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  • 251.
    Hallbäck, Filip
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    ”Och här kommer nu några små skönheter från de stora viddernas land”: Vithetskritiska perspektiv på Stig Wessléns kortdokumentärer om samelivet från 1940-talet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om vithetskritik, med utgångspunkt i Stig Wessléns tre kortdokumentärer Med Stig Wesslén i Lapplandsfjällen (1940), Med lapparna till fjälls (1944), samt Vårvinterrajden (1944). Analysen består av en genomgående närläsning av dessa, utifrån vithetskritiska infallsvinklar som formulerats av en rad olika forskare och med hjälp av begrepp som formulerats av Nationella Sekretariatet för Genusforskning. Uppsatsen består av ett delfokus på filmarkivets visning av dessa. Det finns inga direkta slutsatser som så, men analysen lägger grund för en viktig diskussion kring relationen mellan vithet och filmmediet i en vidare bemärkelse. I slutändan argumenterar jag för vikten av fortsatt forskning på områden inom filmvetenskapen, med förslag på diverse tidsnedslag.

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  • 252.
    Hallsenius, Lianna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Det avgörande steget för kvalitetsfilmen: En studie av kvalitetsfilmsbegreppet och marknadsföring av film i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the concept of quality film and its use on the marketing channels public relations, marketing management and film festivals in Sweden. The study also defines marketing and describes how it can be practiced in the film industry. The conceptual analysis of quality film refers to Pierre Bourdieu's sociological texts and have a brief historical review of how the concept of quality film was coined in Sweden. Then follows a review of quality films in relation to European art films, and how the concept has influenced the Swedish film industry today. The thesis contains analyzes based on three exclusive interviews with quality film workers, and literature on film marketing and estimation of quality.

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  • 253. Hanssen, Eirik Frisvold
    et al.
    Rossholm, Anna Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    The Paradoxes of Textual Fidelity: Translation and Intertitles in Victor Sjöström's Film Adaptation of Henrik Ibsen's Terje Vigen2012In: Translation, Adaptation and Transformation / [ed] Laurence Raw, London: Continuum, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Hansén, Victoria
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Genusaspekter i Mr. & Mrs. Smith2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En uppsats som berör genus i den publikt framgångsrika filmen Mr. & Mrs. Smith (Doug Liman, 2005). Uppsatsen försöker utreda ifall genusperspektivet i Hollywoodfilmen har utvecklats till att bli mer jämställt. Svaret som uppsatsen kommer fram till är att det visserligen har gått framåt i utvecklingen att se kvinnor och män som jämställda men att det ännu inte är helt jämställt i de amerikanska hollywoodfilmerna.

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  • 255.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    A New Deal in European film?: Notes on the Swedish Regional Production Turn2008In: Film International, ISSN 1651-6826, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion of the regionalised film production setup in Sweden. Particular emphasis is on the long term possibilities of the setup.

  • 256.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    ”Detta dåliga samvete”: om kortfilmen, regionerna och filmfestivalerna2008In: Välfärdsbilder: svensk film utanför biografen, Statens ljud- och bildarkiv, Stockholm , 2008, p. 261-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    On the production of short films within the contemporary Swedish film production setup. Moreover, the reliance on film festivals for screenings and that shorts are part of a particularly "European art cinema institution" is discussed.

  • 257.
    Hedling, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Historien om ett brott: Kriminalfilmsserier som regionalt och panskandinaviskt mediekoncept2010In: Den skandinaviske krimi: Bestseller og blockbuster / [ed] Gunhild Agger, Anne Marit Waade, Göteborg, Ålborg, Århus: Nordicom, 2010, 1, p. 129-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska Den här artikeln studerar hur serier av filmer, baserade på samtida kriminallitteratur, finansieras, hur de görs som samlade storproduktioner och hur de sedan gemensamt marknadsförs för visning på biograf, via dvd och i TV. Efter att konceptet etablerats med sex filmer – baserade på det svenska författarparet Sjöwall-Wahlöös romaner om polisen Martin Beck – under rubriken Historien om ett brott i början av 1990-talet, iakttas den följande utvecklingen. Tonvikten ligger på hur konceptet utvecklats i nära samklang med deckarlitteraturens framgångar men också hur det blivit en viktig del i inte minst det nya svenska regionaliserade filmproduktionslandskapet. Som regionalt mediekoncept har det också fått efterföljare i grannländerna. Serierna har följaktligen blivit centrala verktyg för de regionala produktionsorternas ekonomiska strukturomvandling och anpassning till en ’upplevelseekonomi’ där tilltagande synlighet, turism, inflyttning och att rent allmänt framstå i attraktiv dager är betydelsefulla målsättningar.

  • 258.
    Hedling, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Mapping the Region: An Introductory Note2010In: Regional Aesthetics: Locating Swedish Media / [ed] Olof Hedling, Erik Hedling, Mats Jönsson, Stockholm: Royal Library of Sweden (Kungliga biblioteket) , 2010, 1, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introductory chapter to the collection Regional Aesthetics: Locating Swedish Media

  • 259.
    Hedling, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Murder, Mystery and Megabucks?: Films and Filmmaking as Regional and Local Place Promotion in Southern Sweden2010In: Regional Aesthetics: Locating Swedish Media / [ed] Erik Hedling, Olof Hedling, Mats Jönsson, Stockholm: Royal Library of Sweden (Kungliga biblioteket) , 2010, 1, p. 263-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On film and literature as marketing devices in the Southern Swedish town of Ystad.

