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  • 251.
    Hansson, Dag
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Utveckla enhetlig miljömålsuppföljning: En fallstudie av kommunerna i Kalmar län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environment is something that affects everyones everyday lives and it is therefore important that municipalities, county administrative boards and central authorities in Sweden work together to succeed in achieving the environmental goals set. In order to develop the environmental work that is taking place, it is important to continuously work on monitoring the environmental goals. The study was conducted through cooperation with the County Administrative Board of Kalmar County and the purpose was to find out how the municipalities in Kalmar County can work more coherently with environmental monitoring. In order to answer the study's questions, the current situation in the municipalities and the visions that existed for the future were investigated. In the study, a series of interviews took place in which selected politicians and service personnel in key roles from all of Kalmar County's municipalities participated. The study shows that there are several similarities between how the municipalities work today and how they want to prioritize environmental work in the future and these are similarities that should be used as the common ground for the development of the environmental objectives. The study demonstrates the need for additional resources to be invested in the field and that this is a must in order for us to succeed better in achieving the goals of Agenda 2030, compared to how we until now achieved the national environmental objectives. How the municipality's own organization is structured and the importance of collaborating over the municipal boundaries are some factors that seem to play adecisive role in how well one can achieve environmental goals. The hope is that if the outcome of the study is successful, it can help to strengthen Sweden's work on short term national environmental goals and, in the longer term work towards achieving the goals of Agenda 2030 and a sustainable future.

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  • 252.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Reduction of Pollutants in Stormwaterand Processwater from the WoodIndustry by Electrocoagulation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although wood floor production does not use water in the production process, water consumptionis related to cleaning and washing of floor and machineries in different steps of the process line,which generate a number of small flows that are highly polluted.Besides this, the industry has a need to store large amounts of wood outside to be able to havecontinuity in the production. This takes up a lot of space outdoors and once it rains the water thathas been in contact with wood, oil and metals forms stormwater, which transports pollutants.Stormwater has for a long time not been seen as a problem and has often been discharged intorecipient water bodies without any treatment. During cold seasons, this also involves snowmelt thatcan transport high concentrations of different pollutants.This report describes the composition of process- and stormwater from a wood floor industry inNybro, Sweden regarding parameters such as COD, phenol, tannin and lignin. The concentrationsof phenols in the stormwater were found in a range considered toxic to marine life.Regarding the process water, high values was found for COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and forother substances and elements potentially toxic (e.g. formaldehyde, wood resins, detergents andmetals). If these waters are directly released to a sewage treatment plant without any pre-treatmentprocess it can disturb the plant treatment efficiency; if released to a recipient water body, it cancause oxygen deficiency and consequently, death to marine life.The possibility of reducing the levels of pollutants through the use of electrocoagulation has beenexamined in this study. This has been done both for process water and stormwater from the woodfloor industry. A 250 ml batch unit for electrocoagulation EC was setup with iron (Fe) andaluminium (Al) electrodes for treating process water and stormwater. The results show that the ECprocess can reduce COD concentration from stormwater at least 70%. On the other hand, lessefficiency of EC for treating process water was observed.A method for simulating a snowmelt period in lab scale was also developed. Snow collected from awood floor industry was melted according to real temperature and the quality of these samples hasthen been compared to on-site samples of stormwater

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  • 253.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER GENERATED BY WOOD-BASED DRY INDUSTRIES: ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES & ELECTROCOAGULATION2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a material with an enormous number of applications. For decades, the development of wastewater treatment technologies tailored for the wood sector has focused on those industries that have water as an integral part of the industrial production, such as paper and pulp. However, there is a large and potentially growing sector that has been neglected, which is formed by industries in which water is not part of their production line, as for example, the wood floor and furniture industries (named wood-based dry industries). These industries still produces relatively low volumes of highly polluted wastewaters, with COD up to 30,000 mg/L, due to cleaning/washing procedure (named cleaning wastewaters). These cleaning wastewaters are often sent to the municipal wastewater treatment plant after dilution with potable water. Once there, recalcitrant pollutants are diluted and discharged into recipient water bodies or trapped in the municipal wastewater sludge. Another type of contaminated water these “dry industries” often generate in high volumes, and which is usually discharged with no previous treatment, is storm-water containing contaminants that have leached from large wood storage areas. The overall aim of this thesis was to increase the level of knowledge and competence and to present on-site wastewater treatment options for wood-based dry industries using the wood floor industry as a case-study, with a focus on combined treatment methods and solutions applicable to both the cleaning wastewater and storm-water. Among the treatment technologies investigated, electrocoagulation was studied both as a standalone treatment and combined with sorption using activated carbon. The combined treatment achieved a COD reduction of approximately 70%. Some advanced oxidation processes (AOP) were also studied: a COD reduction of approximately 70% was achieved by photo-Fenton, but the most successful AOP was ozone combined with UV light, were a COD reduction around 90% was achieved, with additional improvement in the biodegradability of the treated effluent. Ozone also proved to be effective in degrading organic compounds (approximately 70% COD reduction) and enhanced the biodegradability of the storm-water runoff from wood storage areas. The results have shown that the application of ozone can be considered an option for treatment of cleaning wastewaters and possibly for storm-water biodegradation enhancement.

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    TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER GENERATED BY WOOD-BASED DRY INDUSTRIES: ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES & ELECTROCOAGULATION
  • 254.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Amaro, Alexandre
    Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Recalcitrant Wastewater from a Wood-Based Industry: a Comparative Study of O3 and O3/UV2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 7, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes were applied for the treatment of a recalcitrant wastewater generated by wood-based industries that contains different inorganic and organic constituents and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying between 3,400 and 4,000 mg/L. The investigation used a tubular ozone reactor combined with an UV reactor designed for different hydraulic retention times. The dependent variables addressed to evaluate the treatment efficiency were the reduction of COD and total organic carbon (TOC) and the biodegradability of the treated effluent based on respirometric studies using activated sludge from a wastewater treatment. The results showed that even though ozonation alone at acid pH promoted COD and TOC reductions of 65 and 31 % respectively, a decrease in the biodegradability was observed. The most effective treatment (COD and TOC reductions of 93 and 43 %, respectively) was obtained when applying ozone combined with UV light at basic pH. The ozone-UV combination was capable of increasing the amount of readily available COD by 75 % with an additional reduction of TOC by 60 %. In conclusion, ozonation at low pH effectively reduces the COD content in wastewater generated by the wood-based industry; however, in order to combine advanced oxidation with biological process, ozone combined with UV is recommended.

