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  • 251. Haraldsson, C
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Trace metals as nutrients1996In: Manual on harmful marine microalgae / [ed] G.M- Hallegraeff, D.M. Amderson and A.D. Cembella, Paris: Unesco, 1996, 1, p. 269-275Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Harper, Aimee R.
    et al.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Townsend, Richard J.
    AgResearch Ltd, Lincoln Res Ctr, New Zealand.
    Suckling, David Maxwell
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Dose reduction and alternatives to the phenol pheromone in monitoring and management of the grass grub Costelytra zealandica2017In: Pest Management Science, ISSN 1526-498X, E-ISSN 1526-4998, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 2252-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUNDEndemic New Zealand grass grub Costelytra zealandica is a pest of introduced pasture that uses phenol as a sex pheromone. The pheromone could be used to monitor and manage grass grub populations, but the irritating properties and toxicity of phenol for human handlers, as well as the possible ecotoxicological effects, pose obstacles to the deployment of the pheromone. This study aimed to limit the use of phenol by dose-response studies and investigation into alternative attractants and synergists to phenol. RESULTSNo difference in trap catch was seen across the range of 1-100mg of phenol, while rates below this (0.001-0.1mg) caused a large drop in catches. Our results indicated that 1mg loading in lures was enough to indicate beetle presence over 1 week. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-cresol proved unattractive in this study, both as single attractants and as synergists with phenol. Phenyl acetate, phenyl benzoate and diphenyl carbonate all formed phenol under hydrolytic conditions to act as successful propheromones, while phenyl acetate was found to be as attractive as phenol on its own. CONCLUSIONThis study described several ways to reduce or avoid the use of phenol in the field while maintaining lure effectiveness. (c) 2017 Society of Chemical Industry

  • 253.
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    et al.
    Univ Reading, UK.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stocker, Benjamin D.
    Ecol & Forestry Applicat Res Ctr, Spain;Stanford Univ, USA.
    Vander Linden, Marc
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Goldewijk, Kees Klein
    PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Boles, Oliver
    Univ Penn, USA.
    Braconnot, Pascale
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Dawson, Andria
    Mt Royal Univ, Canada.
    Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Univ Hong Kong, China;Univ Augsburg, Germany.
    Kastner, Thomas
    Senckenberg Biodivers & Climate Res Ctr, Germany.
    Pausata, Francesco S. R.
    Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Robinson, Erick
    Univ Wyoming, USA.
    Whitehouse, Nicki J.
    Univ Plymouth, UK.
    Madella, Marco
    Univ Pompeu Fabra, Spain;ICREA, Spain;Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Morrison, Kathleen D.
    Univ Penn, USA.
    Development and testing scenarios for implementing land use and land cover changes during the Holocene in Earth system model experiments2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 805-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic changes in land use and land cover (LULC) during the pre-industrial Holocene could have affected regional and global climate. Existing scenarios of LULC changes during the Holocene are based on relatively simple assumptions and highly uncertain estimates of population changes through time. Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions have the potential to refine these assumptions and estimates. The Past Global Changes (PAGES) LandCover6k initiative is working towards improved reconstructions of LULC globally. In this paper, we document the types of archaeological data that are being collated and how they will be used to improve LULC reconstructions. Given the large methodological uncertainties involved, both in reconstructing LULC from the archaeological data and in implementing these reconstructions into global scenarios of LULC, we propose a protocol to evaluate the revised scenarios using independent pollen-based reconstructions of land cover and climate. Further evaluation of the revised scenarios involves carbon cycle model simulations to determine whether the LULC reconstructions are consistent with constraints provided by ice core records of CO2 evolution and modern-day LULC. Finally, the protocol outlines how the improved LULC reconstructions will be used in palaeoclimate simulations in the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project to quantify the magnitude of anthropogenic impacts on climate through time and ultimately to improve the realism of Holocene climate simulations.

  • 254.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Faruque, R.
    Drobni, M.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sadique, A.
    Ahmed, K. U.
    Islam, Z.
    Parvez, M. B. H.
    Olsen, Björn
    Alam, M.
    High Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Large- and Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Bangladesh2011In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 689-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in avian bacterial pathogens is a common problem in the Bangladesh poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the present status of antibiotic resistance patterns in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Bangladesh. Of 279 dead or sick poultry of different ages, 101 pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from broilers and layer hens with colibacillosis infections were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance against 13 antibiotics used in both veterinary and human medicine in Bangladesh. Of 101 pathogenic E. coli isolates, more than 55% were resistant to at least one or more of the tested compounds, and 36.6% of the isolates showed multiple-drug-resistant phenotypes. The most common resistances observed were against tetracycline (45.5%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (26.7%), nalidixic acid (25.7%), ampicillin (25.7%), and streptomycin (20.8%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (12.9%), chlormaphenicol (8.9%), nitrofurantoin (2%), and gentamicin (2%) was also observed, and none of the isolates were resistant to tigecycline as well as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. One isolate was resistant to cefuroxime (1%), cefadroxil (1%), and mecillinam (1%) but was not an ESBL producer. Resistance rates, although significant in Bangladeshi isolates, were found to be lower than those reported for avian isolates from the Republic of Korea and clinical, avian, and environmental isolates from Bangladesh. The high level of antibiotic resistance in avian pathogens from Bangladesh is worrisome and indicates that widespread use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and disease prevention could have negative implications for human and animal health and the environment.

  • 255.
    Helin, Anu S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Eco-immunological studies of innate immunity in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises two sections, both of which explore eco-immunology of the innate immune system of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The innate immune system serves a pivotal role as the first line of defense against invading pathogens, and is comprised of physical and chemical barriers. Its main function is to inhibit and/or eliminate the pathogenic microorganisms while minimizing collateral damage to host cells.

    The first section investigates the allelic variation and selective forces acting on five avian β-defensins (AvBD) genes. Showing that purifying selection is the predominant selective force, although one gene AvBD3b, appeared to be subject to balancing selection. Moreover, the solution structure of the AvBD3b peptide was solved in this work, revealing that it contains a typical β-defensin fold with three β-sheets. Linear and folded AvBD3b peptides were shown to exhibit similar antibacterial properties, indicating that the tertiary structure was not the primary determinant of antimicrobial activity. Moreover, testing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic AvBD peptides showed that they mostly had higher activity against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria.

    The second section investigates expression of two innate immune genes during avian influenza virus infection. Data quality in gene expression studies depends, in part, on the stability of the reference genes (RGs) used to normalize expression levels, meaning putative RGs must be validated prior to use. Eleven potential mallard RGs were tested and it was found that the stability varied across different tissue types, highlighting the importance of correct RG selection for the specific experimental conditions. Optimal RGs were then used in a gene expression study of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistant gene (Mx) in mallards during a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) infection. Upregulation of both genes was rapid and transient, returning back to basal levels two days post infection across most of the five tissue types analyzed.

    This thesis provides new insights into the tertiary structure and antimicrobial activity of AvBDs, and how this relates to selective pressures exerted in natural populations. It also highlights the importance of RGs validation, and confirms that RIG-I and Mx are involved in the early stages of the mallard immune response to LPAI infection.

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  • 256. Hellgren, O.
    et al.
    Wood, M. J.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hasselquist, D.
    Ottosson, U.
    Stervander, M.
    Bensch, S.
    Circannual variation in blood parasitism in a sub-Saharan migrant passerine bird, the garden warbler2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1047-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing the natural dynamics of pathogens in migratory birds is important, for example, to understand the factors that influence the transport of pathogens to and their transmission in new geographical areas, whereas the transmission of other pathogens might be restricted to a specific area. We studied haemosporidian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon in a migratory bird, the garden warbler Sylvia borin. Birds were sampled in spring, summer and early autumn at breeding grounds in Sweden, on migration at Capri, Italy and on arrival and departure from wintering staging areas in West Africa: mapping recoveries of garden warblers ringed in Fennoscandia and Capri showed that these sites are most probably on the migratory flyway of garden warblers breeding at Kvismaren. Overall, haemosporidian prevalence was 39%, involving 24 different parasite lineages. Prevalence varied significantly over the migratory cycle, with relatively high prevalence of blood parasites in the population on breeding grounds and at the onset of autumn migration, followed by marked declines in prevalence during migration both on spring and autumn passage. Importantly, we found that when examining circannual variation in the different lineages, significantly different prevalence profiles emerged both between and within genera. Our results suggest that differences in prevalence profiles are the result of either different parasite transmission strategies or coevolution between the host and the various parasite lineages. When separating parasites into common vs. rare lineages, we found that two peaks in the prevalence of rare parasites occur; on arrival at Swedish breeding grounds, and after the wintering period in Africa. Our results stress the importance of appropriate taxonomic resolution when examining host-parasite interactions, as variation in prevalence both between and within parasite genera can show markedly different patterns.

  • 257.
    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany.
    Juergens, Klaus
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany.
    Phylogenetic Signals of Salinity and Season in Bacterial Community Composition Across the Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea2016In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, article id 1883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the key processes that control bacterial community composition has enabled predictions of bacterial distribution and function within ecosystems. In this study, we used the Baltic Sea as a model system to quantify the phylogenetic signal of salinity and season with respect to bacterioplankton community composition. The abundances of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reads were analyzed from samples obtained from similar geographic locations in July and February along a brackish to marine salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. While there was no distinct pattern of bacterial richness at different salinities, the number of bacterial phylotypes in winter was significantly higher than in summer. Bacterial community composition in brackish vs. marine conditions, and in July vs. February was significantly different. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial community composition was primarily separated according to salinity and secondly according to seasonal differences at all taxonomic ranks tested. Similarly, quantitative phylogenetic clustering implicated a phylogenetic signal for both salinity and seasonality. Our results suggest that global patterns of bacterial community composition with respect to salinity and season are the result of phylogenetically clustered ecological preferences with stronger imprints from salinity.

  • 258.
    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Germany.
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Germany.
    Zheng, Zongli
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Aspeborg, Henrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Metagenomic De Novo Assembly of an Aquatic Representative of the Verrucomicrobial Class Spartobacteria2013In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-9, article id e00569-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The verrucomicrobial subdivision 2 class Spartobacteria is one of the most abundant bacterial lineages in soil and has recently also been found to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments. A 16S rRNA gene study from samples spanning the entire salinity range of the Baltic Sea indicated that, in the pelagic brackish water, a phylotype of the Spartobacteria is one of the dominating bacteria during summer. Phylogenetic analyses of related 16S rRNA genes indicate that a purely aquatic lineage within the Spartobacteria exists. Since no aquatic representative from the Spartobacteria has been cultured or sequenced, the metabolic capacity and ecological role of this lineage are yet unknown. In this study, we reconstructed the genome and metabolic potential of the abundant Baltic Sea Spartobacteria phylotype by metagenomics. Binning of genome fragments by nucleotide composition and a self-organizing map recovered the near-complete genome of the organism, the gene content of which suggests an aerobic heterotrophic metabolism. Notably, we found 23 glycoside hydrolases that likely allow the use of a variety of carbohydrates, like cellulose, mannan, xylan, chitin, and starch, as carbon sources. In addition, a complete pathway for sulfate utilization was found, indicating catabolic processing of sulfated polysaccharides, commonly found in aquatic phytoplankton. The high frequency of glycoside hydrolase genes implies an important role of this organism in the aquatic carbon cycle. Spatiotemporal data of the phylotype’s distribution within the Baltic Sea indicate a connection to Cyanobacteria that may be the main source of the polysaccharide substrates.

