sexual selection because previous researchers have assumed, implicitly or explicitly, that sexual behaviour is genetically fixed. To understand the role of learning in sexual selection, it is important to investigate how early experience interacts with adult experience to determine the use of different mating strategies. We explored this interaction by comparing the sexual behaviour of male guppies, Poecilia reticulata, raised in different social environments before and after they gained sexual experience. Males raised with other males performed long courtship displays at first, but decreased their courtship after they had gained sexual experience. However, for males raised only with females, sexual experience did not modify courtship duration. Males raised exclusively with females exhibited high rates of forced copulation attempts in their first encounter with a female, but reduced this behaviour after sexual experience. In contrast, males raised with other males did not modify their forced copulations. Adult sexual experience appeared to mitigate the behavioural differences caused by variation in rearing environment. Sexual experience helps males to find an optimal balance between courtship displays and forced copulation attempts. We also show that more males exhibited male–male aggression after sexual experience if they had social interactions with other males early in life. This study highlights that courtship and other sexual strategies are not fixed, and that several potential sources of variation exist in the development of an animal's sexual behaviour. Importantly, juvenile and adult experiences can interact to shape sexual behaviour in males.

  • 278.
    Gullberg, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mulders, Mick N
    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita
    Hovi, Tapani
    Van Ranst, Marc
    Lemey, Philippe
    Hafenstein, Susan
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Characterization of a putative ancestor of coxsackievirus B5.2010In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 84, p. 9695-9708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like other RNA viruses, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) exists as circulating heterogeneous populations of genetic variants. In this study, we present the reconstruction and characterization of a probable ancestral virion of CVB5. Phylogenetic analyses based on capsid protein encoding regions (the VP1 gene of 41 clinical isolates and the entire P1 region of eight clinical isolates) of CVB5 revealed two major co-circulating lineages. Ancestral capsid sequences were inferred from sequences of these contemporary CVB5 isolates using maximum likelihood methods. By using Bayesian phylodynamic analysis, the inferred VP1 ancestral sequence was dated back to 1854 (1807-1898). In order to study the properties of the putative ancestral capsid, the entire ancestral P1 sequence was synthesized de novo and inserted into the replicative backbone of an infectious CVB5 cDNA clone. Characterization of the recombinant virus in cell culture showed that fully functional infectious virus particles were assembled and that these viruses displayed properties similar to those of modern isolates, in terms of receptor preferences, plaque phenotype, growth characteristics and cell tropism. This is the first report describing resurrection and characterization of a picornavirus with a putative ancestral capsid. Our approach, including phylogenetics-based reconstruction of viral predecessors, could serve as a starting point for experimental studies of viral evolution and might also provide an alternative strategy in the development of vaccines.

  • 279.
    Gullberg, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Polacek, Charlotta
    Precechtelova, Jana
    Badurova, Miriam
    Sojka, Martin
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Israelsson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bopegamage, Shubhada
    Hafenstein, Susan
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    A single coxsackievirus B2 capsid residue controls cytolysis and apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma cells.2010In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 5868-5879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coxsackievirus B2 (CVB2), one of six human pathogens of the group B coxsackieviruses within the enterovirus genus of Picornaviridae, causes a wide spectrum of human diseases ranging from mild upper respiratory illnesses to myocarditis and meningitis. The CVB2 prototype strain Ohio-1 (CVB2O) was originally isolated from a patient with summer grippe in the 1950s. Later on, CVB2O was adapted to cytolytic replication in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Here, we present analyses of the correlation between the adaptive mutations of this RD variant and the cytolytic infection in RD cells. Using reverse genetics, we identified a single amino acid change within the exposed region of the VP1 protein (glutamine to lysine at position 164) as the determinant for the acquired cytolytic trait. Moreover, this cytolytic virus induced apoptosis, including caspase activation and DNA degradation, in RD cells. These findings contribute to our understanding of the host cell adaptation process of CVB2O and provide a valuable tool for further studies of virus-host interactions.

