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  • 251.
    Karlsson, Mathilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av den egna identiteten och identitetsskapandet: En kvalitativ studie om personer med funktionsnedsättning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Karlsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krav, kontroll och stöd: En kvantitativ studie av budget- och skuldrådgivarens upplevda stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka samband som finns mellan upplevd stress, kontroll, krav och stöd hos kommunernas budget- och skuldrådgivare. Hypotesen var att budget- och skuldrådgivare som upplever en hög stressnivå upplever högre krav, mindre grad av kontroll och mindre socialt stöd än de budget- och skuldrådgivare som upplever en lägre stressnivå. Den andra hypotesen var att kön, ensamarbete, hög arbetsbelastning, delad tjänst, deltidsarbete och frånvaro av handledning visar samband med en högre stressnivå. Ett frågeformulär konstruerades utifrån Perceived Stress Scale, The Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire samt frågor om kön, tjänstgöringsgrad, kollegor, delad tjänst, väntetid för besök och tillgång till handledning. Frågeformuläret förmedlades till 326 budget- och skuldrådgivare där svarsfrekvensen var 24 %. Resultatet visade att hög arbetsbelastning, höga krav, låg kontroll och lågt socialt stöd visar ett samband med hög stressnivå.

  • 253.
    Karlsson, Oliver
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symtomutveckling hos vårdsökande barn och ungdomar med psykiatrisk problematik i Kronoberg: En tvärsnittsstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In national surveys of mental illness in Sweden in the group of children and adolescents, an increase in prevalence has been observed. To our knowledge there are no regional surveys in the area. The purpose of the present study was to map symptom distribution among applicants to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in Sweden and to map how mental illness is distributed on the basis of demographic variables in order to contribute to increased knowledge of mental illness among children and adolescents in Sweden. In this study data from conducted interviews from year 2010 - 2017 in a child and adolescent clinic was analyzed. The results showed a significant difference among the number of applicants between the first and last measurement of the measurement period, year 2010 and 2017, for adhd and anxiety-like symptoms. Regarding depressive symptoms, no significant difference was found. The most frequent symptom group was depressive symptoms. The results also showed differences due to the socio- economic group in which socio-economically weak areas had a larger share of applicants. The conclusion was that the national increase also occurs at regional level and that the spread of mental illness confirms previous research that socio-economic family factors affect the behavior of children and adolescents. Further research on etiology can supplement this study in order to work preventively with children and adolescents with mental illness.

  • 254.
    Karyotaki, Eirini
    et al.
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Ebert, David Daniel
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Donkin, Liesje
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Riper, Heleen
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Twisk, Jos
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Burger, Simone
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Rozental, Alexander
    UCL, UK;Karolinska Institutet.
    Lange, Alfred
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Williams, Alishia D.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Zarski, Anna Carlotta
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Geraedts, Anna
    HumanTotalCare, Netherlands.
    van Straten, Annemieke
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Kleiboer, Annet
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Meyer, Bjoern
    Gaia AG, Res Dept, Germany;City Univ London, UK.
    Ince, Burgin B. Unlu
    Middle East Tech Univ, Turkey.
    Buntrock, Claudia
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Lehr, Dirk
    Leuphana Univ Luneburg, Germany.
    Snoek, Frank J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Andrews, Gavin
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Choi, Isabella
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Ruwaard, Jeroen
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Klein, Jan Philipp
    Luebeck Univ, Germany.
    Newby, Jill M.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia;MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, UK.
    Schroder, Johanna
    Univ Med Ctr Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany;Inst Sex Res & Forens Psychiat, Germany.
    Laferton, Johannes A. C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Van Bastelaar, Kim
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Imamura, Kotaro
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Linköping University.
    Boss, Leif
    Leuphana Univ Luneburg, Germany.
    Sheeber, Lisa B.
    Oregon Res Inst, USA.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Berking, Matthias
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Tito, Nickolai
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University;Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Kenter, Robin
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Perini, Sarah
    St Vincents Hosp, Australia.
    Moritz, Steffen
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Nobis, Stephanie
    Leuphana Univ Luneburg, Germany.
    Berger, Thomas
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bjorkelund, Cecilia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    VU, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Do guided internet-based interventions result in clinically relevant changes for patients with depression?: An individual participant data meta-analysis2018In: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 63, p. 80-92Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about clinically relevant changes in guided Internet-based interventions for depression. Moreover, methodological and power limitations preclude the identification of patients' groups that may benefit more from these interventions. This study aimed to investigate response rates, remission rates, and their moderators in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of guided Internet-based interventions for adult depression to control groups using an individual patient data meta-analysis approach. Literature searches in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library resulted in 13,384 abstracts from database inception to January 1, 2016. Twenty-four RCTs (4889 participants) comparing a guided Internet-based intervention with a control group contributed data to the analysis. Missing data were multiply imputed. To examine treatment outcome on response and remission, mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used. Response and remission rates were calculated using the Reliable Change Index. The intervention group obtained significantly higher response rates (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.17-2.85) and remission rates compared to controls (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 2.07-2.79). The moderator analysis indicated that older participants (OR = 1.01) and native-born participants (1.66) were more likely to respond to treatment compared to younger participants and ethnic minorities respectively. Age (OR = 1.01) and ethnicity (1.73) also moderated the effects of treatment on remission.Moreover, adults with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline were more likely to remit after receiving intemet-based treatment (OR = 1.19). Guided Internet-based interventions lead to substantial positive treatment effects on treatment response and remission at post-treatment. Thus, such interventions may complement existing services for depression and potentially reduce the gap between the need and provision of evidence-based treatments.

  • 255.
    Kastbom, Åsa A.
    et al.
    Linköping University Hospital ; Linköping University.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund University.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University.
    Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study2016In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut.

    RESULTS: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut.

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  • 256.
    Kastbom, Åsa A.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping Univ.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping Univ.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund Univ.
    Svedin, Carl-Göran
    Linköping Univ.
    Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods: A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results: Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Conclusion: Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers.

  • 257.
    Katungu, Christopher
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional intelligence, job insecurity and organizational commitment in organizations in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to examine and analyze the relationship on emotional intelligence with job insecurity and organizational commitment in organizations. Sample participants were 109 employees from various public and private sector organizations in Småland county, Sweden, with females representing 69.72% (N =76). Three instruments were used in the online study survey to collect data and these were Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQ), Job Insecurity Questionnaire and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Results indicated that emotional intelligence and job insecurity were negatively correlated; emotional intelligence and organizational commitment were positively correlated; job insecurity and organizational commitment were negatively correlated. Emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between job insecurity and organizational commitment. Given the results, organizations may need to consider developing affective organizational commitment of employees and consider addressing job insecurity among employees in Sweden and promote emotional intelligence. Therefore, emotional intelligence may be worth the investment for employees in organizations in Sweden.

    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, job insecurity, organizational commitment, affective commitment, downsizing, psychological contract.