  • 259.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Molin, Y.
    Drobni, M.
    Calisto-Ulloa, N.
    Gomez-Fuentes, C.
    Astorga-Espana, M. S.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, D.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Human-Associated Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase in the Antarctic2012In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 2056-2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli bacteria with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) type CTX-M resistance were isolated from water samples collected close to research stations in Antarctica. The isolates had bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) genotypes and sequence types (ST) indicative of a human-associated origin. This is the first record of ESBL-producing enterobacteria from Antarctica.

  • 260. Herndl, Gerhard J.
    et al.
    Agogué, Helene
    Baltar, Federico
    Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Dept Biol Oceanog, NL-1790 AB Den Burg, Netherlands.
    Reinthaler, Thomas
    Sintes, Eva
    Varela, Marta M.
    Regulation of aquatic microbial processes: the ‘microbial loop’ of the sunlit surface waters and the dark ocean dissected2008In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 53, no Sp. Iss. 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of microbial food web interactions in the ocean is essentially based on research performed in the euphotic layer, where the interactions between phytoplankton and prokaryotic plankton, mainly heterotrophic Bacteria, are well established. In the euphotic layer, particularly in meso- and eutrophic waters, prokaryotic plankton are mainly top-down controlled by bacterivorous flagellates and viruses, affecting metabolically active, fast growing populations more than dormant stages. In the meso- and bathypelagic realm of the ocean, however, prokaryotic plankton are thought to be mainly bottom-up controlled, because the heterotrophic component of the prokaryotic community is limited by the availability of organic carbon. However, deep-water prokaryotes exhibit a number of peculiarities compared to prokaryotes in the euphotic layer, among which are a large genome size and a gene repertoire indicative of a predominately surface-attached mode of life. This indicates that deep-water prokaryotic activity might be primarily associated with particles. Our present knowledge indicates that the microbial communities and their interactions in the deep ocean are likely very different from those known from surface waters. Increasing efforts to shed light on the microbial biota of the ocean's interior will likely lead to the discovery of novel metabolic pathways in prokaryotes and to the resolution of the current discrepancy between the geochemical evidence of remineralization rates of organic matter and actual measurements. 

  • 261.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    gency for Environment, Nature Conservation, and Geology of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany .
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Leivits, Meelis
    Estonian Environment Agency, Estonia.
    Rusanen, Pekka
    Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland.
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 19th century, the Great Cormorant was exterminated as a breeding bird in several Baltic countries. The persecution continued until the mid of the 20th century, and in the early 1960s the European breeding population of the continental subspecies sinensis had declined to 4,000 breeding pairs (bp) only, of which Germany and Poland hosted more than the half. During the following two decades, the population development apparently has also been affected by the harmful effects of DDT and PCB.

    As a result of protection measures, and seemingly also due to the ban of DDT and PCB, breeding pair numbers started to increase during the second half of the 1970s. During the 1980s, the Cormorant started to expand its range towards the northern and eastern parts of the Baltic. Currently, the species is present in the whole Baltic Sea area, including the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia.

    Baltic-wide surveys in 2006, 2009 and 2012 showed that the Baltic population had stabilized at a level of 155,000 – 170,000 bp during that period. However, after 2012 breeding pair numbers have still increased in the eastern and northern Baltic. Hence, the current population is estimated at 190,000-210,000 bp.

    The highest population densities are found around the highly eutrophic estuaries of the southern Baltic (Odra-, Vistula-, and Curonian lagoon).

  • 262.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    Nature Conservation, and Geology of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Aarhus University.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)2014Other (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    Agency for Environment, Nature Conservation and Geology of Güstrow, Germany.
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University.
    Zydelis, Ramunas
    Duke University, USA.
    Birds2009In: Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: An Integrated Thematic Assessment of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation in the Baltic Sea / [ed] HELCOM, Helsinki Commission , 2009, p. 71-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty different benthic landscapes, 150 biotopes, and a richness of about 100 species of fish, 450 macroalgae species, 1000 zoobenthos species, 3000 plankton species, and many thousands of unknown species of bacteria and viruses—that is a rough estimate of the biodiversity hidden under the Baltic Sea surface. These organisms and their ambient environment form the building blocks of the ecosystem and the interactions among all components determine the characteristic features of the Baltic Sea.

  • 264. Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    Gregersen, Jens
    Larsson, Rolf
    Larsson, Kjell
    Elts, Jaanus
    Wieloch, Maria
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis Lath., 1787)2011Other (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Chemical and biological benefits in a stormwater wetland in Kalmar, SE Sweden2012In: Limnologica, ISSN 0075-9511, E-ISSN 1873-5851, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A manmade stormwater wetland in Kalmar, SE Sweden, sized 1 ha and receiving water from residential and road areas, was monitored over the first years after inundation with respect to chemistry and biology. Water flow and chemistry was analysed in years 2-4, mainly on a monthly basis, but, in the final year, every second month. This revealed that total nitrogen, according to the Swedish Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), typically showed moderate or high concentrations, whereas total phosphorous levels were very high or extremely high. Metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations were low or moderate in terms of EQC. Yearly average reduction of nitrogen was 173 kg ha(-1) y(-1), tending to increase over time, and for phosphorous 12.1 kg ha(-1) y(-1), tending to decrease. Vegetation analysis was performed in years 1-4 by noting all species in 27 consecutive zones around the wetland system. This showed that one year after filling with water, the vegetation was already well established with >30 plant species in the entire pond system, and this increased only slightly. After four years, the shoreline vegetation cover had become denser, especially with larger graminoids such as common reed (Phragmites australis) and sea club-rush (Bolboschoenus maritimus), and submersed vegetation almost disappeared. There was a tendency for common species to become more dominant, and for less common species to become rarer. Using sweep net sampling of benthic invertebrates during years 0-2, ca 50 species/higher taxa were observed during the first year, largely because of the appearance of many beetles, especially dytiscids. However, these decreased the following years. Apart from these animals, in the first few months the invertebrate colonisation was dominated by chironomids and corixids, whereas later prominent increases were noticed for the isopod Asellus aquaticus, the snail Physa fontinalis, and the mayfly nymph Cloeon dipterum. The results are discussed in terms of wetland values for biodiversity and nutrient reduction, suggesting that these objectives seem possible to combine in stormwater wetlands.

  • 266.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hagbygärde Dämme  – dagvattenbehandling i Kalmar; kemi och biologi 2012-20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Hagbygärde Dämme, ett system med tre dammar (totalt ca 1.2 ha), var färdiggrävt i mars 2012. Delarna höll i vissa delar vatten under kommande halvåret, och mottog sedan slutet av oktober samma år dagvatten från ett 650 ha stort tillrinningsområde, som dräneras av Hagbygärdediket. Området ligger i västra delarna av Kalmar, och innehåller bostäder, köpcentra, lättare industrier, väg- och parkeringsområden, samt jordbruks- och skogspartier.

    Det primära syftet med Hagbygärde Dämme är att rena dikets kraftigt belastade dagvatten, Under perioden oktober 2012 till december 2013 togs vattenprover varannan vecka in i och ut från dämmet. Dessa analyserades m a p halter av totalkväve och totalfosfor, fraktioner av dessa, samt totalt suspenderade ämnen (TSS), åtta tungmetaller och olja. Vattenföring mättes fortlöpande automatiskt, men apparaturen gav inte tillförlitliga värden.

    Även den biologiska mångfalden i området kan förhoppningsvis gynnas. Bottenfaunan följdes från april 2012 till september 2013, dammarnas växter inventerades i huvudsak i sept/okt 2013 och fågelobservationer för 2012-2013 samlades in.

    För information av använda metoder, beräkningar och annan information med avseende på vattenföring, vatten- och sedimentkemi samt växter och djur, hänvisas till respektive inlednings- och metodavsnitt. Här följer de viktigare resultaten i punktform, för detaljer och tolkning, se respektive resultat- och diskussionsavsnitt. NV = Naturvårdsverkets (1999) bedömningsgrunder, ”Tillstånd” (bilaga 3). Sth = riktvärden för dagvatten som tagits fram i Stockholms län (2009), i kap 3 kallade ”Sth-riktvärden” (bilaga 3).

     

    KEMI

    • Tot-N varierade 1,6 – 9,0 mg/l IN och 1,0 – 10 mg/l UT, utloppet alltid lägre, halterna bedömda som mycket höga (flertalet) - extremt höga (NV), respektive höga (Sth).
    • Nitrat- + nitritkväve varierade 0,52 – 8,4 mg/l IN och 0,27 – 9,6 mg/l UT, utloppet oftast lägre. Ingen bedömningsgrund från NV eller Sth.
    • Ammoniumväve varierade 0,24 – 1,9 mg/l IN och 0,04 – 2,7 mg/l UT, utloppet oftast lägre. Ingen bedömningsgrund från NV eller Sth.
    • Tot-P varierade 0,03 – 0,16 mg/l IN och 0,02 – 0,18 mg/l UT, utloppet nästan alltid lägre, halterna bedömda som höga - mycket höga (flertalet) (NV), respektive ej höga (Sth).
    • Fosfatfosfor varierade 0,01 – 0,08 mg/l IN och 0,003 – 0,08 mg/l UT, utloppet nästan alltid lägre. Ingen bedömningsgrund från NV eller Sth.
    • Metall-koncentrationer: Kvicksilver, arsenik, kadmium och krom låg oftast under eller lika med respektive detektionsgräns, mindre ofta även bly. Halterna för de fyra första metallerna, samt nickel, bedöms som låga, för bly och zink måttligt höga, och för koppar måttligt höga till höga (NV). Alla metaller under Sth-riktvärdena.
    • TSS varierade 2,5 – 46 mg/l IN och 3,9 – 16 mg/l UT, utloppet nästan alltid lägre. Ingen bedömningsgrund från NV.
    • Reduktionen baserad på vattenföring kunde inte räknas ut, pga osäkra värden på densamma. Dock, differensen In–Ut för näringsämnen var signifikant för ammonium. Differensen In–Ut för metaller var signifikant för nickel, bly och zink.
    • Olja (fåtal mätningar) låg samtliga under Sth-riktvärdet för ”oljeindex”.
    • Sediment-metallerna (två mättillfällen) för As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb och Zn bedömdes som låga –mycket låga, medan för Ni bedömdes de som måttligt höga (NV).
    • pH (fåtal mätningar) varierade 7,0 – 7,3 dvs mycket god buffertkapacitet (NV).