  • 255.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Rio de Janeiro State University-UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Photo-fenton and fenton oxidation of recalcitrant industrial wastewater2012In: Proceedings / Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2012, international conference on natural sciences and environmental technologies for waste and wastewater treatment, remediation, emissions related to climate, environmental and economic effects ; the eighth International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region, and the World, November 26-28, 2012, Kalmar, Sweden / [ed] Eva Kumar, Joacim Rosenlund, Fabio Kaczala, William Hogland, Linnaeus University , 2012, p. 187-Conference paper (Other academic)
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    PHOTO-FENTON AND FENTON OXIDATION OF RECALCITRANT INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
  • 256.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Photo-Fenton and Fenton Oxidation of Recalcitrant Industrial Wastewater Using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron2012In: International Journal of Photoenergy (Online), ISSN 1110-662X, E-ISSN 1687-529X, Vol. 2012, article id 531076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for the development of on-site wastewater treatment technologies suitable for "dry-process industries," such as the wood-floor sector. Due to the nature of their activities, these industries generate lower volumes of highly polluted wastewaters after cleaning activities. Advanced oxidation processes such as Fenton and photo-Fenton, are potentially feasible options for treatment of these wastewaters. One of the disadvantages of the Fenton process is the formation of large amounts of ferrous iron sludge, a constraint that might be overcome with the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) powder. Wastewater from a wood-floor industry with initial COD of 4956 mg/L and TOC of 2730 mg/L was treated with dark-Fenton (nZVI/H2O2) and photo-Fenton (nZVI/H2O2/UV) applying a 2-level full-factorial experimental design. The highest removal of COD and TOC (80% and 60%, resp.) was achieved using photo-Fenton. The supply of the reactants in more than one dose during the reaction time had significant and positive effects on the treatment efficiency. According to the results, Fenton and mostly photo-Fenton are promising treatment options for these highly recalcitrant wastewaters. Future investigations should focus on optimizing treatment processes and assessing toxic effects that residual pollutants and the nZVI might have. The feasibility of combining advanced oxidation processes with biological treatment is also recommended.

  • 257.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Photo-Fenton and Fenton Oxidation of Recalcitrant Wastewater from the Wooden Floor Industry2015In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 491-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for development of on-site wastewater treatment technologies suitable to "dry-process'' industries, such as the wooden floor sector. Due to the nature of their activities, these industries generate low volumes of highly polluted and recalcitrant wastewaters due to washing and cleaning surfaces and machinery. Advanced oxidation processes such as Fenton and photo-Fenton are potentially feasible options for the treatment of wastewaters with not easily biodegradable pollutants. The wastewater from a wooden floor industry with initial COD value of 4956 mg/L and TOC value of 2730 mg/L was treated with Fenton (Fe/H2O2) and photo-Fenton (Fe/H2O2/UV) applying a 2-level full-factorial experimental design. The highest removals of COD and TOC (79% and 62% respectively) were achieved when photo-Fenton was applied. In conclusion, Fenton and photo-Fenton are promising treatment options for these highly recalcitrant wastewaters, photo-Fenton being a more promising option according to the results.

  • 258.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ, Brazil.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Electrocoagulation coupled to activated carbon sorption/filtration for treatment of cleaning wastewaters from wood-based industry2014In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 52, no 28-30, p. 5243-5251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to study the use of a coupled treatment (electrocoagulation(EC) and sorption/filtration treatment) with different sequencing to reduce the organic pollutantsmeasured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) of five highly polluted wastewater streamsgenerated after washing surfaces and machinery in the wooden floor industry and to evaluate,how different sequencing of these treatment units affects the overall system efficiency. On thebasis of preliminary studies, an EC reactor (1.0 L) was constructed with monopolar electrodes inparallel connection in an array of four Al electrodes with surface area of 93.2 cm2and an appliedcurrent density of 161 A m–2. This reactor was coupled to a sorption/filtration unit with coalactivated carbon. The EC reactor was tested in two different sequences (before and after the sorption/filtration unit). The overall COD reduction varied from 2% ± 0.5% to 77% ± 2.9%, dependingon the sequence and the treated wastewater stream. The best result from efficiency andoperational viewpoints was obtained with the EC reactor placed after the sorption/filtrationcolumn. The increase in efficiency is likely to be due to the removal by sorption in the activatedcarbon of compounds that interfere with EC. Additionally, as desired, the use of EC before thesorption unit extended the activated carbon lifetime.

  • 259.
    Hansson Rosta, Karolina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Turistnäringens anpassning till vattenbristen på Öland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a limited resource and the access is affected by impacts of climate change and as water use is increasing. Water shortages sometimes occur in Sweden and during recent years the situation has been strained in parts of the country. The tourist industry is dependent on water and also has an impact on accessibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the tourist industry have adapted to the water situation. A survey and four interviews were used to collect data through accommodation oriented enterprises on Öland, south east Sweden. It was found that there was a general awareness of the situation. Information were given to the guests to a great extent and 96 % were actively informing guests about the situation. Technical solutions to varying degrees has been implemented in order to adapt to water shortages. Common solutions were low-flow taps and shower heads, water saving and low-flush toilets. The hope with this paper is to inspire changes in water management and that enterprises continue to reduce water use to participate in securing the water supply. 

