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  • 251.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    How to get multi-agent systems accepted in industry?2009In: International Journal of Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, ISSN 1746-1375, E-ISSN 1746-1383, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With many researchers in the Multi-Agent System (MAS) community, we share the opinion that too much of the quality and relevant research in the area of MAS is underrepresented in the development of complex distributed systems in practice today. In our experience, a Babylonic mismatch is a crucial factor in this fact – research on MAS profiles itself as an isolated community and, as such, may create artificial thresholds to convince mainstream software developers of its merits. We argue that integrating the concepts and techniques from agent-based software engineering within mainstream software engineering provides opportunities to amplify the industrial adoption of MAS. To ground this position, we discuss MAS engineering from the perspective of the software engineering area that we are most familiar with: software architecture.

  • 252.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Transferring Research into Practice: Experiences in the EMC 2 Project2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    Holvoet, Tom
    Schelfthout, Kurt
    Van Betsbrugge, Wim
    Towards a software product line for automated transportation systems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the seventies, Egemin has successfully been providingfull life cycle support for automated transportation systems(ATS) used to automate internal logistics in productionand warehousing environments. With increasing customerdemands a number of considerable problems related to thecompany’s engineering practice came to the surface. Examplesare duplication of solutions and erosion of the softwareand its architecture. With the introduction of a softwareproduct line (SPL) Egemin aims to shift the focus ofits activities from developing individual products (ATS forclients) towards the development of a repository of core assetsfor a family of ATS supported by an explicitly definedproduction process. The objective is to establish plannedreuse aiming to improve the quality of the software and ultimatelyto increase productivity. A particular challenge withthe introduction of the SPL is support for runtime variabilitythat allows an ATS to dynamically adapt its behavior tochanges in the operating environment. In this paper, we outlinehow Egemin is introducing a dynamic SPL for ATS. Wegive particular attention to support for runtime variability.

  • 254.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Univresiteit, Leuven.
    A Framework for Situated Multiagent Systems2007In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 4408, p. 204-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an object-oriented framework for situated multiagent systems. The framework integrates various mechanisms for adaptivity we have developed and applied in our research, including selective perception, protocol-based communication, behavior-based decision making with roles and situated commitments, and laws that mediate the activities of agents in the environment. The framework provides a reusable design asset that facilitates the development of new multiagent system applications that share the common base more reliable and cost efficiently. We give an overview of the framework, and we zoom in on two particular features: decision making with a free-flow tree and support for simultaneous actions. Finally, we show how the framework is applied to an experimental robot application.

  • 255.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Univerisiteit, Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Univerisiteit, Leuven.
    Architecture-centric software development of situated multiagent systems2007In: Lecture notes in atificial intelligence, Vol. 4457, p. 62-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiagent system (MAS) structures a software system as a set of autonomous agents that interact through a shared environment. Software architecture is generally considered as the structures of a system which comprise software elements and the relationships among the elements. So there is a clear connection between MAS and software architecture. In our research, we study situated MAS, i.e. systems in which agents have an explicit position in the environment. We apply situated MAS to domains that are characterized by highly dynamic operating conditions and an inherent distribution of resources. We use an architecture- centric approach for developing such MAS. From our experiences with building various applications, we have developed a reference architecture for situated MAS. The reference architecture provides an asset base architects can draw from when developing new systems that share the common base of the reference architecture. In this paper, we explain our perspective on architecture- centric software development of MAS. We give an overview of the reference architecture and we show an excerpt of the software architecture of an industrial application in which we have used the reference architecture. The reference architecture shows how knowledge and experience with MAS can be documented and matured in a form that has proven its value in mainstream software engineering. We believe that this integration is a key to industrial adoption of MAS.

  • 256.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    From reactive robotics to situated multiagent systems: a historical perspective on the role of the environment in multiagent systems2006In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 3963, p. 63-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, the idea of situated multiagent systems—in which the environment gets a prominent role—originates from the domain of reactive robotics. In this paper, we give a historical perspective of research on agency that devotes pertinent attention to the environment, and show how the role of the environment evolved along with subsequent evolutions of agent systems. Today, it is quite obvious that the environment offers opportunities and challenges for all types of agency. We discuss recent research in this area, which advocates that the environment is not only an essential part of every multiagent system, but also provides an exploitable design abstraction to build multiagent systems. The notion of environment exceeds specific types of agency, and as such offers opportunities for synergetic research in the interest of multiagent systems in general.

  • 257.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Laws for Mediating Agents’ Activities in Situated Multiagent Systems2007In: 16th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, 2007. WETICE 2007., 2007, p. 86-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on situated multiagent systems (situated MAS) investigates decentralized architectures for software systems that have to deal with highly dynamic operating conditions. To realize the system requirements, the agents of a situated MAS have to coordinate their behavior. The agent environment provides a means to mediate (i.e., enable and constrain) agents' activities in the system. Laws embedded in the agent environment allow to define application specific constrains on agents activities. In this paper, we declaratively specify the semantics of laws for perception, action, and communication in situated MAS. We illustrate the laws with concrete examples in an automated transportation system that we have developed. Mediation of agents' activities via the agent environment improves separation of concerns in MAS and helps to manage complexity, especially in open and pervasive environments.