     

    BIOLOGI

    • Vegetationen utvecklades måttligt under 2012-2013, delvis pga temporär torrläggning.
    • Antal växtarter i hela systemet var (efter ett år) ca 25, vilket är acceptabelt i så här i början.
    • Dominerande växtarter var svalting, veketåg, bladvass, vattenmöja, smalkaveldun, gäddnate.
    • Undervattensväxter ökade något mellan 2012 och 2013, vilket är bra, ty de gynnar dentrifikationen (N-reduktion).
    • Bottenfauna (evertebrater) koloniserade med ca 70 arter (eller högra taxa) under detta första 1,5 år, en hög siffra.
    • Vanligaste djur i början var skalbaggar, buksimmare, hinnkräftor och fjädermygglarver, samt i mindre grad dagsländan Cloeon dipterum, alla dessa typiska kolonisatörer för nya småvatten.

    Ett halvår efter start hade även gråsuggan Asellus aquaticus, dagsländan Caenis horaria och snäckan Physa fontinalis ökat.

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  • 267.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Skälby Dämme: en dagvatten-våtmark i Kalmar; kemi och biologi 2011 – 20122013Report (Other academic)
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  • 268.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Skälby Dämme, en dagvatten-våtmark i Kalmar; kemi och biologi under de första åren2011Report (Other academic)
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  • 269.
    Herrmann, Jan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Cronberg, Gertrud
    Grenstadius, Mikael
    Olsson, Joakim
    Paulsson, Sara
    Rodebrand, Staffan
    Hornsjöns biologi 2004-20052006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det kan troligen sägas att en höjning av vattenståndet med ca 10 cm bör inte ha allvarligare konsekvenser för sjöns biologi. Möjligen kan erhållas viss positiv effekt; igenväxning kanske kan bromsas något, se avsnittet om Vegetation. Men det bör också framhållas att gäddans situation i sjön och dess vandringsmöjligheter och leksituation bör beaktas och utvecklas i samband med planerade åtgärder.

    Vissa av de biologiska parametrar som nu studerats i Hornsjön har förut gjorts studier av, nämligen vegetation (Wallsten 1979), plankton och bottenfauna (Berggren 1979), fåglar (Rodebrand 1979) samt fisk och plankton (Aspengren 1985, Troschke 1987). För dessa organismgrupper görs vissa jämförelser mellan 70-talet och 2004/2005, dvs oftast knappt 30 år. Vissa jämförelser har gjorts med nämnda publikationer. En mer omfattande analys avses göras i en planerad rapport om sjöns biologi. Där skall alla kända biologiska fakta sammanfattas och kommenteras.

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  • 270.
    Herrmann, Jan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Thorén, Ann-Karin
    Biologisk mångfald i Kalmar Dämme 1997-98 – kolonisation av växter, bottenfauna, fiskar och fåglar2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flertalet konstgjorda våtmarker har anlagts med primärt syfte att kunna reducera näringsämnen, främst kvävets läckage till havet. I många fall finns även avsikten att skapa fler miljöer för akvatiska växter och djur, d.v.s. att gynna den lokala biologiska mångfalden ( ≈ antalet arter) i jordbruksbygderna, där oftast våtmarkerna starkt minskat de senaste två seklen. Anmärkningsvärt få uppföljningar genomförs, i synnerhet av de biologiska syftena.

    Goda skäl att gynna våtmarkers biologiska mångfald är dess betydelse för ekosystemets funktioner, att de är viktiga rekreationsområden och ansvaret för dessa ekosystems värden. Kalmar Dämme anlades primärt för reduktion av kväve från flygplatsen. Området var tidigare en havsvik som senaste decennierna använts som tämligen näringsrik odlings- och betesmark. Det 2.8 km långa systemet av avlånga dammar (djup ≤1.5 m), inklusive två gamla vassområden, koloniserades snabbt av växter och djur. Här rapporteras studier av vattenväxter, bottenfauna, fisk och fåglar i Kalmar Dämme under i huvudsak 1997-98.

    Växtstudierna (19 provpunkter för- och sensommar, flest 1998; båt, rut-analys för täckningsgrad, täthet, utbredning och växtdjup) syftade till att urskilja vilka växtsamhällen som fanns i/vid vattnet, inte en komplett artlista (flertalet är landlevande). Dominerande övervattenväxt var vass, men även kaveldun och svalting. Flertalet införda arter hade i huvudsak försvunnit, troligen p.g.a. erosion. Den för kvävereduktionen (och bottenfaunan) troligen viktigare undervattenvegetationen dominerades redan 1998 av vattenpest (inplanterad), efterhand ännu mer. I mindre omfattning påträffades ax- och kransslinga, vattenbläddra och kransalger. Vattenpestens dominans är möjligen av fördel, då den ger stor ytförstoring för de kvävereducerande bakterierna. Enbart 1997 sågs stora mängder av fintrådiga grönalger, möjligen beroende på de relativt låga fosforhalterna.

    Bottenfaunastudierna (sju prover på vardera fem grunda lokaler var 6-9:e vecka under drygt ett år; Surber eller standardhåv 0.5 mm maskvidd) avsåg att följa kolonisationsförloppet på de från början ”bara” bottenytorna. Artantalet ökar med tiden, i juni 1998 var ”ackumulerade” artantalet per lokal ca 40-50. Högst individantal noterades under försommaren, medan ”momentana” artantalen toppar sensommar/höst. Under första året (1997) dominerade fjädermygglarver och buksimmare. Bägge, men framför allt de senare, minskade nästföljande år. Då ökade istället en dagsländelarv och en snäcka, men även gråsuggor, samt vissa natt- och trollsländelarver. Den artrikaste gruppen var skalbaggar. Denna studie har fortsatt, om än med minskad intensitet.

    Fiskstudierna (ett examensarbete sommaren 1998, olika typer av nät under vardera 8-9 nätter/tillfällen, samt försök med håv och elfiske) syftade till att klarlägga vilka arter, och i vilka proportioner, som fanns i systemet. Mört och björkna dominerade, i övrigt fångades gädda, abborre, sutare och sarv. De tre första lyckades bra med reproduktionen, många 0+ och 1+ fångades. Beståndet av fisk är typiskt för näringsrika vatten.

    Fågelstudierna (ett examensarbete våren-sommaren 1997 samt två fritidsornitologers alla observationer under flera år; inga systematiskt upplagda inventeringar) avsåg att söka fastställa vilka arter, främst de ”vattenanknutna”, som med hur många par häckade i området. Under 1997 var dessa antal ca 35 respektive 13, med svag ökning på senare år. Totala antalet observerade arter har de flesta år varit ca 150, varav många bara rastande eller överflygande. T.o.m. år 2001 har totalt sett 201 fågelarter noterats. Notabla häckande arter är/har varit smådopping, vigg, brun kärrhök, vattenrall, mindre strandpipare, skäggmes och pungmes. ”Intressanta” observationer är främst rördrom, snatterand, fiskgjuse och rosenfink.

    De biologiska resultaten utgör en viktig grund för övrig våtmarksinriktad FoU-verksamhet i Kalmar, liksom kommunens skötsel av Kalmar Dämme och andra rekreationsområden med våtmarker inklusive information om dylika områdens värden. Dessutom behövs bättre vetenskapliga kunskaper om kolonisationsförlopp av växter och djur i våtmarksområden.

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  • 271.
    Herrmann, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yoshiyama, Miku
    Treating urban stormwater in constructed wetlands in Kalmar, SE Sweden, for improved water quality and biodiversity2014In: Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, 2014, p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwaters’ heavy loads of nutrients, metals and oil etc, via urban ditches / streams, are increasingly treated in engineered shallow wetlands/ponds. Such approaches are still only remedying a minor part of affected storm waters, urban streams, and freshwater and marine recipients. In Kalmar, a middle-sized Swedish town at the Baltic Sea, > 10 such wetlands / ponds are established for reduction of such heavily polluted waters. Aiming at determining the effectiveness in reduction of nutrients and metals, and the facilitation of the aquatic biodiversity (primarily in the wetlands), monitoring programs were initiated. Regular in/outflow water sampling, water flow and biology, were followed for 1-2-3 years (varied with parameter) after construction in two of these wetlands. Skälby Dämme, constructed 14 years ago (2000), showed ca 40 % nutrient reduction figures, less for TSS and metals, while Hagbygärde Dämme, constructed two years ago (2012), attained only much lower results. Reasons for this difference might be that Hagbygärde is less surrounded by forested land, also that less than one year had elapsed before evaluation commenced, while two-three years in Skälby. More recent monitoring in Skälby Dämme is also compared with. Moreover, this kind of wetlands/ponds is shown to favour the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates, (aquatic) plants and birds, although with trends to decline in species richness some years after the initial colonization period.

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    Herrmann 2014 EcoTech 2014 Urban Stormwater Wetlands
  • 272.
    Heuschele, Jan
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Ceballos, Sara
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark;Spanish Inst Oceanog, Spain.
    Borg, Christian Marc Andersen
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjaerke, Oda
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Isari, Stamatina
    CSIC, Spain;Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece.
    Lasley-Rasher, Rachel
    Georgia Inst Technol, USA;Univ Maine, USA.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Umeå university.
    Souissi, Anissa
    University of Lille Nord de France, France.
    Souissi, Sami
    University of Lille Nord de France, France.
    Titelman, Josefin
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Non-consumptive effects of predator presence on copepod reproduction: insights from a mesocosm experiment2014In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 161, no 7, p. 1653-1666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproduction in planktonic animals depends on numerous biotic and abiotic factors. One of them is predation pressure, which can have both directconsumptive effects on population density and sex ratio, and non-consumptive effects, for example on mating and migration behaviour. In copepods, predatorvulnerability depends on their sex, motility pattern and mating behaviour. Therefore, copepods can be affected at multiple stages during the mating process. We investigated the reproductive dynamics of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis in the presence and absence of its predator the mysid Neomysis integer in a mesocosm experiment. We found that the proportion of ovigerous females decreased in the presence of predators. This shift was not caused by differential predation as the absolute number of females was unaffected by mysid presence. Presence of predators reduced the ratio of males to non-ovigerous females, but not by predation of males. Our combined results suggest that the shift from ovigerous to non-ovigerous females under the presence of predators was caused by either actively delayed egg production or by shedding of egg sacs. Nauplii production was initially suppressed in the predation treatment, but increased towards the end of the experiment. The proportion of fertilized females was similar in both treatments, but constantly fell behind model predictions using a random mating model. Our results highlight the importance of non-consumptive effects of predators on copepod reproduction and hence on population dynamics.

