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  • 251.
    Holt, Margrethe
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Seim, Bjorn E.
    Univ Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Ogaard, Jonas
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Olsen, Maria B.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Woldbaek, Per R.
    Oslo Univ Hosp Ulleval, Norway.
    Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Aukrust, Pal
    Univ Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Yndestad, Arne
    Univ Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    Univ Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Nordland Hosp, Norway;Univ Tromsø, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Louwe, Mieke C.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Ranheim, Trine
    Univ Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Selective and marked decrease of complement receptor C5aR2 in human thoracic aortic aneurysms: a dysregulation with potential inflammatory effects2019In: Open heart, E-ISSN 2053-3624, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-8, article id e001098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aetiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is largely unknown, but inflammation is likely to play a central role in the pathogenesis. In this present study, we aim to investigate the complement receptors in TAA. Methods Aortic tissue and blood from 31 patients with non-syndromic TAA undergoing thoracic aortic repair surgery were collected. Aortic tissue and blood from 36 patients with atherosclerosis undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery or aortic valve replacement were collected and served as control material. The expression of the complement anaphylatoxin receptors C3aR1, C5aR1 and C5aR2 in aortic tissue were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and C5aR2 protein by immunohistochemistry. Colocalisation of C5aR2 to different cell types was analysed by immunofluorescence. Complement activation products C3bc and sC5b-9 were measured in plasma. Results Compared with controls, TAA patients had substantial (73%) downregulated gene expression of C5aR2 as seen both at the mRNA (p=0.005) level and protein (p=0.03) level. In contrast, there were no differences in the expression of C3aR1 and C5aR1 between the two groups. Immunofluorescence examination showed that C5aR2 was colocalised to macrophages and T cells in the aortic media. There were no differences in the degree of systemic complement activation between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest downregulation of the C5aR2, regarded to act mainly anti-inflammatory, in electively operated TAA as compared with non-aneurysmatic aortas of patients with aortic stenosis and/or coronary artery disease. This may tip the balance towards a relative increase in the inflammatory responses induced by C5aR1 and thus enhance the inflammatory processes in TAA.

  • 252.
    Hommerberg, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Gustafsson, Anna W.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Battle, Journey, Imprisonment and Burden: patterns of metaphor use in blogs about living with advanced cancer2020In: BMC Palliative Care, ISSN 1472-684X, E-ISSN 1472-684X, Vol. 19, p. 1-10, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The significance of metaphors for the experience of cancer has been the topic of extensive previous research, with “Battle” and “Journey” metaphors standing out as key. Adaptation to the patient’s use of metaphor is generally believed to be an important aspect of person-centered care, especially in palliative care. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of metaphors in blogs written in Swedish by people living with advanced cancer and explore possible patterns associated with individuals, age and gender.

    Methods: The study is based on a dataset totaling 2 602 479 words produced some time during the period 2007–2016 by 27 individuals diagnosed with advanced cancer. Both qualitative and quantitative procedures were used, and the findings are represented as raw frequencies as well as normalized frequencies per 10 000 words. Our general approach was exploratory and descriptive. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze statistical significance.

    Results: Our results confirm the strong foothold of “Journey” and “Battle” metaphors. “Imprisonment” and “Burden” metaphors were also used by the majority of the individuals. The propensity to use metaphors when describing the cancer experience was found to differ extensively across the individuals. However, individuals were not found to opt for one conceptualization over the other but tended to draw on several different metaphor domains when conceptualizing their experience. Socio-demographic factors such as age or gender were not found to be strong predictors of metaphor choice in this limited study.

    Conclusions: Using a range of different metaphors allows individuals with advanced cancer to highlight different aspects of their experience. The presence of metaphors associated with “Journey”, “Battle”, “Imprisonment” and “Burden” across individuals could be explained by the fact that the bloggers are part of a culturally consistent cohort, despite variations in age, sex and cancer form. Awareness of metaphors commonly used by patients can enhance health professionals’ capacity to identify metaphorical patterns and develop a common language grounded in the patients’ own metaphor use, which is an important requisite for person-centered palliative care.

  • 253.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Trends in Inappropriate Drug Therapy Prescription in the Elderly in Sweden from 2006 to 2013: Assessment Using National Indicators2014In: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Medication for elderly patients is often complex and problematic. Several criteria for classifying inappropriate prescribing exist. In 2010, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare published the document "Indicators of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly" as a guideline for improving prescribing for the elderly. Objective The aim of this study was to assess trends in the prescription of inappropriate drug therapy in the elderly in Sweden from 2006 to 2013 using national quality indicators for drug treatment. Methods Individual-based data on dispensed prescription drugs for the entire Swedish population aged >= 65 years during eight 3-month periods from 2006 to 2013 were accumulated. The data were extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Eight drug-specific quality indicators were monitored. Results For the entire population studied (n = 1,828,283 in 2013), six of the eight indicators showed an improvement according to the guidelines; the remaining two indicators (drugs with anticholinergic effects and excessive polypharmacy) remained relatively unchanged. For the subgroup aged 65-74 years, three indicators showed an improvement, four indicators remained relatively unchanged (e.g. propiomazine, and oxazepam) and one showed an undesirable trend (anticholinergic drugs) according to guidelines. For the older group (aged >= 75 years), all indicators except excessive polypharmacy showed improvement. Conclusion According to the quality indicators used, the extent of inappropriate drug therapy in the elderly decreased from 2006 to 2013 in Sweden. Thus, prescribers appear to be more likely to change their prescribing patterns for the elderly than previously assumed.

  • 254.
    Huang, Shan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Wieslander, Anders
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Grundström, Gunilla
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Hancock, Viktoria
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Low concentrations of citrate reduce complement and granulocyte activation in vitro in human blood2015In: Clinical Kidney Journal, ISSN 2048-8505, E-ISSN 2048-8513, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:The use of acetate in haemodialysis fluids may induce negative effects in patients including nausea and increased inflammation. Therefore, haemodialysis fluids where acetate is substituted with citrate have recently been developed. In this study, we investigated the biocompatibility of citrate employing concentrations used in haemodialysis.

    METHODS:The effects of citrate and acetate were investigated in human whole blood in vitro under conditions promoting biomaterial-induced activation. Complement activation was measured as generation of C3a, C5a and the sC5b-9 complex, and granulocyte activation as up-regulation of CD11b expression. For the experimental set-up, a mathematical model was created to calculate the concentrations of acetate and citrate attained during haemodialysis.

    RESULTS:Citrate reduced granulocyte activation and did not induce higher complement activation compared with acetate at concentrations attained during haemodialysis. Investigating different citrate concentrations clearly showed that citrate is a potent complement inhibitor already at low concentrations, i.e. 0.25 mM, which is comparable with concentrations detected in the blood of patients during dialysis with citrate-containing fluids. Increased citrate concentration up to 6 mM further reduced the activation of C3a, C5a and sC5b-9, as well as the expression of CD11b.

    CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that citrate is a promising substitute for acetate for a more biocompatible dialysis, most likely resulting in less adverse effects for the patients.

  • 255.
    Huang, Yanyan
    et al.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Wille, Michelle
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Benkaroun, Jessica
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Munro, Hannah
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Bond, Alexander L.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Fifield, David A.
    Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Canada.
    Robertson, Gregory J.
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Ojkic, Davor
    University of Guelph, Canada.
    Whitney, Hugh
    Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Canada.
    Lang, Andrew S.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America2014In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 456-457, p. 353-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gulls are important hosts of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) and gull AIVs often contain gene segments of mixed geographic and host lineage origins. In this study, the prevalence of AIV in gulls of Newfoundland, Canada from 2008 to 2011 was analyzed. Overall prevalence was low (30/1645, 1.8%) but there was a distinct peak of infection in the fall. AIV seroprevalence was high in Newfoundland gulls, with 50% of sampled gulls showing evidence of previous infection. Sequences of 16 gull AIVs were determined and analyzed to shed light on the transmission, reassortment and persistence dynamics of gull AIVs in Atlantic North America. Intercontinental and waterfowl lineage reassortment was prevalent. Of particular note were a wholly Eurasian AIV and another with an intercontinental reassortant waterfowl lineage virus. These patterns of geographic and inter-host group transmission highlight the importance of characterization of gull AIVs as part of attempts to understand global AIV dynamics.