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  • 260.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    et al.
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sundblad, Eva-Lotta
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Effekter på havsmiljön av att flytta över transporter från vägtrafik till sjöfart2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antagandet av en nationell godstransportstrategi 2018 innebär att Sverige strävar efter att ”främja en överflyttning av godstransporter från väg till järnväg och sjöfart”. Ett delmål är att minska negativ miljöpåverkan från godstransporter. Men, om en överflyttning av gods från väg till sjöfart innebär ökat antal fartyg, eller ökad tillryggalagd distans med fartyg, innebär överflyttningen en ökad belastning på havsmiljön. Här föreligger därför en målkonflikt mellan transportpolitiska mål och flera miljömål. Tillståndet i havsmiljön runt Sveriges kuster uppnår idag inte god miljöstatus med avseende på exempelvis näringsämnen, miljögifter och främmande arter; för samtliga dessa belastningar bidrar sjöfarten till den negativa situationen. För att nå god miljöstatus behöver istället den totala belastningen på den marina miljön minska. Vid en eventuell överflyttning av godstransport från väg till sjöfart, är det därför angeläget att säkerställa att den ökade belastningen på den marina miljön minimeras. Ett sätt är att visa geografisk hänsyn genom att undvika sjöfart inom miljömässigt känsliga havsområden. Ett annat sätt är att ställa hårdare krav på fartygens prestanda. Miljöpåverkan från fartyg varierar framför allt mellan, men också inom, olika fartygstyper. Men att skapa nya regelverk med syfte att förbättra fartygens prestanda är en långsam process eftersom sjöfarten primärt regleras genom internationella konventioner där tillämpning av regionala eller nationella särregler undviks. Några förslag till åtgärder för att säkerställa att havsmiljön kring Sverige inte försämras till följd av överflyttning av godstransporter från väg till sjöfart är:

     

    • Tillse att det skapas högkvalitativt och jämförbart underlag för sjö- och landtransporters påverkan på havsmiljön.

     

    • Analysera och kommunicera samtliga typer av utsläpp, inte bara utsläpp av koldioxid. Utsläppsmängder och påverkan bör anges och jämföras i absoluta tal och relevanta enheter.

     

    • Minimera antalet transporter genom att öka fyllnadsgraden.

     

    • Optimera fartygens hastighet för att minimera drivmedelsförbrukningen och emissioner.

     

    • Dagens fartygstrafik i Sveriges mest känsliga och skyddade havsområden måste minska. När- och kustsjöfart bör kanaliseras bort från havs- och kustområden med höga naturvärden.

     

    • Skapa tydliga incitament så att fraktköpare enbart anlitar fartyg som har högsta miljöprestanda avseende såväl utsläpp av växthusgaser som av andra förorenande eller övergödande ämnen till luft och vatten.

     

    • Säkerställ att införandet av ett NECA (kvävekontrollområde) i Östersjön och Nordsjön innebär att fler fartyg installerar kväverening och att införandet inte leder till att fler äldre fartyg utan regelstadgad effektiv kväverening trafikerar området. • Stärk samordningen mellan myndigheter så att framtidsfrågor som rör sjöfart och dess miljöpåverkan behandlas och åtgärdas i linje med ekosystembaserad förvaltning.

     

    Relaterat till sjöfartens striktare svavelregler som träder i kraft 2020-01-01:

     

    • Förbjud utsläpp av skrubbervatten till havet då utsläppen innebär en stor risk för försämrad miljöstatus och överskridna miljökvalitetsnormer enligt vattendirektivet, med avseende på exempelvis koppar och zink.

     

    • Utred konsekvenserna av den förväntade ökade användningen av lågsvavliga hybridoljor som fartygsbränsle. Då befintlig saneringsutrustning är mindre effektiv för hybridoljor innebär detta en ökad risk vid kommande olyckor och oljeutsläpp.
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  • 261.
    Hedstigen Sundblad, Saga
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Miljöpåverkan från svensk nötköttsproduktion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deforestation and massive methane gas pollution is the way many people think of beef production today. Together with connections to health issues such as cancer and heart disease and animal rights, beef has become a controversial subject in media over the last years. The demand for beef is growing together with the growing middleclass and today the beef industry globally releases 16% more greenhouse gas compared in 1977. In Sweden, beef production stands for 3% of the country’s total greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental awareness and the interest for environmental questions are relatively high in Sweden. A positive attitude of lowering beef consumption is seen in Sweden, which is a step we need to take to lower the environmental impact from. There are also other important factors to lower the environmental impact from beef produced in Sweden.  Beef production mainly based on grazing on natural pastures lowers the need of concentrated feed and contributes at the same time of the maintenance of the open landscape, with their specific ecosystems and recreational zones. To include trees in pastures can lower the greenhouse gas emission, measured as carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq), with 20 kg per kg beef. To be self-sufficient we would need to lower our beef consumption to 300 grams per person and week and thereby not only control greenhouse gas emissions but also animal husbandry and use of chemicals within the industry.

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  • 262.
    Helge Persson, Adam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Water characterization at different process lines at AB Gustaf Kähr and quality requirements for wastewater2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to assist AB Gustaf Kähr with their treatment of process water. A screening test was carried out in February 2016 order to identify the most hazardous substances and two interviews are made in order to get different perspectives on the issue of companies discharging wastewater into a recipient.

    The report includes a description of the company AB Gustaf Kähr and as well as their permit demands. Furthermore, there is a description of the different process lines, what kind of process wastewater the industry produces as well as the most significant pollutants found in a study in 2006. Then the results from all the parameters as well as the sources found in 2006 are presented in detail as well as, the results from several previous PhD theses. The Swedish and European legislation are also studied in order to gain an understanding on what the legislation says about releasing process waste water into the recipient after it has undergone a treatment process.

    The methodology is explained followed by the presentation of the screening test results, results from the written and oral interviews and the shortcomings of the methodology are discussed.

    In the results the screening test results are interpreted. The most hazardous substances are then identified by mostly on relying on the European environmental quality norms. The mentioned results are compared to those from 2006 and the reasons behind the differences are explained. Recommendations on methods to decrease the amount of pollutants are given, these methods are ozone treatment or filtration followed by reverse osmosis. The conclusions are drawn that it is seen as viable by several people for industries too clean their own wastewater and that the environmental limit values should be used when determining if an effluent is clean enough too release. 