  • 260.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    Notes on Some Difficulties of a European Cinema Makeover2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ever since the GATT negotiations of 1993, the level of consciousness within Europe about the economic precariousness of its audiovisual industries has increased. At the same time a prevalent theory about how regions and cities can achieve economic growth and a facelift has spread. Accordingly, to create an audiovisual cluster is often proposed as a particularly promising way to go for places who find themselves marred by unemployment and post-industrial decline.

    In Sweden, these developments, together with the fact that the country joined the European Union in 1995, have led to the establishing of three regional film centres. As of now, a large majority of all features are shot here. At the same time the phrase “Swedish film should be a sector of dynamic growth”, has been written into the national film agreement between the government and the remains of what used to be an industry. These are words without equivalence in all of the former agreements ever since film was recognized as a sector in need of support 45 years ago.

    Using the southern Swedish town of Ystad – one of three current centres for feature production – as a case study, this paper will discuss some areas in which the proposed makeover, to suddenly become “dynamic”, is to some extent made problematic by inherited notions embedded in that complex of ideas Steve Neale lined out in his influential article “Art Cinema as Institution” almost thirty years ago.

  • 261.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    Possibilities of stardom in European cinema culture2009In: Stellar Encounters: Stardom in Popular European Cinema, Indiana University Press/John Libbey (Bloomington/London) , 2009, p. 256-266Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    On the difficulties of developing a European transnational movie star system. Contains comparisons with the star system in soccer.

  • 262.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    Smilende gyldenbrune øjne: de politisk korrekte invandrarportrætters dominans i svensk film2007In: Kosmorama (København), ISSN 0023-4222, E-ISSN 2245-9731, no 240, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the representation of immigrants in recent Swedish cinema. In Danish.

  • 263.
    Hedling, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Storstarken med folkviseögonen går på bio: Några anteckningar om Vilhelm Moberg och filmen2010In: Ferlin och alla de andra / [ed] Per Rydén, Birthe Sjöberg, Lund: Absalon , 2010, p. 97-108Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om Mobergs förändrade syn på filmmediet under sitt liv.

  • 264.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    The Chronicle: On Style, Design and Architecture in Contemporary TV-drama2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 265.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. filmvetenskap.
    Train Kept a Rollin': Antonioni, Blow Up och den brittiska bluesvågen2008In: Theorier om verklig diktning: En festskrift till Per Erik Ljung, Absalon förlag, Lund , 2008, p. 349-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Discussion and presentation of the extraordinary outpour of blues music and blues musicians out of Britain in the 1960s and how this is briefly portrayed in Michelangelo Antonioni's film Blow Up (1966).

  • 266.
    Hedling, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    Vår tids stora berättelser: om tv-serier, deras stil och författare2007In: Då och där, här och nu: vänbok till Ingemar Oscarsson, Absalon: Lund , 2007, p. 199-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    On the contemporary tv-serial, its visual style and the rampant auteurism within this particular world.

  • 267.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Hedling, ErikLunds universitet.Jönsson, MatsLunds universitet.
    Regional Aesthetics: Locating Swedish Media2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional Aesthetics: Locating Swedish Media maps more than two hundred years of Swedish media. It ranges from written travelogues in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries via feature films, documentaries, TV programmes, literature and press to contemporary video activism on the Internet. The nineteen contributors navigate the reader through a variety of media landscapes by advocating an interdisciplinary approach to “the communication of place” that mixes in-depth analyses of specific phenomena with a general understanding of modern media representations. Accordingly, this is a book that recurrently combines textual close readings with historical contextualizations in new ways.

  • 268.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Filmvetenskap.
    Larsson, Mariah
    Editorial: Issue 362008In: Film International, ISSN 1651-6826, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and presentation to the six essays that encompasses the issue at hand.

  • 269.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Larsson, Mariah
    Film International: Sex in the Cinema2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Six essays + an editorial about the phenomenon of sex in the cinema, television and on the internet since the historical breakthrough of sex research by Alfred C. Kinsey in the late 1940s. The essays span a wide array of topics including, to name a few, the developments within obscenity law in the US, sex in the work of European art cinema auteurs such as Ingmar Bergman and Michelangelo Antonioni, the reception of an actress making the crossover move from porn to 'regular' film. The issue also includes a standard section of book, festival and DVD reviews not connected to the main theme of the issue.

  • 270.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Larsson, Mariah
    National Boundaries?: Notes on the Pornographic Film in Sweden in the 1970s2009In: Media, Culture and Identity in Europe / [ed] Savaş Arslan, Defne Karaosmanoğlu, Süheyla Kirca Schroeder, Istanbul: Bahçeşehir University Press , 2009, p. 271-279Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On Swedish 1970s porn film as a transnationally successful example of European Cinema.

  • 271.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Larsson, Mariah
    Skandinavische Lust und europäisches Kino: Eine schwedische Filmografie2009In: Montage/AV. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Geschichte audiovisueller Kommunikation, ISSN 0942-4954, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 137-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On Swedish Porn of the Seventies as Succesful Transnational European Cinema

  • 272.
    Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Larsson, Mariah
    Malmö Högskola.
    Ulusal Sınırlar?: 1970’lerin İsveç Porno Filmleri Üzerine Notlar2009In: Avrupa’da Medya: Kültür ve Kimlik, Istanbul: Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi Yayinlari , 2009, p. 263-271Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On Swedish 1970s porn film as a transnationally successful example of Popular European Cinema.