  • 258.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    On the connection between multiagent systems and software architecture2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Situated multi-agent systems for developing self-managing distributed applications2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Distrinet, Agentwise
    Look, Talk and Do: A Synchronization Scheme For Situated Multi-Agent2002In: in Workshop Notes of UKMAS’02, Eds. P. McBurney, M. Wooldridge, UK Workshop on Multi-agent Systems, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a synchronization scheme for multiagent systems (MAS) that supports complex forms of agent interaction. Synchronization in a MAS is necessary whenever the agents of that MAS are able to act simultaneously and it is essential to treat these actions as if they happened together. We use the general model of a situated MAS where agents and objects have an explicit position in the environment. Existing synchronization schemes resolves the problem of simultaneity of action, but do not include communication in the model. The focus of this paper is on the complex problem connected with the synchronization of situated actions (i.e. actions performed by the agents of a situated MAS) in relation to messages. The synchronization scheme we present integrates communication with actions. The scheme enables functionality for the agents (1) to coordinate their synchronized actions, i.e. to communicate with one another in order to agree on a future cooperation and the point in time to act simultaneously, and (2) ensures that simultaneously performed actions are treated as such. Throughout the text we use a simple multi-agent application, i.e. the Packet{World, as a case to illustrate the topics discussed in the paper.

  • 261.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Schelfthout, Kurt
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Multiagent systems as software architecture: another perspective on software engineering with multiagent systems2006In: Proceedings of the fifth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems, 2006, p. 1314-1316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend in agent-oriented software engineering is to consider multiagent systems (MASs) as a radically new way of engineering software. This position isolates agent-oriented software engineering from mainstream software engineering and could be one important reason why MASs are not widely adopted in industry yet.In this paper, we present another perspective on software engineering with MASs. We put forward MASs as software architecture. We give an overview of a reference architecture for situated MAS. This reference architecture extracts and generalizes common functions and structures from various applications we have studied and built. The reference architecture provides a blueprint for architectural design of MAS applications that share the come base of the systems it is derived from. Considering MASs essentially as software architecture paves the way to integration with mainstream software engineering.

  • 262.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Schelfthout, Kurt
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Wielemans, Jan
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Decentralized Control of Automatic Guided Vehicles: applying multi-agent systems in practice2008In: Proceeding OOPSLA Companion '08 Companion to the 23rd ACM SIGPLAN conference on Object-oriented programming systems languages and applications, 2008, p. 663-674Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automatic guided vehicle (AGV) transportation system is a fully automated system that provides logistic services in an industrial environment such as a warehouse or a factory. Traditionally, the AGVs that execute the transportation tasks are controlled by a central server via wireless communication. In a joint effort between Egemin, an industrial manufacturer of AGV transportation systems, and DistriNet Labs research at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, we developed an innovative decentralized architecture for controlling AGVs. The driving motivations behind decentralizing the control of AGVs were new and future quality requirements such as flexibility and openness. At the software architectural level, the AGV control system is structured as a multi-agent system; the detailed design and implementation is object-oriented. In this paper, we report our experiences with developing the agent-based control system for AGVs. Starting from system requirements, we give an overview of the software architecture and we zoom in on a number of concrete functionalities. We reflect on our experiences and report lessons learned from applying multi-agent systems for real-world AGV control.

  • 263.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Malek, Sam
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Claims and Supporting Evidence for Self-Adaptive Systems: A Literature Study2012In: ICSE Workshop on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, IEEE, 2012, p. 89-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the vast body of work on self-adaption, no systematic study has been performed on the claims associated with self-adaptation and the evidence that exists for these claims. As such an insight is crucial for researchers and engineers, we performed a literature study of the research results from SEAMS since 2006 and the associated Dagstuhl seminar in 2008. The study shows that the primary claims of self-adaptation are improved flexibility, reliability, and performance of the system. On the other hand, the tradeoffs implied by self-adaptation have not received much attention. Evidence is obtained from basic examples, or simply lacking. Few systematic empirical studies have been performed, and no industrial evidence is reported. From the study, we offer the following recommendations to move the field forward: to improve evaluation, researchers should make their assessment methods, tools and data publicly available; to deal with poor discussion of limitations, conferences/workshops should require an explicit section on limitations in engineering papers; to improve poor treatment of tradeoffs, this aspect should be an explicit subject of reviews; and finally, to enhance industrial validation, the best academy-industry efforts could be formally recognized by the community.