  • 273.
    Heuschele, Jan
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Lund University, Sweden;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ekvall, Mikael T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bianco, Giuseppe
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Context-dependent individual behavioral consistency in Daphnia2017In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e01679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of consistent individual differences in behavior, often termed “personality,” for adapting and coping with threats and novel environmental conditions has advanced considerably during the last decade. However, advancements are almost exclusively associated with higher-order animals, whereas studies focusing on smaller aquatic organisms are still rare. Here, we show individual differences in the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna, a clonal freshwater invertebrate, before, during, and after being exposed to a lethal threat, ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We show consistency in swimming velocity among both mothers and daughters of D. magna in a neutral environment, whereas this pattern breaks down when exposed to UVR. Our study also, for the first time, illustrates how the ontogenetic development in swimming and refuge-seeking behavior of young individuals eventually approaches that of adults. Overall, we show that aquatic invertebrates are far from being identical robots, but instead they show considerable individual differences in behavior that can be attributed to both ontogenetic development and individual consistency. Our study also demonstrates, for the first time, that behavioral consistency and repeatability, that is, something resembling “personality,” is context and state dependent in this zooplankter taxa.

  • 274.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Arizona, USA.
    Solonenko, Natalie
    Univ Arizona, USA;Ohio State Univ, USA.
    Howard-Varona, Cristina
    Univ Arizona, USA;Ohio State Univ, USA.
    Moreno, Mario
    Univ Arizona, USA.
    Malmstrom, Rex R.
    DOE Joint Genome Inst, USA.
    Blow, Matthew J.
    DOE Joint Genome Inst, USA.
    Sullivan, Matthew B.
    Univ Arizona, USA;Ohio State Univ, USA.
    Large-scale maps of variable infection efficiencies in aquatic Bacteroidetes phage-host model systems2016In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 3949-3961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbes drive ecosystem functioning and their viruses modulate these impacts through mortality, gene transfer and metabolic reprogramming. Despite the importance of virus-host interactions and likely variable infection efficiencies of individual phages across hosts, such variability is seldom quantified. Here, we quantify infection efficiencies of 38 phages against 19 host strains in aquatic Cellulophaga (Bacteroidetes) phage-host model systems. Binary data revealed that some phages infected only one strain while others infected 17, whereas quantitative data revealed that efficiency of infection could vary 10 orders of magnitude, even among phages within one population. This provides a baseline for understanding and modeling intrapopulation host range variation. Genera specific host ranges were also informative. For example, the Cellulophaga Microviridae, showed a markedly broader intra-species host range than previously observed in Escherichia coli systems. Further, one phage genus, Cba41, was examined to investigate nonheritable changes in plating efficiency and burst size that depended on which host strain it most recently infected. While consistent with host modification of phage DNA, no differences in nucleotide sequence or DNA modifications were detected, leaving the observation repeatable, but the mechanism unresolved. Overall, this study highlights the importance of quantitatively considering replication variations in studies of phage-host interactions.

  • 275.
    Howard-Varona, Cristina
    et al.
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Roux, Simon
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Dore, Hugo
    École normale supérieure de Lyon, France.
    Solonenko, Natalie E
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Markillie, Lye M
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.
    Orr, Galya
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.
    Sullivan, Matthew B
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Regulation of infection efficiency in a globally abundant marine Bacteriodetes virus.2017In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 284-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria impact humans, industry and nature, but do so under viral constraints. Problematically, knowledge of viral infection efficiencies and outcomes derives from few model systems that over-represent efficient lytic infections and under-represent virus-host natural diversity. Here we sought to understand infection efficiency regulation in an emerging environmental Bacteroidetes-virus model system with markedly different outcomes on two genetically and physiologically nearly identical host strains. For this, we quantified bacterial virus (phage) and host DNA, transcripts and phage particles throughout both infections. While phage transcriptomes were similar, transcriptional differences between hosts suggested host-derived regulation of infection efficiency. Specifically, the alternative host overexpressed DNA degradation genes and underexpressed translation genes, which seemingly targeted phage DNA particle production, as experiments revealed they were both significantly delayed (by >30 min) and reduced (by >50%) in the inefficient infection. This suggests phage failure to repress early alternative host expression and stress response allowed the host to respond against infection by delaying phage DNA replication and protein translation. Given that this phage type is ubiquitous and abundant in the global oceans and that variable viral infection efficiencies are central to dynamic ecosystems, these data provide a critically needed foundation for understanding and modeling viral infections in nature.