  • 273.
    Hedqvist, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Kulturella uppdateringar i 2010-talets remakes: Användandet av digitala- och sociala medier i Carrie (De Palma, 1976) och Carrie (Peirce, 2013)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka under vilka premisser adaptioner och remakes under 2010-talet använder sig av digitala- och sociala medier inom den diegetiska världen i en historia ursprungligen skapad i en tidsperiod där dessa teknologier inte existerade. Uppsatsen kommer utgå ifrån två huvudsakliga teoretiker inom fälten adaptionsteori och remakestudier; Linda Hutcheon och Constantine Verevis. De teknologiska hjälpmedel som används frekvent i dagens moderna samhälle, i underhållningssyfte såväl som praktiska redskap, är i ständig utveckling. I en diskussion med Hutcheons och Verevis publicerade teorier kommer uppsatsen utöka och uppdatera vad som sägs om kulturella uppdateringar i remakes i dagens filmindustri.

    Att en filmadaption betraktas som ett verk som bygger på en redan etablerad historia är sedan länge känt. En remake är en film vars historia har en föregångare inom samma konstform; rörlig media. Hutcheon definierar remakes som nära besläktat med adaptioner och därför kombinerar uppsatsen de två etablerade teoretiska perspektiven som är adaption- och remakestudier. Arbetet kommer utgå från redan utformade adaptionsformer och hur de ser på en remake med uppdaterat innehåll och ifall det, enligt dessa teorier, ses som något som är nödvändigt för att locka dagens filmpublik till biograferna.

    För att styrka dessa teorier på ett så klart och tydligt sätt som möjligt så innehåller uppsatsen en fallstudie; Stephen Kings publicerade roman om Carrie från 1974 som har fått ett flertal filmadaptioner sedan dess. Uppsatsen studerar två av dessa filmer närmare nämligen historiens första filmadaption Carrie (Brian De Palma, 1976) samt den senaste remaken Carrie (Kimberly Peirce, 2013). Båda filmskaparna har lämnat grundhistorien näst intill orörd från Kings roman men vad som skiljer den första filmadaptionen från remaken är hur den senare har uppdaterat de kulturella byggstenar vårt digitala samhälle idag förlitar sig på.

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  • 274.
    Herbertsson, Mattias
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Tri-Svabhava-Vada: Yogacara Buddhist theory applied on film2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A ‘religion means Christianity’ equivalence seem to be predominant within the academic publications on religion and film. If a ‘philosophical’ film does not fit within the Christian doctrine, secular philosophies are usually applied to it. This paper tries to do a Buddhist analysis of the film Fight Club (David Fincher, 1999). The Yogacara Buddhist doctrine is used as a base for the thematic analysis, its vocabulary is applied on the narrative progression of the films protagonist. Structure: The paper starts with an introduction on how Buddhism came about through the life story of the Buddha, and then goes deeper into the Buddhist doctrine of thought. It concludes by using Yogacara Buddhist theories and vocabulary in a thematic analysis of the film Fight Club.

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  • 275.
    Holm, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Sjukt kul med kärlek: Psykisk och fysisk sjukdom i 2010-talets romantiska komedier.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Psykisk och fysisk sjukdom är ett tema som under 2010-talet har dykt upp i ett flertal romantiska komedier. Studien utgår från denna motsägelsefulla förteelse. Med frågeställningen "hur används psykisk och fysisk sjukdom i relation till den romantiska komedins konventioner i narrativ, karaktär och komik i tre filmer från 2010-talet" är syftet att ta reda på just detta.

    Urval

    Urvalet gjordes utifrån specifika inklusionskriterier för att matcha studiens syfte. Filmerna behövde vara producerade under 2010-talet, kategoriserade och marknadsförda som romantiska komedier, samt inkludera minst en karaktär med någon form av psykisk eller fysisk sjukdom. Filmerna som valdes ut är Silver Linings Playbook (Du gör mig galen!, David O. Russell, 2012), Me and Earl and the Dying Girl (Alfonso Gomez-Rejon, 2015) och The Big Sick (Michael Showalter, 2017).

    Teori och metod

    Filmerna bearbetades genom en semantisk analys av den romantiska komedins konventioner med stöd av genreteorier från Altman och Neale. För beskrivningar av konventionerna i den narrativa strukturen, karaktärer och komik användes texter av Mernit.

    Resultat

    Konventionerna i den romantiska komedin var tydligt framställda, oavsett filmernas tema. Endast en film avvek så pass mycket från konventionerna att dess genreindelning kan ifrågasättas. Kärlek används både som en utlösande och förlösande faktor för psykisk sjukdom.  Sjukdom kunde också föra samman karaktärer och även stärka en redan existerande kärlek.

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  • 276.
    Holmberg, Jeanette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Det ambivalenta moderskapet:: en analys av moderskapssymbolik i filmen Antichrist2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis highlights depicted motherhood in film. Antichrist is used as the primary object in my analysis, which is a film that has been vividly debated in the literature, beacuse of it's graphic content. To a large extent, this film has been discussed in relation to Lars von Triers intentions and previous works, but in this thesis the film and it's depicted motherhood is viewed through it's symbolic elements. These elements, when analysed in relation to film language and motherhood theory, point out the representation of an ambivalent nature of motherhood. The symbolic content in five different scenes, which is attributed to Her as a mother, is also found in other cultural and religious sources. I claim that this depicted ambigous motherhood is central to the films narrative. As a consequence, this thesis also unfolds the peripheral depicted fatherhood, an aspect in need of futher investigation.