  • 256.
    Hultqvist, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förändringen av lipidskiktets tjocklek i tårfilmen mellan förmiddag och eftermiddag2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Symptom vid torra ögon kan vara en känsla av torrhet, irritation, okomfort, främmande kropps känsla och ökad produktion av tårar. Torrhetskänslan varierar under dagen men är mest påtaglig framåt kvällen. 3 av 4 som upplever symptom för torra ögon har ett tunnare lipidskikt. Diagnostisering av normala, måttligt torra och torra ögon kan dels göras med hjälp av en symtomenkät t.ex. TERTC-DEQ.

    Syfte: Att undersöka om lipidskiktet förändras i tjocklek från förmiddag jämfört med eftermiddag under samma dag.

    Metod: I studien deltog 6 män och 21 kvinnor med en medelålder på 23.3 ± 2.1 år. Mätning av lipidskiktet utfördes en gång på förmiddagen och en gång på eftermiddagen under samma dag. Gradering av lipidskiktet utfördes med hjälp av instrumentet Tearscope-plus. Försökspersonerna fick även svara på enkäten TERTC-DEQ.

    Resultat: På förmiddagen hade 55% av försökspersonerna lipidskikt wave pattern typ (3). Medelvärdet av typ på förmiddagen, var 2.7. På eftermiddagen låg lipidskiktet jämnt fördelat över wave pattern typ (3) med 40.7% och closed meshwork typ (2) med 40.7%. Medelvärdet av typ på eftermiddagen, var 2.4. Medelvärdet hade förändrats 0.3 mellan förmiddag och eftermiddag, från ett tjockare till ett tunnare skikt. Vid sammanställning TERTC-DEQ upplevde 74.1% normala ögon och 25.9% måttligt torra ögon.

    Slutsats: Resultatet av studien visar att det sker en förändring av lipidskikts tjockleken från förmiddag jämfört med eftermiddag. Lipidskiktet är tjockare på förmiddagen jämfört med eftermiddagen. Att lipidskiktet förändras kan ha resulterat i att torrhetskänslan i ögonen kan blir mer påtaglig framåt kvällen.

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  • 257.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Community health-care staff's experiences of support to prevent type 2 diabetes among people with psychosis: An interview study with health staff.2012In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe mental health staff experiences of giving support to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among people with psychosis in community psychiatry. A qualitative interview study with a purposeful sample of 12 community health staff was conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show how staff reported continuously supporting people with psychosis to adapt to healthy lifestyles, but stated that support is not given until after a person becomes overweight or is diagnosed with type 2 DM. Support was described as a never-ending process of motivation facing many reverses. Individually-adapted support given in practical situations was perceived as most successful. Cooperation between health-care organizations was seen as essential, but inadequate. Limitations in income and social network, and easy access to fast food and alcohol, were seen as obstacles to support. The results indicate that community health staff are in a position to make a considerable impact in motivating and supporting healthy lifestyle changes in practical situations in daily life among people with psychosis. This study raises awareness of how community health staff's support can be useful when developing nursing skills and health-care plans for people with psychosis.

  • 258.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Organizing care for persons with psychotic disorders and risk of or existing diabetes mellitus type 22012In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 891-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review aimed to explore previous knowledge about specific care requirements for persons with psychotic disorders and risk of or existing type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: qualitative and quantitative studies in the area were identified and reviewed. 

    Results: It were indicated that mental health nurses play an important role in motivating people to perform diabetes care as they are often known to and trusted by the patients. A holistic approach to the person's health, with close follow-ups by psychiatric care and cooperation with diabetes care, may have benefits for the person with diabetes. Screening for and treating psychotic symptoms is an important task for the mental health nurse, as these symptoms drain energy from the person and prevent diabetes self-care. Lifestyle and diabetes education needs to be practical, adapted to the individual and focused on maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, changing smoking habits and preventing diabetes complications. Treatment with antipsychotic drugs increases the need for follow-ups of glycaemic control.

  • 259.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Helkala, E.L.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Soininen, H.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Nissinen, A.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki.
    Winblad, B.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Kivipelto, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Depressive signs in midlife: A risk factor for cognitive impairment in later life?2010In: International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD) 2010, Chicago, USA: Alzheimer's Association , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although depression has been associated with dementia, the nature of this relation is still unclear. Establishing causality from previous studies has been complicated by the typical use of a short follow-up and participants aged over 70 already at baseline. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if depressive signs already in midlife are related to cognitive impairment in later life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. Their mean age at baseline was 50.4 years (SD 6.0). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1449 individuals (73%) aged 65 to 79 years were re-examined in 1998. At the re-examination some form of cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 139 of the participants: 82 with mild cognitive impairment and 57 with dementia (48 of these with Alzheimer’s disease). Signs of depression were estimated through responses to three questions concerning the perception of a hopeless future, impossible life goals and loneliness. The relation between depressive signs in midlife and cognitive impairment in later life was analyzed with logistic regression with adjustments for age, gender, apolipoprotein e4 status and a number of midlife health and lifestyle indicators, including blood pressure, cholesterol and marital status. Results: Depressive signs in midlife, as measured in this study, were significantly related to general cognitive impairment in later life, but also separately to both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. When dichotomized into high versus low levels of depressive signs the odds ratios were 2.19 (1.1 to 4.3) for mild cognitive impairment and 3.81 (1.3 to 11.5) for Alzheimer’s disease. Significant associations were also found between the separate measures of hopelessness and loneliness on the one hand and the separate outcomes of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease on the other. Conclusions: The results support a causal relation between depressive signs relatively early in life and cognitive function in later life. Clinical relevance includes the long-term health implications of depressive signs in midlife also for the risk of dementia.

  • 260.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Institutet;University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    The Patient with Cognitive Impairment2018In: Treatable and Potentially Preventable Dementias / [ed] Hachinsky, Vladimir, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 52-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Rovio, Suvi
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helkala, Eeva-Liisa
    University of Kuopio, Finland.
    Vilska, Anna-Riitta
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    University of Kuopio, Finland.
    Nissinen, Aulikki
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska institutet / University of Kuopio, Finland.
    Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function in later life: population based cohort study2009In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 339, no July, p. Article number: b2462-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate whether mid-life marital status is related to cognitive function in later life. Design Prospective population based study with an average follow-up of 21 years. Setting Kuopio and Joensuu regions in eastern Finland. Participants Participants were derived from random, population based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987; 1449 individuals (73%), aged 65-79, underwent re-examination in 1998. Main outcome measures Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Results People cohabiting with a partner in mid-life (mean age 50.4) were less likely than all other categories (single, separated, or widowed) to show cognitive impairment later in life at ages 65-79. Those widowed or divorced in mid-life and still so at follow-up had three times the risk compared with married or cohabiting people. Those widowed both at mid-life and later life had an odds ratio of 7.67 (1.6 to 40.0) for Alzheimer's disease compared with married or cohabiting people. The highest increased risk for Alzheimer's disease was in carriers of the apolipoprotein E e4 allele who lost their partner before mid-life and were still widowed or divorced at follow-up. The progressive entering of several adjustment variables from mid-life did not alter these associations. Conclusions Living in a relationship with a partner might imply cognitive and social challenges that have a protective effect against cognitive impairment later in life, consistent with the brain reserve hypothesis. The specific increased risk for widowed and divorced people compared with single people indicates that other factors are needed to explain parts of the results. A sociogenetic disease model might explain the dramatic increase in risk of Alzheimer's disease for widowed apolipoprotein E e4 carriers.

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  • 262.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Maktens grepp om det rättspsykiatriska vårdandet2008In: Rättspsykiatriskt vårdande: Vårdande av lagöverträdare med psykisk ohälsa, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur , 2008, 1, , p. 231p. 177-208Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    'The art of understanding in forensic psychiatric care': from a caring science perspective based on a lifeworld approach2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 802-809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients in forensic psychiatric clinics are a vulnerable and exposed patient group due to suffering from a severe mental disorder, having committed a crime and being cared for against their will in an institutional environment with a high level of security. The art of understanding in forensic psychiatric care is discussed from a caring science perspective, based on a lifeworld approach. The aim is to contribute knowledge that can support staff, who daily meet patients on forensic psychiatric wards, in applying a caring attitude.