  • 264.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Söderlund, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Do External Feedback Loops Improve the Design of Self-Adaptive Systems?: A Controlled Experiment2013In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, New York: IEEE Press, 2013, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing high-quality software in the face of uncertainties, such as dealing with new user needs, changing availability of resources, and faults that are difficult to predict, raises fundamental challenges to software engineers. These challenges have motivated the need for self-adaptive systems. One of the primary claimed benefits of self-adaptation is that a design with external feedback loops provide a more effective engineering solution for self-adaptation compared to a design with internal mechanisms. While many efforts indicate the validity of this claim, to the best of our knowledge, no controlled experiments have been performed that provide scientifically founded evidence for it. Such experiments are crucial for researchers and engineers to underpin their claims and improve research. In this paper, we report the results of a controlled experiment performed with 24 final-year students of a Master in Software Engineering program in which designs based on external feedback loops are compared with designs based on internal mechanisms. The results show that applying external feedback loops can reduce control flow complexity and fault density, and improve productivity. We found no evidence for a reduction of activity complexity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    2013SEAMSb.pdf
  • 265.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Malek, Sam
    George Mason University.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    FORMS: Unifying Reference Model for Formal Specification of Distributed Self-adaptive Systems2012In: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, ISSN 1556-4665, E-ISSN 1556-4703, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges of pervasive and mobile computing environments, which are highly dynamic and unpredictable, have motivated the development of self-adaptive software systems. Although noteworthy successes have been achieved on many fronts, the construction of such systems remains significantly more challenging than traditional systems. We argue this is partially because researchers and practitioners have been struggling with the lack of a precise vocabulary for describing and reasoning about the key architectural characteristics of self-adaptive systems. Further exacerbating the situation is the fact that existing frameworks and guidelines do not provide an encompassing perspective of the different types of concerns in this setting. In this article, we present a comprehensive reference model, entitled FOrmal Reference Model for Self-adaptation (FORMS), that targets both issues. FORMS provides rigor in the manner such systems can be described and reasoned about. It consists of a small number of formally specified modeling elements that correspond to the key concerns in the design of self-adaptive software systems, and a set of relationships that guide their composition. We demonstrate FORMS's ability to precisely describe and reason about the architectural characteristics of distributed self-adaptive software systems through its application to several existing systems. FORMS's expressive power gives it a potential for documenting reusable architectural solutions (e.g., architectural patterns) to commonly encountered problems in this area.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 266.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Malek, SamAndersson, JesperLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.Schmerl, Bradley
    SOAR'10: Proceeding of the second international workshop on Self-organizing architectures2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Malek, Samde Lemos, RogerioAndersson, JesperLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Self-Organizing Architectures: First International Workshop, SOAR 2009, Cambridge, UK, September 14, 2009, Revised Selected and Invited Papers2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Malek, Samde Lemos, RogerioAndersson, JesperLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Self-Organizing Architectures: First International Workshop, SOAR 2009, Cambridge, UK, September 14, 2009, Revised Selected and Invited Papers2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Michalik, Bartosz
    Codifying architecture knowledge to support online evolution of software product lines2011In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on SHAring and Reusing Architectural Knowledge (SHARK '11), ACM Press, 2011, p. 37-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 270.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universitiet Leuven, Belgium.
    Michalik, Bartosz
    Katholieke Universitiet Leuven, Belgium.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    Katholieke Universitiet Leuven, Belgium.
    Boucke, Nelis
    Katholieke Universitiet Leuven, Belgium.
    An Architectural Approach to Support Online Updates of Software Product Lines2011In: 2011 Ninth Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA), IEEE, 2011, p. 204-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the successes of software product lines (SPL), managing the evolution of a SPL remains difficult and error-prone. Our focus of evolution is on the concrete tasks integrators have to perform to update deployed SPL products, in particular products that require run-time updates with minimal interruption. The complexity of updating a deployed SPL product is caused by multiple interdependent concerns, including variability, traceability, versioning, availability, and correctness. Existing approaches typically focus on particular concerns while making abstraction of others, thus offering only partial solutions. An integrated approach that takes into account the different stakeholder concerns is lacking. In this paper, we present an architectural approach for updating SPL products that supports multiple concerns. The approach comprises of two complementary parts: (1) an update viewpoint that defines the conventions for constructing and using architecture views to deal with multiple update concerns; and (2) a supporting framework that provides an extensible infrastructure supporting integrators of a SPL. We evaluated the approach for an industrial SPL for logistic systems providing empirical evidence for its benefits and recommendations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 271.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Michalik, Bartosz
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    Boucke, Nelis
    On-demand Generation of Views to Support Online Evolution of Software Product Lines2011In: Proceedings of the 7th SEI Architecture Technology User Network Conference, Software Engineering Institute , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to achieve assured conformance between architecture and code. We lacked proper architecture descriptions in the context of the evolution of an industrial software product line of logistic systems. As a result, a lack of explicit architecture documentation about the deployed products led to ad hoc update practices, which were error prone and resulted in unnecessary and undesirable shutdowns. To tackle these problems, we have codified the architecture knowledge required for evolving products in a viewpoint. Based on this viewpoint, we developed a supporting tool that allows generating on-demand architecture models. These models guide maintainers by listing the concrete tasks they need to perform when upgrading a system and by showing inconsistencies when they fail to do so. The evaluation of 68 updates of industrial logistic systems demonstrates a significant improvement in the quality of system updates with respect to the correct execution of updates and a reduced interruption of services.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 272.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Michel, FabienLIRMM, France.
    Agent Environments for Multi-Agent Systems IV: 4th International Workshop, E4MAS 2014 - 10 Years Later, Paris, France, May 6, 2014, Revised Selected and Invited Papers2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Environments for Multiagent Systems, E4MAS 2014 - 10 years later, held in Paris, France, in May 2014 as an associated event of AAMAS 2014, the 13th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.