  • 280.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Trends in body mass of ducks over time: the hypotheses in Guillemain et al. revisited.2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 338-340Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hobson, K. A.
    Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Van Wilgenburg, S. L.
    Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Fouchier, R. A. M.
    Erasmus Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Disease Dynamics and Bird Migration – Linking Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of Influenza A Virus in Time and Space2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e35679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (d2 H) of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  • 282.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fransson, Thord
    Direct and indirect effects of winter harshness on the survival of Mallards Anas platyrhynchos in northwest Europe2012In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 154, no 2, p. 307-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand population dynamics it is necessary to understand vital rates, which may be affected by a wide range of factors including environmental variables such as weather. Weather conditions can affect birds vital rates directly through increased mortality due to impaired conditions, or indirectly via changes in body condition and/or behaviour. Most understanding of direct and indirect effects of weather comes from studies of breeding birds, whereas the situation in non-breeding periods is less clear. Here, we analysed annual survival of non-breeding Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, the most hunted waterfowl species in Europe, and assessed whether survival is related directly to winter harshness and/or indirectly via changes in winter recovery distributions. Recovery data on Mallards, initially marked in southeast Sweden, were analysed with an information-theoretic approach using program mark. Over 10 000 Mallards were marked in two time periods, 19641982 and 20022008, of which 13.3 and 4.7%, respectively, were later recovered. Mallards had lower annual survival in the early trapping period (0.580.63) than in the later period (0.690.71), with no clear effects of sex, age or year. Within each study period, winter harshness did not directly correlate with survival. However, milder winters may have contributed indirectly to higher survival in the second period, as winter harshness data were correlated with the distances to recovery positions for females, and also because winter recovery areas have shifted northeast during the past decades, possibly indicating a shortened migratory distance. Migration is costly, and there is therefore a likely linkage between migration behaviour and survival of dabbling ducks, in which direct as well as indirect effects of winter harshness may play a role. Other factors, such as hunting pressure, are also likely to have changed in the past decades, and may also have contributed to improved survival of Mallards in northwest Europe.

  • 283.
    Gustafsson, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Växthusgaskartläggning för ABB AB High Voltage Cables2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens utsläpp av växthusgaser är ett globalt problem att räkna med. Om inget görs kommer jordens klimat bli allt varmare och varmare. För att motverka detta behöver levnadsmönster förändras men också industrins produktionmönster. Det finns synergier mellan dessa mönster: t.ex. att ändra och minimera energiförbrukning, att ändra sättet vi människor och varor transporteras på.I denna rapport beskrivs ett företags växthusgasutsläpp. Vilka källor som utsläppen sker från, hur stora utsläppen är samt varför utsläppen uppstår. Baserat på kartläggningen diskuteras tänkbara åtgärder för att minska utsläppen.

    Företaget, High Voltage Cables (HVC), är en del av ABB koncernen och tillverkar bl. a högspänningskabel som används till t.ex. havsbaserade vindkraftverk runt om i Europa. Företagets produkter är en viktig länk i omställningen av Europas energiproduktion så att denna utvecklas på ett hållbart sätt.

    Att kartlägga verksamhetens växthusgasbidrag är ett led i arbetet med att få verksamheten mer hållbar och att produkterna som lämnar fabriken är tillverkade på ett så miljövänligt sätt som möjligt. Företaget är på god väg men har några områden som utmanar:Energiförbrukning, godstransporter och användandet av Svavelhexafluorid (SF6).

    Företaget har genomfört en energikartläggning som resulterat i olika förbättringsåtgärder. Som ett resultat av detta har mängden förbrukad energi per ton producerad kabel minskat med 17 % mellan år 2010 och 2011. Företagets inleveranser av gods sker i nuläget med lastbil. Om transporterna istället kunde ske med t.ex. fartyg skulle CO2-utsläppen reduceras med så mycket som 81 %.I samband med högspänningsprovning av kablar används gasen SF6 som är en kraftfull växthusgas. Så kraftfull att ett läckage direkt påverkar företagets utsläppsbild. Det senaste utsläppet var på nära 95 kg vilket motsvarar en tredjedel av den totala mängden utsläppta växthusgaser under ett år från företaget.

    Då företaget står inför en expansion finns stora möjligheter att adressera dessa källor på ett bra sätt vilket kommer att ge utdelning. Minskade utsläpp är bra för klimatet och miljön men kommer också att vara positivt för affärerna.