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  • 277. Holmström, Andreas
    et al.
    Salmose, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Förord2019In: Apropå Eric M.: En antologi om Eric M. Nilssons filmer / [ed] Andreas Holmström, Röstånga: Trolltrumma , 2019, p. 7-8Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 278.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    American Empire and Biological Apocalypse2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While writing from two very different historical and political vantage points, Niall Ferguson and Julian Go have both suggested that US society appears to be facing many of the same financial and geo-political problems that Britain did a century ago. From this perspective, it is interesting to note that contemporary American popular culture often negotiates many of the concerns that structured British Imperial culture. One such concern is the risk of degeneration and the possibility of a biological apocalypse. During the late-Victorian period, Charles Darwin’s cousin Fredric Galton suggested that, surrounded by the many comforts of modern society, the British subject may circumvent the evolutionary process. In addition, the confrontation with non-European peoples during colonisation was frequently imagined as a racial struggle. Thus, the decline of the British Empire could be cast as an evolutionary event. As Daniel Pick has observed, these ideas had a profound impact on the British culture and society of the nineteenth century and the novel of the period became increasingly obsessed with the notion of biological apocalypse.

     

    Pointing to crucial political and cultural parallels between Victorian British society and the present-day US, this paper discusses how contemporary American popular culture dramatizes the possibility of a biological global crisis. In Hollywood blockbusters such as Outbreak (1995), Resident Evil (2002-2010) and Contagion (2011) aggressive viral infections threaten to wipe out modern civilisation. In the Alien (1979-2007) and Species (1995-2004) series, humans face new, primitive and competitive species that threaten to crowd them out in the universal struggle for survival. In Justin Cronin’s best selling novel The Passage (2010) a South American virus is manipulated by the military, turning the infected humans into primitive and supremely violent agents of the apocalypse.

     

    This paper makes the observation that these narratives, just like their British counterparts, must be understood in relation to modernity and empire. These films and novels biologize geopolitical relations in general and the popular notion that America is in decline in particular. Furthermore, the viral invasion that popular culture imagines often has its origin in America’s increasingly competitive backyards China and South America. In this way, popular culture taps into what Stephen B. Arata has termed the “anxiety of reverse colonisation” and suggests that America must be prepared to quickly mobilize the military and medical resources of modernity to counter the threat from the primitive Other and to prevent degeneration of its own species. However, some narratives also make room for a concurrent counter discourse that describes the biological apocalypse as a having been engineered by the market state and/or the military-industrial complex. 

  • 279.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Can the Subaltern Speak Under Duress?: Voice, Agency, and Corporal Discipline in Zero Dark Thirty2017In: Concurrent Imaginaries, Postcolonial Worlds: Towards Revised Histories / [ed] Diana Brydon, Peter Forsgren, Gunlög Fur, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2017, p. 281-301Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Censorship, the US Department of Defense and the Popular War Film2018In: La fabrique des imaginaires : Censure contre-discours et société technicienne: Manufacturing Imaginaries : Censorship, Counter-discourses and the Technical Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network (2001) James Der Derian argues that, at least since the first Gulf War in 1990-1, the US Department of Defense has invested heavily in the mediation of war as a clinical and virtuous exercise with minimum civilian casualties. Unlike during the much criticised Vietnam War, media is kept outside the zones of battle as much as possible and depend on the DoD’s own media outlets for information. In addition to controlling news media’s reports from war zones, the DoD also seeks to actively produce the way that the entertainment industry – in particular Hollywood cinema, television shows, and computer games – represent the armed forces. As David L Robb describes in Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon Shapes and Censors the Movies (2004), the DoD regularly funds block buster film. In exchange for extras, advisors, guns, helicopters and other tools of war, the DoD has been allowed to edit and censor film scripts. As Der Derian shows, the DoD has demanded that directors keep US military operations “virtuous” and movie directors thus incise, in particular, civilian carnage, producing an image of war as the surgical obliteration of enemy forces. Movies that have asked for DoD funding but refused to toe this line have not been given this funding. Thus, Ford Francis Coppola did not receive funding for Apocalypse Now (19XX), while Jerry Bruckheimer’s Top Gun (1986) were made with considerable aid from the DoD.

    However, this formula begins to change with the film Black Hawk Down (2001), a film that shows extensive bloodletting, and civilian death but still received funding.  In recent years, DoD funded films such as Zero Dark Thirty (2014) and American Sniper (2016) show American soldiers and military personnel torturing civilians and shooting children. This paper explores this dramatic shift in the censorship of the visual representation of violence and considers what is still untold by DoD funded cinema.

    Der Derian, James. Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network. Boulder: Westview Press, 2001

    Robb, David L. Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon Shapes and Censors the Movies. New York: Prometheus Books, 2004

  • 281.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Consuming the Tropics : The Tropical Zombie Re-eviscerated in Dead Island2016In: Tropical Gothic in Literature and Culture: the Americas / [ed] Justin D. Edwards, Sandra G. T. Vasconcelos, Oxon: Routledge, 2016, p. 87-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the computer game Dead Island as a game about tourism in the tropics but also as a virtual tourism space in itself. The analysis makes use of John Urry’s influential observation that places are intimately related to consumption. Urry proposes that tourist sites in particular are understood as places that can be consumed in various ways. At the same time, they are also places that can consume you. With Urry’s thesis in mind, it can be argued that Dead Island invites the gamer to consume the tropics as a feminine, primitive, eroticized and violent space, as a territory that must be consumed or it will consume you. This article thus argues that the gamer consumes the tropics partly through the exercise of an overtly male and colonial gaze and partly through consumptive violence. This suggests that the game operates as an updated form of what Patrick Brantlinger has termed Imperial Gothic. However, this article further argues that the game never gets comfortable with the sexual and racist politics it arguably endorses. While the tropical space and the bodies that inhabit it allow the gamer to engage in a form of virtual gothic colonialism, the complex narrative attempts to sabotage the Manichean categories that seemingly inform the game’s virtual geography and the semiotics of violence on which the game relies.