    The 6 revised full papers presented together with 1 roadmap paper and 7 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 14 initial submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on connecting agents, environments, and humans; environments for complex and stigmergic systems; virtual and simulated environments; and open agent environments and interoperability.

  • 273.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Introduction to the special issue on "New frontiers in software architecture"2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 130, p. 57-58Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Mirandola,, RaffaelaPolitecnico di Milano, Italy.Crnkovic, IvicaChalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Software Architecture: 9th European Conference, ECSA 2015, Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia, September 7-11, 2015. Proceedings2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2015, held in Cavtat, Croatia in September 2015. The 12 full papers and 15 short papers presented together with three education and training papers in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions. They are organized in topical sections named: adaptation; design approaches; decisions and social aspects; education and training; cloud and green; agile and smart systems; analysis and automation; services and ecosystems.

  • 275.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Parunak, H. Van DykeMichel, Fabien
    Environments for multi-agent systems: first international workshop, E4MAS 2004, New York, NY, July 19, 2004; revised selected papers2005Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Parunak, H. Van DykeMichel, Fabien
    Environments for multi-agent systems III: third international workshop, E4MAS 2006, Hakodate, Japan, May 8, 2006: selected revised and invited papers2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Parunak, H. Van DykeMichel, Fabien
    Environments for multi-agent systems II: second international workshop, E4MAS 2005, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 25, 2005: selected revised and invited papers2006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Schmerl, Bradley
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Malek, Sam
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Prehofer, Christian
    Wuttke, Jochen
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Giese, Holger
    Göschka, Karl
    On Patterns for Decentralized Control in Self-Adaptive Systems2013In: Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems II: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, October 24-29, 2010 Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Springer, 2013, p. 76-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is typically realized using a control loop. Oneprominent approach for organizing a control loop in self-adaptive systemsis by means of four components that are responsible for the primary functionsof self-adaptation: Monitor, Analyze, Plan, and Execute, togetherforming a MAPE loop. When systems are large, complex, and heterogeneous,a single MAPE loop may not be sufficient for managing alladaptation in a system, so multiple MAPE loops may be introduced. Inself-adaptive systems with multiple MAPE loops, decisions about how todecentralize each of the MAPE functions must be made. These decisionsinvolve how and whether the corresponding functions from multiple loopsare to be coordinated (e.g., planning components coordinating to preparea plan for an adaptation). To foster comprehension of self-adaptive systemswith multiple MAPE loops and support reuse of known solutions,it is crucial that we document common design approaches for engineers.As such systematic knowledge is currently lacking, it is timely to reflecton these systems to: (a) consolidate the knowledge in this area, and (b)to develop a systematic approach for describing different types of controlin self-adaptive systems. We contribute with a simple notation fordescribing interacting MAPE loops, which we believe helps in achieving(b), and we use this notation to describe a number of existing patternsof interacting MAPE loops, to begin to fulfill (a). From our study, weoutline numerous remaining research challenges in this area.

  • 279.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Schumacher, M.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne.
    Ricci, A.
    Univ Bologna.
    Viroli, M.
    Univ Bologna.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Univ Leuven.
    Environments in multiagent systems2005In: Knowledge engineering review (Print), ISSN 0269-8889, E-ISSN 1469-8005, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 127-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing awareness in the multiagent systems research community that the environment plays a prominent role in multiagent systems. Originating from research on behavior-based agent systems and situated multiagent systems, the importance of the environment is now gradually being accepted in the multiagent system community in general. In this paper, we put forward the environment as a first-order abstraction in multiagent systems. This position is motivated by the fact that several aspects of multiagent systems that conceptually do not belong to agents themselves should not be assigned to, or hosted inside the agents. Examples are infrastructure for communication, the topology of a spatial domain or support for the action model. These and other aspects should be considered explicitly. The environment is the natural candidate to encapsulate these aspects. We elaborate on environment engineering, and we illustrate how the environment plays a central role in a real-world multiagent system application.