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  • 264.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Brunt, David
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    Clients’ perceptions of client-nurse relationships in local authority psychiatric services:: A qualitative study.2004In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mental Health Care reform in Sweden aimed, among other things, to improve the possibilities for persons with mental illnesses to experience companionship and participation in society. The aim of the study was to describe how persons suffering from mental illness perceive their relationships with nursing staff in local authority psychiatric services. Data were collected through semi-structured recorded interviews with 17 strategically chosen clients. A qualitative approach inspired by phenomenography was used to analyse the data. The analysis resulted in four main categories and 13 subcategories. The main categories were: security, companionship, confirmation and development.

  • 265.
    Ingling, Allen W
    et al.
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Muller, Matthew S
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Green, Jason J
    Indiana Univ, USA.
    Gast, Thomas
    Aeon Imaging, USA ; Indiana Univ, USA.
    Haggerty, Bryan
    Indiana Univ, USA.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Indiana Univ, USA.
    Clendenon, Jeffrey
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Stanfield, Kenneth A
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Elsner, Ann E
    Aeon Imaging, USA ; Indiana Univ, USA.
    Fixation stability readily obtained from confocal color fundus imaging2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 515-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeStabile fixation underpins most visual tasks such as reading, and is important for accurate assessment of visual function and treatment. Retinal imaging instruments average images over time to improve the signal to noise ratio, discarding useful eye movement data. We determined whether the frame-to-frame motion of the retina during non-mydriatic color fundus imaging could provide fixation stability measures, e.g. Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area (BCEA). MethodsNon-mydriatic color fundus images were acquired using the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). Twenty subjects with varied fundus pigmentation were tested without mydriasis. The DLO uses a digital light projector with LED light sources to provide the illumination for both confocal imaging and fixation stimuli. The DLO projects a series of lines across the fundus that is synchronized to the 2D CMOS sensor, providing high contrast confocal imaging. Monochromatic 40 deg images were acquired with alternating red and green LED illumination at 14.3 Hz and overlayed to present a pseudo-color image to the operator in real time. To reduce pupil constriction and patient discomfort, the green LED was long-pass filtered with a 570 nm filter. A 1.5mm entrance pupil and time-averaged power of <30 uW were used. Images were aligned automatically with custom software (MATLAB) using cross-correlation and 2D translation. A canvas of twice the image size was used to allow image alignment despite moderate eye movements. Blinks and large saccades were discarded and BCEA was computed. ResultsThe image alignment algorithm successfully aligned nearly all the frames, rejecting 3.7%, and allowing fixation stability to be computed from color fundus image data. The BCEA for 1 standard deviation was 2.97 log minarc2 for all subjects and both the red and yellow-orange illumination. There was no difference between the BCEA for red or yellow-orange illumination (t = .86). ConclusionsThe color DLO records sufficiently high quality images to reliably calculate measures of fixation stability. Despite recruiting an especially challenging population that included dark fundi, small pupils, high refractive errors, and media issues, we achieved success in all subjects tested to date.

  • 266.
    Instenes, Irene
    et al.
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Amofah, Hege A.
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Ranhoff, Anette H.
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Eide, Leslie S. P.
    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Norekval, Tone M.
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway;Univ Bergen, Norway;Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    'I hope you get normal again': an explorative study on how delirious octogenarian patients experience their interactions with healthcare professionals and relatives after aortic valve therapy2019In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 224-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Delirium affects nearly half of octogenarian patients after aortic valve replacement, resulting in impaired cognition, reduced awareness and hallucinations. Although healthcare professionals and relatives are often present during episodes, the nature of interactions with them is scarcely studied, and little is known about their long-term experiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how octogenarian patients with post-aortic valve replacement delirium experience interactions with healthcare professionals and relatives within the first year and four years later. Method: An explorative design with qualitative content analysis was used. Delirium was assessed for five consecutive days after aortic valve replacement using the Confusion Assessment Method. Delirious patients (n=10) were interviewed 6-12 months post-discharge and four years later (n=5). We used an inductive approach to identify themes in transcribed interviews. Findings: An overarching theme emerged: 'Healthcare professionals' and relatives' responses made a considerable impact on the delirium experience postoperatively and in a long-term'. Three sub-themes described the patients' experiences: 'the need for close supportive care', 'disrespectful behaviour created a barrier' and 'insensitive comments made lasting impressions'. Having healthcare professionals and relatives nearby made the patients feel secure, while lack of attention elevated patients' emotional distress. Four years later, patients clearly recalled negative comments and unsupportive actions in their delirious state. Conclusions: Healthcare professionals and relatives have an essential role in the aortic valve replacement recovery process. Inconsiderate behaviour directed at older patients in delirium elevates distress and has long-term implications. Supportive care focused on maintaining the patients' dignity and integrity is vital.

  • 267.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden;Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Åsa B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cronberg, Tobias
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Djärv, Therese
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ing-Marie
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lilja, Gisela
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallin, Ewa
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ågren, Susanna
    Linköping University, Sweden;County Council of Östergötland, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Eva
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in relation to gender2017In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 114, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To describe health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors in relation to gender.

    METHODS: This national register study consists of data from follow-up registration of IHCA survivors 3-6 months post cardiac arrest (CA) in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, including measurements of health status (EQ-5D-5L) and psychological distress (HADS).

    RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included in the study. The median values for EQ-5D-5L index and EQ VAS among survivors were 0.78 (q1-q3=0.67-0.86) and 70 (q1-q3=50-80) respectively. The values were significantly lower (p<0.001) in women compared to men. In addition, women reported more problems than men in all dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, except self-care. A majority of the respondents reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (p<0.001) and symptoms of depression (p<0.001) compared to men. Gender was significantly associated with poorer health status and more psychological distress. No interaction effects for gender and age were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial proportion reported severe problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. Health care professionals should make efforts to identify health problems among survivors and offer individualised support when needed.

  • 268.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in relation to sex2016In: Presented at EuroHeart, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 14-15, 2015, 2016, Vol. 134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated differences in characteristics and outcome between men and women in cardiac arrest (CA) populations. However, most studies have focused only on survival outcome. Knowledge about patient reported health and psychological distress among CA survivors is sparse, in particular among those suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The aim was to describe health status and psychological distress among IHCA survivors in relation to sex. Methods: This national register study presents follow-up data of IHCA survivors from 64% of the eligible hospitals in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, 3-6 months post CA, including measures of health status (EQ-5D) and psychological distress (HADS). Results: Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included. Women reported more problems in all dimensions of EQ-5D, except for Self-care. They also had worse health status (EQ-index) (0.75 vs 0.79, p<0.001). The median value for EQ-VAS was 70 (q1-q3=50-80), significantly lower for women compared to men (65 vs 75, p<0.001). A majority reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (median 3 vs 2, p<0.001) and symptoms of depression (median 3 vs 2, p<0.001) compared to men. Being women was significantly associated with lower health status and more psychological distress in the regression models. No interaction effects for sex and age were found. Conclusions: Although the majority of the survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial group reported serious problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. All IHCA survivors should be screened for health problems during the post cardiac arrest follow-up, and offered support when needed.

  • 269.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health-related quality of life among in-hospital cardiacarrest survivors2015In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 14, no 1 suppl, article id 174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A cardiac arrest can cause brain injury with cognitive dysfunctions, emotional reactions and negative effects on activities in daily life. However, most research has focused on survival and the knowledge about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among survivors is limited. In addition, almost all studies are performed in an out-of-hospital context. The aim of the current study was therefore to describe HRQoL among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors.

    Methods: This study has a cross-sectional design. In collaboration with the Swedish national register for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, data was collected 3-6 months after resuscitation by using a questionnaire including EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and single questions on activities in daily life and mental/intellectual recovery. In addition, the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) was scored.