  • 282.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Eat the Rich: Pandemic Horror Cinema2017In: Transtext(e)s Transcultures 跨文本跨文化: Journal of Global Cultural Studies, ISSN 2105-2549, Vol. 12, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay posits that pandemic horror cinema speeds up the slow violence of the pandemic so that political stakes become apparent. Thus, pandemic horror cinema enables an eloquent conversation on the relation between the imagined diseases of the Other and modernity as an engine of middle-class preservation. The essay traces the tradition of the gothic and horror pandemic narrative from its nineteenth-century origins to the present moment in time when it has proliferated into a number of different nations, languages and ideological positions. The article then explores these positions through a discussion of the films Dawn of the Dead (2004), I am Legend (2007), World War Z (2013), and Train to Busan (2016). Focussing on religion, race, ethnicity, and class, the essay describes how the pandemic horror cinema helps project different understandings of self and Other through the image of violent pandemic disease.

  • 283.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Hollywood and the Imperial Gothic2010In: Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction, ISSN 0306-4964, no 106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Militarizing the Vampire: Underworld and the Desire of the Military Entertainment Complex2012In: Transnational and Postcolonial Vampires: Dark Blood / [ed] Johan Höglund, Tabish Khair, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 173-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the double nature of the vampire through a reading of the film Underworld, one of many contemporary narratives that picture the vampire as militarized and inherently Western. The chapter is especially concerned with the ways that the vampire as Western champion has been appropriated by what has been theorized as the Military Entertainment Complex (Lenoir) or the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network (MIME-NET) (Der Derian). The military entertainment complex can be understood as a coming together of what Eisenhower termed the military-industrial complex and the entertainment industry, fuelled by the revolution in information technology and by US neo-imperial ambitions. In this way, the chapter seeks to explore the relationship between the dual nature of the vampire, the military entertainment industry, US foreign policy after 9/11 and what is perhaps best described as the technological/imperial desire that informs so much American popular culture today.

  • 285.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Nordic Gothic New Media2020In: Nordic Gothic / [ed] Maria Holmgren Troy, Johan Höglund, Yvonne Leffler, Sofia Wijkmark, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020, p. 169-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter maps and analyses new Gothic media and video games developed in the Nordic region. The chapter first considers what the concepts Gothic and Nordic actually entail when the focus is new media rather than literature or cinema. This is followed by analyses of four of the more important and widely disseminated games and considers the interactive stories they tell in relation to the Nordic geographical, ideological and cultural landscape. The first two, Finnish Alan Wake (2010) and Swedish Little Nightmares (2017), are well funded and internationally distributed games made for an international audience. The other two, Swedish Year Walk (2013) and Norwegian Through the Woods (2016) are independent games that may look for wide dissemination, but that keep much closer to Nordic themes and settings.

  • 286.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Parables for the paranoid: affect and the war gothic2013In: Continuum. Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1030-4312, E-ISSN 1469-3666, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 397-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a series of horror war films set during the US invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq with the help of the concept of affect as outlined by Eve Sedgwick and Brian Massumi. The films studied in this paper combine the zombie genre with the military invasion story so that monstrous affect is always produced against what is referred to as a super-political landscape. In analysing these films, the paper abandons the a priori expectation that the use of affect will produce a set of sane (non-paranoid), fostering and liberating possibilities. The general argument of the paper is instead that these films simultaneously induce interpretative paranoia and present the spectator with the possibility that the foundation for this paranoia is inherently unstable. Thus, the paper ultimately explores the usefulness of affect on material that appears to lend itself to the traditional deconstructive endeavour and discerns points of commonality between deconstruction and affect studies.

  • 287.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Revenge of the Hulder: New Nordic (Post) Colonial Gothic2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Revenge of the Trolls: Norwegian (Post) Colonial Gothic2017In: Edda. Nordisk tidsskrift for litteraturforskning, ISSN 0013-0818, E-ISSN 1500-1989, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies by Naum and Nordin, Fur, and Keskinen et al. suggest that the Nordic nations participated in the pan-European colonial project of the nineteenth century and that they also pursued an internal colonial project through the invasion of Sápmi. This realisation constitutes a vantage point from which Nordic culture can be revisited and re-examined as (post)colonial. With this in mind, the article examines how the Norwegian films Troll Hunter (2010) and Thale (2012) engage with the repressed history of Nordic colonialism. Like many other Gothic films that discuss colonial matters, they are ambivalent, concurrently supporting and disturbing the imperial notions that they bring to the surface. Particular attention is devoted to how the films situate modernity in relation to a metaphorical indigeneity that they imagine as both attractive and abject, and to how they visualize categories of gender and race in relation to this indigeneity.