  • 280.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Steegmans, E.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Combining Adaptive Behavior and Role Modeling with Statecharts2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering non-trivial open multi-agent systems is achallenging task. Our research focusses on situated multiagentsystems, i.e. systems in which agents are explicitlyplaced in a context – an environment – which agents canperceive and in which they can act. Two concerns are essentialin developing such open systems. First, the agentsmust be adaptive in order to exhibit suitable behavior inchanging circumstances of the system: new agents may jointhe system, others may leave, the environment may change,e.g. its topology or its characteristics such as throughputand visibility. A well-known family of agent architecturesfor adaptive behavior are free-flow architectures. However,building a free-flow architecture based on an analysis of theproblem domain is a quasi-impossible job for non-trivialagents. Second, multi-agent systems developers as softwareengineers require suitable abstractions for describing andstructuring agent behavior. The abstraction of a role obviouslyis essential in this respect. Earlier, we proposed statechartsas a formalism to describe roles. Although this allowsapplication developers to describe roles comfortably,the formalism supports rigid behavior only, and hampersadaptive behavior in changing environments.In this paper we describe how a synergy can be reachedbetween free-flow architectures and statechart models in orderto combine the best of both worlds: adaptivity and suitableabstractions. We illustrate the result through a casestudy on controlling a collection of automated guided vehicles(AGVs), which is the subject of an industrial project.

  • 281.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Steegmans, E.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Towards commitments for situated agents2004In: 2004  International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, VOLS 1-7, 2004, Vol. 6, p. 5479-5485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional architectures for situated, behavior-based agents take the viewpoint of the individual agent to select the most appropriate action. Action selection is typically based on internal stimuli and stimuli from the agent Is neighboring environment. As such collaborations between agents have to emerge from the individually selected actions of the agents. In this paper we study the research problem of how to enable explicit collaborations between situated agents. Explicit collaborations are reflected in mutual commitments. Contrary to the traditional approaches of commitment that are based on the mutually dependent mental states of the involved agents and a goal-oriented plan, we introduce the notion of a situated commitment that is based on the roles of the involved agents and the local context they are placed in. Activating mutual situated commitments in a collaboration results in more consistent behavior of the agents towards their commitments. The proposed approach fits the general principles of situatedness and robustness of situated multiagent systems.

  • 282.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Steegmans, E.
    Holvoet, Tom
    AgentWise, D. N.
    Leuven, K U
    Protocol-based Communication for Situated Agents2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protocol based Communication for Situated Agents Danny Weyns Elke Steegmans Tom Holvoet AgentWise DistriNet Leuven Celestijnenlaan Leuven Belgium The full version this paper appeared Proceedings The International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems Eds Jennings Sierra Sonenberg Tambe ACM Press Introduction Collaborations situated behavior based agent systems typically have emerge from the individual selected actions the agents Usually communication happens indirectly depositing pheromone trails the environment this paper outline approach for situated agents set explicit collaborations Roles and situated commitments Explicit collaborations are reflected mutual commitments use the notion situated commitment basis for collaboration Contrary the traditional approaches commitment that take psychological viewpoint commitments are based the agents mutually dependent mental states and goal oriented plan situated commitment social attitude situated commitments are based the roles the involved agents and the local context they are placed use model for action selection that based hierarchical free flow architecture The hierarchy composed nodes which receive information from internal and external stimuli the form activity The nodes feed their activity down through the hierarchy until the activity arrives the action nodes where winner takes all process decides which action selected Existing free flow architectures are designed from the viewpoint individual agents Th

  • 283.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Truyen, Eddy
    Verbaeten, P.
    Serialization of Distributed Threads in Java2005In: Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience, ISSN 1895-1767, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a mechanism for serializing the execution-state of a distributed Java application that is implemented on a conventional Object Request Broker (ORB) architecture such as Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI). To support serialization of distributed execution-state, we developed a byte code transformer and associated management subsystem that adds this functionality to a Java application by extracting execution-state from the application code. An important benefit of our mechanism is its portability. It can transparently be integrated into any legacy Java application. Furthermore, it does require no modifications to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) or to the underlying ORB. Our serialization mechanism can serve many purposes such as migrating execution-state over the network or storing it on disk. In particular, we describe the implementation of a prototype for repartitioning distributed Java applications at run-time. Proper partitioning of distributed objects over the different machines is critical to the global performance of the distributed application. Methods for partitioning exist, and employ a graph-based model of the application being partitioned. Our mechanism enables then applying these methods at any point in an ongoing distributed computation. In the implementation of the management subsystem, we experienced the problem of losing logical thread identity when the distributed control flow crosses address space boundaries. We solved this well known problem by introducing the generic notion of distributed thread identity in Java programming. Propagation of a globally unique, distributed thread identity provides a uniform mechanism by which all the program's constituent objects involved in a distributed control flow can uniquely refer to that distributed thread as one and the same computational entity

  • 284.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    A Framework to Guide and Structure the Development Process of Mobile Learning Initiatives2010In: Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Mobile Learning, 2010, p. 184-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile learning has yet to move on from small-scale trials to sustained deployment. One reason for this is the highly complex and multi-disciplinary setting that the initiatives operate within. They must deal with a wide range of issues such as software, hardware, people, learning, organizations and so on. At the same time, there is little support. Few frameworks to guide the development process exist. This article presents one such framework that was developed based on theories from software and systems development as well as practical experience from mobile learning. The framework divides the development into four Areas of Concern and introduces a life cycle of the mobile learning initiative. It further offers means to guide the development of the initiative and to find key issues that needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainability. The framework presents a holistic view of mobile learning and is designed as an aid to all practitioners in mobile learning, no matter their background.