    Results: In total, 286 IHCA survivors with a mean age of 67±12 were included. A majority of the survivors were men (65%), had a cerebral function of CPC 1 (88%) and had no need of assistance from other people in daily life (70%). A large proportion of the survivors had not made a complete mental and/or intellectual recovery (34%), causing problems in daily life for 65% of them. Pain was the dimension in EQ-5D where most survivors reported problems of some degree (64%). Problems within the dimensions anxiety/depression and mobility were reported by more than half of the survivors (53% vs. 51%). In the dimensions personal care and activities in daily life problems were reported by less than half of the survivors (24% vs. 49%). The individual variations of present health measured by the EQ-VAS were substantial (range 0-100), with a mean value of 67±22. Symptoms of anxiety and depression (measured by HADS) were reported by 15% and 16% respectively.

    Conclusions: Although the majority of the IHCA survivors reported satisfactory HRQoL, the results indicate major individual differences, with a substantial group reporting serious problems. Our findings stress the importance of assessing HRQoL among IHCA survivors and the need of follow-up and structured post cardiac arrest care.

  • 270.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Persson, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Dyadic effects of type D personality and perceived control on health-related quality of life in cardiac arrest survivors and their spouses using the actor–partner interdependence model2020In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 351-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a lack of knowledge about factors associated with health-related quality of life in cardiac arrest survivors and their spouses. In addition, survivors and spouses are likely to affect each other’s health-related quality of life.

    Aims: The aim was to investigate if a distressed personality and perceived control among cardiac arrest survivors and their spouses were associated with their own and their partner’s health-related quality of life.

    Methods: This dyadic cross-sectional study used the actor–partner interdependence model to analyse associations between a distressed personality (type D personality), perceived control (control attitudes scale), and health-related quality of life (EQ index and EQ visual analogue scale).

    Results: In total, 126 dyads were included in the study. Type D personality and perceived control in cardiac arrest survivors were associated with their own health-related quality of life. In their spouses, a significant association was found for type D personality but not for perceived control. In addition, type D personality and perceived control in survivors were associated with health-related quality of life in their spouses.

    Conclusions: Type D personality and perceived control are factors that might be considered during post cardiac arrest, because of the associations with health-related quality of life in survivors and spouses. More research is needed to test psychosocial interventions in the cardiac arrest population in order to improve health-related quality of life.

  • 271.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    von Wangenheim, Burkard
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Semark, Birgitta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Sensitivity and specificity of two different automated external defibrillators used in-hospital and out-of-hospital2015In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 96, no Supplement 1, p. 23-23, article id AS041Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the performance of two different types of automated external defibrillators (AED) in out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Performance criteria in terms of sensitivity and specificity have been established but real life data are sparse.

    Materials and methods: Three investigators reviewed 2938 rhythm analyses performed by AED in 240 consecutive patients (38.3% women) suffering cardiac arrest between January 2011 and March 2015. The mean age was 70.1 ± 17.0 (3 months–104 years). Two different AED were used (AED A n = 105, AED B n = 135) in-hospital (n = 91) and out-of-hospital (n = 149).

    Results: Among 194 shockable rhythms, 17 (8.8%) were not recognized by AED A, while AED B recognized 100% (n = 135) of shockable episodes (p < 0.001). In AED A, 8 (47.1%) of these episodes were judged to be algorithm errors while 9 (52.9%) were caused by external artifacts. Among 1039 non-shockable rhythms, AED A recommended shock in 11 (1.0%), while AED B recommended shock in 63 (4.1%) of 1523 episodes (p < 0.001). In AED A, 2 (18.2%) of these episodes were judged to be algorithm errors (AED B, n = 40, 63.5%) while 9 (81.8%) were caused by external artifacts (AED B, n = 23, 36.5%). Fine ventricular fibrillation was analyzed as a separate category since guidelines do not recommend shock in these cases. AED A advised shock in 24 (80%) of 30 episodes, while AED B advised shock in 8 (47%) of 17 episodes (p < 0.027).

    Conclusions: Significant differences in performance could be detected between two different AED. A higher sensitivity of AED B was associated with a lower specificity while a higher specificity of AED A was associated with a lower sensitivity. Caregivers should be aware of the specific shortcomings of the device they are using. AED manufacturers should try to improve the algorithms in order to minimize the gap between sensitivity and specificity.

  • 272.
    Israelsson-Skogsberg, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Markström, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedén, Lena
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Children with home mechanical ventilation: parents' health-related quality of life, family functioning and sleep2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Children requiring home mechanical ventilation (HMV) have grown in number and complexity. Parents of children with HMV are often responsible for the advanced homecare. This study explored the health‐related quality of life (HRQoL), family functioning and sleep in parents of children with HMV. A secondary aim was to explore the impact on HRQoL, family functioning and sleep of selected potential determinants.

    Methods

    Questionnaires were completed by 45 mothers and 40 fathers, to 55 children receiving HMV. Parents were identified via respiratory clinics in the Swedish national quality register for oxygen and home respiratory treatment and invited to participate between December 2016 and December 2018.

    Results

    There were no differences between mothers and fathers overall HRQoL or family functioning reports, although differences within the physical (P < .043) and cognitive (P < .009) functioning dimensions were found. One of four parents reported moderate or severe insomnia. The variability in HRQoL and family functioning was predicted by HMV mode and sleep quality to an extent of 45% and 21%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Sleep quality and the child's HMV mode predicted parental HRQoL and family functioning. The results underscore the importance of evaluating parents' sleep and of being aware that invasive ventilation influences parental HRQoL and family functioning.

  • 273. Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Ahlström, Margareta
    Stockholm university.
    Benderix, Ylva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Bergman, Bo
    Billstedt, Eva
    Davidsson, Thomas
    Ehlers, Stephan
    Grann, Martin
    Halldner-Henriksson, Linda
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Mejare, Ingegerd
    Nordin, Viviann
    Nordlund, Anders
    Starke, Mikaela
    Söderpalm, Bo
    Söderström, Margareta
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Östlund, Pernilla
    Autismspektrumtillstånd: Diagnostik och insatser, vårdens organisation och patientens delaktighet. En systematisk litterturöversikt2013Report (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Jakobsson, Therese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andrén, Christina
    ”En liten bit? Det sa ni för tre timmar sedan också, när är det liksom klart?”: -Förstföderskors upplevelser under förlängd nedträngningsfas.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One main goal during delivery is to creating a positive experience. Prolonged second stage of labour increases risk of negative childbirth experience for first-time mothers, and complications for women and children.

    The aim: The aim of the study was to illustrate first-time mother experiences during prolonged passive second stage of labour.

    Method: A qualitative interview study based on seven interviews with first-time mothers whose cervix was fully dilated for three hours before active second stage of labour. The data was analysed according to qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result is presented with an overall theme An unexpected phase - from hope to despair, and four categories; Expectations affected the experience, A diffused time, Work beyond labor and Support was crucial, Expectation that it was time to push once the cervix was fully dilated was described. Expectations didn’t match the experience and lack of knowledge was described. It felt demanding and took longer than expected. Several physical impressions were described as work beyond labour, which was difficult to cope with and all focus shifted to managing this. The treatment received and presence of staff was considered as having a crucial impact on how participants experienced and managed the situation. 

    Conclusion: Prolonged passive second stage of labour was perceived as unexpected and the participants went from hope when the cervix became fully dilated to despair as time went on. It was described as work beyond labour, with prolonged pain and lack of control. First-time mothers with prolonged passive second stage of labour could have special needs in terms of quality treatment, patient-centered information and support.

  • 275.
    Jansdotter, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stämmer Hofstetters formler för ackommodations-amplituden hos unga vuxna?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att jämföra ackommodations-amplituden med Hofstetters formler genom att upprepa Sterners et al. mätningar.

    Metod: Mätningarna skedde på 35 personer. Krav för att kunna vara med i studien var att inte ha tropi, amblyopi eller anisometropi. Det var två personer som uteslöts, den ena klarade inte stereotestet och den andra på grund av amblyopi. Först gjordes en variant av modifierad Humphriss och cyclodami, det öga som inte undersöktes dimmades med 1,5 dioptri (D). Stereoseendet testades med Wirts ring test. Ackommodations-amplituden mättes med push-up-metoden med en RAF-stav.