  • 284.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Inde, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mohn Jenssen, Gaute
    Tömta, Arne
    Kobberö, Kirsten
    Mejlvang, Jytte
    Baggesen, Kirsten
    Synrehabiliteringen i Skandinavien2010In: Optikeren, ISSN 0333-1598, E-ISSN 1891-0874, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline
    et al.
    University of Teacher Education of Central Switzerland, Lucerne, Switzerland.
    Tapola, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sharing data in international research – A theoretical discussion on pros, cons, and solutions.: EARLI (European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction) conference in Exeter, the UK, 30 August–3 September 2011.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindell, Kristoffer
    Pedersen, Anders
    Neutze, Richard
    Milton, Debra L.
    González, José M.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Proteorhodopsin phototrophy promotes survival of marine bacteria during starvation2010In: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteorhodopsins are globally abundant photoproteins found in bacteria in the photic zone of the ocean. Although their function as proton pumps with energy-yielding potential has been demonstrated, the ecological role of proteorhodopsins remains largely unexplored. Here, we report the presence and function of proteorhodopsin in a member of the widespread genus Vibrio, uncovered through whole-genome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Vibrio strain AND4 obtained proteorhodopsin through lateral gene transfer, which could have modified the ecology of this marine bacterium. We demonstrate an increased long-term survival of AND4 when starved in seawater exposed to light rather than held in darkness. Furthermore, mutational analysis provides the first direct evidence, to our knowledge, linking the proteorhodopsin gene and its biological function in marine bacteria. Thus, proteorhodopsin phototrophy confers a fitness advantage to marine bacteria, representing a novel mechanism for bacterioplankton to endure frequent periods of resource deprivation at the ocean’s surface.

  • 287.
    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Structuring of bacterioplankton communities by specific dissolved organic carbon compounds2012In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 2361-2378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main role of microorganisms in the cycling of the bulk dissolved organic carbon pool in the ocean is well established. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if particular bacteria preferentially utilize specific carbon compounds and whether such compounds have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Enrichment experiments in the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and the North Sea (Skagerrak) showed that different low-molecular-weight organic compounds, with a proven importance for the growth of marine bacteria (e.g. amino acids, glucose, dimethylsulphoniopropionate, acetate or pyruvate), in most cases differentially stimulated bacterial growth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that some bacterial phylotypes that became abundant were highly specific to enrichment with specific carbon compounds (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. B1-A3 with acetate or Psychromonas sp. B3-U1 with glucose). In contrast, other phylotypes increased in relative abundance in response to enrichment with several, or all, of the investigated carbon compounds (e.g. Neptuniibacter sp. M2-A4 with acetate, pyruvate and dimethylsulphoniopropionate, and Thalassobacter sp. M3-A3 with pyruvate and amino acids). Furthermore, different carbon compounds triggered the development of unique combinations of dominant phylotypes in several of the experiments. These results suggest that bacteria differ substantially in their abilities to utilize specific carbon compounds, with some bacteria being specialists and others having a more generalist strategy. Thus, changes in the supply or composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool can act as selective forces structuring bacterioplankton communities.

  • 288.
    Hadji, Siper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vilket vaccin är mest effektivt mot Humant papillomavirus (HPV) -16 och -18, som orsakar livmoderhalscancer - Gardasil eller Cervarix?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    HPV är en grupp av över 100 olika virustyper varav 40 kan infektera könsorganen. Dessa virus orsakar den vanligaste sexuellt överförbara infektionen i Sverige och även i övriga världen. Personer med kvarstående HPV-infektion har en ökad risk att på sikt få cellförändringar och cancer, framför allt livmoderhalscancer. HPV-typ 16 och 18 är de typer som oftast orsakar livmoderhalscancer (omkring 70 % av fallen). Införandet av program för regelbundna gynekologiska cellprovskontroller har under de senaste 40 åren minskat insjuknandet i livmoderhalscancer med drygt 60 procent i Sverige. Dessutom bidrar vaccination mot HPV-infektionerna, vilket ingår i det allmänna barnvaccinationsprogrammet sedan den 1 januari 2010, till att förebygga livmoderhals­cancer. 

    Det finns idag två vacciner som skyddar mot HPV- infektion. Båda dessa vacciner är riktade mot HPV 16 och 18. Det ena vaccinet, Gardasil, ger även skydd mot kondylom som orsakas av HPV- typ 6 och 11 och det andra, Cervarix, ger ett visst skydd mot några andra HPV-typer som kan orsaka cancer i livmoderhalsen.