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  • 263.
    Hellqvist, Daniel
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Riskbedömning vid Saltvikens kopparverk2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    At Saltvikens copperindustry, which is located in the municipality of Oskarshamn, copper was refined from sulphiteore some hundred years ago. The ore underwent several steps in the process before the final product was received. These steps all had an influence on the environment through discharge of heavy metals. The area where the copper industry was located is today considered to be of specific national interest due to its valuable nature and cultural values, as well as its value for recreational outdoor activities. Therefore, it is important to determine the present level of contamination and if any transport of contaminants have occurred, and to identify the risks that are associated with the site both at present and in a longer time perspective.

    Thirtynine soil samples and 16 sediment samples have been analyzed. All samples have undergone two different leaching procedures before the analyis; one with nitric acid for determination of total concentration and one with acidic acid to analyze the plant available part. The analysis was perfomed through Atomicabsorptionsspectrofotometry. In addition, pH and loss on ignition have been measured on all samples. The chemical values were then compared to reference values in order to establish the level of contamination. Within the risk assessment framework where then also a exposure modelling conducted. This was made both for an average exposure situation, and for a reasonable maximum exposure. For both these scenarios, one calculation was made based on the soil use of today and one was made based on an assumed future usage of the area for establishment of residential buildings.

    The results show that both the land area and sediment have been affected by the copper industry. From 48 sediment samples, 46 generated concentrations above the assumed effect level levels given by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The results also indicated that a significant contaminant transport has occurred, and is still occurring. This is supported by high metal concentrations in deep soil layers and by high concentrations in the sediment. The condition is considered to be very much serious in the case of copper and zinc and serious to less serious for lead, depending on the ground use. Some of the metals are very easy to leach and can thus contaminate adjacent areas for a long time.

    Already at the present ground use, there is a risk for children to become exposed to  zinc and lead in doses that can generate negative health effects. At the potential future ground use the TDI for both copper, zinc and lead will be exceeded if a child is exposed. For adults, however, the TDI value for zinc and lead is exceeded only in the scenario with the potential future ground use.

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  • 264.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nosratabadi, Reza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Exposure of metals and PAH through local foods and risk of cancer in a historically contaminated glassworks area2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, p. 1-10, article id 104985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Production of crystal glass and colored art glassware have been going on in the south-eastern part of Sweden since the 1700s, at over 100 glassworks and smaller glass blowing facilities, resulting in environmental contamination with mainly arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH). High levels of metals have been found in soil, and moderately elevated levels in vegetables, mushrooms and berries collected around the glassworks sites compared with reference areas. Food in general, is the major exposure source to metals, such as Cd and Pb, and PAHs. Exposure to these toxic metals and PAH has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects in humans including cancer.

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of cancer in a cohort from the contaminated glasswork area in relation to long-term dietary intake of locally produced foods, while taking into account residential, occupational and life styles factors.

    Methods

    The study population was extracted from a population cohort of 34,266 individuals who, at some time between the years 1979–2004, lived within a 2 km radius of a glassworks or glass landfill. Register information on cancer incidence and questionnaire information on consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), life-time residence in the area, life style factors and occupational exposure was collected. Furthermore, blood (n = 660) and urine (n = 400) samples were collected in a subsample of the population to explore associations between local food consumption frequencies, biomarker concentrations in blood (Cd, Pb, As) and urine (PAH metabolite 1-OHPy) as well as environmental and lifestyle factors. The concurrent exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from food was also considered. A case-control study was performed for evaluation of associations between intakes of local food and risk of cancer.

    Results

    Despite high environmental levels of Cd, Pb and As at glasswork sites and landfills, current metal exposure in the population living in the surrounding areas was similar or only moderately higher in our study population compared to the general population. Reported high consumption of certain local foods was associated with higher Cd and Pb, but not As, concentrations in blood, and 1-OHPy in urine. An increased risk of cancer was associated with smoking, family history of cancer, obesity, and residence in glasswork area before age 5 years. Also, a long-term high consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), i.e. fish and meat (game, chicken, lamb), was associated with increased risk of various cancer forms.

    Conclusions

    The associations between consumption of local food and different types of cancer may reflect a higher contaminant exposure in the past, and thus, if consumption of local food contributes to the risk of acquiring cancer, that contribution is probably lower today than before. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that other contaminants in the food contribute to the increased cancer risks observed.

  • 265.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Jönsson-Ekström, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Bengtsson Ryberg, Johanna
    Naturvårdsverket.
    Bluhm, Gösta
    Karolinska Institutet Stockholm.
    Bolin, Karl
    KTH Stockholm.
    Bodén, Bosse
    Mittuniversitetet Östersund.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Hammarlund, Karin
    SLU Alnarp.
    Hannukka, Inga-Lena
    Vattenfall.
    Johansson, Carina
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala universitet.
    Mels, Sanna
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala universitet.
    Mels, Tom
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet.
    Skärbäck, Erik
    SLU Alnarp.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Region Skåne.
    Widerström, Ingegärd
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Vindkraftens påverkan på människors intressen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Küller, Rikard
    Sustainable Development in Four Swedish Communities priorities, responsibility, empowerment2008In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 311-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to identify sustainable development priorities and perceived responsibility of sustainable development issues. Differences in opinions between politicians, officials, environmental representatives and the public in four Swedish municipalities were analysed. Sustainable development issues were perceived as more important on the global level than on the municipal and family levels. Among the most important issues on both the global and family levels were clean air, fresh water, and health, whereas decision-making, co-operation, and participation were considered most important on the municipal level. The highest responsibility for sustainable development issues was placed on governments and global organizations and the lowest on the individual. The public felt less individual responsibility and less possibility to influence than did the other groups. The correlation between importance and responsible on municipal and world levels was high but low on the individual level. The responsibility for the most important issue on the family level (clean air) was placed on governments and global organizations. An attitude change is needed to increase responsibility for issues ranked low on individual responsibility. To further raise the awareness of global sustainable development issues, an increased concentration on locally based international co-operation projects is suggested.