    Resultat: Medelåldern för de 33 försökspersonerna var 22,26 år. Vid jämförelse med Hofstetters formel för medelvärden var de monokulära värdena statistiskt signifikanta (p<0,05) men inte de binokulära värdena (p>0,05). För höger öga var 78,8 % lägre och för vänster var 69,7 % än de förväntade värdena. Vid en jämförelse med Hofstetters minimumvärden hade 30,3 % för höger öga och 36,4 % för vänster öga en lägre ackommodations-amplitud. Korrelationen mellan ålder och ackommodations-amplitud var -0,38 för vänster och höger öga. Binokulärt var korrelationen -0,37.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna undersökning är de monokulära mätvärdena lägre än Hofstetters förväntade värden. Dock är undersökningen för liten för att kunna påstå att Hofstetters värden är för högt satta. För att kunna fastställa ett sådant påstående skulle det behövas vidare studier med större populationer och åldersgrupper.

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  • 276.
    Janse, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svenska optikers kännedom om samsynstester och hantering av samsynsproblem2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Samsyn är den koordination och integration i vilken bilden från vartdera ögat sammansmälter till ett synintryck. Det finns flera tester som utvärderar de olika komponenter vilka bidrar till att samarbetet mellan ögonen fungerar som det ska och inte ger upphov till symtom. Har en person samsynsproblem kan dessa avhjälpas med behandling som exempelvis synträning eller prismakorrektion. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att ta reda på om svenska optiker genomför de tester och har den kunskap som krävs för att upptäcka och hantera samsynsproblem.

    Metod: Alla medlemmar (undantaget studentmedlemmar) i svenska Optikerförbundet fick förfrågan att delta i en enkätundersökning (n ≈ 1500). Respondenterna (n = 85) fick besvara frågor om vilka samsynstester de utför, normalvärden för några samsynstester, hur de behandlar samsynproblem och en fallbeskrivning. Enkäten publicerades med ett webbaserat program, Google docs, via en länk som sändes ut till Optikerförbundets medlemmars e-post.

    Resultat: Åttiofem optiker besvarade enkäten och de representerade alla Sveriges landsting förutom Jämtlands läns landsting. Enkätstudien visade att drygt 84 % av optikerna utförde covertest och 60 % genomförde motilitetstest på reguljär basis. Färre än hälften utförde fusionsvergensmätning även då anamnes och refraktion indikerar behov av ytterligare mätningar. Resultatet från enkäten visade också att 68 % respondenter hade modifierat sfäriska styrkan med hänsyn tagen till patientens forier, 67 % hade någon gång ordinerat synträning och ungefär hälften hade ordinerat prismakorrektion.

    Slutsats: Studien visade att det råder stor variation mellan vilka tester de svenska optikerna utförde. En stor andel genomförde preliminära tester som Cover test, KNP och motilitetstest men färre genomförde andra mer utredande funktionella samsynstester. Dessutom var det få som kände till förväntade normalvärden för de funktionella testerna. Vad gäller behandling av samsynsproblem uppvisades stor svarsvariation i val av lämplig hanteringsåtgärd.

  • 277.
    Jansson, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effekten och potentiella risker med bedaquiline, delamanid och pretomanid vid behandling av multiresistent tuberkulos2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Archeological findings of tuberculosis can be found way back to the Stone Age but it wasn’t before the 18th century that Robert Koch discovered that it was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) who caused the disease tuberculosis. Current data indicates that approximately 10 million people are infected with tuberculosis each year and 600 000 new cases of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was observed in 2017.  Tuberculosis is a bacterium with a unique cell wall consisting of a high concentration of mycolic acid. The fatty cell wall of the bacteria can act as a barrier against antituberculotic drugs, making the disease difficult to treat. Tuberculosis is a disease who can be spread among people via airborne droplets but only about 10 % of all people who are infected are affected by disease symptoms.  Tuberculosis is usually diagnosed by spot-sputum samples from deep within the airways. Resistance to antituberculotic drugs are detected by culture growth of the bacteria on either a liquid or solid medium. Tuberculosis is treated with a combination of several different drugs such as isoniazide, rifampicine, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Also called HRZE and is a standard regimen for tuberculosis. If treatment occurs incorrectly or is incomplete the bacteria can develop resistance to these drugs and MDR-TB can emerge. Patients with MDR-TB is usually resistant to either or both isoniazide and rifampicine which makes the disease difficult to treat and another combination of drugs is needed. Bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide are newly developed drugs that can hopefully be used in the treatment of MDR-TB.

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyze the efficacy and potential risks with bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide in the treatment of MDR-TB. The articles for this literature study were obtained from the two databases PubMed and ClinicalTrials. A total of 7 articles were chosen to analyze the efficacy and potential risks with bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanid used in treatment in patients with MDR-TB.

    The result obtained from the articles was obtained by primarily analyzing the primary outcome from each article. All articles suggest that bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide have a favorable bactericidal efficacy against M. tuberculosis and may shorten the treatment period. However, all of the studied drugs produced numerous side effects such as headaches, nausea, dizziness, hyperuricemia and an extended QT interval. Although all the side effects that occurred in the studies were classified as mild to moderate. Many side effects occurred in the studies and only a few participants participated in each study. However, it was observed that the new combinations with bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide can reduce the development of additional drug resistance. Despite some deviations in the studies, bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanid may be new alternative treatments for MDR-TB. But more studies with a larger study population is needed to ensure the safety profile and efficacy of all of the drugs above. However, bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanid show promising results in current studies for the future fight against MDR-TB.

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  • 278.
    Jansson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ametropiers påverkan på valet av gymnasieutbildning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan ametropi och val av gymnasieutbildning.

    Metod: Mätningarna utfördes på två gymnasieskolor i Linköping. Utbildningarna grupperades i två grupper, en studieförberedande och en yrkesförberedande. Försöks-personerna blev retinoskoperade och fick fylla i en enkät om sitt gymnasieval. De urvalskriterier som fanns var att försökspersonerna skulle vara 18 år eller äldre samt att de skulle gå ett yrkesförberedande eller studieförberedande program i årskurs 3.

    Resultat: 100 personer deltog i studien, 50 från studieförberedande program och 50 från yrkesförberedande program, i åldrarna 18-20 år. Det var 35 kvinnor och 65 män som deltog i studien. Statistiskt fanns det inget samband mellan valet av gymnasie-utbildning och ametropier (p>0,05). Det fanns dock en skillnad mellan ametropier hos grupperna där den teoretiska gruppens medelvärde var -0,83 DS och den praktiska gruppens medelvärde var -0,39 DS, dock gick det inte att säkerställa statistiskt. Studien visade en skillnad mellan föräldrarnas högsta avslutade utbildning mellan grupperna, där den teoretiska gruppen hos båda föräldrarna hade högskola/universitet som den vanligaste högsta avslutade utbildningen medan den praktiska gruppens föräldrar hade gymnasial utbildning som högsta avslutade utbildning. Sambandet mellan föräldrarnas högsta avslutade utbildning och val av gymnasium var dock inget som studien statistiskt kunde säkerställa.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna undersökning finns det inget samband mellan ametropier och gymnasieutbildning. En större studie bör genomföras för att kanske kunna se ett samband mellan gymnasieutbildning och ametropi.

