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  • 251.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scarbrough, D. Paul
    Department of accounting, Brock University.
    Lean production practices2011In: Paper presented at the American Accounting Association Annual Conference, Denver, USA, August 5-10, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper unpacks the integrative practices (Schatzky, 1996) of Lean Production (LP)/Toyota Production System (TPS) operations and reveals that practices which normally function as dispersed practices function, instead, as part of the LP/TPS integrative practices. We present a set of these practices. We also show that the normally dispersed practices are recast as components of integrated practices (Schatzky, 1996) across contexts, revealing aspects of the LP/TPS situation that may be amenable to cross-level investigation. This insight supports the importance of the practice theory lens in study of organizations as well as suggesting practical avenues for development of LP/TPS operations.

  • 252.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scarbrough, D. Paul
    Department of Accounting, Brock University, Kanada.
    Reflection and action in connection2010In: Paper presented at the 6th Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, November 5-7, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether three concepts unique to the TPS Archetype (Alpenberg and Scarbrough 2009) are observed in an advanced and experienced Lean Production organization (Scania AB). The concepts are: waste reduction, improvement, and people and teamwork. All three concepts appear to bind reflection and action very firmly, and are seen in many sources of the TPS Archetype. Our analysis of empirical data from Scania AB confirms that two of those items exhibit the “binding” indicated in the TPS Archetype, while one does not. The item that was not supported is the item that is the most strongly developed in the TPS Archetype: Waste reduction.

    In general the two items that were supported (improvement, and people and teamwork) appear to be middle-level structures that firmly fuse Norms with Rites/Rituals (c.f. Schein 1984).

  • 253.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Dynamic capabilities and target costing in Swedish publicly traded companies2013In: Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Journal, ISSN 1675-3194, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 89-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased importance of product development can be seen in both recent research on Dynamic Capabilities as well as research on the use of Target Costing (TC). The Dynamic Capabilities literature is primarily developed in the USA and Europe, while the TC practice is rooted in Japanese practices and has been transferred to the west. This study examines the relationship between the Dynamic Capabilities of the product development team and the implementation of Target Costing (TC) in publicly traded companies in Sweden. Using established concepts from both the Dynamic Capabilities and Target Costing literatures we find partial support for the relationship. We suggest that there may be a bias in the development of Dynamic Capability research that does not comprehend organization practices such as those seen in Japan, Sweden and in Lean Production organizations more generally. Reasons for this are discussed and proposals for further research are proposed.

  • 254.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Exploring communication practices in lean production2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 4959-4963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the daily work practices at an organization that successfully incorporates lean production practices into the organizational culture, and reveals a pattern of practices used by managers in their daily work. This pattern of communication practices is consistent across the organization's manufacturing sites. Subsequent examination of archival qualitative data confirms the existence of the identified pattern of practices. An essential part of lean production is that participants are all involved in improvement activities. The collaborative nature of these activities highlights the importance of communication practices as a lubricant between managers and workers. The communication practices identified in this study appear consistently in strong lean production environments, while the opposite practices appear in weak lean production and traditional US-style environments.

  • 255.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Exploring Practices in Lean Management2016In: Paper presented at the 6th Global Innovation & Knowledge Academy conference, Valencia, Spain, March 20-23, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to the call for papers, we study the daily work practices of managers at a very strong Lean Production organization and reveal a pattern of practices used by managers in daily work. This pattern of management communication practices is consistent across the organization’s manufacturing sites. We then examine archival qualitative data from seven different sources in a deductive theory-testing mode, and confirm the existence of the identified practices in other organizations.

    An essential part of many forms of LP is that participants are all involved in improvement activities. The collaborative nature of these activities raises the importance of management communication practice as the sole lubricant between managers and workers which enables these activities.  

    We find that the identified communications practices were consistently found in embedded LP environments and the opposite practices were found in weak LP and in US-style environments.

  • 256.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Lean and management control in Sweden: a comparative case study of management control in two organizations implementing Lean production in an advanced eceonomy: a pivot rather than a leap2014In: Paper presnted at the 10th Asia Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, October 27-30, 2014, APMAA - Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the Management Control System (MCS) as a focus of action in two companies moving to a comprehensive Lean Production (LP) operations philosophy. Neither organization had previously self-identified as Lean.

    These two organizations experience difficulty in understanding and changing their MCS in response to LP, even though both have some prior experience with lean tools. We describe issues faced by managers in re-imagining financial control in LP. In both organizations there is a very strong move to physical controls and diminution of time spent on financial controls, however this move is quite troublesome for the financial staff, who—although they support the change—feel that they lack a conceptual basis for the revising their financial tools. Physical KPIs are viewed as a core part of the MCS by operations and financial managers, which support the Simmonds (1981) Strategic Management Accounting concept.   

  • 257.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Lean Healthcare and Ontario Case Costing: an Examination of Strategic Change and Control System2015In: Paper presented at the Canadian Academic Accounting Association Annual Conference, Toronto, Canada, May 28-31, 2015, Social Science Electronic Publishing Inc. (SSEP) , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine how two different strategic changes influence the Management Control Systems in six Ontario based hospitals. These changes are: 1. new funding regimes based on Ontario Case Costing and, 2. Lean Healthcare initiatives in Ontario Hospitals.

    The Ontario Case Costing (OCC) approach is based on the traditional MAS assumption that more accurate costs will lead to lower costs through better management decisions of some sort. In contrast, Lean Healthcare is premised on the assumption that the primary path to better performance is realized by individual employees, who serve as the leading actors in a daily process of waste removal and efficiency improvement.

    Based on the MA literature and on information about both the OCC and Lean Healthcare initiatives, we expect there to be significant frictions inside the financial management staff as well as between the Lean initiative and the financial management staff related to the OCC mandate. This study examines this set of interactions to learn how these issues impact the employees involved. In particular, the Ontario context allows us to examine the variety of responses to the interaction of Lean healthcare strategy and a traditional MAS such as OCC.

    We find that the MASs of hospitals in our sample are too loosely coupled to develop the frictions indicated by traditional MAS theory and propose modifications in application of the theory to accommodate this observation.

