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  • 251.
    Ghazanfari, Omid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Utomeuropeiska muslimska kvinnor som företagare: En kvalitativ studie av utomeuropeiska kvinnliga företagare med muslimsk bakgrund i kronobergs län2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to find and analyse the reasons to why non- European women with Muslim background start their own business in Sweden. The purpose is also to investigate which resources the women have and mobilize to start and run their own businesses. To gather data, interviews have been conducted with eight female entrepreneurs originally from Iran, Afghanistan, Irak, Syria, Lebanon and Somalia who have owned their own business in Kronoberg County in Sweden. The Interviews with two advisors who give advice to people that wants to start a business in Sweden have also been conducted. The interviews were transcribed in full, thereafter they have been analysed in relation to the theoretical concepts of pull-and push factors, habitus, cultural, social and economic capital. This has led up to the following themes; women's background before immigration to Sweden, their experience of education and job before starting their own business in Sweden and their experience as Non-European women with Muslim background as entrepreneurs in the Swedish labour market. The result from interviews with the business leaders shows that these women have started the business for two main reasons. First, are personal reasons, including having independence, developing personal development by starting a business, having prestige by starting Own enterprise. The second reason is about the structural problems in society, including unemployment, livelihood, and lack of relevant jobs that match their educational background, which have been caused in some cases by discrimination in the labor market. In order to finance their businesses, the women have used different strategies, including using their ethnic ethnicity network for borrowing money from family members, use their own money that they have saved before stating a company, or borrow money from the Swedish banks and ALMI.

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  • 252.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Managing the Commons: A Simple Model of the Emergence of Institutions Through Collective Action2016In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 200-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an abstract replication of institutional emergence patterns observed in common pool resource (CPR) problems. We used the ADICO grammar of institutions as the basic structure to model both users' strategies and institutions. Through an evolutionary process, users modify their behaviours and eventually establish a management institution for their CPR system, leading to significant benefits both for them and for the commons as a whole. We showed that, even with a high level of abstraction, by taking an evolutionary perspective and using the ADICO structure, we are able to observe common institutional patterns. We confirmed that, even within this simplified environment, institutions significantly contributed to the sustainable management of common-pool resource systems.

  • 253.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Frey, Ulrich
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany.
    Theesfeld, Insa
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.
    Self-organization in the commons: An empirically-tested model2017In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 96, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A appropriate bottom-up rule system can support the sustainability of common-pool resources such as forests and fisheries. The process that leads to the developments of such institutional settings requires the considerations of multiple social, physical, and institutional factors over long time horizons. In this paper, we present the SONICOM model as a general exploratory model of CPR systems. The model can be configured to represent different CPR systems in order to explore what kind of institutional settings result in stable systems, i.e. situations where the resource and the appropriators are in a state of well-being. We use a large-N-dataset of CPR management institutions to validate the model. The results show numerous correlations between various parameters of the system such as rule compliance, social influence and resource growth rate which help explaining the process of institutional emergence as well as unveiling the conditions under which systems are stable.

  • 254. Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Dehkordi, Molood
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    De Moor, Tine
    van Weeren, René
    Long-term Dynamics of Institutions: An empirically tested model2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Giertz, Klara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Quality education: The case of teacher motivation and attrition in Ethiopia2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a clear and recognized link between education and development. As the Sustainable Development Goals emphasizes quality education and qualified teachers it is relevant to look at the underlying mechanisms that motivates teachers in developing countries and their expectations on their profession. There is an existing teacher attrition in the Sub-Sahara which has now become a severe ‘crisis’ according to many, but there has been limited research on teacher’s motivation in the region. The education is highly affected by the attrition and de-motivated teachers in Ethiopia, therefor, Ethiopia is chosen as a case to investigate the phenomenon of teacher attrition and motivation. As there can be no education, and subsequently no inclusive human development can take place without teachers, it is a critical issue to solve. There is an extensive body of research on the causes for the Sub-Saharan teacher turnover, hence it is argued in this study that these are correlated to the de-motivational factors of the teachers. The significance of teachers’ motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the context of quality assurance has become more recognized in recent years. In this study, the motivation of the teachers is analyzed by applying Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory and Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory. A total of 42 teachers and principals in Ethiopian public primary schools were interviewed, rural and urban schools respectively. It was concluded that the expectations had changed over time and is now at a very low level. In terms of de-motivation the teachers experience this due to mainly budget limitations, low occupational status, a decrease in student’s motivation and poor policy implementation processes. The future situation of the teachers and the education sector at large is facing many challenges and there is an immediate need for a satisfactory policy response to ensure quality education by increasing teacher’s motivation.

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  • 256.
    Gnatenko, Viktoriia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Integration of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking and Refugee Minors in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on getting a deeper understanding of the access unaccompanied refugee youth have to integration. Thesis will examine what fosters and what hinders minors’ integration. Research is based on a qualitative field study carried out in Southern and Western Sweden. 36 semi–structured interviews were conducted with current and grown-up alone coming refugee minors; houses managers and social workers; local authorities’ representatives and decision makers; Migration Board employees.The (Dis)Empowerment model by Friedmann will be applied to analyse collected information. Thus, this thesis examines youth perspectives on their economic, social, cultural and political integration by connecting their experiences of life in Sweden to eight bases of social power, which (dis)empower them.The study shows that youth are willing to integrate into society, and to some extent they have access to integration. However, the research argues that minors’ access to bases of social power and youth’s usage of them is unbalanced and inconsistent. Interviewed youth have sufficient access to defensible life space, instruments of work and livelihood, and surplus time. Thus, they have capabilities to perform their life functions. On the other hand, youth have limited access and capabilities to the bases of social organizations and networks, financial resources, knowledge and skills, as well as unbalanced access to information and public policy action. This hinders youth economic, social, cultural and political integration. Moreover, these major obstacles are being reinforced by discrimination within the host society.