  • 258.
    Keryakuz, Helda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Regjaj, Egzona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En kvalitativ undersökning om hur socialsekreterare arbetar med bedömningar av stöd inom äldreomsorgen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to see how care managers take care of the elders and how they supply to their needs. We gathered our data from five semi-structured interviews. All the participating care managers work in Stockholm. The material from the interviews were analyzed using Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Clayton Alderfer's needs hierarchy and the theoretical concept empowerment. We divided all the data into four different categories; needs, the law, guidelines and economy. The results provide knowledge about how caretakers work in Swedish old age care. The results indicate that the caretakers were caught between catering to the needs of the patients and the demands of the organization, which includes the economy. The needs of the elderly had an impact on the law and the guidelines. It also had an impact on how the law was superior to guidelines. Based on the study we could also see differences on how care managers use the guidelines. Some used them to avoid responsibility while others used them as a guide in their work.

  • 259.
    Khawaled, Adam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work-Related Information & Communication Technology Use and Occupational Burnout: The Mediating Role of Recovery Experiences2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has changed the relationship between work and life and allowed work to engage in our home lives. It is no longer the case that when the working day is over people switch off, rather it is when people go home and remain connected. In a culture where people are always connected via information and communication technology (ICT) the line between work and life has blurred. The present study investigated the relationship between ICT and occupational burnout with the mediating role of recovery experiences and their importance in the relationship. The study was conducted in Southern Sweden in Växjö.The study included 101 participants both male (N=53) and female (N=48) from public and private sectors where participants used ICT on a regular basis to perform job-related tasks. Data was collected using a self-reported web-based questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that there is no significant correlation between ICT and occupational burnout. However, it was found that there is a significant negative correlation between ICT and recovery experiences and a strong significant negative correlation between and recovery experiences and occupational burnout. It was concluded that occupational burnout results from insufficient recovery from work-related stressors and not the stress itself.

    Keywords: work-related ICT, occupational burnout, recovery experiences, employee psychological well-being

  • 260.
    Kinnvall, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    How does high school teachers experience students with mental illness?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur lärare kunde identifiera och stötta elever med psykiska störnignar, med en särskild tonvikt på affektiva störningar. Studien utgjordes av semi – strukturerade intervjuer och innefattade fem lärare från gymnasium i södra Sverige samt Mellansverige. Intervjuerna analyserades utifrån en induktiv tematisk analys. Under analysen framkom tre teman; Att se eleverna, Förhållande till eleverna och Åtgärder. Dessa visade att lärare kunde identifiera elever som mår dåligt till viss mån, men att stora skolor kunde försvåra denna process. Studien visade även att huvudansvaret för en elev som mår dåligt ligger på mentorerna, samt att det finns en risk att dessa mentorer tog på sig en psykologroll. Slutligen visade resultatet att de åtgärder som görs för elever med psykisk ohälsa inbegriper att ändra examinationsform för att underlätta för eleven samt att hjälpa eleven till professionell hjälp, ofta i form av elevvårdsteam. Slutsatsen av studien visade att det behövs mer resurser inom elevhälsovården för att lärarna ska kunna få hjälp och stöd att handskas med psykiskt sköra elever, samt att mindre skolor som satsar på elevhälsan är det optimala för elever med psykiska störningar; dock kräver det senare ytterligare forskning. 

  • 261.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet ; Karolinska University Hospital ; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    A Rare Success against Alzheimer's2017In: Scientific American, ISSN 0036-8733, E-ISSN 1946-7087, Vol. 316, no 4, p. 32-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]
    • Two hundred experimental drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease have failed in the past 30 years. Without new therapies, the number of patients worldwide will increase dramatically by 2050.
    • A ray of hope has come recently from a clinical trial that showed that dementia's cognitive impairment might be prevented by paying close attention to various health factors.
    • Participants in the study who followed a regimen of health-related steps registered improvements on cognitive measures such as memory and mental-processing speed.
    • Results of this research suffice for health care professionals to begin making a series of recommendations to patients on diet, exercise and levels of social engagement that may help prevent dementia.
  • 262.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Solomon, Alina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Till Klarhet med Alzheimer2013In: Äldre i Centrum. Tidskrift för aktuell äldreforskning., ISSN 1653-3585, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 13-15Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Solomon, Alina
    Karolinska institutet / Östra Finlands universitet i Kuopio.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fokus på tidig diagnos och förebyggande i Alzheimer forskning2013In: Finska Läkaresällskapets Handlingar, ISSN 0015-2501, Vol. 173, no 2, p. 11-19Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus on early diagnosis and prevention in Alzheimer studies/research

    Alzheimer’s disease has been identified with dementia. Recent diagnostic criteria help to identify it be- fore dementia development, which offers hope for finding efficient drugs and preventive interventions. In addition to age and genetics, epidemiological studies have revealed modifiable risks such as vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. . Steps have already taken place, moving from observation to inter- vention in large multifactorial studies in which risk factors and mechanisms are targeted simultane- ously. The Finnish geriatric programme FINGER is part of the European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), together with two studies in France and the Netherlands. These will all aid in formulating lifestyle recommendations for preventing/delaying cognitive decline and dementia. 

  • 264.
    Klaesson, Fanny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ernstsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnliga chefers ledarstil: En kvalitativ intervjustudie som undersöker eventuella dominerande ledarstilar hos kvinnliga HR-chefer2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Kobylinski, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    McGregor, Molly
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Inherent Motivation and the Leadership Style Preferences of Millennials2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research on leadership and motivation tends to focus primarily on how leadership style influences employee motivation with very little consideration for how follower characteristics may influence the preference of the leader. In an attempt to contribute to this research gap, this thesis examined whether motivation, as represented by extrinsic and intrinsic sources, influences an individual’s preference towards a transactional vs. transformational leadership style. This thesis provides further novelty by examining this concept on the largely understudied and newest generation to enter the labour market, the millennials. To investigate the main research question, 220 Swedish students participated in a questionnaire that was designed to assess their motivation and leadership style preference. As age, gender and personality were considered as potential predictors in this relationship they were also included in the questionnaire as control variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed intrinsic motivation to be a significant predictor of transformational leadership preference, and extrinsic motivation as a significant predictor of transactional leadership preference. These findings provide merit in both the academic and organisational sectors, not only contributing empirical evidence to this widely neglected research field, but also in the practical utility these results can provide for creating more informed leadership training decisions in a bid to recruit, retain and motivate the millennial generation as they enter the workforce.

  • 266.
    Koepke, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marten, Julia Katharina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Relationship Between Honesty-Humility And Social Desirability: High-Stake Versus Low-Stake Situations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Faking in applications was found to be an important issue in which social desirability plays a relevant role. The present study brings Social Desirability Responding, Honesty-Humility, and different stakes of situations into relation. Social Desirability Responding, i.e. Communion Management and Self-Deceptive Enhancement, operationalized by the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and Honesty-Humility (HEXACO-60) are analysed regarding their relationships and differences in and between high-stake, low-stake, and high-stake-low-framed situations. Relationships between Honesty-Humility and Communion Management were significantly positive, while no relationship between Honesty-Humility and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was found. There were also no significant differences in the constructs across situations. It was further investigated whether individuals scoring low in Honesty-Humility show different responding behaviour dependent on situational frames compared to individuals scoring high in Honesty-Humility. No significant differences were found. Results imply that Social Desirable Responding scales do not measure what they intent to, hence further research is needed. The tested high-stake-low-framed situational instruction did not significantly reduce faking. However, exploring the option of framing application situations is recommended for organizations. Further, the problematic nature of measuring Social Desirability Responding is considered.