    Syftet med detta arbete har varit att undersöka vilket av vaccinerna Gardasil eller Cervarix  som är mest effektivt, vilket mäts som halten vaccinspecifika antikroppar. Immunogeniciteten av en eller två doser av vaccinen gentemot tre doser har också undersökts och dessutom har effekten av alternativa doseringsschema i förhållande till standarddoseringsschema undersökts för både Cervarix och Gardasil.  

    Arbetet är en litteraturstudie omfattande sex studier över effekter av Gardasil och Cervarix. I två av artiklarna jämfördes vaccinen med varandra, medan resterade fyra behandlades skillnaden mellan tre kontra två doser och hur alternativa scheman för HPV-vaccinen fungerar jämfört med avsedda vaccinationsscheman.

    De båda profylaktiska vaccinerna, Cervarix (HPV-16/18 vaccinet) och Gardasil (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccinet), mot HPV är effektiva och tolereras väl. Cervarix-vaccinet har dock generellt högre immunogenicitet än Gardasil och var signifikant bättre i alla åldersgrupper (p <0,0001).

    Vid studier av olika doseringsscheman, visar det sig att den tredje vaccindosen kan administreras när som helst mellan månad 6 och 12 efter den första dosen för båda vaccinen. Den andra dosen av Gardasil kan administreras enligt standardschemat, dvs vid månad 2 eller enligt alternativt schema vid månad  3 eller månad  6.  Det går utmärkt att bortse från den tredje dosen av Cervarix eftersom två-dos alternativet är mycket effektivt för att förebygga infektioner orsakade av HPV 16 och 18. Data tyder på att samma gäller för Gardasil, men inga studier har utförts specifikt för att jämföra tre kontra två doser av detta vaccin.

    Flexiblare doseringsschema med 2-dos-regim kan minimera kostnaderna, öka möjligheterna för fler att vaccineras och minska frekvensen av livmoderhalscancer.

  • 289.
    Haemig, Paul D.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, S
    Grafström, A
    Lithner, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Forecasting risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): using data from wildlife and climate to predict next year's number of human victims.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 366-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed.

    METHODS: We assembled a 25-y database (1984-2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE.

    RESULTS: Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.

  • 290.
    Haemig, Paul
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Stefan, Lithner
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hansson, Lennart
    Arneborn, Malin
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Red fox and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans: Can predators influence public health?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 40, no 6-7, p. 527-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing datasets from hunting statistics and human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), we found a positive correlation between the number of human TBE cases and the number of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Time lags were also present, indicating that high numbers of red fox in 1 y translated into high numbers of human TBE cases the following y. Results for smaller predators were mixed and inconsistent. Hares and grouse showed negative correlations with human TBE cases, suggesting that they might function as dilution hosts. Combining our findings with food web dynamics, we hypothesize a diversity of possible interactions between predators and human disease – some predators suppressing a given disease, others enhancing its spread, and still others having no effect at all. Larger-sized predators that suppress red fox numbers and activity (i.e. wolf, Canis lupus; European lynx, Lynx lynx) were once abundant in our study area but have been reduced or extirpated from most parts of it by humans. We ask what would happen to red foxes and TBE rates in humans if these larger predators were restored to their former abundances.Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365540701805446

  • 291.
    Hagström, Johannes
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Moreira, M O P
    Odebrecht, C
    Domoic acid production and elemental composition of two Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries strains, from the NW and SW Atlantic Ocean, growing in phosphorus- or nitrogen-limited chemostat cultures.2011In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we compare cell physiology and domoic acid (DA) production for two strains of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries originating from two opposite latitudes: Canada (CA) and Brazil (BR). The algae were grown as chemostat cultures at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 day−1 under nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions. The level of deficiency significantly affected the atomic C:N, C:P, C:Si and N:P ratios in both strains. In both strains, P per cell was 2–4× higher in the N- than in the P-deficient cultures. The opposite was not found for N in the P-deficient cultures, as shown by the N:P ratios and C:N ratios. The C:N and C:P ratios were significantly lower in the CA strain, and this did not change due to the level of deficiency. The concentration and production of DA per cell per day were significantly higher for both strains under P deficiency as expected since the toxin is rich in N. However, DA was also produced by both strains during continuous cell division under N deficiency. High or low bacterial densities associated with P. multiseries did not increase or decrease DA production. Our data imply that more attention needs to be given to the N:P ratios and concentrations in the waters where these algae occur, as both N and P deficiencies affect DA production and cellular DA concentrations.