  • 258.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Goodman School of Business, Brock University, Canada.
    Lean Healthcare and Ontario Case Costing: An Examination of Strategic Change and Management Control System2013In: Paper presented at the 9th Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Nagoya, Japan, November 1-4, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine how two different strategic changes influence the Management Control Systems in six Ontario based hospitals. These changes are: 1. new funding regimes based on Ontario Case Costing and, 2. Lean Healthcare initiatives in Ontario Hospitals.

    The Ontario Case Costing (OCC) approach is based on the traditional MAS assumption that more accurate costs will lead to lower costs through better management decisions of some sort. In contrast, Lean Healthcare is premised on the assumption that the primary path to better performance is realized by individual employees, who serve as the leading actors in a daily process of waste removal and efficiency improvement.

    Based on the MA literature and on information about both the OCC and Lean Healthcare initiatives, we expect there to be significant frictions inside the financial management staff as well as between the Lean initiative and the financial management staff related to the OCC mandate. This study examines this set of interactions to learn how these issues impact the employees involved. In particular, the Ontario context allows us to examine the variety of responses to the interaction of Lean healthcare strategy and a traditional MAS such as OCC.

    We find that the MASs of hospitals in our sample are too loosely coupled to develop the frictions indicated by traditional MAS theory and propose modifications in application of the theory to accommodate this observation.

  • 259.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Lean production and the employees2008In: Paper presented at the 8th Nordic Workshop in Management Control, Linköping, Sweden, 2008, 2008, p. 14-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Ontario, Canada.
    Lean production and the role of the employee culture2008In: Paper presented at the American Accounting Association Annual Conference, Anaheim, USA, August 3-6, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been numerous studies on lean production and other technical aspects of lean. This paper does not deal with the technical aspects. In this paper we develop a model for understanding the functioning of modern lean production and management methods. Our focus is on the behaviors and actions needed by employees [managers and non-managers] to obtain the benefits of lean methods. Our model for lean methods is based on the Toyota Production System [TPS] due to the amount of knowledge available about it and its impact on production methods world-wide. Using our understanding of TPS we develop a prescriptive model of employee behavior and actions needed to support the use of TPS, and the organizational cultural aspects needed to support or encourage the employee interactions identified. A case study is used to develop the model.

  • 261.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Trust and control in changing production environments2017In: Paper presented at the 7th Global Innovation & Knowledge Academy conference, Lisbon, Portugal, June 28-30, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the relationship between trust and control in four organizations implementing Lean Production in Sweden. Research on trust has conflicting views on the trust-control relationship, which are not resolved. Prior empirical studies show either that the relationship between trust and control is substitutive, or that it is complementary (Kalkman and Waard, 2016). Our results show that trust can be either a substitute or a complement depending on the source and incidence of control, which we identify as moderators of the trust-control relationship.

    We find in two of our sites that control consists of workers and managers jointly developing and monitoring the work process itself. In these two companies, the source of control is jointly the workers and managers, and the control incidence is the work task. We observed a significant reduction in use of document-based asset control systems to control people and an increased use of personal communication to control work tasks instead. In this situation, Trust is a complement to Control because it mobilizes workers to contribute to the control process.

    In the other two companies, even though pursuing LP, the managers developed the control indicators in traditional ways and thus the control source was the manager, and the control incidence was the workers or the machines. The control systems in these two companies retained use of a comprehensive document-based asset control system with numerous KPIs, mainly financial. In this situation, Control substitutes for Trust because the KPIs are selected by management because they reflect management goals and to not require workers to understand management goals, but just to accomplish the KPI.

    Additionally we find that the concept of trust itself, becomes a matter for reflection by both managers and workers, in both sets of groups, as they navigate new production methods.

    This result extends prior research by revealing that there are missing variables (control source and control incidence) which moderate the relationship between trust and control, and contribute to the contradictory results in the literature.

  • 262.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Trust and control in changing production environments2018In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 88, no July, p. 527-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the relationship between trust and control in four organizations implementing new production methods. Research on the trust-control relationship provides conflicting results. Some empirical studies show that the relationship between trust and control is substitutive, while some show that it is complementary (Kalkman and Waard, 2016).

    We identify three moderators of the trust-control relationship that lead to either a substitutive or a complementary result. The variables are: control source, control incidence and control information type. Additionally we find that the concept of trust becomes a matter for reflection by both managers and workers as they navigate new production methods.

    This result extends prior research by revealing connections that moderate the relationship between trust and control, and contribute to explaining the contradictory results in the literature.

  • 263.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, Canada.
    Alku, Jeton
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Rashiti, Judita
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Target costing in a traditional enterprise2015In: Paper presented at the 11th Asia Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Bali, Indonesia, October 26-29, 2015, APMAA - Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Target Costing (TC) was attempted as an addition to a traditional stage-gate product development process in a large, traditional enterprise that we call CEHaul.  CEHaul is a profitable enterprise, and one of the dominant participants in its industry. CEHaul has attempted a number of cost reduction methods over the last ten years as adjuncts to their overall product development approach. They experienced moderate project-specific results, however the methods have failed to make deeper inroads in the organization and there is widespread dissatisfaction among organization members with the organizations’ ability to develop the routines needed to consistently manage cost.

    Implementing TC as a separate tool in a stage-gate model raises the possibility that the sequential and rigorously “gated” design process will conflict with the iterative nature of TC. In typical descriptions of TC, it is the dominant product development method when used, not a part of the toolset of a larger method. This study examines how Target Costing (TC) has been attempted in the context of the traditional stage-gate product development process in a large, traditional enterprise that we call CEHaul. Target Costing is still a relatively unexplored financial control method, especially in how it integrates with existing methods.

    We find that there is conflict with the stage-gate method and TC that is consistent with criticisms of stage-gate raised by Sethi and Iqbal (2008). This includes reduction in learning through truncation of sub-projects without the iterations in TC. As well we find evidence to support Sethi and Iqbal’s finding that the extremely rigorous gate-evaluations reduce flexibility in the development system. Additionally, some core organization-supplier relationships that are mandatory for TC appear to be precluded by the CEHaul version of stage-gate.