  • 289.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Simian Horror in Rise and Dawn of the Planet of the Apes2015In: Animal Horror Cinema: Genre, History and Criticism / [ed] Johan Höglund, Katarina Gregersdotter, Nicklas Hållén, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 224-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how Rise of the Planet of the Apes and Dawn of the Planet of the Apes query the normative notion that humanity is the natural sovereign of the Earth. The chapter argues that these recent films eschew the allegorical dimension that informs the first generation of films in favour of a more direct engagement with human/animal concerns. The study discusses these concerns with the help of the concepts Homo Sacer and the Anthropological Machine developed by Giorgio Agamben and argues that the Planet of the Apes series disturbs and horrifies its audience not primarily because it pits the animal against the human in a Darwinian struggle, but because it shows the borders that separate the two to be artificial and imaginary.

  • 290.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The American Imperial Gothic: Popular Culture, Empire, Violence2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The imagination of the early twenty-first century is catastrophic, with Hollywood blockbusters, novels, computer games, popular music, art and even political speeches all depicting a world consumed by vampires, zombies, meteors, aliens from outer space, disease, crazed terrorists and mad scientists. These frequently gothic descriptions of the apocalypse not only commodify fear itself; they articulate and even help produce imperialism. Building on, and often retelling, the British ‘imperial gothic’ of the late nineteenth century, the American imperial gothic is obsessed with race, gender, degeneration and invasion, with the destruction of society, the collapse of modernity and the disintegration of capitalism.

    Drawing on a rich array of texts from a long history of the gothic, this book contends that the doom faced by the world in popular culture is related to the current global instability, renegotiation of worldwide power and the American bid for hegemony that goes back to the beginning of the Republic and which have given shape to the first decade of the millennium. From the frontier gothic of Charles Brockden Brown's Edgar Huntly to the apocalyptic torture porn of Eli Roth's Hostel, the American imperial gothic dramatises the desires and anxieties of empire. Revealing the ways in which images of destruction and social upheaval both query the violence with which the US has asserted itself locally and globally, and feed the longing for stable imperial structures, this book will be of interest to scholars and students of popular culture, cultural and media studies, literary and visual studies and sociology.

  • 291.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    The Road to Moloch: Catastrophic Transculturation in the Post 9/11 War Gothic2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the aggressive American reply to 9/11, frequently described as a bid for empire, the Middle Eastern landscape as a form of American colonial space has been imagined in interesting and disturbing ways. This paper discusses the representation of this space by examining the three war films Red Sands, the Objective and the Devil’s Tomb all taking place in the American imperial margin. The paper demonstrates how the desert and mountain landscapes in these films are not only perceived as sources of terror in themselves, they also threaten a monstrous transformation of those who enter, turning these spaces into what Judith Halberstam calls technologies of monstrosity. These films are thus perhaps best described as a form of neo-imperial war gothic where the War on Terror, conflated with more deeply rooted, yet fundamentally historical, fears regarding racial, religious, sexual and ethnic transgression, is projected onto the desert landscape of the colonised.

  • 292.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The White Space of the Metropolitan Battlefield in The Avengers2018In: Space Oddities: Difference and Identity in the American City / [ed] Stefan L. Brandt, Michael Fuchs, Münster: LIT Verlag, 2018, p. 65-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter argues that the destruction and defense of metropolitan spaces in the alien invasion film is intimately related to post-9/11 geopolitical concerns. The chapter’s main focus is on the racial and sexual imageries that direct and help fuel these concerns. With this in mind, it considers how The Avengers (2012) creates urban spaces in which ritualized performances of idealized white masculinity occur in front of a dual audience, one existing within the film itself and one outside of it. The essay thus suggests that these invaded and bravely defended metropolitan territories constitute white spaces in the sense that they are sites where a particular conception of whiteness is produced through the spectacular performance of violence.

  • 293.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Wither the Present, Wither the Past: The Low-Budget Gothic Horror of Stockholm Syndrome Films2018In: B-Movie Gothic: International Perspectives / [ed] Justin D. Edwards, Johan Höglund, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018, p. 122-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wildly popular genre of Nordic Noir has been seen to elucidate ‘dark aspects of the welfare state model’ and to ‘portray violence and human darkness as “normal” parts of contemporary life’ (Brodén 2008). Crucial to this reading of Nordic Noir is the notion that the welfare state is premised on a Nordic modernity that furtively supported eugenics, colonialism and predatory capitalism (Keskinen et al 2009, Naum and Nordin 2013). Influenced by this trend, new Nordic Gothic in general, and Nordic B-Movie Gothic in particular, can also be seen to interrogate the demise of the welfare state and to open up society to the possibility of senseless violence. Increasingly, the Nordic gothic B-movie industry is now finding purchase for the bloody narratives that were successful in the US during the late 70’s and 80’s, and which were during this period largely banned in Sweden and other European countries.

    From this vantage point, the present chapter examines the violent B-movie gothic of Swedish Stockholm Syndrome Films. Inspired by, and frequently referencing, US splatter and gore cinema, this independent studio explores a Nordic geographic and social context through gothic horror. Frequently set in the cabin endemic to low-budget cinema, the terror that rises to rend bodies asunder in these films is located in a complex historical past. Madness (2010) portrays the emigrant Swede (canonized in Swedish national literature) as monstrous redneck, while Wither (2012) allows horror to ascend from a Swedish mythological, underground past. Thus, Stockholm Syndrome Films’ movies show a present that, in gothic fashion, is rent asunder by a past that refuses to forget the violence and injustice whitewashed by historiography, and which demands terrible retribution exacted on the society that has neglected it.