  • 292.
    Hagström, Johannes
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sengco, Mario
    Villareal, Tracy
    Potential methods for managing Prymnesium parvum blooms and toxicity, with emphasis on clay and barley straw: A review2010In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) control and mitigation is a complex problem in ecosystem management. Phytoplankton play an important role in aquatic ecosystems as primary producers and food sources for many commercially important shellfish and there are limited options for targeting just a single species within the community. Chemical treatments (e.g., algaecides), rotting barley straw, nitrogen and phosphorus manipulation, and clay and/or flocculants are but a few techniques tested or used to reduce fish kills or shellfish contamination during a HAB event. Prymnesium parvum control has focused on the use of chemicals, nutrient manipulation, and clay flocculation. However, many HAB control methods have been rejected due to their effects on ecosystems, high costs, or limited effects on target organisms. For example, rotting barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) is considered to be an environmentally friendly alternative, but has been found to have very different results on the phytoplankton community depending on the dominating taxa and is ineffective against P. parvum and dinoflagellate blooms. Clay flocculation is a useful control/mitigation technique during fish kills in marine aquaculture sites in South Korea and can be effective in freshwater if the correct combination of clay and flocculent is used. Toxins produced by P. parvum and Karenia brevis also bind to phosphatic clay, thereby removing and/or neutralizing the toxins, but there is concern that the clay will have a negative effect on sessile organisms. Some shellfish suffer high mortalities and significant impacts on somatic and reproductive tissue growth at high clay loads; however, benthic communities appear to be unchanged after five years of clay treatment in South Korea. There are likely site-specific and ecosystem-specific characteristics that make generalizations about control options difficult and require careful assessment of options at each location.

  • 293.
    Haidar, Ann-Katrin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Newcastle Disease Virus in Migratory Mallards (Anas Platyrhynchos)2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which belongs to the avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), exists as various genetic variants and seems capable of infecting all species of birds and several other vertebrates, in addition to humans. This single-stranded RNA virus was first discovered in the mid-1920s and has been reported in more than 241 avian species. NDV is recognized as a serious threat to the international poultry trade due to its global distribution and tendency to cause severe disease. Molecular biology has provided new methods for the detection of the NDV genome, especially the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. At optimal conditions, the PCR results in an exponential amplification of amplicons with each PCR cycle, thus enabling simple post-amplification detection of very small amounts of template DNA. The specificity of the reaction is achieved by the use of type-specific oligonucleotides and additional quantificational tools for detection, most commonly the SYBR green dye and the 5’ fluorogenic exonuclease assay (often referred to as TaqMan).

    In this study two different real-time RT-PCR protocols were evaluated in order to establish a sensitive detection method for NDV screening of samples from wild birds: a Fusion (F)-gene directed SYBR green protocol and a Matrix (M)-gene directed TaqMan probe based protocol. The TaqMan based M–gene PCR assay was 100 times more sensitive for NDV detection than the F-gene protocol.

    Subsequently, a total of 1,178 cloacal mallard (Anas platyrhyncos) samples taken during autumn migration (October and November 2010) at Ottenby Bird Observatory (Öland, Sweden) were analysed, using the more sensitive method. Out of the 1,178 analysed samples, 18 were positive for NDV in the M-gene TaqMan PCR protocol, corresponding to a frequency of 1.5%. Some mallards were re-trapped on several consecutive days, and the infection could be monitored for up to three days, thereby validating the utilized PCR protocol. Additionally, when combining these new data with previous influenza screening results concomitant infections with influenza A virus was ascertained in several samples. The discoveries of this study pave the way for future objectives, including characterization of detected NDV strains, as well as further screening of other bird species.

  • 294.
    Hallberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hakman, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Auxin polar transport and PIN localization pattern during conifer embryo development2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Hallgren, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Patienters tankar och upplevelser kring följsamhet och delaktighet i sin läkemedelsbehandling: En intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Några faktorer om är av stor vikt för en lyckad läkemedelsanvändning är patientens följsamhet och delaktighet i sin behandling. Kunskapen om patientens roll för en framgångsrik läkemedelsbehandling har länge varit ett relativt outforskat område.