  • 264.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wnuk-Peel, Tomasz
    University of Lodz, Poland.
    Performance Indicators for Sustainability Strategy Implementation in a Swedish Municipality2015In: Paper presented at the 11th Asia Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Bali, Indonesia, October 26-29, 2015, APMAA - Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for performance measurement systems that support sustainable strategy implementation is growing in both the private and the public sector worldwide. More and more organizations take on the responsibility to report their social and environmental outcome of their activities. This study aim to contribute to literature as it provides empirical research on how one organization has developed a performance measurement system to support their sustainable strategy.

    The research is exploratory and aim to create hypotheses for further research on the one hand, and to provide some insights into the nature of processes taking place in public sector organizations on the other. The choice of Växjö Municipality as the case organization was deliberate and the primary reason was that the organization has been using an environmental performance measurement system for a long time.

    The performance measurement system that is used by Växjö Municipality is well connected to the overall vision and provides measurements/supplementary indicators for three strategic perspectives (Living Life, Our Nature and Fossil Fuel Free) and is using both internal and external indicators.

  • 265.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz
    University of Łódź, Poland.
    System pomiaru dokonań proekologicznych w Växjö - „najbardziej zielonym miejscu Europy”2017In: Journal Rachunkowość, ISSN 0481-5475, Vol. 8, p. 13-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [pl]

    Wiele jednostek samorządu podejmuje działania na rzecz polepszenia jakości życia lokalnych społeczności. Czynią to również przedsiębiorstwa, zwłaszcza zanieczyszczające środowisko. Duże przedsiębiorstwa i grupy kapitałowe zobowiązane są do włączania tej tematyki do sprawozdań z działalności. Sądzimy, że poniższy artykuł, opisujący doświadczenia w tej dziedzinie jednego ze szwedzkich miast, może być im pomocny.

  • 266.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz
    University of Łódź, Poland.
    Adamsson, Philip
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Petersson, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    The use of environmental indicators in local government - a case study of Växjö municipality2017In: TARC 2017 Trends in Accounting Research Conference: Conference Proceedings: 4-6 October 2017, Kaunas, Lithuania / [ed] Lina Dagilienė, Kaunas: Kaunas University of Technology , 2017, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how public municipal managers and CEOs for municipally owned companies use environmental indicators from a performance measurement system in a local government. Prior research has found that environmental indicators in municipal organization are used for collection of performance information but they don’t focus in detail on how the indicators actually are used by the managers in the local government or by municipal companies.This study concludes that department managers in the local government mainly use information from Environmental Program for internal purposes. The use of the environmental program has another meaning for the profit-driven municipal companies in which they use the information for external purposes in communicating with stakeholders. Additionally, we find that factors such as freedom of action, reliability of information, trust in the designer of the program, attitudes, social pressure and the usefulness of the information influence the actual use in both the municipal departments and municipal companies.

  • 267.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz
    University of Łódź, Poland.
    Adamsson, Philip
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Petersson, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    The use of environmental indicators in local government: a case study of Växjö municipality2017In: Paper presented at the 13th Asia Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Shanghai, China, November 7-9, 2017, Asia Pacific Management Accounting Association , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how public municipal managers and CEOs for municipally owned companies use environmental indicators from a performance measurement system in a local government. Prior research has found that environmental indicators in municipal organization are used for collection of performance information but they don’t focus in detail on how the indicators actually are used by the managers in the local government or by municipal companies. This study concludes that department managers in the local government mainly use information from Environmental Program for internal purposes. The use of the environmental program has another meaning for the profit-driven municipal companies in which they use the information for external purposes in communicating with stakeholders. Additionally, we find that factors such as freedom of action, reliability of information, trust in the designer of the program, attitudes, social pressure and the usefulness of the information influence the actual use in both the municipal departments and municipal companies.

  • 268.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz
    University of Lodz, Polen.
    Henebäck, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Environmental orientation in Swedish local governments2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 1-20, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the environmental orientation in Swedish local governments. Environmental concerns over potential risk factors have become more important and popular among public organizations and environmental improvement efforts are made to create a sustainable ecosystem for the actors doing business, living and working in the area. Prior research indicates that public organizations have started to become more environmentally oriented in order to take on more responsibilities for reducing their own environmental impact as well as influencing the citizens and local businesses in the direction of a more sustainable way of living and working.

    Through a survey to Swedish local government we conclude that they are taking on a key role in developing a sustainable ecosystem through becoming more environmentally oriented. This includes developing a framework for setting environmental goals, identifying suitable environmental indicators and reporting to a wide range of stakeholders. A factor that is explaining the increasing environmental orientation in the public sector is the implementation of digitalized performance measurement systems. We find that the environmental performance measurements are used to motivate different internal and external stakeholders in the efforts to create a multi-actor ecosystem.  

  • 269.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Wong, Paul T.P.
    Tyndale University, Ontario, Canada.
    A meaning-centered approach to positive management2009In: Paper presented at the 4th International Conference in Innovation in Management, Poznan, Poland, May 21-22, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present a meaning-centered approach (MCA) to positive management. This approach incorporates findings from positive psychology and skills from meaning-centered counselling. MCA is designed to create a positive, cooperative corporate culture and enhance work satisfaction and productivity by focusing on meaning and relationship. MCA has been applied to the creation of a positive culture (Wong, 2002a, Wong & Gupta, 2004), restoration of integrity (Wong 2002b, 2004) and improving team work and cooperation (Wong, 2005, 2006).

  • 270.
    Alriksson, Anton
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labor supply effects of increases in non-labor income: A study about older working individuals labor force participation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ageing of the Swedish population entails an increase of public and pension expenditure. A solution to keep the compensation level constant is to make individuals retire later from the labor force. In order to understand what actions need to be implemented, there is a need of more knowledge about the characteristics of individuals who chose to remain in the labor force after the normal age of retirement. This essay investigates how senior workers’ that are above the normal retirement age responds to an increase of non-labor income and how it affects labor supply. The results show that around 66 % of individuals will continue to work to the same extent, around 15 % will choose to reduce hours of work, and near 19 % will chose to retire. Also the results show that a person that will not change anything in hours of work after an increase in non-labor income will most likely be a male that is self-employed, who really likes his job and has a postgraduate degree. One conclusion in this essay is that to only focus on compensation levels in different social insurance systems to increase senior workers’ labor force participation will not be as effective as if also focus would be on social norms and cultural beliefs to increase engagement towards work. 