     

  • 285.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asked and Answered: Communication Patterns of Experts on an Online Forum2013In: Proceedings IRIS36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of network structure for social relations dates back half a century. Nowadays people form social networks offline as well as online. At an online community people are connected trough information exchange of sorts. Interest groups form often forums to aid each other and discuss things. Programmers are no exception and a question and answer site called Stack Overflow has been up and running since 2008. Our focus is to find patterns of how people interact on this online community and see if we can find expert users. We find 4 different ways to categorize experts, which result in different rankings. We also investigate how expertise is divided among topics, and find some overlap with the global ranking. 

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    fulltext
  • 286.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    The Beginner’s Guide to ICT Context: A Theoretical Contribution Aimed for the Atypical Developer and Team2011In: Proceedings of the 34rd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many recent ICT development projects involve atypical de- veloper teams and practitioners that are domain experts, but not ex- perienced in information systems development. While domain experts usually participate in development projects, we find that many of them take a more active or even driving role in recent projects. This can pose a problem, since the common systems development methodologies are complicated and require training. They are also not designed for the level that these atypical teams and non-expert practitioners can benefit from. In this paper we formulate a framework based on personal experi- ence of several ICT development projects and a theoretical foundation in information systems development research. The framework is designed to be suitable and accessible by non-expert and to be able to serve as a platform for collaboration and communication. The framework divides the development process into four stages and four areas of concern. It also introduces a number of concepts, such as focus, scalability and equi- librium. A project scales from stage to stage, each focusing on a different area of concern. 

  • 287.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Department of IT.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Metrics-Based Approach to Technical Documentation Quality2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quality of Information and Communications Technology, IEEE, 2010, p. 476-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical documentation is now fully taking the step from stale printedbooklets (or electronic versions of these) to interactive and online versions.This provides opportunities to reconsider how we define and assess the qualityof technical documentation. This paper suggests an approach based on theGoal-Question-Metric paradigm: predefined quality goals are continuously assessedand visualized by the use of metrics. To test this approach, we performtwo experiments. We adopt well known software analysistechniques, e.g., clone detection and test coverage analysis, and assess thequality of two real world documentations, that of a mobile phone and of(parts of) a warship. The experiments show that quality issues can be identifiedand that the approach is promising.Technical documentation is now fully taking the step from stale printedbooklets (or electronic versions of these) to interactive and online versions.This provides opportunities to reconsider how we define and assess the qualityof technical documentation. This paper suggests an approach based on the Goal-Question-Metric paradigm: predefined quality goals are continuously assessedand visualized by the use of metrics. To test this approach, we performtwo experiments. We adopt well known software analysistechniques, e.g., clone detection and test coverage analysis, and assess thequality of two real world documentations, that of a mobile phone and of(parts of) a warship. The experiments show that quality issues can be identifiedand that the approach is promising.

  • 288.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Information Quality Management: a Model-Driven Approach2012In: Proceedings of IRIS 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of information are produced on a daily basis. We include any form of electronic data in the term information, for example e-books, web sites, software, databases, etc. Several studies have investigated the quality of this information, and often find it lacking. It is a complex process of producing said information but also to define and assess quality of the information, especially across the many different forms. We present a model-driven approach to information quality management, were models and indicators are used to define and assess qual- ity. We rely on abstraction of models, which are described using meta model. We show how this model-driven approach is implemented by a software tool that (i) reads information, (ii) performs analyses on this information, and (iii) visualizes the results, to help stakeholders understand quality issues. The software tool has been used to evaluate the quality of real world software and docu- mentations. 

  • 289.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Making Sense of Technical Information Quality: A Software-based Approach2011In: Journal of Software Technology, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Department of IT, Uppsala University.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Incorporating Information Quality in Software Development2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness and value of an information system is directly related to its perceived quality. Quality is multidimensional concept, and includes an object of interest, the viewpoint on that object and the qualities attributed to the object. This suggests that there is no universal standard in systems development; quality is rather defined how well the information system meets the purpose and the goals of the organization it is used within. It is important that people involved in a particular systems development project have an agreed understanding of what the strive for quality means. This agreed understanding should include how to assign appropriate quality characteristics to both the technical and social aspects of a system as well as how to assess and interpret them. The purpose of this paper is twofold; first, we emphasize that any definition of quality should be specific to a system, and include both the social and technical aspects of a system. Second, we extend methods used to define and assess quality to include social and technical aspects that extends beyond software. Our work is particularly focused on information quality.