  • 267.
    Hermansson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uppföljning av utökade skötselåtgärder i kraftledningsgator: Med fokus på kraftledningsgatorna i området kring Fågelfors2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har mängden betesmark och slåtterängar minskat drastiskt om man ser tillbaka historiskt. Detta har lett till att den biologiska mångfalden har minskat, vilket gör att nya tidigare förbisedda marker blir intressanta i bevarandet av den biologiska mångfalden. Ett exempel på detta är kraftledningsgator som har visat sig ha en hög artrikedom när det gäller bl.a. fjärilar. I det här arbetet har områden från två olika kraftledningsgator i Fågelfors i Kalmar län undersökts. De har båda två höga naturvärden och särskilda skötselplaner men den ena sköts av EON och den andra av Svenska kraftnät. Kraftledningsgatorna går igenom det gamla odlingslandskapet och innehåller ett flertal olika rödlistade arter som trivs bäst i betesmark eller slåtterängar. Arbetet syftar till att ta reda på hur den utökade skötseln har gått och om det finns någonting att förbättra i den. Skötselplanerna har för EON gjorts av Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län, personal från Länsstyrelsen har sedan varit till hjälp under hela arbetet. För Svenska kraftnät har Sweco genomfört skötselplanerna. Detta ihop med att skötseln från början skiljer sig åt gör att skötselarbetet varierar mellan kraftbolagen. Generellt går det att säga att planerna för områdena har följts av bolagen. Undersökningarna i områdena gjordes så pass snart efter röjningsåtgärderna att det inte går att dra några konkreta slutsatser av hur arbetet fallit ut. Däremot går det att konstatera att åtgärderna inte helt stämmer överens med vad hävdgynnade arter behöver då landskapet trots åtgärderna blir fragmenterat, igenväxt och gödslat.

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  • 268.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Road traffic metals: sources and emissions2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the environmental regulations and technical progress have forced the factories’ old “end of pipe” solutions to improve, the metal emissions from point sources have decreased. Instead, the diffuse consumption emissions from goods in use now are in focus. The increased awareness of traffic as a major diffuse metal emission source emphasizes the need for more detailed information on the various traffic related sources. The main scope of this thesis is to study specific parts of metal emissions from some road traffic related sub sources such as brake lining and tyres. The metals in focus are antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), nickel(Ni) and zinc (Zn), and the research quantifies emissions from the different sub sources, trace changes over time as well as dispersal patterns and metal mobility in the roadside environment.

    The results show that even if the road traffic associated metal stocks are small compared to total in use stocks, their emissions are of major importance. The updated figures show that despite material developments during the last 10 years, tyres still are one of the main sources of Zn and Cd, while it can be excluded as a source of concern for the other metals studied. Brake linings are shown to be an especially pronounced source for Cu and Sb. The Pb and Cd emissions from brake linings and tyres have decreased as a result of decreasing material concentrations in these sources, most likely a result of EU regulations. Further the results reveals galvanized goods to be a major road traffic related source for Zn. The results show that the total metal concentrations in roadside soils have increased 3-16 times compared to regional background during the last decades. Each metal has a limited dispersal distance from the roads as well as down in the soil profile. Most metals are found within 10 m from the road in the uppermost 10 cm of the topsoil. However, the sequential extractions show that a large part of the metals found in the soil are rather easily mobilized and can be redistributed if the roadside soils become disturbed. Metals emitted due to decelerating activities are not correlated to elevated concentrations near road junctions. Instead the metals appear to be more evenly spread along the whole driven distance.

    The study points out Sb as an element that might be problematic to analyse. For Sb, which is sparsely studied as a roadside contaminant, there is a need of more general knowledge as it has a high accumulation rate in roadside soils.

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  • 269.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häggerud, Agneta
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 20052007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 15, p. 5224-5230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häggerud, Agneta
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    New metal emission pattens in road traffic environment2006In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, no 117, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häggerud, Agneta
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Response to comment on " Metal Emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005"2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 2710-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häggerud, Agneta
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Transversal immission patterns and leachability of heavy metals in road side soils2008In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 739-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is consensus concerning the road traffic's role as a metal source. However, there are so far only a few studies which focus on the road side immission patterns regarding distance from roads, and especially in combination with the leachability of heavy metals down the soil profile. In this study, the aim was to analyse concentrations of traffic related metals in road side soils, at different depths and distances from roads, both to analyse the immission patterns as well as to explain the importance of the road construction design of the road side terrain. The BCR sequential extraction procedure was performed to be able to address the environmental risk in terms of metal mobility. Approximately 80 soil samples were analysed for seven metals; antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The results showed that, depending on metal, the total metal concentrations in road side soils have increased 3–16 times compared to regional background during the last decades. Each metal had a limited dispersal distance from the roads as well as down in the soil profile and the road construction significantly affected the metal immission distance. Elevated metal concentrations were mostly found for top soils and down to 10 cm in the soil profiles. The labile fractions counted for more than 40% of the total concentrations for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, indicating a potential mobilization of the metals if the road side soils become disturbed. The present soil metal concentration levels are not alarming, but metals with a high accumulation rate might gradually be an upcoming problem if nothing is done to their emission sources.

  • 273.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Månsson, Nina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häggerud, Agneta V.
    Problems with Sb analyses of environmentally relevant samples2009In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 153-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Månssson, Nina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häggerud, Agneta
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Analysis of volatile elements in environmental relevant samples: wet-digestion-derived problems with specific to antimonyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Hjortmo, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ökad källsortering: En studie av hur man genom styrmedel och information kan öka privatpersoners källsortering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordens resurser är ändliga, om konsumtionsmönstret följer dagens utveckling kommer flera ta slut inom en överskådlig framtid. En åtgärd är att källsortera så att våra naturresurser kommer in i ett kretslopp där de återvinns eller återanvänds. Det här arbetet inriktar sig på hur man med god kommunikation kan åstadkomma en beteendeförändring som leder till ökad källsortering. Arbetet utgörs av en litteraturstudie för att finna goda exempel från EU och en enkätundersökning med frågor relaterade till källsortering/informationskanaler.