  • 267.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Blom, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effects of component-specific treatment compliance in individually tailored internet-based treatment2019In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 298-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of treatment compliance in a guided individually tailored internet-based treatment (TAIL) in relation to depression and co-morbid symptoms. Compliance with the homework in the different treatment components in TAIL, each aimed at a specific condition, was rated for 207 participants by independent assessors. Six subgroups (n = 34-131) were constructed consisting of participants with co-occurring symptoms of worry, panic, social anxiety, stress, insomnia, or pain. For each group, hierarchical regression was used to investigate whether the total sum of compliance points, Overall Compliance, predicted reductions in depression and in condition-specific symptoms. Also, in each subgroup, it was tested whether working with specific treatment components, Specific Compliance, predicted reduction of the targeted symptoms. Overall Compliance predicted 15% of the reduction in depression symptoms. For participants with worry, panic, social anxiety, stress, or insomnia, Overall Compliance also predicted symptom reductions in that specific condition. Specific Compliance predicted reduction in the targeted symptoms for participants with social anxiety, stress, and insomnia. Specific Compliance with stress and insomnia components also predicted reductions in depression. Our results strengthen the importance of compliance in internet-based treatments. Because compliance with stress and insomnia components was particularly important for broad symptom reductions, these conditions should not be ignored when treating patients with co-morbid symptoms.

  • 268.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karin, Eyal
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Johansson, Robert
    Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Comparing individually tailored to disorder-specific internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy: benchmarking study2018In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 282-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorder-specific internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) is effective for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety. In this benchmarking study, a new, individually tailored, ICBT programme (TAIL) showed effects on depression (n = 284, d = 1.33) that were non-inferior to disorder-specific ICBT for depression in routine care (n = 2358, d = 1.35). However, the hypotheses that TAIL for individuals with social anxiety or panic disorder is inferior to disorder-specific ICBT could not be rejected (social anxiety: TAIL d = 0.74 versus disorder-specific d = 0.81; panic: TAIL d = 1.11 versus disorder-specific d = 1.47). Our findings strengthen the empirical base for TAIL as an alternative to disorder-specific ICBT for depression. (c) The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2018.

  • 269.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mattsson, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Lund University.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy and physical exercise for depression2018In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 265-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Both internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) and physical exercise are alternatives to treatment as usual (TAU) in managing mild to moderate depression in primary care. Aims To determine the cost-effectiveness of ICBT and physical exercise compared with TAU in primary care. Method Economic evaluation of a randomised controlled trial (N=945) in Sweden. Costs were estimated by a service use questionnaire and used together with the effects on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The primary 3-month healthcare provider perspective in primary care was complemented by a 1-year societal perspective. Results The primary analysis showed that incremental cost per QALY gain was (sic)8817 for ICBT and (sic)14 571 for physical exercise compared with TAU. At the established willingness-to-pay threshold of (sic) 21 536 ( pound 20 000) per QALY, the probability of ICBT being cost-effective is 90%, and for physical exercise is 76%, compared with TAU. Conclusions From a primary care perspective, both ICBT and physical exercise for depression are likely to be cost-effective compared with TAU. (c) The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2018.

  • 270.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lallerstedt, Lovisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sennerstam, Victoria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Individually tailored internet treatment in routine care: A feasibility study2019In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 18, p. 1-8, article id 100263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Disorder-specific internet treatment, based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, has been a part of routine psychiatric care in Sweden since 2007, provided at the Internet Psychiatry Clinic in Stockholm. Individually tailored treatments, with the opportunity to target more than one condition within the same treatment, has since then been evaluated in randomized trials with promising results. To introduce an individually tailored treatment into a clinical setting originally designed for disorder-specific processes creates challenges, such as how to choose the optimal treatment type for each patient. Methods: The feasibility of a proposed new routine for assessment and initiation of either a disorder-specific or an individually tailored treatment was tested on patients self-referring to the Internet Psychiatry Clinic during three weeks (N = 66), by exploring the match between comorbid problem areas and patients' preferred treatments with available disorder-specific treatment options, as well as presenting these patients' preferred problem areas to work with in individually tailored treatment, and evaluating any problems with the proposed routine. The feasibility (i.e. satisfaction, credibility, treatment activity, adherence, and preliminary symptom reductions) in the individually tailored treatment were also explored on a smaller subgroup of eight patients. Results: A majority (65%) of patients screened had at least 2 comorbid problem areas, although 25% of these comorbid patients that where allocated with the help of the proposed routine still initiated disorder-specific treatment. The proposed assessment routine functioned satisfactorily within the up and running internet clinic. The individually tailored treatment was promising regarding satisfaction, credibility, adherence, and preliminary reductions in symptoms. A notable challenge encountered was that the platform was not set up to assist with assessment process or outcome monitoring for individually tailored treatment. Conclusions: It seems feasible to combine individually tailored internet treatment and disorder-specific internet treatment within the same internet clinic. The addition of tailored treatment may prove to increase the number of patients included in treatment.

  • 271.
    Kraus, Anja
    et al.
    Ludwigsburg University of Education, Germany.
    Herbert, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Introduction2013In: Praxeology as a Challenge: Modelling the Tacit Dimensions of Pedagogy / [ed] Anna Herbert, Anja Kraus, Waxmann Verlag, 2013, 1, p. 7-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedagogy today mainly refers to the kind of theoretical and empirical research which is based on a concept of objectivity or oriented at the principle of consensus deriving from reading social reality as if it were a text (cp. “linguistic turn”) - it is to say: as if social reality is ruled by completeness, closeness, unambiguity and linearity (Oser 1997, Wulf 2007). The praxeology of pedagogical thinking and practice is then more or less reduced to certain norms, definite interventions in well-defined pedagogical situations. Today in the frame of school, to impart available knowledge and abilities oriented at certain objectives is regarded as the main aim. In general, pedagogical as well as pedagogically intended knowledge and abilities are broadly interpreted as psychometric competences.

    In this view, the more tacit side of pedagogical sceneries as the implicit meanings of spoken and written statements, modes of body-communication and -interaction, inexplicable knowledge, iconic representations, didactical operations and commodities as well as architectural environments is more or less neglected. These tacit dimensions of pedagogy constitute a sort of incidental scenery. This scenery might open, grant or might also close the significant ways of teaching and learning; it might empower learners and teachers in understanding, transcending and creating the world or constrain them in doing this.

    Diverse phenomenological, constructivist and post-structural perspectives even regard reflection itself as a “secondary experience”, ciphered out from a basic pre-reflexive multiplicity, e.g. of experiences. Thus, finding ourselves in a concrete situation, we tend to complete our actual experiences by interpreting the explicit, i.e. by reconstructing the invisible sides of the situation, realizing the unsaid as it is revealed, and by focusing on issues read between the lines. In doing so we often recur to a corporally conveyed experiential knowledge, and we come back to it whenever we want to decide whether or how something makes sense to us. Thus, there seems to be a tacit side of getting insights and scientific examination.