  • 276. Hudson, Lawrence N
    et al.
    Newbold, Tim
    Contu, Sara
    Hill, Samantha L L
    Lysenko, Igor
    De Palma, Adriana
    Phillips, Helen R P
    Alhusseini, Tamera I
    Bedford, Felicity E
    Bennett, Dominic J
    Booth, Hollie
    Burton, Victoria J
    Chng, Charlotte W T
    Choimes, Argyrios
    Correia, David L P
    Day, Julie
    Echeverría-Londoño, Susy
    Emerson, Susan R
    Gao, Di
    Garon, Morgan
    Harrison, Michelle L K
    Ingram, Daniel J
    Jung, Martin
    Kemp, Victoria
    Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    Martin, Callum D
    Pan, Yuan
    Pask-Hale, Gwilym D
    Pynegar, Edwin L
    Robinson, Alexandra N
    Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia
    Senior, Rebecca A
    Simmons, Benno I
    White, Hannah J
    Zhang, Hanbin
    Aben, Job
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    Adum, Gilbert B
    Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia
    Aizen, Marcelo A
    Albertos, Belén
    Alcala, E L
    Del Mar Alguacil, Maria
    Alignier, Audrey
    Ancrenaz, Marc
    Andersen, Alan N
    Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique
    Armbrecht, Inge
    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor
    Aumann, Tom
    Axmacher, Jan C
    Azhar, Badrul
    Azpiroz, Adrián B
    Baeten, Lander
    Bakayoko, Adama
    Báldi, András
    Banks, John E
    Baral, Sharad K
    Barlow, Jos
    Barratt, Barbara I P
    Barrico, Lurdes
    Bartolommei, Paola
    Barton, Diane M
    Basset, Yves
    Batáry, Péter
    Bates, Adam J
    Baur, Bruno
    Bayne, Erin M
    Beja, Pedro
    Benedick, Suzan
    Berg, Åke
    Bernard, Henry
    Berry, Nicholas J
    Bhatt, Dinesh
    Bicknell, Jake E
    Bihn, Jochen H
    Blake, Robin J
    Bobo, Kadiri S
    Bóçon, Roberto
    Boekhout, Teun
    Böhning-Gaese, Katrin
    Bonham, Kevin J
    Borges, Paulo A V
    Borges, Sérgio H
    Boutin, Céline
    Bouyer, Jérémy
    Bragagnolo, Cibele
    Brandt, Jodi S
    Brearley, Francis Q
    Brito, Isabel
    Bros, Vicenç
    Brunet, Jörg
    Buczkowski, Grzegorz
    Buddle, Christopher M
    Bugter, Rob
    Buscardo, Erika
    Buse, Jörn
    Cabra-García, Jimmy
    Cáceres, Nilton C
    Cagle, Nicolette L
    Calviño-Cancela, María
    Cameron, Sydney A
    Cancello, Eliana M
    Caparrós, Rut
    Cardoso, Pedro
    Carpenter, Dan
    Carrijo, Tiago F
    Carvalho, Anelena L
    Cassano, Camila R
    Castro, Helena
    Castro-Luna, Alejandro A
    Rolando, Cerda B
    Cerezo, Alexis
    Chapman, Kim Alan
    Chauvat, Matthieu
    Christensen, Morten
    Clarke, Francis M
    Cleary, Daniel F R
    Colombo, Giorgio
    Connop, Stuart P
    Craig, Michael D
    Cruz-López, Leopoldo
    Cunningham, Saul A
    D'Aniello, Biagio
    D'Cruze, Neil
    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni
    Dallimer, Martin
    Danquah, Emmanuel
    Darvill, Ben
    Dauber, Jens
    Davis, Adrian L V
    Dawson, Jeff
    de Sassi, Claudio
    de Thoisy, Benoit
    Deheuvels, Olivier
    Dejean, Alain
    Devineau, Jean-Louis
    Diekötter, Tim
    Dolia, Jignasu V
    Domínguez, Erwin
    Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth
    Dorn, Silvia
    Draper, Isabel
    Dreber, Niels
    Dumont, Bertrand
    Dures, Simon G
    Dynesius, Mats
    Edenius, Lars
    Eggleton, Paul
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Elek, Zoltán
    Entling, Martin H
    Esler, Karen J
    de Lima, Ricardo F
    Faruk, Aisyah
    Farwig, Nina
    Fayle, Tom M
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Felton, Annika M
    Fensham, Roderick J
    Fernandez, Ignacio C
    Ferreira, Catarina C
    Ficetola, Gentile F
    Fiera, Cristina
    Filgueiras, Bruno K C
    Fırıncıoğlu, Hüseyin K
    Flaspohler, David
    Floren, Andreas
    Fonte, Steven J
    Fournier, Anne
    Fowler, Robert E
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Fraser, Lauchlan H
    Fredriksson, Gabriella M
    Freire, Geraldo B
    Frizzo, Tiago L M
    Fukuda, Daisuke
    Furlani, Dario
    Gaigher, René
    Ganzhorn, Jörg U
    García, Karla P
    Garcia-R, Juan C
    Garden, Jenni G
    Garilleti, Ricardo
    Ge, Bao-Ming
    Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit
    Gerard, Philippa J
    Gheler-Costa, Carla
    Gilbert, Benjamin
    Giordani, Paolo
    Giordano, Simonetta
    Golodets, Carly
    Gomes, Laurens G L
    Gould, Rachelle K
    Goulson, Dave
    Gove, Aaron D
    Granjon, Laurent
    Grass, Ingo
    Gray, Claudia L
    Grogan, James
    Gu, Weibin
    Guardiola, Moisès
    Gunawardene, Nihara R
    Gutierrez, Alvaro G
    Gutiérrez-Lamus, Doris L
    Haarmeyer, Daniela H
    Hanley, Mick E
    Hanson, Thor
    Hashim, Nor R
    Hassan, Shombe N
    Hatfield, Richard G
    Hawes, Joseph E
    Hayward, Matt W
    Hébert, Christian
    Helden, Alvin J
    Henden, John-André
    Henschel, Philipp
    Hernández, Lionel
    Herrera, James P
    Herrmann, Farina
    Herzog, Felix
    Higuera-Diaz, Diego
    Hilje, Branko
    Höfer, Hubert
    Hoffmann, Anke
    Horgan, Finbarr G
    Hornung, Elisabeth
    Horváth, Roland
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Isaacs-Cubides, Paola
    Ishida, Hiroaki
    Ishitani, Masahiro
    Jacobs, Carmen T
    Jaramillo, Víctor J
    Jauker, Birgit
    Hernández, F Jiménez
    Johnson, McKenzie F
    Jolli, Virat
    Jonsell, Mats
    Juliani, S Nur
    Jung, Thomas S
    Kapoor, Vena
    Kappes, Heike
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Katovai, Eric
    Kellner, Klaus
    Kessler, Michael
    Kirby, Kathryn R
    Kittle, Andrew M
    Knight, Mairi E
    Knop, Eva
    Kohler, Florian
    Koivula, Matti
    Kolb, Annette
    Kone, Mouhamadou
    Kőrösi, Ádám
    Krauss, Jochen
    Kumar, Ajith
    Kumar, Raman
    Kurz, David J
    Kutt, Alex S
    Lachat, Thibault
    Lantschner, Victoria
    Lara, Francisco
    Lasky, Jesse R
    Latta, Steven C
    Laurance, William F
    Lavelle, Patrick
    Le Féon, Violette
    LeBuhn, Gretchen
    Légaré, Jean-Philippe
    Lehouck, Valérie
    Lencinas, María V
    Lentini, Pia E
    Letcher, Susan G
    Li, Qi
    Litchwark, Simon A
    Littlewood, Nick A
    Liu, Yunhui
    Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy
    López-Quintero, Carlos A
    Louhaichi, Mounir
    Lövei, Gabor L
    Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban
    Luja, Victor H
    Luskin, Matthew S
    MacSwiney G, M Cristina
    Maeto, Kaoru
    Magura, Tibor
    Mallari, Neil Aldrin
    Malone, Louise A
    Malonza, Patrick K
    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba
    Mandujano, Salvador
    Måren, Inger E
    Marin-Spiotta, Erika
    Marsh, Charles J
    Marshall, E J P
    Martínez, Eliana
    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo
    Moreno Mateos, David
    Mayfield, Margaret M
    Mazimpaka, Vicente
    McCarthy, Jennifer L
    McCarthy, Kyle P
    McFrederick, Quinn S
    McNamara, Sean
    Medina, Nagore G
    Medina, Rafael
    Mena, Jose L
    Mico, Estefania
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Milder, Jeffrey C
    Miller, James R
    Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R
    Moir, Melinda L
    Morales, Carolina L
    Muchane, Mary N
    Muchane, Muchai
    Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja
    Munira, A Nur
    Muoñz-Alonso, Antonio
    Munyekenye, B F
    Naidoo, Robin
    Naithani, A
    Nakagawa, Michiko
    Nakamura, Akihiro
    Nakashima, Yoshihiro
    Naoe, Shoji
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A
    Navarro-Iriarte, Luis
    Ndang'ang'a, Paul K
    Neuschulz, Eike L
    Ngai, Jacqueline T
    Nicolas, Violaine
    Nilsson, Sven G
    Noreika, Norbertas
    Norfolk, Olivia
    Noriega, Jorge Ari
    Norton, David A
    Nöske, Nicole M
    Nowakowski, A Justin
    Numa, Catherine
    O'Dea, Niall
    O'Farrell, Patrick J
    Oduro, William
    Oertli, Sabine
    Ofori-Boateng, Caleb
    Oke, Christopher Omamoke
    Oostra, Vicencio
    Osgathorpe, Lynne M
    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo
    Page, Navendu V
    Paritsis, Juan
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Parry, Luke
    Pe'er, Guy
    Pearman, Peter B
    Pelegrin, Nicolás
    Pélissier, Raphaël
    Peres, Carlos A
    Peri, Pablo L
    Persson, Anna S
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Peters, Marcell K
    Pethiyagoda, Rohan S
    Phalan, Ben
    Philips, T Keith
    Pillsbury, Finn C
    Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy
    Pineda, Eduardo
    Pino, Joan
    Pizarro-Araya, Jaime
    Plumptre, A J
    Poggio, Santiago L
    Politi, Natalia
    Pons, Pere
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F
    Presley, Steven J
    Proença, Vânia
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Rader, Romina
    Ramesh, B R
    Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P
    Ranganathan, Jai
    Rasmussen, Claus
    Redpath-Downing, Nicola A
    Reid, J Leighton
    Reis, Yana T
    Rey Benayas, José M
    Rey-Velasco, Juan Carlos
    Reynolds, Chevonne
    Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini
    Richards, Miriam H
    Richardson, Barbara A
    Richardson, Michael J
    Ríos, Rodrigo Macip
    Robinson, Richard
    Robles, Carolina A
    Römbke, Jörg
    Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad
    Rös, Matthias
    Rosselli, Loreta
    Rossiter, Stephen J
    Roth, Dana S
    Roulston, T'ai H
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Rubio, André V
    Ruel, Jean-Claude
    Sadler, Jonathan P
    Sáfián, Szabolcs
    Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A
    Sam, Katerina
    Samnegård, Ulrika
    Santana, Joana
    Santos, Xavier
    Savage, Jade
    Schellhorn, Nancy A
    Schilthuizen, Menno
    Schmiedel, Ute
    Schmitt, Christine B
    Schon, Nicole L
    Schüepp, Christof
    Schumann, Katharina
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Scott, Dawn M
    Scott, Kenneth A
    Sedlock, Jodi L
    Seefeldt, Steven S
    Shahabuddin, Ghazala
    Shannon, Graeme
    Sheil, Douglas
    Sheldon, Frederick H
    Shochat, Eyal
    Siebert, Stefan J
    Silva, Fernando A B
    Simonetti, Javier A
    Slade, Eleanor M
    Smith, Jo
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H
    Sodhi, Navjot S
    Somarriba, Eduardo J
    Sosa, Ramón A
    Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo
    St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
    Starzomski, Brian M
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Stouffer, Philip C
    Stout, Jane C
    Strauch, Ayron M
    Struebig, Matthew J
    Su, Zhimin
    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela
    Sugiura, Shinji
    Summerville, Keith S
    Sung, Yik-Hei
    Sutrisno, Hari
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Teder, Tiit
    Threlfall, Caragh G
    Tiitsaar, Anu
    Todd, Jacqui H
    Tonietto, Rebecca K
    Torre, Ignasi
    Tóthmérész, Béla
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Turner, Edgar C
    Tylianakis, Jason M
    Uehara-Prado, Marcio
    Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas
    Vallan, Denis
    Vanbergen, Adam J
    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Verboven, Hans A F
    Verdasca, Maria João
    Verdú, José R
    Vergara, Carlos H
    Vergara, Pablo M
    Verhulst, Jort
    Virgilio, Massimiliano
    Vu, Lien Van
    Waite, Edward M
    Walker, Tony R
    Wang, Hua-Feng
    Wang, Yanping
    Watling, James I
    Weller, Britta
    Wells, Konstans
    Westphal, Catrin
    Wiafe, Edward D
    Williams, Christopher D
    Willig, Michael R
    Woinarski, John C Z
    Wolf, Jan H D
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Woodcock, Ben A
    Wu, Jihua
    Wunderle, Joseph M
    Yamaura, Yuichi
    Yoshikura, Satoko
    Yu, Douglas W
    Zaitsev, Andrey S
    Zeidler, Juliane
    Zou, Fasheng
    Collen, Ben
    Ewers, Rob M
    Mace, Georgina M
    Purves, Drew W
    Scharlemann, Jörn P W
    Purvis, Andy
    The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 145-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

  • 277.
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Muller, Emilie E. L.
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lebrun, Laura A. M.
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Roume, Hugo
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholm University.
    Wilmes, Paul
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Systematic Design of 18S rRNA Gene Primers for Determining Eukaryotic Diversity in Microbial Consortia2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e95567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons has opened up the door to large-scale comparative studies of microbial community structures. The short reads currently produced by massively parallel sequencing technologies make the choice of sequencing region crucial for accurate phylogenetic assignments. While for 16S rDNA, relevant regions have been well described, no truly systematic design of 18S rDNA primers aimed at resolving eukaryotic diversity has yet been reported. Here we used 31,862 18S rDNA sequences to design a set of broad-taxonomic range degenerate PCR primers. We simulated the phylogenetic information that each candidate primer pair would retrieve using paired- or single-end reads of various lengths, representing different sequencing technologies. Primer pairs targeting the V4 region performed best, allowing discrimination with paired-end reads as short as 150 bp (with 75% accuracy at genus level). The conditions for PCR amplification were optimised for one of these primer pairs and this was used to amplify 18S rDNA sequences from isolates as well as from a range of environmental samples which were then Illumina sequenced and analysed, revealing good concordance between expected and observed results. In summary, the reported primer sets will allow minimally biased assessment of eukaryotic diversity in different microbial ecosystems.

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  • 278.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län.
    Biotopkartering av Bivarödsån 2003: Naturvärden och behov av restaureringsåtgärder i ett biflöde till Helge å2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver resultaten från en biotopkartering av Bivarödsån. Den karterade vattendragssträckan är en del av Helge ås avrinningsområde och flyter genom Osby och Östra Göinge kommuner. Huvudsyftet med projektet var att ge ett underlag för att kunna bedöma vilka biologiska återställningsåtgärder som är nödvändiga i vattendraget för att återfå den fauna som försvunnit på grund av försurning. Genom kalkning av vattendraget ges möjlighet för utslagna arter att återkomma till området. För att detta ska vara möjligt behöver dock även andra hotfaktorer som förändrad markanvändning, vandringhinder, rensning mm. identifieras och eventuellt åtgärdas. Denna biotopkartering ger en god översikt av Bivarödsån både vad det gäller restaureringsbehov och naturvärden.

    Fältarbetet utfördes september 2003 av Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Flygbildstolkning har utförts av Marie Eriksson på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Rapportskrivning, beräkningar och kvalitetssäkring av materialet har utförts av Samuel Hylander på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Projektet är bekostat med medel från Naturvårdsverket inom ramen för arbetet med biologisk återställning.

    Biotopkarteringar av vattendrag utgör dessutom viktiga kunskapsunderlag inom arbetet med EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten där utgångspunkten är att ”god ekologisk status” ska upprätthållas i våra sjöar och vattendrag. Resultaten beskriver bl.a. åtgärdsbehov och identifierade nyckelbiotoper och kan därmed användas för att realisera miljökvalitetsmålet ”Levande sjöar och vattendrag”. Rapporten riktar sig främst till handläggare vid kommuner och länsstyrelser men även andra intresserade.