  • 291.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Department of IT.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Information Quality Testing2010In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Perspectives in Business Informatics Research, Springer, 2010, p. 14-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new system, such as a knowledge management system or a contentmanagement system is put into production, both the software andhardware are systematically and thoroughly tested while the mainpurpose of the system --- the information --- often lacks systemictesting. In this paper we study how to extend testing approaches fromsoftware and hardware development to information engineering. Wedefine an information quality testing procedure based on test cases,and provide tools to support testing as well as the analysis andvisualization of data collected during the testing. Further, wepresent a feasibility study where we applied information qualitytesting to assess information in a documentation system. The resultsshow promise and have been well received by the companies thatparticipated in the feasibility study. When a new system, such as a knowledge management system or a contentmanagement system is put into production, both the software andhardware are systematically and thoroughly tested while the mainpurpose of the system --- the information --- often lacks systemictesting. In this paper we study how to extend testing approaches fromsoftware and hardware development to information engineering. Wedefine an information quality testing procedure based on test cases,and provide tools to support testing as well as the analysis andvisualization of data collected during the testing. Further, wepresent a feasibility study where we applied information qualitytesting to assess information in a documentation system. The resultsshow promise and have been well received by the companies thatparticipated in the feasibility study.

  • 292.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Department of IT.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Analysis and Visualization of Information Quality of Technical Documentation2010In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation / [ed] Castro Neto, M, Academic Publishing International, 2010, p. 388-396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical documentation has moved from printed booklets to online versions that need to be updated continuously to match product development and user demands. There is an imminent need to ensure the quality of technical documentation, i.e. information that follows a product.

    Moving from printed material to online versions also allows for documentation to become active, to integrate interactive content, which blurs the boundaries between information and software. In order to assess quality of technical documentation, we adopt analyses and visualizations known from quality assessment of software. The analyses assess text copies, usage, structural properties, and the conformance of information to meta-information. The analysis results are visualized using a range of abstractions to aid in identifying and communicating quality issues to different stakeholders.

    In a case study, we assessed the quality of real world technical documentations from a Swedish mobile phone vendor, a Japanese camera vendor, and a Swedish warship producer. The study showed that our analyses and visualization are applicable and can identify quality issues. For example, we tested an unclassified subset of the warship’s technical documentation and found that 49% of it was redundant information.

    The case study was conducted at a Swedish company that is in charge of creating and maintaining technical documentation. While our approach is limited to analysis that can be performed automatically, the company acknowledges that it has great potential and that our results proved helpful.

  • 293.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    The Rocky Road: Why Usability Work is so Difficult2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving product and process quality are among the central themes of software engineering, and quality is an important factor in the marketplace. Usability and user experience (UX) are two important aspects of quality, particularly for interactive products. To achieve usability means producing products that let users do things in a satisfactory, efficient and effective way. To develop products with good UX, means going beyond usability, in ways that are still not clear to us. Achieving good usability and UX is hard. This thesis is concerned with organizations which work towards these goals. This research is concerned with understanding and improving the processes by which technology is designed and developed, and understanding the demands and expectations users have. It is about how companies can and actually develop products with good usability and UX, and what stops them from working towards this as efficiently as they could. We have viewed the usability and UX challenge from the viewpoints of Quality, Organizations, and Institutions, with a focus on participatory design, user-centred design and wicked problems. The research can be characterised as empirical research performed over a period of seven years, in close cooperation with industrial partners. The research was performed using multiple data collection methods to create constructs and shape theory. The field methods have ranged from being a participant observer, to performing interviews and holding workshops with members of the participating organisations. A case study approach was initially used, but focus soon moved from case study methodology to a closer focus on grounded theory, and finally the focus shifted to constructivist grounded theory. The thesis contributes to the field of software engineering in several ways. Usability has a long history within software engineering, human computer interaction, and design science, but the different discourses within the fields have meant that communication between the fields was problematic. The research in this thesis has moved between the different fields, contributing to bridging the gap between the areas. It gives an illustration of how usability work actually takes place in different types of companies, from a developer of operating systems for smartphones, to a global engineering company, which knows that it must find ways of working with, and measuring, usability and user experience. It gives concrete knowledge about the way in which companies can work with usability testing, and how they can provide information to satisfy the information needs of different stakeholders. It provides a discussion of the state of UX today, taking up the problems that stop industry making use of the definitions and theories of UX that exist. Thus, it gives an illustration of the different factors in product design, development and sales, from dealing with organizational factors to satisfying user needs, that all make usability work such a rocky road to navigate.