    By taking over an empirical-praxeological perspective our group mainly attends to the question how social practices constitute a (binding) reality. Of special interest is the question to what extent tacit dimensions are part of this process.

    As a methodology, praxeology refers to approaches in the field of “Sociology of Culture” (Bourdieu, Reckwitz), “Sociology of Knowledge” (Mannheim, Bohnsack) and the “Chicago School” (Mead, Goffman et al.). It has its roots in phenomenological (Alfred Schütz et al.), in interpretative-hermeneutical approaches (Berger, Luckmann, Geertz, Goffman), in semiotic-structuralistic (Saussure, Eco, Foucault), pragmatical (Peirce et al.) und analytical approaches (Wittgenstein).

    In pedagogy, the term praxeology connected to names as Josef Derbolav, Dietrich Benner et al. A praxeological theory conceptualizes sociality as an anthropological fact, generated in dynamic and relational processes. In social practices and contextual structures orders are transmitted, constituted and created/established. The focus lies on corporal, performative and on the emergent aspects of the practices by which “substantiality” (Wirklichkeit) is generated. “Substantiality” is, beside others, facetted as the logic of practice (Bourdieu), as the meaningful other (Mead), as the social construction of reality (Berger & Luckmann) and as the spaces of common experience (Mannheim). A praxeological approach reconstructs social practices in order to reveal their underlying levels of meaning. This entails the transition of the question from what (happens) to how (reality is constituted) which implicates to leave aside objectivistic claims of truth and presumptions of subjective motives.

  • 272.
    Lakens, Daniel
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Adolfi, Federico G.
    Natl Sci & Tech Res Council CONICET, Argentina;Max Planck Inst Empir Aesthet, Germany.
    Albers, Casper J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Anvari, Farid
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Australia.
    Apps, Matthew A. J.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Argamon, Shlomo E.
    Illinois Inst Technol, USA.
    Baguley, Thom
    Nottingham Trent Univ, UK.
    Becker, Raymond B.
    Univ Bielefeld, Germany.
    Benning, Stephen D.
    Univ Nevada, USA.
    Bradford, Daniel E.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, USA.
    Buchanan, Erin M.
    Missouri State Univ, USA.
    Caldwell, Aaron R.
    Univ Arkansas, USA.
    Van Calster, Ben
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chen, Sau-Chin
    Tzu Chi Univ, Taiwan.
    Chung, Bryan
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Colling, Lincoln J.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Collins, Gary S.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Crook, Zander
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Cross, Emily S.
    Bangor Univ, UK;Univ Glasgow, UK.
    Daniels, Sameera
    Ramsey Decis Theoret, USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University.
    DeBruine, Lisa
    Univ Glasgow, UK.
    Dunleavy, Daniel J.
    Florida State Univ, USA.
    Earp, Brian D.
    Yale Univ, USA.
    Feist, Michele I.
    Univ Louisiana, USA.
    Ferrell, Jason D.
    St Edwards Univ, USA;Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Field, James G.
    Univ Virginia, USA.
    Fox, Nicholas W.
    Rutgers State Univ, USA.
    Friesen, Amanda
    Indiana Univ Purdue Univ, USA.
    Gomes, Caio
    Booking Com, Netherlands.
    Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Grange, James A.
    Keele Univ, UK.
    Grieve, Andrew P.
    UCB Celltech, UK.
    Guggenberger, Robert
    Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Grist, James
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Hasselman, Fred
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Hochard, Kevin D.
    Univ Chester, UK.
    Hoffarth, Mark R.
    NYU, USA.
    Holmes, Nicholas P.
    Univ Nottingham, UK.
    Ingre, Michael
    Isager, Peder M.
    Linköping University.
    Isotalus, Hanna K.
    Univ Bristol, UK.
    Johansson, Christer
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Juszczyk, Konrad
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Poland.
    Kenny, David A.
    Univ Connecticut, USA.
    Khalil, Ahmed A.
    Charite, Germany;Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Konat, Barbara
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Poland.
    Lao, Junpeng
    Univ Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Larsen, Erik Gahner
    Univ Kent, UK.
    Lodder, Gerine M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Lukavsky, Jiri
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Madan, Christopher R.
    Univ Nottingham, UK.
    Manheim, David
    RAND Corp, USA.
    Martin, Stephen R.
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Martin, Andrea E.
    Univ Edinburgh, UK;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Netherlands.
    Mayo, Deborah G.
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    McCarthy, Randy J.
    Northern Illinois Univ, USA.
    McConway, Kevin
    Open Univ, UK.
    McFarland, Colin
    Skyscanner, UK.
    Nio, Amanda Q. X.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University;Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA USA.
    de Oliveira, Cilene Lino
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Parsons, Sam
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Pfuhl, Gerit
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Norway.
    Quinn, Kimberly A.
    Depaul Univ, USA.
    Sakon, John J.
    NYU, USA.
    Saribay, S. Adil
    Bogazici Univ, Turkey.
    Schneider, Iris K.
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Selvaraju, Manojkumar
    KACST, USA;Integrated Gulf Biosyst, Saudi Arabia.
    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands;Leiden Univ,Netherlands.
    Smith, Samuel G.
    Univ Leeds, UK.
    Smits, Tim
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Spies, Jeffrey R.
    Ctr Open Sci, USA;Univ Virginia, USA.
    Sreekumar, Vishnu
    NINDS, USA.
    Steltenpohl, Crystal N.
    Univ So Indiana, USA.
    Stenhouse, Neil
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, USA.
    Swiatkowski, Wojciech
    Univ Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Vadillo, Miguel A.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Williams, Matt N.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Williams, Samantha E.
    St Louis Univ, USA.
    Williams, Donald R.
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Yarkoni, Tal
    Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Ziano, Ignazio
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Zwaan, Rolf A.
    Erasmus Univ, Netherlands.
    Justify your alpha2018In: Nature Human Behaviour, E-ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 168-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.

  • 273.
    Lange Bengtsson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Om sambandet mellan psykisk ohälsa hos gymnasieungdomar, deras sömnvanor och uppkoppling på sociala media.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag lider ca 25-35 % av skolungdomar av psykisk ohälsa. Tidigare forskning har visat att denna ohälsa beror på att ungdomar sover alltför lite, vilket i sin tur associerats till en ökad användning av sociala media. Orsakssambanden är emellertid oklara och varierar mellan studier. Av den anledningen genomfördes en enkätstudie på gymnasielever, för att ytterligare belysa hur sambanden ser hos svenska ungdomar.

    I undersökningen användes två frågeformulär bestående av en reducerad version av KASAM, ett sömnformulär, samt frågor angående sociala media.

    I studien deltog 51 elever (M: 18.0 år, SD 0.35), varav 22 kvinnliga och 28 manliga elever i ÅK 3. Resultatet visade att cirka hälften av eleverna (49 %) ansåg sig sova signifikant kortare tid än vad de önskade (p<0.0001). De som ansåg sig sova för lite hade även signifikant lägre värden på flera sömnvariabler och hade även signifikant lägre värden på KASAM (p<0.003). Inget säkert samband sågs däremot mellan dessa variabler och uppkoppling på sociala media, även om de kvinnliga studenterna spenderade kortare tid än de manliga eleverna.