  • 294.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    “You’re a terrorist, that’s why I’m doing it to you”: Torture and Discipline in Zero Dark Thirty2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction to Foucault’s study Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison describes the public execution of Robert-François Damiens who in 1757 attempted to assassinate King Louis XV of France. Foucault describes how Damiens had the flesh of his body torn from his chest, arms and legs with red-hot pinchers, how sulphur, lead and boiling oil was poured into his wounds, and how his body was drawn apart by four horses assisted by his executioner, until only his dismembered torso remained to be burnt at the stake.

     

    Foucault’s revolutionary thesis is that in the decades that follow, discipline ceased to be a public spectacle. While this tremendously important observation has revolutionized our understanding of the operations of discourse, power and institutions in our society, it has become increasingly obvious that the practices Foucault describes as essentially pre-modern in fact never disappeared. Steven Pierce and Anupama Rao show in Discipline and the Other Body (2006) that torture was routinely used to discipline the subaltern in the European colonies during the nineteenth century. In reconstruction US, black Americans were tortured and mutilated, sometimes in front of crowds of thousands, in ways that directly recall the treatment of Damiens in 1757. In 2004, images from the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq were made public and circulated in the press, on television and on the Internet.

     

    From this perspective, it is not strange that torture has retained a central position in literature and film concerned with the meeting between the (imperial) state and its enemies. In Rudyard Kipling’s 1890 short story “The Mark of the Beast,” the narrator applies red-hot iron to the strung-up body of a literally faceless Indian leper who has cursed one of his friends. In D. W. Griffith’s racist epic Birth of a Nation (1915), the freedman Gus is castrated (in an eventually censored scene) and then murdered by the budding Ku Klux Klan for desiring a white woman.

     

    With this history in mind, the present paper examines Katherine Bigelow’s controversial movie Zero Dark Thirty. Torture is a brutal practice in Bigelow’s movie, but within the dramatic structure of the film, which opens with authentic sound recordings from the World Trade Centre and ends with the retributive killing of Osama bin Laden, it comes across as a deplorable but essential tool for justice. At the same time, the film often makes it clear, as in the title to this paper, that a certain category of people must be tortured. The fact that public torture and execution have continued to be a way to discipline the enemies of the imperial state indicates that these enemies are not perceived as possible to control with the aid of discourse or social institutions. As with Damiens, their transgressions, real or imaginary, must be manifested on their bodies as a lesson that cannot be misunderstood. Thus, this paper argues that torture is not only a current practice, it is also imagined by contemporary culture as a necessary form of violence designed to maintain the impossibly porous borders between metropol and periphery.

  • 295.
    Höglund, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Edwards, Justin D.
    Introduction2018In: B-Movie Gothic: International Perspectives / [ed] Justin D. Edwards, Johan Höglund, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Second World War, low-budget B-movies that explored and exploited Gothic narratives and aesthetics became a significant cinematic expression of social and cultural anxieties. Influencing new trends in European, Asian and African filmmaking, these films carried on the tradition established by the Gothic novel, and yet they remain part of a largely neglected subject. B-Movie Gothic: International Perspectives examines the influence of Gothic B-movies on the cinematic traditions of the United States, Britain, Scandinavia, Spain, Turkey, Japan, Hong Kong and India, highlighting their transgressive, transnational and provocative nature. It shows how B-movie Gothic is a relentlessly creative form, filled with political tensions and moving from shocking conservatism to profound social critique.

  • 296.
    Höglund, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Khair, Tabish
    Introduction: Transnational and Postcolonial Vampires2012In: Transnational and Postcolonial Vampires: Dark Blood / [ed] Johan Höglund and Tabish Khair, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Höglund, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Willander, Martin
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Black Hawk-Down: Adaptation and the Military-Entertainment Complex2017In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 365-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the non-fiction book Black Hawk Down (1999) by Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down the movie (2001) directed by Ridley Scott, and the computer game Delta Force: Black Hawk Down (2003). The article suggests that while the movie and the game must be studied as adaptations of the first text, the tools developed by adaptation studies, and that are typically used to study the transfer of narratives from one media form to another, do not suffice to fully describe the ways in which these narratives change between iterations. To provide a more complete account of these adaptations, the article therefore also considers the shifting political climate of the 9/11 era, the expectations from different audiences and industries, and, in particular, the role that what James Der Derian has termed the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network (MIME-Net) plays in the production of narrative. The article thus investigates how a specific political climate and MIME-Net help to produce certain adaptations. Based on this investigation, the article argues that MIME-Net plays a very important role in the adaptation of the Black Hawk Down story by directing attention away from historical specificity and nuance, towards the spectacle of war. Thus, in Black Hawk Down the movie and in Delta Force: Black Hawk Down, authenticity is understood as residing in the spectacular rendering of carnage rather than in historical facts. The article concludes that scholarly investigations of the adaptation of military narratives should combine traditional adaptation studies tools with theory and method that highlight the role that politics and complexes such as MIME-Net play within the culture industry.

  • 298.
    Jensen, Signe Kjaer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Animating characters through music: A multimodal and musical framework for character analysis exemplified through Pixar’s 'Up'2018In: Symbiotic Cinema, Confuences between film and other media: 24th Sercia Conference, 6-8 September 2018 - Växjö, Sweden, Växjö: Linnaeus University , 2018, p. 44-45Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Films are inherently multimodal and intermedial media products, bearing on representation of (intermedial relations) and through (multimodal integration) a range of different media. In this presentation, I want to focus on the multimodal aspect and explore how to perform a character analysis in film which is rooted in a multimodal and musical approach – discussing the meaning potential of music as it interacts with other auditory and visual modes in constructing and developing filmic characters.