    Syftet med denna studie är att via intervjuer undersöka hur patienter, ordinerade flera olika läkemedel, ser på värdet av delaktighet och följsamhet i deras läkemedelsbehandling och hur de upplevt den läkemedelsinformation de fått.

    En kvalitativ och semistrukturerad intervjumetod har använts för att besvara frågeställningen. Studien genomfördes på hjärtavdelningen på Kalmar länssjukhus. Åtta inlagda patienter med hjärtproblem intervjuades.

    De flesta av respondenterna upplevde att den information som de fått var bristfällig. När det gällde motivation för att följa läkemedelsordinationerna fanns det en samstämmighet bland patienterna i att adekvat information motiverade dem. För vissa patienter var det enormt viktigt att få vara delaktiga i beslut som berörde behandlingen, och att få möjlighet att uttrycka sina åsikter och tankar. För andra patienter var det inte lika avgörande. Det är viktigt att förskrivare är medvetna om patienters individuella behov av delaktighet i beslut som berör behandlingen för att uppnå en bra följsamhet till ordinationer (concordance). Samtidigt är det viktigt att patienter är medvetna om att deras delaktighet och följsamhet i behandlingen inte enbart är förskrivarens och sjukvårdens ansvar. Patienter behöver ställa krav om de vill uppnå ett bra behandlingsresultat. Förbättringar behövs för att patienternas följsamhet och delaktighet i läkemedelsbehandlingen ska öka.

  • 296.
    Hallén, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vilken behandling är mest effektiv vid samhällsförvärvad lunginflammation orsakad av antibiotikaresistenta stammar av Streptococcus pneumoniae ?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lunginflammation drabbar ungefär 1 % av Sveriges befolkning varje år. Med lunginflammation menas att lungvävnaden är inflammerad och en infektion är orsaken. Detta arbete fokuserar på Samhällsförvärvad Lunginflammation (CAP) orsakad av den grampositiva bakterien Streptococcus pneumoniae som är den vanligaste orsaken till CAP. Resistensutveckling hos bakterier gör det svårare att välja antibiotika för behandling och även att framställa effektiva nya antibiotika. Vid behandling av CAP rekommenderas i Sverige penicillin V i första hand och när infektionen är orsakad av bakterier med nedsatt känslighet rekommenderas i stället amoxicillin. Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka vilken behandling som är mest effektiv mot resistenta stammar av S.pneumoniae. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie som omfattade 8 studier, om CAP och dess behandling, vilka hämtades från databasen PubMed. Totalt utrotade moxifloxacin, telitromycin, amoxicillin/klavulansyra (2000/125 mg), och ceftriaxone, 100 %, 100 %, 97,8 % och 66,7 % respektive av de isolat med penicillinresistenta S.pneumoniae som behandlades. Av de makrolidresistenta S.pneumoniae isolaten utrotades 96,2 % av de som behandlades med moxifloxacin och 95,5 % av de som behandlades med telitromycin. Alla antibiotika i arbetet har gett en god effekt mot resistenta stammar av S.pneumoniae vid CAP. De behandlingar som utmärkt sig mest är moxifloxacin och telitromycin men även den förbättrade formuleringen av amoxicillin/klavulansyra (2000/125 mg) har visat sig vara effektiv. Dock behövs fler studier som enbart inriktar sig på CAP där orsaken är resistenta stammar av S.pneumoniae och hur man på bästa sätt skall behandla dessa infektioner.