    Sammanfattningsvis bekräftar studien tidigare forskning om kortare sömn hos gymnasieelever och ökad skoltrötthet ger ett sämre psykiskt mående, där kvinnliga elever tenderade att må något sämre än de manliga. Kopplingen till utnyttjandet av sociala media visade på ett positivt samband. Ytterligare studier behövs som på ett mer detaljerat sätt undersöker innehållet i kommunikationen på sociala media och dess eventuella inverkan på sömn och psykisk hälsa.

  • 274.
    Laporte, Natalie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ozolins, Andrejs
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westling, Sofie
    Lund University.
    Westrin, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Billstedt, Eva
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Hofvander, Björn
    Lund University.
    Wallinius, Marta
    Lund University.
    Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0182258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  • 275.
    Larsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En studie av arbetstillfredsställelse hos omvårdnadspersonal inom äldreomsorgen.: Yttrekrav, ledarskap och rolltydlighet relaterat till arbetstillfredsställelse samt ålder.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses four psychological and social factors in relation to work satisfaction and age amongst care staff. The four factors are: quantitative requirements, qualitative requirements, encouraging leadership and role clarity. The study was preformed in a medium-sized county in the south of Sweden and 128 members of care staff participated, from public as well as private care homes. In order to measure overall work satisfaction, a scale was developed that measure general well-being at work. The four factors were measured using QPSnordic (General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work). The data was analysed using Multivariate regression analyses and Mann-Whitney U test. The result shows that quantitative requirements (p = .009), encouraging leadership (p = .020) and role clarity (p = .003) can predict work satisfaction, while qualitative requirements failed to predict work satisfaction. Care staff below 45.5 years of age experiences more qualitative requirements (p = .007) and more encouraging leadership (p = .036) and less role clarity (p = .019), than those above the age of 45.5years. There were no differences in quantitative requirements in relation to age.                       Reducing the quantitative requirements, promoting encouraging leadership and developing detailed job descriptions, can increased work satisfaction. By contributing to the awareness of different age groups experiences of the four psychological and social factors, resources might be used where they are most needed.

    Key words: care staff, care home, age, work satisfaction, quantitative requirements, qualitative requirements, encouraging leadership, role clarity.

  • 276.
    Larsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Shahini, Valbona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ochen, Harriet
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attityd till undervisning i relation till personlighetsdrag, könsskillnader och sociokulturell bakgrund2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka huruvida attityden till undervisningsform skiljer sig åt bland gymnasieelever beroende på personlighetsdrag, könstillhörighet samt föräldrars utbildningsnivå. Studien omfattade 85 elever från fem olika gymnasieprogram. För att studera deltagarens personlighetsdrag användes påståenden gällande extraversion samt samvetsgrannhet hämtade ur NEO-PI-testet vilket bygger på femfaktormodellen. Eleverna fick även svara på egenformulerade påståenden gällande attityd till undervisningsform. I hypoteserna troddes det finnas ett samband mellan personlighetsdragen extraversion och samvetsgrannhet och attityden till undervisningsform. Det troddes även finnas ett samband mellan föräldrars utbildningsnivå samt könsskillnader i attityd till undervisningsform. Resultatet visade ett positivt signifikant samband mellan samvetsgrannhet och attityd till individuellt arbete. I diskussionsavsnittet förs resonemang kring resultatet i relation till tidigare forskning samt möjliga anledningar till varför resultatet ej överrensstämde med studiens hypoteser.

  • 277.
    Larsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Shahini, Valbona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ochen, Harriet
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attityd till undervisning i relation till personlighetsdrag, könsskillnader och sociokulturell bakgrund2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka huruvida attityden till undervisningsform skiljer sig åt bland gymnasieelever beroende på personlighetsdrag, könstillhörighet samt föräldrars utbildningsnivå. Studien omfattade 85 elever från fem olika gymnasieprogram. För att studera deltagarens personlighetsdrag användes påståenden gällande extraversion samt samvetsgrannhet hämtade ur NEO-PI-testet vilket bygger på femfaktormodellen. Eleverna fick även svara på egenformulerade påståenden gällande attityd till undervisningsform. I hypoteserna troddes det finnas ett samband mellan personlighetsdragen extraversion och samvetsgrannhet och attityden till undervisningsform. Det troddes även finnas ett samband mellan föräldrars utbildningsnivå samt könsskillnader i attityd till undervisningsform. Resultatet visade ett positivt signifikant samband mellan samvetsgrannhet och attityd till individuellt arbete. I diskussionsavsnittet förs resonemang kring resultatet i relation till tidigare forskning samt möjliga anledningar till varför resultatet ej överrensstämde med studiens hypoteser.

  • 278.
    Larsson, Philip
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Landbris, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fungerar begränsningar i sovtid för patienter som genomgår kognitiv beteendeterapi mot insomni som exponering mot oro att sova för lite?: En kvantitativ studie på patienter som genomgår internetbehandling mot insomni.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep impairments including insomnia is a widespread problem affecting a large quantity of the population. Insomnia patients tend to worry about their sleep and having dysfunctional beliefs about sleep deficit consequences. The main purpose of this study was to examine if differences in results between two treatment methods could be attributed to effects of exposure. The hypotheses in the study were: 1a) Patients who participate in sleep restriction will have a greater reduction of sleep-related worry. 1b) There is a correlation between high compliance to the treatment methods and reduced sleep-related worry. 2) A greater exposure induces lower compliance to the treatment methods. 3a) There is a correlation between reduction of sleep-related worry and reduction of insomnia symptoms. Data consisted of 185 participants who was randomised into the CBT-treatments for insomnia sleep compression (n=93) or sleep restriction (n=92). A hypothesis was that sleep restriction implicate more exposure than sleep compression. Worry had decreased among participants after five weeks of treatment but no significant differences occurred between the groups. A significant correlation occurred between reduction of insomnia symptoms and reduction of worries regarding sleep deficit. Conclusions is that the already established correlation between worry and insomnia is confirmed. This study failed to confirm that exposure leads to reduced worry. Further research is advised to determine how exposure can be used for insomnia patients to enable more efficient treatment methods.