  • 271.
    Alriksson, Anton
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Åström, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Attitudes toward immigration: A mapping of the development and analysis in attitudes towards immigration in Europe2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research on natives’ attitudes regarding immigration has increased during the past decades. The overall findings question the common theory of labor market competition and that native attitudes are affected by personal economic considerations. In the same time an increased concern in the political debate has become immigration. In many countries, there is a growth and progress of political parties with a far-right orientation that disapproves and attempts to prevent immigration. We examine data on attitudes towards immigration from eight rounds of the European social survey (ESS) which covers the years between 2002-2016. We study if the attitudes in Europe towards immigration from poor non-member countries of the European Union have changed during the 21th century and examine if the massive acceleration of refugee applications during the refugee crisis in 2015 has had an impact on the attitudes towards immigration. We estimate different models to examine how different factors are associated with individuals' attitudes towards immigration. Furthermore, we test if the labor market competition model holds for the seventh round of ESS due to limitation in data. We find that natives’ attitudes have not become worse in Europe, and that the refugee crisis in 2015 has not made the attitudes worse. We find that the factors that are associated with individual attitudes towards immigration are to a large degree connected with cultural values and beliefs, and that individuals with more years of schooling are more likely to favor immigration regardless of where the immigrants come from. These findings are consistent with the growing body of empirical findings that considers that cultural values and believes are the main drivers of attitudes towards immigration, and that actual effects of immigration on income and employment are quite small. These findings put the labor market competition premise in forming immigration attitudes into question.

  • 272.
    Al-Shaaban, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Wallin, Emmy
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sjöqvist, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Color associations in relation to context: A quantitative study concerning whether or not colors are contextually dependent/independent.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge about consumers color preferences is important for marketers to be able to reach out with attractive product offerings to consumers. To determine the color that appeals to consumers, marketers have used color consultants. Associative to learning can help marketers better understand the evolution of color preferences.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the contextual independence/dependence of consumers associations of colors.

    Findings: The result showed that color associations were dependent of the context. The two hypotheses, the association to the blue/black color on context is different compared to the general and symbolic associations to the color blue/black are not rejected. This means that the color associations depend on context. 

  • 273.
    AlSharkawi, Dawlat
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Organisationsförändringar  När företag expanderar skyndsamt : En kvalitativ studie på fallföretaget Klimatkyl AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning 

     

    Författare: Dawlat Al Sharkawi

    Handledare: Olle Duhlin

    Titel: Organisationsförändringar. När företag expanderar skyndsamt– en fallstudie av Klimatkyl AB

    Bakgrund: Vi människor utvecklas både personligt och yrkesmässigt genom förändringar.  På samma sätt behöver även organisationer och företag förändras. Sammanslagningar av bolag innebär ofta förändringar i organisationen, organisationsstrukturen och företagskulturen.  En del förändringar kan vara svåra att förutse. Detta påverkar samtliga involverade på olika sätt.  Jag vill studera hur integrationsprocesser går till och identifiera effekten av olika organisationsförändringar samt hur dessa påverkar medarbetarna i den nya miljön. Har man lärt sig något av integrationsprocessen och tagit till sig förändringar som uppstår på vägen? Vilka är motiven vid förvärv och försäljning och vad blev effekten av detta? Företaget Klimatkyl AB, som jag gjort min studie på, har genomgått flera organisationsförändringar genom åren. Precis som andra organisationer stod detta företag inför utmaningen att anpassa sig i en föränderlig omvärld och marknad.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att med utgångspunkt i teoretisk kunskap kring organisationsförändring beskriva och skapa förståelse för vilka konsekvenser och effekter som kan uppstå i organisationer till följd av att snabbväxande företag.

    Metod: Studiens design utgår från en kvalitativ metod med en deduktiv ansats. För att förstå medarbetarnas reaktioner har djupintervjuer i fokusgrupp genomförts.  Studien utgår ifrån en teoretisk referensram som ligger till grund för de djupintervjuer som gjorts med medarbetarna på organisationen.

    Resultat: Delaktighet anses vara en stark bidragande faktor för en lyckad organisationsförändring. Det största ansvaret för att skapa delaktighet ligger hos ledningen, som bör se till att det finns utrymme för att vara delaktig i organisationsförändringen. För att vara delaktig är det viktigt att få information. Genom informationen skapas tryggheten och tilliten till ledningen.   

  • 274. Alsiö, Gustav
    et al.
    Dammgård, Sanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Bilden av Sverige - det nya Matlandet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande uppsats jämförs bilden av "Sverige – det nya matlandet" mellan Jordbruksverket och VisitSweden och hurvida den överensstämmer eller ej. Det empiriska materialet är baserat på rapporter, pressmeddelanden och andra webb publikationer. Materialet analyseras sedan enligt en diskursanalys. Vi fann att bilden skiljer sig mellan de två aktörerna.

  • 275.
    Alsparr, Robin
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Woodhouse Schmit, Emanuel
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sjöberg, Emelie
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    From Asian Tigers To African Lions: En företagsekonomisk studie om svenska SME:s etableringar i Afrika2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vill få en ökad förståelse i hur svenska SME:s etablerar sig på den afrikanska marknaden. Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ studie där vi utfört intervjuer med regionala företag och organisationer. De företag och organisationer som ingår i arbetet är Sustainable Sweden, Norba, Norden samt Regionförbundet Kalmar län. Anledningen till att dessa valdes var att de har kontakt med den afrikanska marknaden. De teoriområden vår uppsats utgår ifrån är huvudsakligen etableringsform, etableringsprocess och kultur. Empirin utgör en sammanställning och jämförelse mellan de intervjuade företagen i fråga. De slutsatser vi har funnit är; vikten av kunskap vid en etablering i Afrika, vikten av rätt etableringsform, lärande i relationerna samt fördelarna med en tidig etablering i Afrika.