    Förordningen om deponering har bidraget till att en större andel avfall källsorteras men utvecklingen har stagnerat och i dag återvinns bara 2/3 av alla förpackningar från hushåll.

    Påverkan för en beteendeförändring kan ske genom regelstyrning, målstyrning och visionsstyrning. Enligt enkätundersökningen har visionsstyrningen störst inverkan för en ökad källsortering.

    För att få människor att ändra sitt beteende måste man veta vad som styr beteendet i dag särskilt om det är ett beteende som inte är gynnsamt för individen såsom rökning eller en hållbar utveckling såsom att vi tär på jordens ändliga resurser. Här kan man använda sig av en beteendeanalys. För att lyckas med beteendeförändringar genom information gäller att väcka ett intresse för frågan, det kan uppnås genom en noggrann målgruppsanalys och val av rätt budskapsstrategier.

    Enligt enkätundersökningen har tidningar följt av undervisning och TV-program haft störst positiv påverkan för en ökad källsortering. Bloggar följt av onlinespel och mobilappar har haft minst positiv påverkan för en ökad källsortering, de har även lägst utvecklingspotential. Pappersutskick var den informationskälla som ansågs ha högst utvecklingspotential.

    Vid litteraturstudien framkom att det finns flera goda exempel på vad som görs i andra europeiska länder för att öka källsorteringen. Många exempel bygger på undervisning i grundskolan där Österrike är en förebild, de har tagit fram ett rikstäckande material där man behandlar ämnet i de flesta årskurser. Andra exempel är "sop-coacher" ute i samhället, tävlingsmoment baserade på källsortering personliga initiativ som att starta en blogg som jobbar för "inget avfall".

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  • 276.
    Hogland, Marika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arina, Dace
    Inst Phys Energet, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas Technol Univ, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden2018In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1355-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In common sense, a landfill is a place where the life cycle of products ends. Landfill mining (LFM) mostly deals with former dumpsites and derived material may have a significant importance for the circular economy. Deliverables of recently applied LFM projects in Sweden and Estonia have revealed the potential and problems for material recovery. There are 75-100 thousand old landfills and dumps in the Baltic Sea Region, and they pose environmental risks to soil, water and air by pollution released from leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. Excavation of landfills is potential solution for solving these problems, and at the same time, there are perspectives to recover valuable lands and materials, save expenses for final coverage of the landfills and aftercare control. The research project "Closing the Life Cycle of Landfills-Landfill Mining in the Baltic Sea Region for Future" included investigation at four case studies in Estonia and Sweden: Kudjape, Torma, Hogbytorp and Vika landfills. Added value of this research project is characterization of waste fine fraction material, determination of concentration for most critical and rare earth elements. The main results showed that both, coarse and fine, fractions of waste might have certain opportunities of recovery.

  • 277.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Landfill Mining and Remediation old Landfill Sites in Perspective of EU Landfill Directive2002Other (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Landfill mining in the global scale from an environmental and economic perspective2009In: Proceedings of Polish Scientific Conference v.56, Gdansk, Polen, 2009, p. 147-153Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Grinfelde, Inga
    Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies, Latvia.
    Pilecka, Jovita
    Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies, Latvia.
    Rage, A.
    The role of triple helix in soil remediation projects2018In: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM , 2018, no 5.4, p. 305-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of natural resources such as soil, water, and biodiversity are of greatest challenges in European Union Bioeconomy Strategy. According to the European Commission there are more than 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites and more than 0.3 million contaminated sites in Europe. Soil remediation is important and gentle technologies such as phytoremediation are more and more appropriate regarding new environmentally friendly actions paradigms. The aim of this research is to show successful Triple helix approach in soil remediation context. Interaction and cooperation among Triple helix actors in remediation projects in Southern Sweden has become a success story. Remedial actions in Triple helix approach are linked to aerial planning, environmental interests of society, economic growth and give bonus track – educational and environmental awareness value. According to the Triple helix concept the result can be achieved only in intersection area of actors: university-industry-government. This research was carried out within support of Swedish Institute projects PHYTECO and PECEC, as well as financial support of Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Environment and Civil Engeneering. © 2018, International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference. All rights reserved.

  • 280.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sorting of wastewaters for urban and rural recycling and reuse2019In: XVI-th International youth Science and Environmental Baltic Region Countries Forum 7–9 October 2019, Gdansk, Poland, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 390, p. 1-5, article id 012001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water of good quality, in enough quantity at right time start to be very scarce in the world. At the same time perfect drinking water is used to flushing toilet, cleansing of sewage pipes, washing of industry floors, firefighting, washing of cars and trucks etc. Also agriculture is suffering of lack of water for irrigation during dry periods and it is necessary to use drinking water or river/lake water of high quality to get rich harvest of good quality. In the future drinking water must just be used as food stuff and not wasted in the society. People must, since they are children, be trained to respect the drinking water and not waste a single drop. Also, storm water can be considered as a source of fresh water if it collected and recycled properly. Recycling/reuse of treated/reclaimed wastewater will help to mitigate part of the increasing water demands in the society and secondary water can be used in non-potable end paths such as agriculture, industry or even recharging water aquifers.  Reclaimed/technical or recycled water for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets, irrigation and other uses will be very important in modern society in the future.

  • 281.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    From glass dump to phytoremediation park2019In: XVI-th International youth Science and Environmental Baltic Region Countries Forum 7–9 October 2019, Gdansk, Poland, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 390, p. 1-4, article id 012007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Landfill mining was introduced in research in Sweden for more than three and a half decades ago. During recent years, the focus has been on the glass dumps in the Kingdom of Crystal in southeastern Sweden. Mapping of the dumps, test pit excavations, sieving and sorting of the glass masses, characterization, laboratory extraction of the metals in the glass was performed as well as measurements of radioactivity done. The polluted soil underneath the removed glass masses was treated by remediation. At one of places at the Kingdom of Crystal a phytoremediation/tourist park was established in Orrefors including a summer glasswork for tourist activities.