  • 279.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län.
    Biotopkartering av Klingstorpabäcken 2003: Naturvärden och behov av restaureringsåtgärder i ett biflöde till Rönne å2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver resultaten från biotopkarteringen av Klingstorpabäcken i Klippans kommun, 2003. Vattendraget, som är en del av Rönne ås avrinningsområde, anses vara relativt naturligt och rent och hyser ett bestånd av den sällsynta och fridlysta arten flodpärlmussla (Margaritifera margaritifera). Arten är klassad som sårbar (VU) i ArtDatabankens rödlista.

    Huvudsyftet med biotopkarteringen var att ge ett underlag för att kunna bedöma vilka biologiska återställningsåtgärder som är nödvändiga i Klingstorpabäcken för att återfå ett reproducerande bestånd av flodpärlmussla. Projektet skulle även ge en bild av vilka naturvärden och skyddsvärda biotoper som finns i området samt ge underlag till bedömningen om vattendraget har potential att bli upptaget som nationellt särskilt värdefullt vattendrag.

    Biotopkarteringar av vattendrag utgör viktiga kunskapsunderlag inom arbetet med EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten där utgångspunkten är att ”god ekologisk status” ska upprätthållas i våra sjöar och vattendrag. Resultaten kan även användas för att realisera miljökvalitetsmålet ”Levande sjöar och vattendrag”.

    Fältarbetet utfördes juni-juli 2003 av Samuel Hylander inom ramen för en praktikkurs vid Lunds universitet. Handledare var Marie Eriksson på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län.

  • 280.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län.
    Biotopkartering av Röke å och Humlesjöbäcken 2002: Naturvärden och behov av restaureringsåtgärder i ett biflöde till Almaån/Helge å2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver resultaten av en biotopkartering i Röke å och Humlesjöbäcken i Helge ås vattensystem. Huvudsyftet med projektet var att ge ett underlag för att kunna bedöma vilka biologiska återställningsåtgärder som är nödvändiga i vattendragen för att återfå den fauna som försvunnit på grund av försurning. Ett exempel på en sådan försvunnen art är flodpärlmusslan (Margaritifera margaritifera) som finns nedströms i Hörlingeån och som tidigare troligen även har funnits i Röke å. Genom kalkning av vattendraget ges möjlighet för utslagna arter att återkomma till området. För att detta ska vara möjligt behöver dock även andra hotfaktorer som förändrad markanvändning, vandringhinder, rensning mm. identifieras och eventuellt åtgärdas. Denna biotopkartering ger en god översikt av Röke å och Humlesjöbäcken både vad det gäller restaureringsbehov och naturvärden.

    Fältarbetet utfördes under augusti och september 2002 av Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB, på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Flygbildstolkning och digitalisering av närmiljö och omgivning har utförts av Marie Eriksson på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Övrig digitalisering har utförts av Johan Bendtsen på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Rapportskrivning, GIS-hantering, beräkningar och kvalitetssäkring av materialet har utförts av Samuel Hylander på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län.

    Projektet är bekostat med medel från Naturvårdsverket inom ramen för arbetet med biologisk återställning.

    Biotopkarteringar av vattendrag utgör dessutom viktiga kunskapsunderlag inom arbetet med EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten där utgångspunkten är att ”god ekologisk status” ska upprätthållas i våra sjöar och vattendrag. Resultaten beskriver bl.a. åtgärdsbehov och identifierade nyckelbiotoper och kan därmed användas för att realisera miljökvalitetsmålet ”Levande sjöar och vattendrag”. Rapporten riktar sig främst till handläggare vid kommuner och länsstyrelser men även andra intresserade.

  • 281.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Flodpärlmusslans känslighet för predation från kräftor: effekt i jämförelse med andra hotfaktorer i ett skånskt vattendrag2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is today an endangered species. In Sweden it has disappeared from one third of the previously known sites, and its reproduction is not working at 75 % of these sites. Previously the species disappeared because of extensive pearl fishing but today other factors like acidification and eutrophication are more important and there are a number of studies assessing these problems. The aim of this study though was to assess the effects of predation from signal crayfish (Pacifastacus lenisculus) on juvenile mussels since this problem previously has been ignored.

    Since the freshwater pearl mussel is protected another species, Unio tumidus, was used in the experiments. This species looks like the freshwater pearl mussel and has a similar morphology and shell thickness. Also the snail species, Lymnaea stagnalis, was used in some comparing experiments. To put the results in a larger perspective fieldwork was carried out in a steam in Skåne where freshwater pearl mussels are present. The aim of the fieldwork was to understand why the mussel has problems with its reproduction. It included assessment of mussel population, crayfish-fishing, electro-fishing, sampling of sediment and sampling of chemical and physical parameters.

    The experiments showed that crayfish and especially the signal crayfish eat mussels up to a size of about 2 cm. The long times used by the crayfish for eating indicate that they have difficulties to open the mussels. If the crayfish could choose between snails and mussels they preferred to eat snails in all experiments indicating that they choose other food than mussels if possible. Further more the experiments showed that the signal crayfish ate on average more snails than the native noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) did per time unit. This indicates that the signal crayfish has a larger predation impact on the system than the noble crayfish has.

    The fieldwork revealed that there are only adult mussels left in the river (mean length 109 mm). A site with freshwater pearl mussels generally had good shading, high pH and high conductivity. Further more the amount of fine coarse material was quite high in the bottom sediment and this probably is a disadvantage for the mussels. The abundance of crayfish in the stream was generally low indicating that crayfish has a low impact on mussel populations in the stream. The electro-fishing showed that the abundance of trout (Salmo trutta) is relatively good. Infections from glochidia were found but infection rates were comparatively low. The glochidia were concluded to be freshwater pearl mussel with help of DNA-analysis.

    The threats against the freshwater pearl mussel in the stream are many and complex. The biggest treats though are thought to be effects from forestry and gravel-pits in the drainage area.

  • 282.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in zooplankton2020In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 1-14, article id 72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms have different adaptations to avoid damage from ultraviolet radiation and one such adaptation is the accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These compounds are common in aquatic taxa but a comprehensive review is lacking on their distribution and function in zooplankton. This paper shows that zooplankton MAA concentrations range from non-detectable to ~13 µg mgDW−1. Copepods, rotifers, and krill display a large range of concentrations, whereas cladocerans generally do not contain MAAs. The proposed mechanisms to gain MAAs are via ingestion of MAA-rich food or via symbiotic bacteria providing zooplankton with MAAs. Exposure to UV-radiation increases the concentrations in zooplankton both via increasing MAA concentrations in the phytoplankton food and due to active accumulation. Concentrations are generally low during winter and higher in summer and females seem to deposit MAAs in their eggs. The concentrations of MAAs in zooplankton tend to increase with altitude but only up to a certain altitude suggesting some limitation for the uptake. Shallow and UV-transparent systems tend to have copepods with higher concentrations of MAAs but this has only been shown in a few species. A high MAA concentration has also been shown to lead to lower UV-induced mortality and an overall increased fitness. While there is a lot of information on MAAs in zooplankton we still lack understanding of the potential costs and constraints for accumulation. There is also scarce information in some taxa such as rotifers as well as from systems in tropical, sub(polar) areas as well as in marine systems in general.

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  • 283. Hylander, Samuel
    Zooplankton responses to threats from UV and predation2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Download (pdf)
    Abstract
  • 284.
    Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Boeing, Wiebke J.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    Karlsson, Jan
    von Einem, Jessica
    Gutseit, Kelly
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Complementary UV protective compounds in zooplankton2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1883-1893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zooplankton accumulate several groups of photoprotective compounds to shield against damaging ultraviolet radiation (UV). One of these groups, the carotenoids, makes the animals more conspicuous to visually hunting predators, whereas others, such as the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may not. The blend of photoprotective compounds is therefore important for the UV defense but also for the ability to escape predation through crypsis. Here we assess laboratory and field data from different latitudes to examine how UV, predation threat, and pigment availability ( in food) affects the mixture of UV-protective compounds in copepods. Overall, the blend of MAAs and carotenoids was partly explained by the availability of MAAs in the food, the UV-threat, and the presence of predators. Copepods upregulated their MAA content when UV threat was increasing (i.e., if MAAs were abundant in food), and in field data this accumulation only occurred at high levels of predation threat. If MAAs were scarce, copepods instead compensated with higher carotenoid accumulation. However, when there was a high predation threat this carotenoid compensatory effect was disadvantageous, and low concentrations of both MAAs and carotenoids at high UV-threat resulted in lower reproduction. In all, these results showed that carotenoids and MAAs are complementary substances, i.e., one is high when the other is low, and copepods are, hence, able to adjust their blend of different UV-protective compounds to optimize their defenses to the threats of UV and predation. These defense systems may buffer against direct food-web interactions and help the zooplankton to survive in environments with high UV threat.

  • 285.
    Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ekvall, Mikael T
    Lund University.
    Bianco, Giuseppe
    Lund University.
    Yang, Xi
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Induced tolerance expressed as relaxed behavioural threat response in millimetre-sized aquatic organisms2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1788, p. Article ID: 20140364-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All individuals responded with immediate downward swimming to UVR exposure, but when released from the threat they rapidly returned to the surface. Large individuals swam faster and generally travelled longer distances than small individuals. Interestingly, individuals previously exposed to UVR (during several generations) showed a more relaxed response to UVR and travelled shorter total distances than those that were naive to UVR, suggesting induced tolerance to the threat. In addition, animals previously exposed to UVR also had smaller eyes than the naive ones, whereas UVR-protective melanin pigmentation of the animals was similar between populations. Finally, we show that smaller individuals have lower capacity to avoid UVR which could explain patterns in natural systems of lower migration amplitudes in small individuals. The ability to change behavioural patterns in response to a threat, in this case UVR, adds to our understanding of how organisms navigate in the ‘landscape of fear’, and this has important implications for individual fitness and for interaction strengths in biotic interactions.

  • 286.
    Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Biotopkartering av Lillån 2002: Naturvärden och behov av restaureringsåtgärder i ett biflöde till Holjeån/Skräbeån2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver resultaten av en biotopkartering av Lillån i Skräbeåns vattensystem i Bromölla kommun. Huvudsyftet med projektet var att ge ett underlag för att kunna bedöma vilka biologiska återställningsåtgärder som är nödvändiga i Lillån för att återfå den fauna som försvunnit på grund av markanvändning, vandringshinder och försurning. Projektet skulle även ge en bild av vilka naturvärden som finns i området.

    Fältarbetet utfördes juli 2002 av ALcontrol AB på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. Flygbildstolkning, digitalisering och beräkningar har utförts av Marie Eriksson på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län. En kompletterande inventering av nyckelbiotoper och skyddszoner genomfördes oktober 2004 av Samuel Hylander på Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län som också har kvalitetssäkrat materialet och skrivit rapporten.