  • 297. Hamad, Osama A.
    et al.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Non-proteolytically activated C3 promotes binding of activated platelets and platelet-derived microparticles to leukocytes via CD11b/CD182012In: Immunobiology, ISSN 0171-2985, E-ISSN 1878-3279, Vol. 217, no 11, p. 1191-1191Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Hamad, Osama A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lasaosa, Maria
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Ricklin, Daniel
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lambris, John D.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Contribution of Chondroitin Sulfate A to the Binding of Complement Proteins to Activated Platelets2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 9, article id e12889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure of chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) on the surface of activated platelets is well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent CS-A contributes to the binding of the complement recognition molecule C1q and the complement regulators C1 inhibitor (C1INH), C4b-binding protein (C4BP), and factor H to platelets.Principal Findings: Human blood serum was passed over Sepharose conjugated with CS-A, and CS-A-specific binding proteins were identified by Western blotting and mass spectrometric analysis. C1q was shown to be the main protein that specifically bound to CS-A, but C4BP and factor H were also shown to interact. Binding of C1INH was dependent of the presence of C1q and then not bound to CS-A from C1q-depleted serum. The specific interactions observed of these proteins with CS-A were subsequently confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis using purified proteins. Importantly, C1q, C4BP, and factor H were also shown to bind to activated platelets and this interaction was inhibited by a CS-A-specific monoclonal antibody, thereby linking the binding of C1q, C4BP, and factor H to exposure of CS-A on activated platelets. CS-A-bound C1q was also shown to amplify the binding of model immune complexes to both microtiter plate-bound CS-A and to activated platelets.

    Conclusions: This study supports the concept that CS-A contributes to the binding of C1q, C4BP, and factor H to platelets, thereby adding CS-A to the previously reported binding sites for these proteins on the platelet surface. CS-A-bound C1q also seems to amplify the binding of immune complexes to activated platelets, suggesting a role for this molecule in immune complex diseases. 

  • 299.
    Hamad, Osama
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bäck, Jennie
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University.
    Platelets, Complement, and Contact Activation: Partners in inflammation and thrombosis2012In: Current Topics in Innate Immunity II / [ed] John D. Lambris &George Hajishengallis, Springer, 2012, Vol. 946, no Current Topics in Innate Immunity II. J. D. Lambris, G. Hajishengallis (eds.), p. 185-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet activation during thrombotic events is closely associated with complement and contact system activation, which in turn leads to inflammation . Here we review the interactions between activated platelets and the complement and contact activation systems in clotting blood. Chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A), released from alpha granules during platelet activation, is a potent mediator of crosstalk between platelets and the complement system. CS-A activates complement in the fluid phase, generating anaphylatoxins that mediate leukocyte activation. No complement activation seems to occur on the activated platelet surface, but C3 in the form of C3(H2O) is bound to the surfaces of activated platelets . This finding is consistent with the strong expression of membrane-bound complement regulators present at the platelet surface. CS-A exposed on the activated platelets is to a certain amount responsible for recruiting soluble regulators to the surface. Platelet-bound C3(H2O) acts as a ligand for leukocyte CR1 (CD35), potentially enabling platelet–leukocyte interactions. In addition, platelet activation leads to the activation of contact system enzymes, which are specifically inhibited by antithrombin, rather than by C1INH, as is the case when contact activation is induced by material surfaces. Thus, in addition to their traditional role as initiators of secondary hemostasis, platelets also act as mediators and regulators of inflammation in thrombotic events.

  • 300. Hamad, Osama
    et al.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wouters, Diana
    Lambris, John
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Complement Component C3 Binds to Activated Normal Platelets without Preceding Proteolytic Activation and Promotes Binding to Complement Receptor 12010In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 184, no 5, p. 2686-2692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been reported that complement is activated on the surface of activated platelets, despite the presence of multiple regulators of complement activation. To reinvestigate the mechanisms by which activated platelets bind to complement components, the presence of complement proteins on the surfaces of nonactivated and thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot analyses. C1q, C4, C3, and C9 were found to bind to thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets in lepirudin-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood. However, inhibiting complement activation at the C1q or C3 level did not block the binding of C3 to activated platelets. Diluting PRP and chelating divalent cations also had no effect, further indicating that the deposition of complement components was independent of complement activation. Furthermore, washed, activated platelets bound added C1q and C3 to the same extent as platelets in PRP. The use of mAbs against different forms of C3 demonstrated that the bound C3 consisted of C3(H2O). Furthermore, exogenously added soluble complement receptor 1 was shown to bind to this form of platelet-bound C3. These observations indicate that there is no complement activation on the surface of platelets under physiological conditions. This situation is in direct contrast to a number of pathological conditions in which regulators of complement activation are lacking and thrombocytopenia and thrombotic disease are the ultimate result. However, the generation of C3(H2O) represents nonproteolytic activation of C3 and after factor I cleavage may act as a ligand for receptor binding.

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