  • 279.
    Lazarov, Sasa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axman, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Consequences of Materialism and Temporal Orientation: Altruism, Environmentalism and Happiness2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore how much materialism and temporal orientation influence how altruistic, ecologically conscious and happy individuals are. The current study builds upon and furthers research previously done by Kasser and colleagues  (1993; 1996), Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2010). At a medium-sized university in southern Sweden, 173 students were asked to participate in the study. A questionnaire, based on previous measurements, was used to collect self-report data. Analysis of a correlation matrix showed that materialism did not significantly relate to altruism or pro-ecological behavior. Materialism did however significantly relate to happiness. Temporal orientation did not significantly relate to altruism or happiness. Temporal orientation did however relate to a facet of environmentalism, pro-ecological concern. Multiple regressin analyses was conducted to test predictions. Temporal orientation and materialism together did not significantly predict any of the dependent variables. The results are likely influenced by cultural aspects, due to Sweden being fairly different from other western nations regarding social and economic policies. The practical implications of this study are that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been found to be related to both materialism and temporal orientation and hence it should be taken into account in CSR practices in organizations

  • 280.
    Ledreux, Aurelie
    et al.
    Univ Denver, USA.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tewele, Mhretab Kidane
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Columbo, Laura
    Med Univ South Carolina, USA.
    Terjestam, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ryan, Eliza
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Tusch, Erich
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Daffner, Kirk
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte
    Univ Denver, USA;Med Univ South Carolina, USA;Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Differential Effects of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness Practice on Serum BDNF Levels in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study2019In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 1245-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that an active lifestyle is associated with better brain health and a longer life, compared to a more sedentary lifestyle. These studies, both on human and animal subjects, have typically focused on a single activity, usually physical exercise, but other activities have received an increasing interest. One proposed mechanism is that physical exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. For the first time, the long-term effects on serum BDNF levels were compared in persons who engaged in either physical exercise training, cognitive training, or mindfulness practice during 5 weeks, and compared with an active control group. Two cohorts of healthy older individuals, one from the Boston area in the US and one from the Vaxjo area in Sweden, participated. A total of 146 participants were randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All interventions were structurally similar, using interactive, computer-based software that directed participants to carry out specified activities for 35 minutes/day, 5 days per week for 5 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and soon after the completion of the 5-week long intervention program, and serum BDNF levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA. Only the group that underwent cognitive training increased their serum BDNF levels after 5 weeks of training (F-1,F-74 = 4.22, p = 0.044, partial eta(2) = 0.054), corresponding to an average 10% increase. These results strongly suggest that cognitive training can exert beneficial effects on brain health in an older adult population.

  • 281.
    Lichtenstein, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tolstoy, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och grundläggande psykologiska behov: En studie i lärares motivation utifrån  Self Determination Theory2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studied teacher motivation based on Self Determination Theory. The study researched motivation based on teachers' experiences of how motivated they are and if this perception can be predicted based on the experience that the basic psychological needs according to Self Determination Theory are met. Motivation can be divided into external and internal, where the existence of internal motivation is when the individual performs an activity that he / she really wants without any external reward or punishment. Teachers with intrinsic motivation contribute to better results and achievement for their students (Lutz, 2016). The study was conducted as a quantitative research which respondents answered to an online survey. The study had 175 participants, 30 were men and 145 women. The purpose of the thesis was to study if perceived satisfaction with basic psychological needs, according to SDT, for teachers can predict their perceived work motivation, as measured by SKL's Sustainable Employee Engagement in Municipalities and Regions. Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale was used as the instrument for examining internal motivation.

    The regression analysis showed that the result for the model as a whole was significant. Perceived satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs according to Self Determination Theory predicted 44.1% of the variation in motivation for the participants in the study. Separately, autonomy and competence were predicted to be significant while the value of relatedness was not significant.

  • 282.
    Lilja, Claes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exercise, visuospatial rotation performance and life satisfaction: A study of correlations between physical activity and some presumed benefits2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/ClaesAct/Dropbox/LNU%20psykologi/Uppsats/Examensarbete_ClaesLilja_HT16_2PS600.doc

    Physical exercise has been associated with various health benefits, including improved cognitive functioning, well-being and life satisfaction. Other variables that have been found to explain these areas include gender, age, dispositional optimism, meditation practice, and videogame habits. The aim of the present study was to explore whether physical exercise on its own has benefits for visuospatial rotation abilities and life satisfaction. It was also the intention to examine how other known factors of age, gender, dispositional optimism, meditation, and videogames may help predict visuospatial rotation abilities and satisfaction with life. The results showed no significant explanation for visuospatial performance while finding some exercise measurements and physical activity level to have significant correlations with life satisfaction. Dispositional optimism was found to be the strongest indicator of life satisfaction, while gender was determined to not hold explanatory power for either of the criterion variables.

  • 283.
    Lind, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hatt, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deltagares upplevelser av Affektskola: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine the experience of the participants of Affect School, from a qualitative point of view. At the time the study was made, Affect School was a relatively new psychoeducational method created by Armelius and Bergdahl, based on Tomkins Theories of Affect. The novelty and promising results of this method warranted further research on the experience of the participants. The objective of Affect School is to raise the participants affect consciousness and restore the signal value of Affects. The research had a phenomenology stance through semi-structured interviews with four participants. The thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: Saftey, Group Aspect and Exploration. The results showed that the participants carried explicit knowledge from the psychoeducational part and the reflections in the group led to new experiences with affects, emotions and feelings. For which the participants expressed satisfaction. 

  • 284.
    Lindau, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Almkvist, O.
    Stockholm University ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory2016In: Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior, Academic Press, 2016, p. 153-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, which causes the release of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones. Stress also activates the sympathetic nervous system and thereby, the release of the transmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline. Stress has a memory-modulatory effect in humans as well as in animals. In humans, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala are rich in cortisol receptors. Acute and tolerable stress may increase memory performance, while excessive levels and chronic stress may have negative effects, thereby mimicking the pattern in animals. Stress in humans seems to have different effects on the various stages of memory (the memory process: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval) and can be enhanced by emotional arousal. Animals learn to associate events in their environment. Studies of the effects of manipulation of corticosterone levels in animals have helped to disentangle the influences of stress on memory and learning, and indicated that low levels enhance spatial learning, whereas higher levels impair performance. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 285.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Self-concepts and psychological health among children and adolescents with reading disabilities and the influence of assistive technology2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that have all aimed to increase the understanding of the interactions and connections between self-concepts, reading impairment, psychological health and Assistive Technology (AT). The use of applications in tablets as assistive technology to facilitate reading and compensate for reading impairment and its impact on the participants’ self-concepts and psychological health as well as on their reading abilities was also of interest.

    The first study included 67 pupils in school years 4-9. They were assessed by the Beck Youth Inventory (BYI) regarding self-image, anxiety and depression. The results showed no deviance from age-equivalent norm group scores. The second study included 35 pupils in school years 4-6. This study aimed at investigating the transfer effects on decoding and general reading ability after 20 intervention sessions where AT (applications in tablets) were used. Results showed that the decoding ability had progressed at the same rate as that of the norm group. The results also showed that using AT increased motivations to learn, as well as independence and improved family climate. The third study was a randomized control study (RCT) with 137 participants in school years 4, 8 and high school. The results showed that reading impaired children and adolescents to a great extent, but not completely unanimously, did not depict any different self-image or self-esteem than peers with an expected reading ability of the same age. Self-esteem was investigated by the Cultural Free Self Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-3). The CFSEI-3 scores showed no effect by interventions with AT. The results also showed that there were no signs of depression, assessed by BYI, in the investigated groups, but somewhat inconclusive results regarding anxiety where the school-year 4 group depicted higher levels of anxiety.

    The results generally showed a more positive depiction than what previous studies within the field have presented, which was interpreted as being due to the development of efficient pedagogical strategies and supportive attitudes in the school context, as well as among family members or peers. 