    Projektet är bekostat med medel från Naturvårdsverket inom ramen för arbetet med biologisk återställning.

    Biotopkarteringar av vattendrag utgör viktiga kunskapsunderlag inom arbetet med EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten där utgångspunkten är att ”god ekologisk status” ska upprätthållas i våra sjöar och vattendrag. Resultaten beskriver bl.a. åtgärdsbehov och identifierade nyckelbiotoper och kan därmed användas för att realisera miljökvalitetsmålet ”Levande sjöar och vattendrag”. Rapporten riktar sig främst till handläggare vid kommuner och länsstyrelser men även andra intresserade.

  • 287.
    Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kiørboe, Thomas
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University.
    Sommaruga, Ruben
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark;Greenland Inst Nat Resources, Greenland.
    Concentrations of sunscreens and antioxidant pigments in Arctic Calanus spp. in relation to ice cover, ultraviolet radiation, and the phytoplankton spring bloom2015In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 60, p. 2197-2206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic zooplankton ascend to shallow depths during spring to graze on the yearly occurring phytoplankton bloom. However, in surface waters they are exposed to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels. Here, we quantified concentrations of substances known to have UVR-protective functions, namely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and the carotenoid astaxanthin, from March to May in Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus. Ice cover was 100% in the beginning of March, started to break up during April and was gone by the end of May. UVR-exposure in the water column was tightly linked to the ice conditions and water UVR-transparency was up to 6 m (depth where 1% radiation remains). Concentrations of MAAs in C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis increased sharply during ice break-up and peaked concurrently with maximum chlorophyll a (Chl a) levels. MAA-concentrations in C. hyperboreus increased later in accordance with its later arrival to the surface. The concentration of astaxanthin increased in all three species over time but there was no synchrony with ice conditions or the phytoplankton bloom. Even though only the upper 6 m of the water column was affected by UV-radiation, MAAs in the copepods were tightly correlated to the UV-threat. Hence, changes in ice cover are projected to have a large impact on the UVR-exposure of zooplankton emphasizing the importance of the timing of zooplankton ascent from deep waters in relation to the phytoplankton bloom and the ice break-up.

  • 288.
    Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Larsson, Niklas
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Zooplankton vertical migration and plasticity of pigmentation arising from simultaneous UV and predation threats2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 483-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed how zooplankton (copepods) handle the simultaneous threats of predators and ultraviolet (UV) radiation and whether they respond with changes in pigmentation, vertical migration, or both. We found weak vertical migration among copepods in response to UV stress, and this response was not apparently influenced by predation risk. Exposure to high levels of UV radiation caused copepods to retain pigments in the absence of a predation threat. When exposed to predation threat, they reduced their pigmentation regardless of UV level. Thus, they ranked predation as a threat more severe than UV radiation. Reducing the protective pigment level in response to predation in a situation in which UV radiation is high may, however, lead to higher mortality.

  • 289.
    Ianora, Adrianna
    et al.
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Bentley, Matthew G
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Caldwell, Gary S
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Casotti, Rafaella
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Cembella, Allan D
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, Germany.
    Engström Öst, Jonna
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland ; Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Halsband, Claudia
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK.
    Sonnenschein, Eva
    International Max Planck Research School of Marine Microbiology, Germany.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Llewellyn, Carole
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK.
    Paldaviciene, Aiste
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Pilkaityte, Renata
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Pohnert, Georg
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Razinkovas, Arthur
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Romano, Giovanna
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Tillmann, Urban
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, Germany.
    Vaiciute, Diana
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    The Relevance of Marine Chemical Ecology to Plankton and Ecosystem Function: An Emerging Field2011In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1625-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine chemical ecology comprises the study of the production and interaction of bioactive molecules affecting organism behavior and function. Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates. Planktonic bioactive metabolites are structurally and functionally diverse and some may have multiple simultaneous functions including roles in chemical defense (antipredator, allelopathic and antibacterial compounds), and/or cell-to-cell signaling (e.g., polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) of diatoms). Among inducible chemical defenses in response to grazing, there is high species-specific variability in the effects on grazers, ranging from severe physical incapacitation and/or death to no apparent physiological response, depending on predator susceptibility and detoxification capability. Most bioactive compounds are present in very low concentrations, in both the producing organism and the surrounding aqueous medium. Furthermore, bioactivity may be subject to synergistic interactions with other natural and anthropogenic environmental toxicants. Most, if not all phycotoxins are classic secondary metabolites, but many other bioactive metabolites are simple molecules derived from primary metabolism (e.g., PUAs in diatoms, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in prymnesiophytes). Producing cells do not seem to suffer physiological impact due to their synthesis. Functional genome sequence data and gene expression analysis will provide insights into regulatory and metabolic pathways in producer organisms, as well as identification of mechanisms of action in target organisms. Understanding chemical ecological responses to environmental triggers and chemically-mediated species interactions will help define crucial chemical and molecular processes that help maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functionality.

  • 290.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S439-S450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water bodies, using high throughput sequencing of environmental DNA and RNA. Collectively the data illustrate that Baltic Sea microbes are unique and highly diverse, and well adapted to this brackish-water ecosystem, findings that represent a novel base-line knowledge necessary for monitoring purposes and a sustainable management. More specifically, the data relate to environmental drivers for microbial community composition and function, assessments of the microbial biodiversity, adaptations and role of microbes in the nitrogen cycle, and microbial genome assembly from metagenomic sequences. With these discoveries as background, prospects of using metagenomics for Baltic Sea environmental monitoring are discussed.

  • 291. Isaeus, M.
    et al.
    Malm, T.
    Persson, S.
    Svensson, A.
    Effects of filamentous algae and sediment on recruitment and survival of Fucus serratus (Phaeophyceae) juveniles in the eutrophic Baltic Sea2004In: European journal of phycology, ISSN 0967-0262, E-ISSN 1469-4433, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has increased both the growth of annual filamentous algae and the rate of sedimentation. Together these factors may have a detrimental effect on the survival of perennial macroalgal populations. The aim of this research was to study how these factors affect the colonization success of Fucus serratus at the local level. We investigated the settlement and survival of F. serratus germlings through a combination of field studies and laboratory experiments. The study area lay off the east coast of Oland, along the central Baltic Sea, where consistently-submerged, extensive fucoid stands occur at depths of 2- 10 in, together with turf-forming filamentous algae, mainly Polysiphonia fucoides. Very few F. serratus juveniles were observed outside the sweeping radius of adult F. serratus individuals at a 7-m depth, while abundant recruits were found inside F. serratus stands. Amounts of filamentous algae and sediment were significantly larger outside the F. serratus stands than inside, and the amount of fine sediment (< 0.25 mm) was positively correlated with the amount of filamentous algae, suggesting that fine sediment accumulates in the turf. Experimental studies showed that both filamentous algae and sediment negatively affect the settlement ability of F. serratus eggs and zygotes and the subsequent survival of the germlings, with sediment having the strongest effect. Thus, the prior existence of an adult F. serratus population may allow for continuing recruitment of juveniles, while colonization of new areas unaffected by the sweeping effect of larger individuals seems very difficult under current conditions.

  • 292. J. Tranvik, Lars
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, University of Lund .
    Okla, L
    Regnell, O
    In situ mineralization of chlorinated phenols by pelagic bacteria in lakes of differing humic content1991In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 195-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microbial mineralization of phenol and three chlorinated phenols (3,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) in the water column of 23 pristine, oligotrophic lakes of different humic content was investigated. During short-term (∼2 d) in situ incubations of water samples amended with 14C-labeled phenolic compounds, the fraction of the added pollutant mineralized to 14CO2 was positively correlated with water color (an estimate of humic content) and the total organic carbon concentration of the water. The rate of mineralization per bacterial cell was not correlated with humic content, due to increased bacterial abundance with increasing humic content. Hence, the higher mineralization rate in humic lakes than in clear-water lakes was probably a result of higher bacterial abundance rather than being an effect of bacterial cells having a higher potential for the degradation of such compounds. 

  • 293.
    Jabado, Rima W.
    et al.
    Environm Agcy Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates;Gulf Elasmo Project, United Arab Emirates.
    Kyne, Peter M.
    Charles Darwin Univ, Australia.
    Pollom, Riley A.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Canada.
    Ebert, David A.
    Moss Landing Marine Labs, USA.
    Simpfendorfer, Colin A.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Ralph, Gina M.
    Old Dominion Univ, USA.
    Al Dhaheri, Shaikha S.
    Environm Agcy Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Akhilesh, K. V.
    ICAR Cent Marine Fisheries Res Inst, India.
    Ali, Khadeeja
    H Whitewaves, Maldives.
    Ali, Mohamud Hassan
    Fed Minist Fisheries & Marine Resources, Somalia.
    Al Mamari, Tariq M. S.
    Minist Agr & Fisheries, Oman.
    Bineesh, K. K.
    Zool Survey India, India.
    El Hassan, Igbal S.
    Univ Bahri, Sudan.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Blue Resources Trust, Sri Lanka.
    Grandcourt, Edwin M.
    Environm Agcy Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Khan, Muhammad Moazzam
    WWF Pakistan, Pakistan.
    Moore, Alec B. M.
    RSK Environm Ltd, UK.
    Owfi, Fereidoon
    Iranian Fisheries Sci Res Inst, Iran.
    Robinson, David P.
    Sharkwatch Arabia, United Arab Emirates.
    Romanov, Evgeny
    Ctr Tech Appui Peche Reunionnaise CAP RUN, France.
    Soares, Ana-Lucia
    Gulf Elasmo Project, United Arab Emirates.
    Spaet, Julia L. Y.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Tesfamichael, Dawit
    Syst Anal Res, Canada.
    Valinassab, Tooraj
    Iranian Fisheries Sci Res Inst, Iran.
    Dulvy, Nicholas K.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Canada.
    Troubled waters: Threats and extinction risk of the sharks, rays and chimaeras of the Arabian Sea and adjacent waters2018In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1043-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extinction risk of sharks, rays and chimaeras is higher than that for most other vertebrates due to low intrinsic population growth rates of many species and the fishing intensity they face. The Arabian Sea and adjacent waters border some of the most important chondrichthyan fishing and trading nations globally, yet there has been no previous attempt to assess the conservation status of species occurring here. Using IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Categories and Criteria and their guidelines for application at the regional level, we present the first assessment of extinction risk for 153 species of sharks, rays and chimaeras. Results indicate that this region, home to 15% of described chondrichthyans including 30 endemic species, has some of the most threatened chondrichthyan populations in the world. Seventy-eight species (50.9%) were assessed as threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable), and 27 species (17.6%) as Near Threatened. Twenty-nine species (19%) were Data Deficient with insufficient information to assess their status. Chondrichthyan populations have significantly declined due to largely uncontrolled and unregulated fisheries combined with habitat degradation. Further, there is limited political will and national and regional capacities to assess, manage, conserve or rebuild stocks. Outside the few deepsea locations that are lightly exploited, the prognosis for the recovery of most species is poor in the near-absence of management. Concerted national and regional management measures are urgently needed to ensure extinctions are avoided, the sustainability of more productive species is secured, and to avoid the continued thinning of the regional food security portfolio.