  • 276.
    Alsterberg, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Konrad, Madelene
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Mårdh, Ann
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Köttfärs, kyckling och en jäkla massa bonusar: en granskning av skandalutsatta företag2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att vi vill skapa oss en förståelse för hur företag ska agera vid en skandal samt hur de ska hantera PR i syfte för att återfå sin trovärdighet.

    Vi har valt att använda oss av en kvalitativ metod där vi har samlat in vårt empiriska material med hjälp av ett antal intervjuer och artiklar från Internet. Intervjuerna har bestått av sex respondenter, varav fem face-to-face och en via mail. Dessa har kunnat ge oss en genomgripande bild av vårt ämne, tack vare deras expertis och erfarenhet.

    Som slutsatser har vi kunnat komma fram till att företag som råkar ut för en skandal har olika vägar att gå. Beroende på om företaget har ett personifierat varumärke eller inte samt hur hög grad omfattningen på skandalen är olika spokespersons bättre lämpade än andra. Dessa är då ämnade att föra fram företagets budskap gentemot samhället samt försöka återfå trovärdigheten hos dessa.

  • 277.
    Altergren, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Obitz, Linn
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Jakten efter den röda tråden: - En studie om hur mobiltelefonen kan integreras i marknadsföringen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsfråga

    • Hur kan mobiltelefonen integreras i detaljhandelsföretags marknadsföring?

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att urskilja och analysera likheter och olikheter mellan företag och konsumenter gällande marknadsföring med stöd av mobiltelefonen. Detta gör vi genom att klarlägga:

    • Konsumenters upplevda värde via mobiltelefonen
    • Företags användning av mobiltelefonen som marknadsföringsresurs 

    Metod

    Uppsatsen har baserats på en kvalitativ studie som kommit att anta en deduktiv ansats med inslag av induktion. Vi har gjort den empiriska insamlingen genom semistrukturerade intervjuer där vi valt att intervjua tre välkända företag inom detaljhandelsbranschen samt fokusgrupper.

    Slutsats

    Vår analys visar att mobiltelefonen kan integreras i detaljhandelsföretags marknadsföring på olika sätt. Det framkommer att mobila applikationer, den mobila hemsidan och SMS-utskick är de främsta marknadsföringsresurserna. Vidare framhålls enkelhet, tydligt syfte och struktur som betydande faktorer. För att företag ska lyckas integrera mobiltelefonen i sin marknadsföring, på ett bra sätt, visar vår studie att de måste erhålla en röd tråd genom samtliga marknadsföringskanaler.

  • 278.
    Althin, Rikard
    et al.
    EMQ, USA.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Färe, Rolf
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Mellander, Erik
    IFAU.
    Swedish employment offices: A new model for evaluating effectiveness2010In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 207, no 3, p. 1535-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure how well Swedish employment offices perform in delivering the services required of them by the Swedish government. In contrast to earlier studies we use a dynamic efficiency framework, which allows us to better model the intertemporal nature of these services, explicitly allowing for placements of intermediate nature across periods. Rather than using second stage analysis to assess the effects of varying local labor market conditions and differences in client characteristics on performance, we include a measure of the office’s expected work load directly in the model. This measure, derived from duration analysis, is designed to capture the variation across offices in resources needed before an average individual can obtain employment. It is estimated from the characteristics of all unemployed individual and local labor market conditions.

    The empirical results demonstrate an increase in the office’s expected work loads over time and point to substantial differences in performance across offices. The results also point toward more than optimal placements in intermediate outputs such as non-matching jobs, training, and continued unemployment.

     

  • 279.
    Alvarsson, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Csiszér, Adrienn
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Vilken information erhåller styrelser?: En kvantitativ studie om styrelsens information och dess förändring2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order for the Board of Directors to perform their functions it is essential that they receive relevant, accurate and timely information. From a traditional point of view it has been stated that boards mainly receive accounting based financial information. However, this type of information has been criticized because it is inadequate for long-term strategy. It is because it does not take an external and future-oriented perspective in consideration. The criticism has at operational level been answered by adjusted information. This raises the question if information at board level also has been adjusted, particularly in view of the Board of Directors more active strategic role.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe which type of information Board of Directors in Swedish medium-sized not-listed companies receives. This in order to examine if and how the change in management accounting have affected the information Board of directors in Swedish medium-sized not-listed companies receive. Furthermore the study intends to examine if Board of Directors receives the information they need in order to fulfill a more strategic role.

    Method: This study was based on a deductive approach where theory about Corporate Governance, Management Accounting and information has been emphasized and formed the basis for the study’s hypotheses. The empirical data was based on a quantitative survey that was sent out to 1000 board members in Swedish medium-sized not-listed companies.

    Conclusions: The result of this study demonstrated that Boards mainly receive information about strategic plans but also a large amount of traditional performance-related information. The study results also demonstrated changes in the information Boards receive. This change takes the form of an increased amount of information that considers an external and future-oriented perspective. This is in accordance with the change of information that occurred at operational level. Out of this, it is concluded that the boards receive the information they need to hold a more active strategic role.

  • 280.
    Alvén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Huhtilainen, Paulina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Aiming for a greener future: A study within green marketing strategy and subjective performance2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As society’s concern for the natural environment has increased during the last decades, organizations worldwide have been forced to become more environmentally conscious. Just as it is considered important for organizations to take responsibility for the environmental consequences of their actions, sustainability has become a concept that is expected to become a moral obligation in the future. Consequently, green marketing strategy, also known as GMS, has appeared more in academia in recent years. The strategy in itself is referred to as the firm’s desire for developing actions aimed to align corporate and marketing objectives, while at the same time protecting the natural environment. Basically, it is a strategy that can be seen as a way of conducting business while avoiding harm to people and the planet.