    Following the character theory set forth by Jens Eder, what defines and sets characters apart from other elements of the filmic narrative is that characters are experienced as ‘fictional beings’ having ‘an inner life’ of their own (Eder, 2010). What animates a character in other words – in the sense of lifting a specific representation from the level of pure artefact to the level of ‘fictional being’ – something experienced as having a consciousness – is the impression that the representation is capable of having thoughts and feelings of its own. Since music in both animated and live-action features is often considered to provide an emotional content and a background for understanding characters’ feelings, it seems logical that music in diverse film genres should therefore play a significant part both in creating and developing characters as multimodal artefacts and in animating them into ‘fictional beings’. 

    Using selected examples from the Pixar film ‘UP’ (Docter and Peterson, 2009), I will discuss how to conduct an analysis of character formation in film based on a musical and multimodal semiotic approach, inspired among others by the works of Philip Tagg, John Bateman and Mikhail Bakhtin. Following this, I propose that character formation in film depend on a dialogic and polyphonic orchestration of different semiotic modes, herein several interacting visual and musical modes, to construct a character as a structured reservoir of meaning potential. 

  • 299.
    Jensen, Signe Kjaer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Exploring children’s understanding of, and aesthetic involvement with, animated films2019In: Audience Research in the Arts Conference: 3–5 July 2019, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield: Sheffield Performer and Audience Research Centre (SPARC) , 2019, p. 64-64Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Animated films are complex, multimodal works which capture children and adults alike. While the main aim of many of the popular films is to tell a fantastical story, they also provide an aesthetic experience and a background for reflection on a wide range of issues relevant to their intended audiences - from the importance of family to themes such as identity development and even death. Animated film is moreover one of the most important contemporary media forms in the lives of children. Since children per definition belong to a different interpretative community than the adult researcher, understanding media aimed at children necessitates bringing children themselves into the research process – gaining a child perspective from children themselves.

    Therefore, exploring empirically how children engage with specific animated films, and looking into what elements of the aural and visual aesthetic children pay attention to, as well as the understandings that children make, is therefore highly important in order to understand this media type and the kind of involvement it affords from its target group.

    Based on interview and observation data from an ongoing qualitative audience reception study focused on the music in Frozen (Buck, Lee, Vecho, & Beck, 2013), Up (Docter & Peterson, 2009), and Shrek the Third (Miller & Hui, 2007), I will in this presentation discuss how children aged 7-11 react to selected animated films (while watching) and express their understandings in subsequent communication. I will furthermore relate these insights to the aesthetic and communicative structure of the films.

  • 300.
    Jensen, Signe Kjaer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Musicalised Characters: A study of music, multimodality, and the empiric child perspective on mainstream animation2019In: NordMedia 2019, Communication, Creativity & Imagination: Malmö 21-23 August 2019, Nordicom, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this presentation is to present a full framework for understanding characters in children’s animation from a theoretical and empirical perspective.

    Filmic characters are paradoxical figures in the sense that they are cognitive constructs based on the visual and auditive inputs we get from a screen and a set of speakers. In accordance with Jens Eder’s definition of characters, they are communicatively constructed representations of fictional beings, which we as audiences perceive to have a mind with thoughts and feelings of their own. As such, the animation of a character, that is making a character ‘come to life’ in the sense of us perceiving them as conscious beings, is dependent on providing us cues for interpreting a character’s mind.

    A character’s mind however, can only be explicitly represented through monologue or dialogue, and it will very often be implicitly portrayed through different expressive means such as facial expressions, body gestures, and not least music. At the same time, music also functions to situate characters within social and geographical environments through musical stereotypes and genre references. Given this complexity of ‘constructing’ a character, even on the most basic level, a multimodal theory that takes both music and visual composition of the character into account is needed.

    Furthermore, as children belong to interpretative communities that are different to those of the the adult researchers working on children’s animation, is becomes essential to combine theoretical and critical studies of animation with an empirical child perspective.

    Children’s discourses are also highly multimodal. Ask them what they think of the music in a film and they might perform a dance for you rather than put into words what they are hearing and thinking. Therefore, a multimodal transcription model which is able to account for these non-verbal modes of meaning making throughout a longer interview situation is also necessary in order to conduct a proper audience reception study of animated films for children.

    In this presentation, I want to introduce the full framework of my PhD project, complemented by a specific case study selected from my data. I will first present my character-oriented multimodal model for transcribing and analyzing films. After that I will go through my transcription model for my interviews with examples of how the children use their body and voice to supplement their verbal discourse. Finally, I will discuss how the children in my study understand and negotiate the meaning of the animated princesses in Frozen[1] and Shrek the Third.[2]

    The preliminary analysis of the study suggests that children are highly active, reflexive and literate viewers, but also that a wide variation exists between different interpretative communities even when comparing groups of children of the same age and from the same country, mainly due to the multicultural composition of the population. The respondents in this study are Danish children aged seven and 11 from different suburbs to Copenhagen.

    [1] Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee, Frozen (USA: Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, 2014).

    [2] Chris Miller and Raman Hui, Shrek the Third (USA: Paramount Home Entertainment, 2007).

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