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  • 279.
    Jansson, S. -A
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Protudjer, J. L. P.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Heibert, M. Arnlind
    Karolinska Inst / Swedish Council Hlth Technol Assessment, SBU, Stockholm.
    Bengtsson, U.
    Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg.
    Kallstrom-Bengtsson, I.
    Swedish Asthma & Allergy Fdn, Stockholm.
    Marklund, Birgitta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Middelveld, R. J. M.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Rentzos, G.
    Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg.
    Sundqvist, A. C.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Akerstrom, J.
    Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg.
    Ostblom, E.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Dahlen, S. -E
    Karolinska Inst.
    Ahlstedt, S.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Socioeconomic evaluation of well-characterized allergy to staple foods in adults2014In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1241-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate if total, direct, indirect, and intangible costs differ between a cohort of adults with well-characterized allergy to staple foods ('cases') and controls. Methods: Swedish adults with objectively diagnosed food allergy to cow's milk, hen's egg, and/or wheat were recruited at an outpatient allergy clinic. Controls age- and sex-matched to cases were recruited from the same geographic area. For assessing the household costs of food allergy, a disease-specific socioeconomic questionnaire, developed within EuroPrevall, was utilized. Results: Overall annual total costs at the household level were significantly higher among adults with food allergy compared with controls (the difference amounted to 8164 (sic) ), whereas direct costs did not differ between cases and controls. However, household healthcare costs and costs for medicines were significantly higher for cases vs controls. Furthermore, indirect costs were significantly higher for households with food-allergic adults vs households without food-allergic adults. Specifically, more time was spent on performing domestic tasks due to a family member's food-allergy-related illness, as well as shopping and preparing food, and seeking food-allergy-related information. Presence of food allergy also affected intangible costs. Adults with food allergy experienced overall lower health status compared with controls. Conclusions: Swedish adults with allergy to staple foods have higher total costs determined as direct, indirect, and intangible costs using the disease-specific socioeconomic questionnaire. Thus, total costs were 8164 (sic) higher per year in households with at least one adult allergic to staple foods compared with controls.

  • 280.
    Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Annette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur uppfattar patienten oavsiktlig vakenhet under generell anestesi - awarness? En integrativ litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 281.
    Johansson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elofsson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vad kommer att hända?: Förstföderskors förväntningar inför sin förlossning.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 282.
    Johansson, Gabriella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is an effect of cataractsurgery with phacoemulsification on IOP after one week of surgery. To investigate whether there is a correlation between Axial length (AL), Anterior chamber depth ACD, K-readings with preoperative (preop) and postoperative (postop) IOP.

    Methods: The subjects for this study were extracted from the records at the Eye department in Kalmar Hospital, Sweden. From an existing data file 72 eyes out of 72 subjects were then analysed. The subjects were divided into 4 groups based on the axial length of the eyes, forstatistical analysis in Microsoft Excel and Statistica 6.0. Preoperative and postoperative IOP was evaluated to look for statistical significance. IOP was compared to AL, ACD and Kreadingsto look for any correlations.

    Results: Preoperative IOP and postoperative IOP did not show any statistically significant difference after phacoemsulification, p > 0.05. There was no statistical significance orcorrelation for the axial length, ACD and K-readings compared to pre and post IOP,p > 0.05.Conclusion: There was no change in IOP before and after surgery. This study did not show any significance between the preoperative and postoperative mean IOP after cataract surgery. Axial length was not a factor to the intraocular pressure. There was neither any statistical significance nor correlation between the anterior chamber depth and K-readings in relation to IOP.

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    Effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure
  • 283.
    Johansson, Helena
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Förekomst av corneal staining med linsvätskorna Extend och Regard vid användning av silikonhydrogellinsen PureVision.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Det har visat sig i tidigare studier att vissa kontaktlins- och linsvätskekombinationer ger mer påverkan på corneas yttre delar än andra kombinationer. Denna studie undersöker förekomsten av corneal staining med Extend® och Regard® vid användning av PureVision®, eftersom de linsvätskorna inte funnits med i tidigare större studier.

    Metod: Deltagarna använde Extend® till ena ögat, Regard® till andra och linserna PureVision®/Purevision® Toric, under tre veckors tid. Corneal staining mättes vid start, då deltagarna varit utan linser i tre dagar samt vid återbesök tre veckor senare. För att vara opartisk vid återbesöket var undersökaren inte medveten om vilken linsvätska deltagarna använde till vilket öga. Deltagarna fick även svara på några enkätfrågor angående komfort.

    Resultat: Extend® och Regard® gav liknande resultat i corneal staining. Generellt återfanns staining mest inferiort och superiort. 58% av deltagarna hade punktata staining inom minst fyra av fem områden på cornea, 42% av de ögon som använt Extend® och 25% av de som använt Regard®. De flesta uppgav inte några större skillnader i komfort mellan ögonen.

    Slutsats: Totalt gav Extend® och Regard® likande resultat i corneal staining. Det var dock några fler ögon som använt Extend som uppvisade punktata staining i fyra eller fler områden. De som använder kontaktlinser mycket borde vara de som möjligen kan påverkas negativt av corneal stainingen i längden.

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  • 284.
    Johansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University.
    Artursson, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hansson, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University;Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lopez-Martin, Juana
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Univ Andres Bello, Chile.
    Moreno, Lucile
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Engvall, Eva Olsson
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Skarin, Hanna
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Troell, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Agren, Joakim
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of knowledge of naturally occurring pathogens is limiting our ability to use the Antarctic to study the impact human-mediated introduction of infectious microorganisms have on this relatively uncontaminated environment. As no large-scale coordinated effort to remedy this lack of knowledge has taken place, we rely on smaller targeted efforts to both study present microorganisms and monitor the environment for introductions. In one such effort, we isolated Campylobacter species from fecal samples collected from wild birds in the Antarctic Peninsula and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Indeed, in South Georgia, we found Campylobacter lari and the closely related Campylobacter peloridis, but also distantly related human-associated multilocus sequence types of Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast, in the Antarctic Peninsula, we found C. tart and two closely related species, Campylobacter subantarcticus and Campylobacter volucris, but no signs of human introduction. In fact, our finding of human-associated sequence types of C. jejuni in South Georgia, but not in the Antarctic Peninsula, suggests that efforts to limit the spread of infectious microorganisms to the Antarctic have so far been successful in preventing the introduction of C. jejuni. However, we do not know how it came to South Georgia and whether the same mode of introduction could spread it from there to the Antarctic Peninsula.

  • 285.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    The Physical Environment of Purpose-Built and Non-Purpose Built Supported Housing for Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities in Sweden.2012In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if methods derived from environmental psychology can be used to study the qualities of the physical environment of supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities. Three units of analysis were selected: the private area, the common indoor area, and the outdoor area. Expert assessments of 110 features of the physical environment in these units and semantic environmental description of the visual experience of them consistently showed that purpose-built supported housing facilities  had more physical features important for high quality residential environments than the non-purpose-built supp orted housing facilities. The employed methods were thus seen to be able to describe and discriminate between qualities in the physical environment of supported housing facilities. Suggestions for the development of tools for the assessment of the physical environment in supported housing are made.

  • 286.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Gierow, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Morgan, Philip
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Trends in Swedish Contact Lens Prescribing 20172019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poster display 2: TRENDS IN SWEDISH CONTACT LENS PRESCRIBING 2017

    Presenter: Oskar Johansson

    Authors: OSKAR JOHANSSON1 , PHILP MORGAN2 , PETER GIEROW1

    Affiliation:1) Linnaeus University 2) University of Manchester

    Key words: Contact lens, fitting, lens type

    Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the trends of contact lens prescribing among Swedish optometrists in 2017.

    Methods: A standardized survey form developed by Morgan er al. was distributed to Swedish optometrists usingtheir professional organizations, optometry chains, direct email, and by hand directly. They were asked to fill out theform for the next ten contact lens patients after receiving the survey. Information was collected regarding the dayof fitting, age, sex, lens material, design, frequency of replacement, wear frequency, modality and type of caresystem. A weighting system is employed to account for the volume of activity undertaken by the respondents,calculated by the time period required to achieve 10 fits. All the forms and data were analyzed at the University of Manchester.

    Results: 57 forms were returned, including 562 fits. The mean age of the patients was 37 yrs, and 65 % were female.83 % were fitted for full-time wear and 27 % were managed as new fits. Soft contact lenses is the most fitted modalityand represents 97.8 % of all new fits and 93.6 % of all refits. Rigid contact lens fits represents therefore in grand total5.3 % with 2.2 % of the new fits and 6.4 % of the refits. About two-thirds of soft lenses prescribed were siliconehydrogels. Of the different designs, spherical lenses were most widely fitted, with toric lenses on at least one eyecoming right after. Extended wear accounts for 10.6 % of the fittings. Multi-purpose solutions were the most popularregimen prescribed at 99.4 %.