    Previously conducted studies show that the strategy in itself led firms to improve their profitability by improving marketing performance and reducing costs. However, after conducting a literature review on GMS, firm performance, and subjective performance, a research gap was identified as previous studies focused on objective measures. More knowledge was therefore considered needed regarding the relationship between GMS and subjective performance, hence the purpose of the study has been to assess the relationship between the two.

    In order to answer the purpose of the study, a quantitative approach using questionnaires was chosen as the most appropriate method. CEOs, and environmental managers of 183 manufacturing companies in Sweden participated in the study and the findings indicated that there is in fact a relationship between the concepts measured, and that this relationship is medium positive. 

  • 281.
    Al-Zayat, Zaki
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Bäcklund, Jakob
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The association between Cosmopolitanism and global brand loyalty: A quantitative study in developing and developed countries2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of globalization has created a new global consumer segment known as Cosmopolitanism. It is a globally substantial segment that captures open-minded individuals whose consumption orientation transcends particular cultures, localities or communities and who appreciates diversity including trying products and services from a variety of countries”. In the same sense have global brands grown to take a central place on both developing and developed countries, and their competition with local brands has substantially increased. The Cosmopolitan consumer segment hold major strategic importance for global brands, but the understanding of this new segment has been markedly limited, especially on consumption related behavioral outcomes such as brand loyalty. Taking on a cross-national, comparative approach, the purpose of this study was; to understand the association between Cosmopolitanism and global brand loyalty in developing and developed countries. 

    Collecting data through online questionnaires in Sweden and Syria, 341 respondents were included within the study, and with regression analyses were three proposed hypotheses tested. The results showed a significant, but arguably weak, association between Cosmopolitanism and global brand loyalty. On the other hand, upon introducing economic development status as a moderating variable, it was seen that the association differed between the sampled countries, with a considerably stronger association in Syria. Managerial implications are presented based on these findings, and the paper is finalized with some essential limitations and avenues for suture research.

  • 282.
    Ambe, Honoria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Online Brand personality in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Paper is centered on online brand personality in the Swedish context. The study is carried out thanks to an existing Model of online brand personality. Precisely the online brand personality dimensions of Park et al., (2005). Parks et al’s. (2005) method was first tested in Korea which was also done in the Korean Language. It is now explored in the Swedish context.

    A literature review about brand personality in general and particularly online brand personality was conducted which led to the methodology used in the entire paper. A qualitative and cross sectional research design has been used in order to obtain data from customers. This study is thus carried out to explore Park et al. (2005) online brand personality model in the Sweden context. So far, it resulted to new model which involved thirty-one traits and six dimensions.

  • 283.
    Ambjörnsson, Mårten
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The effect of the housing market on mobility and unemployment2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes the relationship of housing tenure, mobility and unemployment. With data on the municipal level in Sweden from 1998 to 2010 it is shown that the share of house ownership affects mobility and unemployment negatively while the share of tenant ownership has no effect on mobility and unemployment. The share of house ownership affects primarily the share of out migration from the municipality. The majority of the negative effect of house ownership on unemployment does not go through mobility. The model used is a two way fixed effect model. The different effects of the two types of ownership indicate that they have different characteristics. One explanation could be that house owners are more tied to the municipality than tenant owners. The result does not support the argument that owners in general have higher unemployment because they are less mobile. There is no evidence for that an increase in the share of owners increases the unemployment rate in Sweden.

  • 284.
    Amelia, Johansson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Nils, Svensson
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    "Det är svårt att göra kurslitteratur sexigt": En jämförelse mellan kunders och företags syn på värde genom digitalisering och innovation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: “It’s hard to make course literature sexy”

    A comparison between customers and companies views on value through digitalization and innovation

     

    Authors: Amelia Johansson and Nils Svensson

    Supervisor: Åsa Lindström

    Examiner: Christine Tidåsen

    Course: Bachelor Thesis 15hp, Linnaeus University Kalmar, VT 2018.

     

    Research question: What does value creation look like with the customer compared to the company’s perspective and what are the two parties views on digitalization and future innovation as a possibility to increase customer value?

    Background and problem area:

    In 2007 only half of the students enrolled in a university bought the mandatory course literature because they assumed they could not afford it. The remaining book market is changing and the publishing of physical books is slowing down while digital options are increasing. This led to thoughts around what more modern innovations could do to create customer value for students who buy course literature. A consideration was what measures could be used to decrease the gap between customers and companies, and also potential differences in the value creation process.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to create a greater understanding of the differences and similarities that exist between customers and companies within the market of course literature and how value is created. The study is meant to research how the publishers work with creating customer value by using potential digital solutions and new innovations

    Method: The method used in this essay is a qualitative method with an inductive approach. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with both companies and customers. The researchers interviewed 23 students and two of the greatest publishers on the market today to be able to do a comparison between their views on value creation.

    Conclusion: In the conclusion, it was shown that the publishing companies knew what the students were requesting but have a hard time satisfying the needs, it is a hard area to create value within since the companies do not have direct contact with the students. Instead, they focus on the professors to sell their products. There are many ways for the companies who publish course literature to create value for the students. The answer to the research question is that there are huge possibilities for development through digitalization and innovation that can create value which both parties agree on. According to the study, the answer to creating value and satisfy the need the students are asking for with digitalization might be a streaming service much like Spotify, it can also create a balance in the market.

  • 285.
    Amigo, Marta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Reinhold, Alina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The Stage of Multicultural Leadership: Challenges and Opportunities which leaders are facing nowadays2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working, communicating, socialising and proceeding in multicultural environments are not always easily put into practice. The contrary is the case, it poses various challenges. These challenges will be investigated within this work with a specific focus on the research issues: Which changes leadership needs to face in terms of adapting to new multicultural circumstances? And if so, how to do it? As well as the question about how to strengthen the cultural competences of respective leaders or future-leaders in order to facilitate working and social corporate processes in a company or an organisation. The approximation with Grounded Theory will be conducted as the methodology approach in this thesis. It allows us, as the creator of knowledge, to break the collected data which is gathered within several interviews in order to create thematically concepts out of them and afterwards to relate the respective concepts to each other.  As a result, potential challenges occurring in multicultural environments regarding the collaboration with each other will be identified as well as suggestions of solution in terms of how a leader should face these challenges in order to create chances out of them. Concretely, a guide will point out the most important research insights, based on the experiences by seven interviewees who perceived working in cultural diverse surroundings out of the leadership perspective. The guide´s main target is to evince a way of direction for leaders and/or future-leaders who want to turn potential daily challenges into opportunities. It is a quick checklist that can be used in order to ensure cultural differences as valuable resources instead of barriers for the achievement of the companies’ success whatsoever.  “A leader is someone who helps improve the lives of other people or improve the system they live under.” – Sam Houston. 