  • 282.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, M
    Berg, B
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Planning of and economic constrains related to a landfill mining project in Norway2009In: Proceedings Sardinia 2009, S.Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 2009, p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, Marika
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Berg, Björn
    PLANNING AND ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS IN A LANDFILL MINING PROJECT IN NORWAY2009In: / [ed] Cossu et al., Sardinia, Italy, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jopseph, Kurlan
    Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University.
    Dumpsite rehabilitation studies in Asia2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlaviciené, Vilmanté
    Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Rudzeviciünté, Raminta
    Rimeika, Mindaugas
    Reinkyté, Monika
    Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    An Evaluation of the Urban Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Removal Effieciency with a Focus on the Retention Time2010In: Proceedings Linnaeus Eco-Tech' 10 : [book of abstracts] : international conference on natural sciences and technologies for waste and wastewater treatment remediation emissions related to climate environmental and economic effects : the seventh International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Kalmar, Sweden: Linnaeus University , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kriipsalu, M
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Nammari, D.R
    University of Kalmar.
    Hogland, Marques
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    An integrated monitoring system for optimization of biopile composting.2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Persson, H
    Storage of Organic Materials, solid waste and Biofuels: Risks for fires and fire fighting2009In: Proceedings Sardinian 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari,Italy, 2009, p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Manandhar, Dinesh Raj
    Kathmandu University.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svensson, Henric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Lund University.
    Environmental Observations of Solid Waste Management at High Altitude in Nepal: Case Study Along Trekking Route in Sagarmatha National Park2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marika, Hogland
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Enhanced Landfill Mining: Material recovery, energy utilization and economics in the EU (Directive) perspective.2010In: Enhanced Landfill Mining and the transition of Sustainable Materials Management.: Proceedings of the International Academic Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Houthalen-Helchteren, Belgium, 2010, p. 209-222Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marika, Hogland
    Department of Engineering, Physics & Mathematics, Mid Sweden University.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Financial aspects of landfill mining2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marika, Hogland
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Financial aspects on Landfill Mining seen as a part of the urban mining.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Strömblad, Anna
    Erlandsson, Åke
    Nilsson, Malena
    Peterson, Ana
    Wiberg, Camila
    Ingdahl, Helen
    Charlotta, Persson
    Planning and Communication for Development of an Integrated Approach for Industrial Wastewater Treatment System in the Wood-industry Sector-Process Water, Stormwater and Leachate.2009In: CISA, Cagliari, Italy, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Removal of Organic Pollutants from Industrial Cleaning Wastewaters Using a Combined Sedimentation and Packed-bed Column Treatment2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Hokkanen, Sanna
    et al.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Repo, Eveliina
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tang, Walter Zhonghong
    Florida Int Univ.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Adsorption of hydrogen sulphide from aqueous solutions using modified nano/micro fibrillated cellulose2014In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 35, no 18, p. 2334-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was modified by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), hydroxy-carbonated apatite (HAP), or epoxy in order to produce novel nanostructured adsorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from the aqueous solutions. Structural properties of the modified MFC materials were examined using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and acid/base titration. These methods were used to verify the presence of nanostructures on the adsorbents surfaces as well as functionalities suitable for H2S adsorption. Adsorption of H2S by prepared adsorbents was investigated in batch mode under different experimental conditions, i.e. varying pH and H2S concentrations. H2S uptake was found to be 103.95, 13.38 and 12.73mg/g by APS/MFC, HAP/MFC and epoxy/MFC, respectively from 80mg/L H2S solution. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm for HAP/MFC and APS/MFC and the Sips isotherm for epoxy/MFC.

  • 295.
    Holmqvist, Emmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bakgrundshalt av fosfor i sjön Skråmträsket: Analys av den naturliga fosforkoncentrationen genom kiselalgsrekonstruktion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skråmträsket acts as a pilot case in the Bothnian Bay water district for eutrophic lakes. Recently the symptoms caused by eutrophication has gone from occasionally occurring to annual heavy algal blooms. The overall objective of the study was to determine the natural TP content in the lake by studying the development of TP. This was supposed to serve as a basis for future measures to reduce the amount of phosphorus in the lake. Another objective was to evaluate the oxygen conditions in the bottom waters to assess whether the internal load is present or not. To determine the natural TP a sediment core was taken in the lake's deep burrow. A reconstruction of the TP was done on ten samples from the sediment core by studying diatoms. Oxygen levels in Skråmträskets bottom water was analyzed at 25 coordinate points. The result of the reconstructed background level of phosphorus showed that it varied between 18-20 µg TP/l. Oxygen measurement showed that oxygen deficiency occurs in the bottom water of the lake, which means that internal load can occur. However, further studies are needed for an accurate assessment regarding the natural background level of the TP.

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  • 296.
    Holmqvist, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Förbrukning av mineraler ur ett livscykelperspektiv vid produktion av vindkraft kopplat till Vattenfalls utbyggnad av förnybar energikapacitet: En studie gjord för och i samarbete med Vattenfall AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This survey has been designed to identify, asses and analyze critical resources for renewable energy production from a lifecycle perspective. In the years 2016 - 2020, Vattenfall is implementing a comprehensive expansion of renewable energy. The goal is to have a renewable energy capacity of at least 2300 MW by 2020. The majority of the new capacity will be wind power. This work provides a basis for further decision making on closer cooperation or dialogue with suppliers. This study was demarcated to wind power and its input minerals. Six minerals were selected for the survey, iron, copper, tin, aluminum, neodymium and lead. The selected minerals were examined for resource efficiency and environmental impact. The survey was then compiled in a table, using a weighted sum model to yield a quantitative result. The work also provides suggestions on how to achieve better resource efficiency for the planned expansion. The survey found that tin was a very critical resource, considering both resource efficiency and environmental impact. Aluminum and copper were the most critical for environmental reasons.