  • 286.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assistive technology as reading interventions for children with reading impairments with a one-year follow-up2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 713-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This pilot study investigated the possible transfer effect on reading ability in children with reading difficulties after a systematic intervention to train and compensate for reading deficiencies by using applications in smartphones and tablets. The effects of using assistive technology (AT) one year after the interventions were completely studied. School related motivation, independent learning and family relations were also considered.

    METHOD: 35 pupils aged 10-12 years participated. They were assessed five times with reading tests. The participants, their parents and teachers were surveyed with questionnaires regarding their experience of using AT. The data from the assessments were analyzed with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: The paper shows that using AT can create transfer effects on reading ability one year after the interventions were finished. This means that reading impaired children may develop at the same rate as non-impaired readers. Also, increased school motivation and an increase in independent learning and family effects have been shown.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides implications in how to facilitate reading impaired pupils' learning process and realizes the need to challenge the concept of reading to change to fit modern means of gaining information. Implications for rehabilitation Children with reading impairment could benefit from assistive technology in regards of their reading development process and increase their chances of not falling behind peers. Assistive technology as applications in smartphones and tablets may aid children with reading impairment to have an equal platform for learning in school as their peers without reading difficulties. Assistive technology could facilitate the information gaining process and subsequently increase motivation to learn and increase interest in reading activities. Assistive technology had wider effects on its users: stigmatizing situations when leaving the classroom for special education were avoided and positive effects on family life were noted.

  • 287.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concepts and psychological health in children and adolescents with reading difficulties and the impact of assistive technology to compensate and facilitate reading ability2019In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-18, article id 1647601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated self-image, psychological health, and the impact of Assistive Technology (AT) on self-concept and psychological health in 137 children and adolescents with reading difficulties during a systematic intervention program and in a one-year follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group. The interventions aimed to teach participants how to understand texts using AT. The control group received no intervention. To investigate self-esteem, self-image, anxiety, and depression, all participants were assessed with the Cultural Free Self-Esteem Inventory, 3rd edition (CFSEI-3) before intervention and one year post-interventions. Forty-one participants were also assessed on the Beck Youth Inventory (BYI). The AT was found to have no impact on participants' self-esteem. The CFSEI-3 showed similar values for self-esteem in a norm group and the study groups at pre-intervention, which made an increase from using AT less expected. The results are discussed in terms of contextual explanatory factors, such as educators' increased knowledge of reading difficulties and dyslexia. The results on the BYI were somewhat inconclusive since the younger group of participants showed more anxiety than the norm group, but the adolescent group did not. This may be due to small sample size, so further research is recommended.

  • 288.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed By Beck Youth Inventory Among Pupils with Reading Difficulties2016In: Reading Psychology, ISSN 0270-2711, E-ISSN 1521-0685, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 449-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10–16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict negative self-image and showed few symptoms of depression or anxiety at group level in comparison to a norm group. These results could be seen as contradictory to previous research. A questionnaire regarding self-efficacy was also distributed and showed that the participants had low self-knowledge about their reading impairments. The results were interpreted as a possible increase in knowledge among teachers and subsequent change in pedagogical strategies. In addition, technological advances may have improved the academic situation for dyslexic children. This study was a partial study in a larger project that aimed to evaluate the efficiency of assistive technologies for dyslexic children.

  • 289.
    Lindell, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marquardt, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farmers´(local and colonists) perceptions of environmental changes in the forest frontier of the upper Amazon, Peru2014In: International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, ISSN 1462-4605, E-ISSN 1741-5004, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 394-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amazon ecosystem degradation profoundly impacts life supporting processes of global importance such as climate regulation, as well as localconditions for livelihoods. In Peru’s highland jungle, an expanding deforestationfront of forest conversion to agriculture has vastly transformed the landscape.

    Small-scale farming, the main driver of forest degradation, and consequently household natural resource management affect ecosystem functionality.To investigate farmers’ attitudes and priorities to services provided by the ecosystems (ES) we interviewed 51 farmers, both local and colonists. They strongly agreed that over the last three decades, local conditions for livelihoods have deteriorated following forest degradation and climate change. The latterwas reported the primary contributor to an impaired life quality and their greatest concern. Overall, local farmers perceived greater than did colonists who were also more positive towards intensive agricultureand forestry. This should be considered in environmental conservation efforts in the upper Amazon.

  • 290.
    Lindersson, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving2019In: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-6, article id e1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness of conveying descriptive norms (“this is what most people do”) for prosocial purposes such as environmental conservation and charitable giving has recently been called into question. Two experiments (N = 748) evaluated the hypothesis that descriptive norms increase people's intentions to donate to charity. Overall, the results supported this hypothesis. Another aim was to examine the robustness of the local norm superiority effect that proposes that the local norms of one's immediate environment are superior to other descriptive norms (global and social identity norms). This hypothesis was not supported. The results suggest that differences between different types of norms are likely to be small.

  • 291.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    87 lärares rörelser till, från och inom yrket 1993-2013: En rapport från projektet Vägskäl - en longitudinell studie av val och ideal i lärares yrkesbanor2014Report (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Teacher attrition the first five years - A multifaceted image2014In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a longitudinal study on Swedish teachers' (N = 87) career trajectories this article presents a comparison between quantitative and qualitative data within the cohort and puts this in relation to general statistics on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that caution is advised in interpreting and making use of general statistics. Teacher attrition is a more non-linear and complex phenomenon than what is typically proposed. In many cases drop-outs are temporary. Individuals not only leave, but also return to, the profession over time and their out-of-school experiences can in many cases be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teaching ability in the long run.

  • 293.
    Lindström, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frekvens av fysisk aktivet under sex månader.: En retrospektiv studie av relationerna mellan fysisk aktivitet och hälsa samt välbefinnande med hänsynstaget till kön och ålder.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 294.
    Ljungqvist, Ingemar
    et al.
    Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Topor, Alain
    Stockholm University;University of Agder, Norway.
    Forssell, Henrik
    Blekinge County Hospital;Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidson, Larry
    Yale University, USA.
    Money and Mental Illness: A Study of the Relationship Between Poverty and Serious Psychological Problems.2016In: Community mental health journal, ISSN 0010-3853, E-ISSN 1573-2789, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have indicated a co-occurrence between mental problems, a bad economy, and social isolation. Medical treatments focus on reducing the extent of psychiatric problems. Recent research, however, has highlighted the possible effects of social initiatives. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between severe mental illness, economic status, and social relations.

    METHOD: a financial contribution per month was granted to 100 individuals with severe mental illnesses for a 9-month period. Assessments of the subjects were made before the start of the intervention and after 7 months' duration. A comparison group including treatment as usual only was followed using the same instruments. Significant improvements were found for depression and anxiety, social networks, and sense of self. No differences in functional level were found. Social initiatives may have treatment and other beneficial effects and should be integrated into working contextually with persons with severe mental illnesses.