  • 294.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Löf, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of interspecific competition from surrounding vegetation on mortality, growth and stem development in young oaks (Quercus robur)2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 392, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facilitation by a neighboring woody understory has been suggested as a cost-effective and sustainable way to regenerate oaks. However, concerns about reduced plant growth and quality due to competing neighboring vegetation have hindered implementation. Here we studied competitive effects from herbaceous and woody vegetation on survival, growth, canopy development and stem quality in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) in an open-field experiment in southern Sweden. Oaks were grown for eight years in four different competition treatments: no competing vegetation, with herbaceous vegetation (mainly grasses), with woody vegetation, and with both herbaceous and woody vegetation. During the first four years, competition had little effect on oak survival. However, after eight growing seasons, survival rates decreased to about 20% for oaks surrounded by woody vegetation, in contrast to oaks grown with only herbaceous vegetation that had a survival rate of near 100%. Competition from herbaceous and woody vegetation both reduced oak stem diameter and height growth, but they affected height growth differently. During the first growing seasons, oaks in the treatment with woody vegetation were able to keep up with the height growth of the surrounding vegetation. Thereafter, height growth stagnated, and after eight growing seasons heights of oaks in the treatment with woody competitors were only 30–39% that of oaks in the treatment without competing vegetation. In contrast, competition from herbaceous vegetation only restricted oak height development marginally. Interspecific competition not only restricted growth and survival but also shifted shoot architecture, resulting in a greater frequency of oaks with straight monopodial stems. Although competition from both herbaceous- and woody vegetation positively affected stem straightness, plots with woody vegetation had a greater proportion (0.42) of oaks with a single straight monopodial stem. Our results demonstrate that the facilitative competitive effects from herbaceous and woody vegetation could be used to control allocation patterns in young oaks, promoting development of tall straight monopodial stems. Considering the observed trade-off between high stem quality and survival, we recommend long-term assessment of this trade-off prior to application in practical forestry.

  • 295.
    Jerney, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Kremp, Anke
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland;Leibniz Inst Ostseeforsch Warnemunde, Germany.
    Future temperature and salinity do not exert selection pressure on cyst germination of a toxic phytoplankton species2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 4443-4451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions regulate the germination of phytoplankton resting stages. While some factors lead to synchronous germination, others stimulate germination of only a small fraction of the resting stages. This suggests that habitat filters may act on the germination level and thus affect selection of blooming strains. Benthic “seed banks” of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea are genetically and phenotypically diverse, indicating a high potential for adaptation by selection on standing genetic variation. Here, we experimentally tested the role of climate-related salinity and temperature as selection filters during germination and subsequent establishment of A. ostenfeldii strains. A representative resting cyst population was isolated from sediment samples, and germination and reciprocal transplantation experiments were carried out, including four treatments: Average present day germination conditions and three potential future conditions: high temperature, low salinity, and high temperature in combination with low salinity. We found that the final germination success of A. ostenfeldii resting cysts was unaffected by temperature and salinity in the range tested. A high germination success of more than 80% in all treatments indicates that strains are not selected by temperature and salinity during germination, but selection becomes more important shortly after germination, in the vegetative stage of the life cycle. Moreover, strains were not adapted to germination conditions. Instead, highly plastic responses occurred after transplantation and significantly higher growth rates were observed at higher temperature. High variability of strain-specific responses has probably masked the overall effect of the treatments, highlighting the importance of testing the effect of environmental factors on many strains. It is likely that A. ostenfeldii populations can persist in the future, because suitable strains, which are able to germinate and grow well at potential future climate conditions, are part of the highly diverse cyst population. OPEN RESEARCH BADGES: This article has earned an Open Data Badge for making publicly available the digitally-shareable data necessary to reproduce the reported results. The data is available at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.c8c83nr. © 2019 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 296.
    Johansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University.
    Artursson, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hansson, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University;Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lopez-Martin, Juana
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Univ Andres Bello, Chile.
    Moreno, Lucile
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Engvall, Eva Olsson
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Skarin, Hanna
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Troell, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Agren, Joakim
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of knowledge of naturally occurring pathogens is limiting our ability to use the Antarctic to study the impact human-mediated introduction of infectious microorganisms have on this relatively uncontaminated environment. As no large-scale coordinated effort to remedy this lack of knowledge has taken place, we rely on smaller targeted efforts to both study present microorganisms and monitor the environment for introductions. In one such effort, we isolated Campylobacter species from fecal samples collected from wild birds in the Antarctic Peninsula and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Indeed, in South Georgia, we found Campylobacter lari and the closely related Campylobacter peloridis, but also distantly related human-associated multilocus sequence types of Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast, in the Antarctic Peninsula, we found C. tart and two closely related species, Campylobacter subantarcticus and Campylobacter volucris, but no signs of human introduction. In fact, our finding of human-associated sequence types of C. jejuni in South Georgia, but not in the Antarctic Peninsula, suggests that efforts to limit the spread of infectious microorganisms to the Antarctic have so far been successful in preventing the introduction of C. jejuni. However, we do not know how it came to South Georgia and whether the same mode of introduction could spread it from there to the Antarctic Peninsula.

  • 297.
    Johansson, Karin S. L.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lebret, Karen
    Lund University.
    Johnson, Richard K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Zooplankton Feeding on the Nuisance Flagellate Gonyostomum semen2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, p. e62557-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large bloom-forming flagellate Gonyostomum semen has been hypothesized to be inedible to naturally occurring zooplankton due to its large cell size and ejection of long slimy threads (trichocysts) induced by physical stimulation. In a grazing experiment using radiolabelled algae and zooplankton collected from lakes with recurring blooms of G. semen and lakes that rarely experience blooms, we found that Eudiaptomus gracilis and Holopedium gibberum fed on G. semen at high rates, whereas Daphnia cristata and Ceriodaphnia spp. did not. Grazing rates of E. gracilis were similar between bloom-lakes and lakes with low biomass of G. semen, indicating that the ability to feed on G. semen was not a result of local adaptation. The high grazing rates of two of the taxa in our experiment imply that some of the nutrients and energy taken up by G. semen can be transferred directly to higher trophic levels, although the predominance of small cladocerans during blooms may limit the importance of G. semen as a food resource. Based on grazing rates and previous observations on abundances of E. gracilis and H. gibberum, we conclude that there is a potential for grazer control of G. semen and discuss why blooms of G. semen still occur.

  • 298. Johansson, N
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Toxicity of Chrysochromulina polylepis cells growing in different N:P ratios1998In: Harmful algae = Algas nocivas: proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Harmful Algae, Vigo, Spain, 25-29 June 1997 / [ed] Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez LM & Wyatt T, Xunta de Galicia and IOC-UNESCO , 1998, p. 329-330Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Kindvall, Oskar
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Askling, John
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Extreme weather affects colonization: extinction dynamics and the persistence of a threatened butterfly2020In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme weather events can be expected to increase in frequency in the future. Our knowledge on how this may affect species persistence is, however, very limited. For reliable projections of future persistence we need to understand how extreme weather affects species' population dynamics.We analysed the effect of extreme droughts on the host plant Succisa pratensis, colonization-extinction dynamics, and future persistence of the threatened marsh fritillary Euphydryas aurinia. Specifically, we studied a metapopulation inhabiting a network of 256 patches on Gotland (Sweden), where the summer of 2018 was the driest ever recorded. We analysed how the frequency and leaf size of host plants changed between 2017 and 2019, based on 6,833 records in 0.5-m(2) sample plots. Using turnover data on the butterfly from 2018 to 2019 we modelled local extinction and colonization probabilities. Moreover, we projected future population dynamics with an increasing frequency of extreme years under three different management strategies that regulate the grazing regime.Our results show a substantial decrease in both frequency (46%) and size (20%) of host plants due to the drought, which taken together may constitute a 57% loss of food resources. The butterfly occupancy decreased by over 30% between 2018 and 2019 (from 0.36 to 0.27). The extinction probability increased with increasing 'effective area' of the patch (taking quality reduction due to grazing into account), and the colonization probability increased with increasing connectivity and ground moisture.Projections of future dynamics showed an increasing risk of metapopulation extinction with increasing frequency of years with extreme droughts. The risk, however, clearly differed between management strategies. Less grazing in years with droughts decreased the extinction risk considerably.Synthesis and applications. Extreme weather events can have profound negative impacts on butterflies and their host plants. For the marsh fritillary, an increased frequency of extreme droughts can lead to extinction of the entire metapopulation, even in a large and seemingly viable metapopulation. Increased grazing, due to fodder deficiency in dry years, may lead to cascading negative effects, while active management that reduce grazing in years with droughts can almost completely mitigate these effects.

  • 300.
    Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Kindvall, Oskar
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Askling, John
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Intense grazing of calcareous grasslands has negative consequences for the threatened marsh fritillary butterfly2019In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 239, p. 1-9, article id 108280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing generally benefits grassland biodiversity as it prevents shrub and tree succession. However, too intense grazing may have negative effects for example many grassland insects. EU-subsidies for grazing of some habitats, aimed at promoting biodiversity, still require a relatively intense grazing, and could therefore have negative consequences for some species. We quantified how such grazing affects habitat quality for the marsh fritillary butterfly, and how this influence its colonization-extinction dynamics and persistence. Specifically, we studied a metapopulation on Gotland (Sweden), where the marsh fritillary occupies unfertilized calcareous grassland with a naturally slow succession. We quantified the difference in larvae autumn nests between grazed and ungrazed habitat, and used this difference to adjust the 'effective area' of 256 habitat patches in a 50 km(2) landscape. We then parameterized a metapopulation model based on the occurrence pattern of the adult butterfly, and simulated future population development under different grazing regimes. The results showed that ungrazed habitat harbored 4.8 times more nests than grazed habitat. Reducing the 'effective area' of grazed patches accordingly increased the local extinction probability and decreased colonization. Grazing all suitable habitat reduced the occupancy by over 80%, while no grazing increased the occupancy by up to 40%, based on projections of future dynamics. Current grazing is clearly too intense, and EU-subsidies are here, thus, a conservation measure with negative consequences for a threatened butterfly. To prevent this, subsidies for grazing need to be more flexible and better adapted to the prevailing soil conditions and requirements of the target species.

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