  • 286.
    Amin, Abukar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Broadbent, David
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Importance of Green Service Offerings for French, Dutch, Swedish and UK Retailers in their Selection of Transport Operators: A study of French, Dutch, Swedish and UK companies operating in the retail industry.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The selection of transport operators has become a complex decision making process with multi-criteria aspects. Deciding on which transport operator to use depends on various service offerings that can be different for each company. Retailers such as those from France, the Netherlands, Sweden and UK look to improve logistical performance in areas such as lead time, flexibility and reliability, and improve customer relations. In the past the main critical aspects of retailers were cost and service optimisation. An additional factor could play a role in their selection of transport operators and this is green service offerings.

     

    Research question: Which service offerings are important for French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers in their selection of transport operators?

    • Sub question1: Are the retailers willing to use green service offerings and why?
    • Sub question2: Which of the green service offerings are important for French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers in their selection of transport operators?

     

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out what the most important service offerings are for French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers in their selection of transport operators. It also aims to determine if French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers are willing to use green service offerings and explain why. Finally, it will attempt to identify which of the green service offerings are important for French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers in their selection of transport operators.

     

    Method: This thesis was conducted by applying the deductive approach and is based on a quantitative research method. The sampling method used for this thesis is non-probability sampling. Data was collected through questionnaires with French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers. French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers have been selected for the sample population in order to find out how important green service offerings might be for them when they are purchasing the services of a transport operator. French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers from different sectors were chosen in order to achieve an objective overview of the retail industry from each country when selecting transport operators.   

     

     

    Conclusion: Traditional service offerings are more important than green service offerings for French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers that participated in this research paper. However, when looking at the results of the data, some green service offerings were perceived to be important. The authors therefore believe that when French, Dutch, Swedish and UK retailers are selecting transport operators their first focus is on the traditional service offerings that are very important to them. However, if a French, Dutch, Swedish or UK retailer is encouraged by the following motivators: customer expectations, measurable improvement or economic incentives. They might pursue the green service offerings that are important for their business activities.

  • 287.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Cent Michigan Univ, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: Are mothers really less important than fathers?2015In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 47, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a "puzzle" in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers' schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this "puzzle" using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers' schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of possible role model effects, where our estimates suggest that mother's schooling matters more than father's schooling for daughters schooling. One additional year of mothers' schooling raises daughter's schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allows a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show no statistically significant effect of mothers' and fathers' schooling on children's schooling. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 288.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Central Michigan University, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University ; VU University, The Netherlands.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA ; CReAM.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: are mothers really less important than fathers?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a “puzzle” in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers’ schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this “puzzle” using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers’ schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of role model effects, where our estimates suggest that only mother's schooling matters when allowing the effects to differ between sons and daughters. One additional year of mothers’ schooling raises daughter’s schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allow a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show that that mothers’ and fathers’ schooling has no effect on children’s schooling in the US. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature.

  • 289.
    Amore, Alberto
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Jenkins, John
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    They never said "Come here and let's talk about it': Exclusion and non-decision-making in the rebuild of Christchurch, New Zealand2017In: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 617-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making in urban contexts is increasingly characterized by a depoliticized environment that has normalized neoliberal urban policies. These are further pursued in post-disaster contexts across the globe with narratives that overshadow the views and demands of the affected communities. Spatial contestation, exclusion of certain groups from key decisions and episodes of non-decision-making thus shape urban redevelopment through top-down governance. This paper provides a Lukesian narrative on post-earthquake Christchurch, where the redevelopment of the city has been characterized by a strong command-and-control rebuild agenda emanating from the national government, regardless of the feedback and criticisms from the affected community.

  • 290.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    A Valid Matter for Managerial Foresight2012In: Journal of Futures Studies, ISSN 1027-6084, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 59-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to qualitatively assess the validity of the managerial foresight concept. Social, environmental and technological aspects of past developments of a company, as well as self reported managerial behavior are interpreted and analyzed in terms of foresight and in terms of eight sub-components of the managerial foresight concept. The results of the study reveal that developments of the company and the managers’ behavior may be interpreted in terms of their foresight. It appears that individuals rather than structured procedures have been the ones who decide and define technology and operations. Evidence is provided for the construct validity of a definition of managerial foresight and for the potential significance of specific individuals’ foresight. Qualitative empirical evidence is added to theexistent pool of quantitative evidence for the construct validity of the managerial foresightconcept. The potential importance of foresight at the level of individual managers’ is illustrated.

  • 291.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Managerial foresight and firm performance2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To specify what defines managerial foresight and to assess the association between managerial foresight and firm performance

    Methodology/Approach – First, previous research was reviewed and foresight was defined. Second, an instrument for measuring managerial foresight was developed. Third, an empirical case served as an illustration and as anassessment of validity. Fourth, managerial foresight was tested for association with firm performance.

    Findings – Foresight was specified as behavior with eight sub-components. A moderate and statistically significant positive relationship between managers’ foresight and firm performance was found.

    Research implications – The empirical evidence for the importance of managerial foresight provides a strong rationale for further studies. In distinguishing eight sub-components of foresight, and developing a managerial foresight measurement instrument, the dissertation makes relating foresight to various research fields possible, both on individual managerial andorganizational levels.

    Practical implications – Managers may consider whether foresight is important to them or to their organization. Managers, practical foresight tools, foresight programs et cetera, may now be assessed and compared in terms of foresight.