  • 295.
    Lu, Judy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetsdrag och självrapporterade betyg: En svensk studie om studenters personlighetsdrag  och självrapporterade betyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Resultat från tidigare forskning har visat att det finns ett förhållande mellan personlighetsdrag och akademisk prestation. I en svensk studie av Rosander, Bäckström och Stenberg (2011) användes en kort version av personlighetstestet IPIP-NEO-PI, en femfaktorsmodell som har fem grundläggande personlighetsdimensioner; neuroticism, extraversion, öppenhet, sympatiskhet och samvetsgrannhet. Resultaten tydde på att det fanns ett samband mellan personlighetsdrag och studenters skolprestation.

    Den här studien  undersökte bland annat om Eysencks personlighetstest skulle få liknande resultat om endast två av de fem personlighetsdragen, neuroticism och extraversion användes.

    Syfte: Studien undersökte om det fanns ett samband mellan studenters personlighetsdrag neuroticism och extraversion, självrapporterade studieresultat och kön.

    Metod: Deltagare: Kvinnor och män i  åldern  20-37 år som studerar på ett svenskt landsortsuniversitet. 

    Datainsamling: Enkäter skickades ut till klassgrupper via Facebook till  studenter från olika svenska universitet på följande program:  tandhygienistprogrammet, psykologprogrammet, civilingenjörsprogrammet i maskinteknik, datateknikprogrammet och ekonomprogrammet.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att neurotiska studenter som skattade högt på Eysencks personlighetstest neuroticism hade sämre självrapporterade betyg än de studenter som skattade högt på personlighetsdraget extraversion, vilka rapporterade bättre betyg. Skillnaden var dock inte statistisk signifikant. Gällande betygen som rapporterades av studenterna framkom inte heller en statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan män och kvinnor.

  • 296.
    Lundgren, Fanny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Filip, Modin Håkansson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stroop color coding and the relationship of personality in performance: An experimental study on Stroop color coding controlling for personality traits2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Stroop Color coding and word test (Stroop, 1935) is a well-known phenomenon investigating cognitive inhibition, cognitive speed, attention and cognitive flexibility. The Stroop effect refers when processing a stimulus while being exposed to another stimuli simultaneous interfering with the first (Scarpina & Tagini, 2017). This study focuses on a performance part of the Stroop color coding and word test and its relation to personality traits in the HEAXCO-PR using the Mini-IPIP6 (Ashton & Lee, 2007; Sibely, 2012). An experiment was conducted with the control group ( N = 30 ) solving a Stroop color coding and word test and the experiment group ( N = 30) being exposed to two stimuli (audio and visual) with purpose to induce stress. The result of an independent t-test indicated that you can manipulate the result of a Stroop test measuring two outcome variables (Time and Error). One-way MANCOVA was performed with the personality traits used as covariates. The analysis indicated that Extraversion had a significant small impact on Time (F (1,52) = 6.872, p = .011 η2 = .117) ) and Openness had an effect on Error (F (1,52) = 3.167, p = .008 η2 = .057). Openness showed a significant effect on error rate in the performance. Extraversion showed significant effect as a covariate on the completion time of the test. Time and Error showed a significant correlation. To establish the relationship between cognitive inhibition and personality more research is required. More research is also required for the result of this theoretical study to potentially become applicable.

  • 297.
    Lundmark, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nielsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    När barnets kropp inte stämmer överens med det upplevda könet: En kvalitativ studie av föräldrars erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how parents experience the situation of having a child whose body does not harmonize with their experienced gender, in order to identify and highlight relevant aspects for better understanding and improvements within the field. No such research has been carried out in Sweden previously. Data was collected by semi- structured interviews with eight parents of children with gender dysphoria. The data was analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. The outcome was three central themes: Availability, Knowledge and competence and The Journey. Conclusions were that the parents fill the function as informers, advisors and sustaining persons in relation to others – functions that they request, should get and need for themselves - and that health care and schools need to explicate their competence regarding gender dysphoria and trans to better meet the needs of both children and parents.

  • 298.
    Lysek, Michal
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandenskog, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation till innovation på arbetsplatsen: En studie av intern och extern motivation hos anställda med omfattande eller måttlig kundkontakt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innovation är viktigt för såväl företag som för samhället, men för att anställda skall kunna skapa innovation krävs det att de är motiverade till att göra detta. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka ifall det finns ett samband mellan måttlig och omfattande kundkontakt och anställdas motivation till innovation, samt hur detta inverkar på deras inre eller yttre motivation. Denna enkätstudie genomfördes på ett svenskt företag verksamt inom teknikbranschen. Datamaterialet analyserades först med en faktoriell 2x2 blandad-design ANOVA och visade på en tydlig interaktion mellan motivation och kundkontakt. Sedan genomfördes två ”paired t-test” som gav ett Cohens d-värde på 1.075 för måttlig och 2.704 för omfattande kundkontakt. Slutresultatet visade på en signifikant skillnad mellan inre (starkast effekt) och yttre motivation till innovation, samt att det fanns en tydlig skillnad mellan omfattande (starkast effekt) och måttlig kundkontakt. Det kunde dock inte konstateras om kundkontakt var den enda faktorn som orsakade denna skillnad i motivation till innovation.

  • 299.
    López Rúa, Germán
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perez Alcántara, Maria Fernanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional Intelligence as coping skill for perceived stress2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this current study is to evaluate if there is a relation between Emotional

    Intelligence, Perceive Stress and Coping Skills in a sample of Mexican employees in a

    medium size international organization (n =102). The questionnaires used were a

    compendium of three different instruments; including: 33-item Self-report measure of

    Emotional Intelligence, four COPE Inventory’ subscales and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-

    14). After analyzing the gathered data, Multiple Regression was applied. Significant

    correlations in the expected direction were found, indicating that Emotional Intelligence can

    be useful as a coping skill towards perceive stress.

  • 300.
    Löwegren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Evelina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Integrerad Beteendehälsa i primärvården - studie av processfaktorer och behandlingsutfall.: En enkelblind randomiserad klinisk prövning av Brief Interventions och vägledd självhjälp.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A commitment of primary care is mental health treatment. At present the need for treatment exceeds accessible resources. Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) is a model of organization of primary care with the aim to make access to mental treatment from a time-efficiency perspective. The present study was conducted between January and April 2019 at Vårdcentralen Centrum, a primary care unit organized in accordance with PCBH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Brief Interventions (BI) and guided self-help regarding daily functioning, quality of life and aggregate level of symptoms. Self-assessments were filled out by the patients before treatment, at FU4 and at FU8. Furthermore, proportion of patients suitable for self-help treatment was examined, and whether introduction of such a treatment might be justified in the context of primary care on basis of time effectiveness approach. In overall, 41 patients were randomized to two conditions: BI treatment and, respectively, extended assessment with subsequent self-help treatment. Participants, not found suitable for self-help at the extended assessment, got treatment with BI. Within the study, 29 patients went through treatment. The results showed that groups treated with BI and self-help had improved significantly between before treatment and FU8 regarding daily functioning, quality of life and level of symptoms. There were in general little differences in improvement between the two groups. Furthermore, timescale for the group that got extended assessment and subsequent self-help treatment, was significantly larger than timescale for the group that got BI treatment. For future research, evaluation of short-term forms of mental treatment in primary care ought to be relevant.

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