    Conclusions: When compared with data from Norway and Denmark, it is evident that daily disposables are morepopular in these countries (74 %), whereas in Sweden it is monthly replacements (58 %). Otherwise, the results aresimilar to what has been reported from other parts of the world.

  • 287.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Morgan, Philip
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Gierow, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Trends in Swedish Contact Lens Prescribing 20172019In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose was to evaluate the trends of contact lens prescribing among Swedish optometrists in 2017.

    Materials and Methods: A standardized survey form was distributed to Swedish optometrists using their professional organisations, optometry chains, direct email, and by hand directly. They were asked to fill out the form for the ten contact lens fits performed after receipt of the survey form. Information was collected regarding age and sex of patient, fit/refit, lens design and material, modality and solution prescribed.

    Results: 57 forms were returned detailing 562 fits. The mean age of the patients was 37 yrs, and 65 % were female. 83 % were fitted for full-time wear and 27 % were managed as new fits. 94.7 % were soft contact lens fits and silicone hydrogel was the dominating material.

    Conclusions: When compared with data from Norway and Denmark, it is evident that daily disposables are more popular in these countries (74 %), whereas in Sweden it is monthly replacements (58 %). Otherwise, the results are similar to what has been reported from other parts of the world.

  • 288. Johansson, P
    et al.
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Auditing cardiac rehabilitation: a task for a patients’ organisation2009In: EuroPRevent Congress May 2009, 2009, Vol. 16, no 1, p. S115-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Johansson, Sophie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Henriksson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    "MITT BARN HAR CANCER": En bloggbaserad litteraturstudie om föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige insjuknar ungefär ett barn om dagen i cancer. När ett barn drabbas av cancer påverkas hela familjen. Föräldrarna upplever en rädsla över bieffekter, behandling samt att förlora sitt barn och diskuterar oftast inte sina upplevelser med vårdpersonalen vilket leder till ökad oro och onödigt lidande. Föräldrarna har ofta en stor roll i barnets möjlighet att finna välbefinnande och det är därför viktigt att tillvarata deras erfarenheter och upplevelser. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa föräldrars upplevelse av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn. Metod: Studien grundades på en kvalitativ metod utifrån fem bloggar. En kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys utifrån Lundman och Hällgren Graneheims (2012) användes för att finna det centrala i materialet. Resultat: Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn innebar en stor emotionell påverkan där oro och rädsla var de främsta fynden. Genom att tillämpa copingstrategier samt leva i nuet kunde föräldrarna bättre hantera vardagen. Sjukhusmiljön frambringade både positiva och negativa känslor hos föräldrarna och en känsla av utsatthet i samband med vårdmiljön framkom. Slutsats: Föräldrars upplevelser bör uppmärksammas och de behöver stöd från vårdpersonalen. Bättre samordning och kommunikation samt en kontaktperson kan vara lämpliga åtgärder för att främja föräldrarnas välbefinnande.

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  • 290.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Eriksson, T.
    Lund Univ.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Patient-centered medication review in coronary heart disease: impact on beliefs about medicines2014In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 13, p. S15-S15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Jonsson, Linda S.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping Univ.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedin, Carl Goran
    Linköping Univ.
    Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1245-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  • 292. Jormfeldt, H
    et al.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Agneta
    Svedberg, Petra
    Experiences of a person-centred health education group intervention: A qualitative study among people with a persistent mental illness2012In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of psychoeducative interventions for people with persistent mental illnesses have been on the reduction of noncompliance by providing information about symptoms of disease and its treatment. Social support and supporting group contexts have been described as essential for transforming personal strategies into action and the achievement of personal goals. A qualitative descriptive approach was used in order to explore experiences of a person-centered health education group intervention among persons with a persistent mental illness. The sample consisted of 13 persons with a persistent mental illness who had participated in the group intervention between the autumn 2008 and the autumn 2009. Participants expressed experiences of health processes in terms of stimulating content, development towards personal growth and group context with equality, when participating in the intervention. The findings of the actual study support further investigation on the topic of health promotion approaches emphasizing individual preferences throughout the process of psychoeducation. Further research regarding individual preferences and participation in decision-making processes related to issues of compliance among persons with a persistent mental illness are suggested.

  • 293.
    Jovicic, Senka
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Den korta mötet i vården: Litteraturstudie med tonvikt på mötet med röntgensjuksköterskan2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tidigare forskning visar att röntgensjuksköterskor som gör patienterna delaktiga genom att tillhandahålla information gör det möjligt för patienterna att förstå och själv ta aktiv roll i sin undersökning vilket leder till mindre oro. Med kunskaper och erfarenheter kunde röntgensjuksköterskorna stödja patienterna i samband med undersökningen vilket skapade förtroende och säkerställde trygg atmosfär. Dock kunde sjuksköterskorna även visa brist på känslomässigt engagemang samt bristande förmåga att kommunicera när de var upptagen med praktiska arbetsuppgifter.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva patientens upplevelse av det korta mötet inom vården, med tanken att finna överförbarhet till möte med en röntgensjuksköterska.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med en kvalitativ ansats och med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studien inkluderade tio vetenskapliga artiklar, som beskriver möten med vården på röntgen, akut- och operationsavdelning.

    Resultat: Resultatet speglar patienternas upplevelser av korta möten, med tonvikten lagd på möten med röntgensjuksköterskor. I resultatet kan referens till källmaterial och dess kontext, såsom röntgen-, akut- och operationsavdelning, utläsas. Dataanalysen resulterade tre huvudkategorier: att bli bekräftad, att uppleva trygghet och att känna maktlöshet. I kategorierna finns totalt sju subkategorier inkluderade. Patienterna kände sig respekterade och bekräftade som individer när sjuksköterskan lyssnade på dem samt tog deras klagomål och önskemål på allvar. Patienterna upplevde trygghet när sjuksköterskan uttryckte intresse och gav dem relevant information. Patienterna upplevde däremot maktlöshet när det var svårt att få kontakt med sjuksköterskan samt göra sina åsikter hörda.

    Slutsats: Studiens resultat visar att patienternas upplevelser av korta möten med röntgensjuksköterskor är allmängiltiga i den bemärkelsen att de kan sägas gälla för verksamheter såsom röntgen-, akut- och operationsavdelning. Dock är det viktigt att poängtera att varje möte med en patient är unikt, vilket innebär att varje patient ska bemötas på ett sätt som skapar förutsättningar för ett välbefinnande.

  • 294.
    Jäderlund, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council.
    Rudebeck, Carl Edvard
    Kalmar County Council ; University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Usability of computerized physician order entry in primary care: assessing ePrescribing with a new evaluation model2011In: Informatics in Primary Care, ISSN 1476-0320, E-ISSN 1475-9985, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incorrect use of medications may result from improper prescribing. The poor interface and design of computerised physician order entry (CPOE) systems may contribute. To improve the quality of electronic drug prescription, ePrescribing, there is a need for an evaluation model that is able to assess the quality of the CPOE, focusing on usability. Objective: To develop and apply a model to evaluate the usability of different CPOEs used for ePrescribing in electronic health records (EHRs) in primary care. Method: An evaluation model for CPOEs was designed by assembling existing quality criteria for ePrescribing, supplemented with new criteria. The evaluation model was used to assess CPOEs from seven EHRs in primary care. Results: The evaluation model included five categories comprising 73 single criteria. The model was found to be easy to use, and facilitated the assessment process. Evaluation of the EHRs revealed differences and similarities between the systems. None of the CPOEs was perfect in that all of them had distinct shortcomings. The most prominent deficiencies were a non-intuitive interface and incorrect dosage function. Conclusion: The model developed might be used not only to evaluate usability in ePrescribing, but also as a basis for studying the usability of other CPOEs. To reduce the risk of drugs being prescribed with incorrect dosages, the most urgent improvement is the development of a more consistent and intuitive interface for the EHRs and an improvement in the dosage function.