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  • 297.
    Holmén, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uppföljning av målet giftfri miljö på förskolor i Kalmar kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges regering har beslutat om 16 miljökvalitetsmål med ambitionen att nå upp till dessa år 2020. Ett av dem är "Giftfri miljö" som avser att minimera nivån av giftiga ämnen i miljön. Detta var anledningen till att Kalmar kommun inspekterade förskolorna i kommunen under 2014 och gav råd till förskolelärarna om hur gifterna kunde minimeras. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera om det har skett någon förbättring samt utvärdera skillnaden mellan de kommunala och de fristående förskolorna. Detta uppnåddes genom enkäter som skickades till alla förskolor i kommunen och fem av dem besöktes. De faktorer som behandlades var mjuk plast, leksaker som inte är gjorda för att vara leksaker, städning, gammalt byggmaterial som däck, byggpallar mm. Genom enkätstudien konstaterades att det var vanligt med rutiner för inköp av nya leksaker och mottagande av gåvor, liksom att alltid tvätta textilier. De viktigaste faktorerna när nya leksaker köptes in konstaterades vara dess pedagogiska egenskaper och att de inte ska innehöll farliga ämnen. Under besöken konstaterades att leksaker som kan innehålla farliga ämnen fortfarande användes. Några slutsatser som drogs var att ekonomi och bristande kunskap försvårade arbetet med giftfri miljö, förskolorna har följt Kalmar kommuns rekommendationer och det vanligaste var att 50-70 % av leksakerna köptes in innan 2011.

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    examensarbete Emma Holmén
  • 298.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology;Karolinska Institutet.
    Ndegwa, Nelson
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sebastian
    Stockholm University.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Huss, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kaller, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall AB.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Stationary and portable sequencing-based approaches for tracing wastewater contamination in urban stormwater systems2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sewer systems consist of wastewater and stormwater sewers, of which only wastewater is processed before being discharged. Occasionally, misconnections or damages in the network occur, resulting in untreated wastewater entering natural water bodies via the stormwater system. Cultivation of faecal indicator bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli; E. coli) is the current standard for tracing wastewater contamination. This method is cheap but has limited specificity and mobility. Here, we compared the E. coli culturing approach with two sequencing-based methodologies (Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and Oxford Nanopore MinION shotgun metagenomic sequencing), analysing 73 stormwater samples collected in Stockholm. High correlations were obtained between E. coli culturing counts and frequencies of human gut microbiome amplicon sequences, indicating E. coli is indeed a good indicator of faecal contamination. However, the amplicon data further holds information on contamination source or alternatively how much time has elapsed since the faecal matter has entered the system. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing on a subset of the samples using a portable real-time sequencer, MinION, correlated well with the amplicon sequencing data. This study demonstrates the use of DNA sequencing to detect human faecal contamination in stormwater systems and the potential of tracing faecal contamination directly in the field.

  • 299.
    Hultberg, Tove
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Grundmann, Britt
    Tech Univ Dresden, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany.
    Lindbladh, Matts
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Reconstruction of past landscape openness using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) applied on three local pollen sites in a southern Swedish biodiversity hotspot2015In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 253-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hornso-Allgunnen area in south-eastern Sweden has been known as a biodiversity hotspot for insects for about a century and is considered to host the most species-rich insect fauna in northern Europe. Several hypotheses for the causes behind this biodiversity have been put forward, but never tested for more than small parts of the area. We analyse here the possible role of the area's vegetation-cover history, in particular vegetation openness. We use pollen data from three sites in the Hornso-Allgunnen area and apply the recently developed Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) for quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation abundance at the local spatial scale. The study suggests that the area was dominated by diverse, relatively open forest during at least the last 3,000 years. Several tree taxa, such as Pinus, Betula and Quercus that were all suggested to be important for the present diversity, have a long continuity at the local spatial scale and were common until recently. Small proportions of anthropogenic pollen indicators were found, suggesting small-scale agriculture, which however did not considerably affect the area's overall tree species composition. We propose that fire was the main cause for the open character of the area's wooded landscape during the Holocene and, indirectly, an important agent behind the high insect diversity. However, the richness of insects was (and is) most likely also favoured by the long continuity of Quercus, and by the warm and dry local climate. The LRA provides a more realistic estimate of the taxa composition as compared to pollen percentages alone, both for arboreal and non-arboreal taxa. The differences between pollen percentages and LRA-estimates of plant abundance can be important to consider when causes behind high modern diversity are interpreted from fossil pollen records. Our results demonstrate the benefits of using the LRA along with traditional pollen percentages.

  • 300.
    Hultgren, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    En effektivare källsortering för bättre materialutnyttjande - en behovsanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The waste fractions offered to households in Sweden differ depending on where you live. The responsibility for the waste are grounded by the Swedish law where the municipality are responsible for the collection of household waste and FTI are responsible for collecting all packages and papers that the households sorts out. A new waste regulation is under consideration where the responsibility for the household waste may change. The bulky waste from households is collected at recycling centers where the households leave it in different containers for different fractions. These recycling centers are formed different and the fractions offered in them also differ depending on in what municipality they are located. The reason for the difference seems to depend on the opportunity to recycle the fraction and cross-border cooperation does not seem to exist in any larger scale. The waste fraction offered as FNI also differ depending on municipality where some are offering different fractions while other only offers compostable and combustible waste fractions. The municipality has reached different levels on their work towards better waste management according to the waste stair where reuse and recycling are preferred before another disposal. This often lead to energy recycling of the waste where over half of the Swedish treated waste end up. Materials that are often transported to energy recycling are textiles and thermosetting plastic where the plastic can be and are recycled in about 20 municipalities. The authorities and some companies are investigating the possibility to recycle textiles and they have found a way to recycle cotton fibres but in order to build a factory for that there need to collect larger volumes than are collected today. I will investigate if there is a need for more fractions than those offered to the households today.

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