    Originality/Value – The dissertation provides empirical evidence of the importance of managerial foresight to firm performance. It conceives and advances foresight as a distinct construct. In developing and estimating aninstrument for measuring managerial foresight, the dissertation advancesforesight into a quantitatively measurable concept.

  • 292.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    Managerial foresight: concept and measurement2008In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish what foresight is, to review past usages and

    definitions of foresight and to synthesize them into one generic definition, in order to make the concept

    measurable.

    Design/methodology/approach – A discussion on how to classify variables in the social sciences

    serves as the starting-point. Next, a review of past definitions and usages of the concept foresight is

    followed by further analysis and then synthesizing of the generic definition. The generic definition is

    finally compared and contrasted with the related concepts of forecasting, strategic analysis, and

    intuition.

    Findings – Foresight is defined as behavior along three dimensions: degree of analyzing present

    contingencies and degree of moving the analysis of present contingencies across time; degree of

    analyzing a desired future state or states a degree ahead in time with regard to contingencies under

    control; and degree of analyzing courses of action a degree ahead in time to arrive at the desired future

    state.

    Research limitations/implications – The article makes foresight quantitatively measurable, which in

    turn makes it possible to empirically measure the existence of foresight among managers and to test the

    relationship between foresight and organizational performance.

    Practical implications – Practical foresight tools and programs, etc. can now be assessed and

    compared by both practitioners and researchers.

    Originality/value – In identifying three fundamental behavioral dimensions of foresight, the article

    conceives and advances foresight as a distinct concept that can be related to several research areas,

    both on individual (e.g. managerial) and organizational levels.

  • 293.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Managerial foresight: measurement scale and estimation2011In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop and assess an instrument measuring managerial foresight.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines the construction and estimation of the instrumentthrough a seven-step process. A total of 57 preliminary Likert items were developed based on an extantreview and synthesis of definitions of foresight. The items were assessed through interviews andpre-testing. A preliminary instrument was administered to a selection of managers. Exploratory andconfirmatory factor analyses were employed to assess sub-scales and model fit. The instrument wasevaluated in terms of reliability and validity.

    Findings – The study demonstrates a valid and reliable 12 Likert item scale for measuring managerialforesight.Research limitations/implications – Managerial foresight can now be assessed and tested forassociation with, for example, managerial or organizational performance variables.

    Practical implications – Managers can now be assessed and compared in terms of foresight.Originality/value – In developing and estimating an instrument for measuring managerial foresight, thepaper advances foresight into a quantitatively measurable concept.

  • 294.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Managers' foresight matters2011In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 64-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To assess the relationship between the foresight of managers and firm performance.

    Design/methodology/approach – An evolutionary perspective is deployed to specify thepresumed relationship between managerial foresight and firm performance measures. Apositive relationship between managerial foresight and firm performance is proposed. Thehypothesis is tested through Spearman’s rho, on Swedish managers, and firms in the computerprogramming industry. Managers’ foresight as well as performance is assessed as indexes.

    Findings – A moderate and statistically significant positive relationship between managers’foresight and firm performance.

    Theoretical implications – There is support for the theoretical relationship betweenmanagerial foresight and firm performance. There is a strong rationale for further studies.

    Originality/value – The paper provides empirical evidence regarding the importance ofmanagerial foresight for firm performance.

  • 295.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Subjective Performance, Managerial Foresight, and Objective Performance2014In: Strategic Change, ISSN 1086-1718, E-ISSN 1099-1697, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The origin of foresight2012In: World Futures: Journal of General Evolution, ISSN 0260-4027, E-ISSN 1556-1844, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 390-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to develop a framework for the origin of foresight. Following a review of arguments for foresight as genetically inherited versus environmentally acquired, the understanding of foresight is expanded through a behaviorist perspective and through an evolutionary perspective. The framework established makes it possible to deploy evolutionary logic to explain foresight as well as to enhance our understanding of foresight, both on individual (e.g., managerial) and aggregated (e.g., organizational) levels.

  • 297.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 13, p. 71-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  • 298.
    Amsteus, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Al-Shaaban, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Wallin, Emmy
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sjöqvist, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Colors in Marketing: A Study of Color Associations and Context (in) Dependence2015In: International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, ISSN 2308-3816, E-ISSN 2222-6990, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 32-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mirroring an increasing awareness of the importance of colors, today marketing managers are paying increasing attention to the deployment of color in marketing as well as to the applicability of universal color associations. Two colors considered to carry several specific universal associations are blue and black. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to assess the contextual independence/dependence of consumers’ associations with the colors blue and black. Associative learning theory was deployed to specify the hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested through a paired sample t-test. The results show that the universal associations with the colors are different from the associations with the colors when they are displayed in a specific context. The implications for further research and limitations of the study are presented. Managers may want to consider the associations colors have in the specific context rather than relying on universal associations of colors.

  • 299.
    Amsteus, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Henriksson, Dan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Johnson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The Sound of Choice2016In: International Journal of Business and Social Science, ISSN 2219-1933, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to testthe effect of suggestive music on consumer choice in cafés. It is proposed that suggestive music influences consumer choice in cafés. The hypotheses were tested through Chi-square on a totalof 283 measures. The results show that suggestive music has an effect on consumer choice in cafés. Managers who want to influence consumer choice in cafés through suggestive music may be able to do so. The results provide empirical support for the idea that suggestive music and the associations it carries represent information that consumers use for assessing choices and making selections.

  • 300.
    Amsteus, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    de Vries, Simon
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Hwang, Vidar
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Scent in Mail: The Effect of Scented Direct Mailings2015In: Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, ISSN 2220-6140, E-ISSN 2220-6140, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 24-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to test the effect of scent on response time and sales in direct mailings. It is proposed that congruent scent influences response time and sales in direct mailings. A total of 1571 direct mailings were sent out.The hypotheses were tested through a Mann-Whitney U test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results show that scent influences response time to direct mailings but that it does not influence sales.Future research should perform exploratory studies to test the effect of scent with regard to various forms of direct marketing and offerings as well as in general product and service contexts. Managers may want to consider scenting direct mailings when a fast response is critical. The result provides empirical support for the idea that scent has an effect on response time in direct mailings.

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