  • 295. Jääskeläinen, Anne J
    et al.
    Kolehmainen, Pekka
    Voutilainen, Liina
    Hauffe, Heidi C
    Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari
    Lappalainen, Maija
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Henttonen, Heikki
    Vaheri, Antti
    Tauriainen, Sisko
    Vapalahti, Olli
    Evidence of ljungan virus specific antibodies in humans and rodents, Finland.2013In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 85, no 11, p. 2001-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ljungan virus (LV, genus Parechovirus, family Picornaviridae) is considered currently to be a rodent-borne virus. Despite suggested human disease associations, its zoonotic potential remains unclear. To date, LV antibody prevalence in both humans and rodents has not been studied. In this study, two different LV immunofluorescence assays (LV IFAs) were developed with LV genotypes 1 (LV strain 87-012G) and 2 (LV strain 145SLG), and cross-neutralization and -reaction studies were carried out with LV strain 145SLG. Finally, a panel of 37 Finnish sera was screened for anti-LV antibodies using two different LV IFAs (LV 145SLG and LV 87-012G) and a neutralization (NT) assay (LV 145SLG), and 50 samples from Myodes glareolus by LV IFA (LV 145SLG). The LV seroprevalence study showed 38% and 18% positivity in humans and M. glareolus, respectively. LV IFAs and NT assays were compared, and the results were in good agreement. The data are the first evidence of humans and rodents coming into contact with LV in Finland. Additional studies are required in order to acquire a better understanding of the prevalence, epidemiological patterns and possible disease association of LV infections.

  • 296.
    Jönsson, Claudia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Prestandaundersökning av den patientnära analysmetoden Biosynex® D-dimer via jämförelse med den laborativa analysmetoden STA-Liatest® D-Di PLUS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fibrinogen degradation product D-dimer is released in plasma during fibrinolysis. D-dimer analysis is mainly ordered for the exclusion of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in combination with a pre-test probability (PTP) score. D-dimer below 0,5 mg/L fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU) and a low PTP rules out VTE. D-dimer analysis contributes to the reduction of invasive and expensive imaging analyses, such as ultrasound and computed tomography. The Blekinge region primary care used a qualitative D-dimer point of care test (POCT) whose performance the clinical chemistry of Blekinge hospital had no insight into. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the qualitative D-dimer POCT was an adequate complement to the quantitative method used in the hospital laboratory. Fifty patients, whose blood samples arrived the laboratory in tubes with sodium citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) additives, were chosen for the study. Citrate plasma was analyzed with the D-dimer laboratory method. Plasma and whole blood were analyzed with the D-dimer POCT. Quantitative results were converted to qualitative based on the cutoff value 0,5 mg/L FEU. POCT performance was computed and compared with the manufacturer’s specified values. A potential difference between the methods was evaluated with a Chi-squared test. A survey was performed where open care units answered questions regarding D-dimer POCT. The POCT performance was slightly lower than the manufacturer’s specifications. No statistically significant difference was seen between the methods. However, there were several sources of error with the latter. Some open care units mentioned weak lines in the reading area due to blood interference.

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  • 297.
    Jönsson, Elna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Är patienterna hos sydsvenska optiker oroliga för att gå på linsundersökning?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier inom bland annat allmänsjukvården och tandläkarvården har visat att många patienter är oroliga för att gå på undersökning. Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på om patienter hos optiker också är oroliga. I denna studie undersöktes oron för att gå på linsundersökning och vilka moment patienterna i så fall är oroliga för. Är det något som optikern kan påverka är det viktigt att de får veta vad patienterna oroar sig för. På så sätt kan de utforma undersökningen därefter och förhoppningsvis kunna minska kundernas oro och öka deras förtroende.

    Två enkäter delades ut till patienter som bokat tid för linsundersökning i sex butiker i Skåne och Kalmar, en att fylla i innan undersökningen och en efter. På enkäterna fick patienterna gradera sin oro inför olika moment i undersökningen, där 1 betydde "mycket orolig" och 7 betydde" inte alls orolig". De fick även fylla i lite kring lins- och optikervana. På den andra enkäten fanns frågor om hur patienten tyckte att undersökningen gått.

    Resultat: 61 patienter deltog i studien varav 40 st var kvinnor, 17 st var män och 4 st inte angav sitt kön. Kvinnornas medelvärde i oro låg på 6,51, med en standarddeviation på 0,48. Männens oro låg i medel på 6,41 och standarddeviationen var 0,51. Det var ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad (p=0,515) i oro mellan kvinnor och män. Det som oroar mest är priset och att vända på ögonlocket. Slutsats: Studien visade att det inte finns så mycket oro över linsundersökningar. Kommunikation optiker och patient emellan verkar inte vara något orosmoment. Fler studier bör göras då noggrannare linsbakgrund bör finnas med i orostolkningen.

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  • 298.
    Kalm, Maja
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Correcting refractive errors in the Lithuanian Education and Training Centre of the blind and visually impaired2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 299.
    Kamen, Robin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svensson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jag har bestämt mig för att leva!: En litteraturstudie om kvinnors upplevelse av bipolär sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bipolär sjukdom är en kronisk psykiatrisk sjukdom som innefattar maniska, hypomaniska, och depressiva episoder. Fler kvinnor än män drabbas av sjukdomen. Med en vardag som i en känslomässig berg- och dalbana står patienterna inför flera utmaningar och självmordsrisken är hög. Okunskap om sjukdomen i samhället försvårar situationen för patienterna och tidigare forskning visar att närstående och sjuksköterskan är ett viktigt stöd som kan bidra med välbefinnande.  

    Syfte: För att få en ökad förståelse och inblick i kvinnornas liv var syftet med studien att belysa kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med bipolär sjukdom.

    Metod: För att besvara syftet användes en kvalitativ ansats som utgick från fem självbiografier. Självbiografierna analyserades med en kvalitativ manifest analysprocess.

    Resultat: Kvinnorna upplevde lidande i sin maktlöshet att hantera sjukdomen och hur sjukdomen påverkade livet. Kvinnorna upplevde att de inte fick någon förståelse från omgivningen för sina ipulsiva beslut i maniska och hypomaniska episoder eller sina isolerande och negativa perioder under depressionens episoder. Omgivningen har för lite kunskap om bipolär sjukdom.  Välbefinnande och energi hämtade kvinnorna genom närståendes stöd och de kände en trygghet i att ha den psykiatriska sjukvården att tillgå. 

    Slutsatser:Kvinnornas livsvärld med bipolär sjukdom är en ständig kamp för att minska lidande och uppnå välbefinnande. Det är främst vardagen som innebär den största utmaningen. För att bemötandet inom sjukvården ska optimeras för patienterna och att deras närstående på bästa möjliga sätt ska kunna finnas som stöd, krävs ökad och utvecklande kunskap för sjuksköterskan och omgivningen om sjukdomen.

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  • 300.
    Karlsson, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Mikroskopisk bedömning av urinsediments hållbarhet utan och med tillsatt konserveringsmedel med OLYMPUS BX532016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urine microscopy can be used for determination of renal function and the analysis is of value in diagnostics of various kidney diseases, as well as follow-up tests, kidney transplantations and intoxications. The components that may occur in urine sediment are among others erytrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells and casts. The purpose of this study was to examine the durability of urine sediment without and with added preservatives, to determine how long the samples can stand before they change. In this study, urine samples collected from 29 patients (19 men and 10 females, 30-87 years) with deteriorating kidney function were used. From each patient, 10 mL of urine were collected into 4 tubes. The samples were analyzed with test strips (Urilyzer® 100Pro) for screening of acetoacetate, glucose, protein, erythrocytes, nitrite, leukocytes and pH in urine. The preservative, sodium thiocyanate, was added to 20 patient samples which were evaluated in the microscope OLYMPUS BX53 after 8, 24, 48 and 72 h. Twenty patient samples without added preservatives were assessed at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h. The result showed no destruction of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, granulated cylinders or wax cylinders in neither samples without or with added preservative. A variation showed in the amount of hyaline casts in both samples without and with added preservatives, but the difference wasn’t considered being of vital clinical importance. There was no substantial difference when comparing the sustainability of urine samples without and with added preservatives. Urine sediment without added preservatives were considered durable in 24 h when stored in fridge (2-8 °C) and urine sediment with added preservatives in 48 h when stored in fridge (2-8 °C).

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