  • 294.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hinely, Mark
    UIQ Technology AB.
    Examining Correlations in Usability Data to Effectivize Usability Testing2011In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a case study performed in industry, this work deals with a statistical analysis of data collected during usability testing. The data is from tests performed by usability testers from two companies in two different countries. One problem in the industrial situation is the scarcity of testing resources, and a need to use these resources in the most efficient way. Therefore, the data from the testing is analysed to see whether it is possible to measure usability on the basis of one single metric, and whether it is possible to judge usability problems on the basis of the distribution of use case completion times. This would allow test leaders to concentrate on situations where there are obvious problems. We find that it is not possible to measure usability through the use of one metric, but that it may be possible to gain indications of usability problems on the basis of an analysis of time taken to perform use cases. This knowledge would allow the collection of usability data from distributed user groups, and a more efficient use of scarce testing resources.

  • 295.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    SPI success factors within product usability evaluation2010In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2059-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an experience report where we compare 8 years of experience of product related usability testing and evaluation with principles for software process improvement (SPI). In theory the product and the process views are often seen to be complementary, but studies of industry have demonstrated the opposite. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to understand and improve the present situation. We find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. It has been identified that successful SPI is dependent upon being successfully combined with a business orientation. Usability and business orientation also have strong connections although this has not been extensively addressed in SPI publications. Reasons for this could be that usability focuses on product metrics whilst today's SPI mainly focuses on process metrics. Also because today's SPI is dominated by striving towards a standardized, controllable, and predictable software engineering process; whilst successful usability efforts in organisations are more about creating a creative organisational culture advocating a useful product throughout the development and product life cycle. We provide a study and discussion that supports future development when combining usability and product focus with SPI, in particular if these efforts are related to usability process improvement efforts.

  • 296.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Identifying organizational barriers: A case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 88, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a “wicked problem” that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes.

  • 297.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Aybuke, Aurum
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Lefteris, Angelis
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Phillips, Laura
    Macquarie Group, Australia.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gorscheck, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Henningson, Kennet
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Kågström, Simon
    Net Insight AB.
    Low, Graham
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Rovegård, Per
    Factor10.
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    ST-Ericsson.
    van Toorn, Christine
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    The success factors powering industry-academia collaboration2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between industry and academia supports improvement and innovation in industry and helps to ensure industrial relevance in academic research. This article presents an exploratory study of the factors for successful collaboration between industry and academia in software research.

  • 298.
    Yaghmaei, Ayoub
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linne.
    Documents Usability Estimation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The improvements of technical documents quality influence the popularity of its relevant product; as the customers do not like to waste their time in the help desk’s queue, they will be more satisfied if they can independently solve their problems through the technical manuals in an acceptable time. Moreover, the cost of support issues will decrease for the product providers. In addition, the help desk team members could have more time to support the rest of unresolved issues in a better-qualified way. To afford the mentioned benefits, we have done the current thesis to estimate the usability of the documents before publishing them. As the result of such prediction, the technical documentation writers could have a goal-driven approach to improve the quality of their products or services’ manuals. Furthermore, as different structural metrics have been observed in this research, the result of the thesis could create an opportunity to have multi-discipline improvement in Information Quality (IQ) process management.

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  • 299.
    Zaremba, Anja
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Petersson, Jem
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Alarm på bryggan: trygghet och irritation2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work on a navigational bridge consists to a great extent of control tasks. Control and alarm systems are available to facilitate this work. The interaction between humans and systems depends partly on the  user's knowledge and experience and partly on bridge design and technologies’ usability. The topic of this thesis is the handling of alarms and alarm systems on  navigational  bridges.  The aim was to  study  whether there are strategies for this and if so, to illustrate how these strategies work. For this reason seven officers’  experiences were examined with  qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews and content analysis.

    The investigation led among other things to the following conclusions:  

    Alarm handling is often done according to unwritten rules and agreements. It is seen as part of the profession and is done on the side.

    Officers follow a scheme when an alarm calls for their attention.

    Officers construct their own tools and methods to deal with ergonomic problems and malfunctions.

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    Alarm på bryggan: trygghet och irritation
  • 300.
    Zbick, Janosch
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Nake, Isabella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Jansen, Marc
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    A web-based framework to design and deploy mobile learning activities: Evaluating its usability, learnability and acceptance2015In: 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), IEEE Press, 2015, p. 88-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the efforts carried out related to the design and development of a web-based framework that allows designing, deploying and executing mobile data collecting applications. Furthermore, it also allows analyzing and presenting the data that is generated during the mentioned process. The fact that the framework is completely web-based provides a platform independent execution of the mobile application on any mobile device with a web-browser. As a result that the whole life-cycle of creating, executing and discussing a mobile learning activity is implemented in pure web-based manner separates this work from similar efforts. In the course of this work, the current state of development of two of the components, the authoring tool and the mobile application is presented. This framework was introduced to teachers in an activity to follow up an initial study. On the basis of a workshop with teachers, we performed an explorative study regarding the technology acceptance and usability of two components of the proposed framework. The results are discussed and analyzed in this paper.

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    icalt2015_zbick
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