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  • 257.
    Gregoratti, Catia
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Roberts, Adrienne
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Tornhill, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Corporations, gender equality and women's empowerment: feminism co-opted?2018In: Handbook of the International Political Economy of the Corporation / [ed] Andreas Nölke & Christian May, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 93-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Gripenberg, Sophie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Agroforestry - A way to social empowerment?: A Minor Field Study of small scale farmers' socio-economic situation in Kitale, Kenya2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a minor field study conducted in Kitale, Kenya during approximately two months in 2013. The area was chosen for its remote location and the environmental impact of climate change on the farmers living there. The NGO Vi Agroforestry has addressed the effects of climate change for over three decades and taught groups of farmers in Kitale about the climate, which has led them to adopt environmentally sustainable practices in agroforestry.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether agroforestry practice has contributed to empowerment and the possible consequent improvement of the farmers' livelihoods. To investigate the work of ViAf and how people identify their socio-economic status in terms of empowerment, both a stakeholder analysis and a gender analysis have been included. The field study was mainly conducted using semi-structured interviews based on the analytical framework of the (dis)empowerment model, where an attempt was made to understand how to enlarge the bases of social power.

    The study found that agroforestry concepts applied by the farmer groups lead to empowerment in eight distinct bases of social power. The methods employed by ViAf have contributed mainly to empowerment in knowledge, information, social organisation, and social networking. Further empowerment is needed to address financial issues, where external factors such as access to land, time of implementation, marketing, family size and social features of the family and its area have a role to play. As a result, agroforestry could lead to improvement for some farmers’ socio-economic development when these issues are addressed. 

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  • 259.
    Grohe, Christine Lea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Internal displacementdue to natural disasters: Inclusion of IDPs in Disaster Risk Reduction strategies2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing impacts of climate change bear new challenges for the international community. The exacerbation of natural disasters in frequency and scope also confronts the national governments with newly arising problems. Disaster-induced displacement isan increasing phenomenon occurring the last years, which particularly vulnerable regions with a high exposure to national hazards are affected by. The present study addresses the inclusion of disaster IDPs in Disaster Risk Reduction frameworks on international and national level and argues that there is a need to recognize disaster-induced displacement as an increasing issue that should explicitly be addressed and included in policy frameworks on both levels. This was addressed through analyzing international and national key strategies in Disaster-Risk-Reduction. A case comparison of the earthquake in Haiti in 2010 and the yearly recurring floods in Mozambique since 2000 illustrates the implementation of these frameworks in regard to the issue of displacement. Although efforts have been made on both levels to improve the situation of IDPs in the response and recovery phase, it is argued that an inclusion through a community-based approach is needed in all the phases of disaster management to appropriately address the needs of disaster IDPs in the pre-and post-disaster phases.

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  • 260.
    Grudic, Lejla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Gör din plikt, kräv din rätt: En kvalitativ studie om uppkomsten av civilt engagemang och den tredje sektorns inträdeströsklar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The past 10 years has been filled with an ambition to encourage the non- profit sector to become a producer of welfare services by making it easier to apply for financial aid and co-operation. Non-profit labour is described as a force that is not driven by financial gains but with the purpose to contribute to the overall welfare of the citizens. Many studies have so far tried to understand the underlying motives behind non-profit labour and its structure historically but what effect has social relationships on the emergence of civic engagement and what kind of resources are necessary to enter the third sector? The main purpose of this study is to contribute to previous studies made in the field of non-profit-labour by further investigating the importance of social relationships for the entrance to the third sector and the requirements to get involved in a non-profit organization. This study is based on 16 interviews made with individuals who are currently engaged in a non-profit organization. The material was analyzed by Mark Granovetters theory based on the strength of weak ties and Pierre Bourdieu theory onfields, habitus and capital. The theories made it possible to highlight and understand the importance of different relationships in the development of civic engagement and the informal requirements that create thresholds. 


    The main conclusions of this study is that distant friendships contribute to spontaneous civic engagement while close relationships with relatives encourage civic engagement in specific organizations that have a meaning, purpose and connection to the family. The findings of this study further indicates that informal thresholds exist to get involved in the third sector. The participants have experienced competition in the field with other organizations to gain financial resources and to initiate innovative projects to deserve these resources. To be able to engage in a non-profit organization the participants are not only expected to have specific values and a specific force. Participants of the third sector value differents resources over others. Resources such as academic knowledge, personal experience and insight are highly valued and seen as legitimate by peers in the same field. 


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  • 261.
    Gulec, Berivan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Kandidatuppsats- PA: Kvinnans livsvillkor i Turkiet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 262.
    Gunnarsson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Delaktighet och inflytande: En studie inom den öppna fritidsverksamheten om tjejers utveckling till framtida medborgare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Young people cannot, due to their age, possess a full citizenship. But through their education, they are future citizens under development and have rights such as participation and influence in matters that affect their lives. Historically, women have been excluded from citizenship. Young girls today are thus in a complex situation where their sex and age can affect their citizenship. The aim is therefore to provide further understanding of how experiences of participation and influence are interpreted by girls between the ages of 13 – 17 within youth recreation centers in Växjö municipality, as part of the development of a future citizenship. It also intends to examine what influences the girl’s interpretations of participation and influence.

    The theoretical outset starts with Marshall and Bottomore’s theory of citizenship but mainly focuses on Listers four building blocks for children and young people's citizenship as well as gender and power. The study is based on twelve semi-structured interviews with girls who visits different youth recreation centers. The outcome shows that the girls have experience of participation and influence because they feel included. They view age and lack of knowledge as possible risks of not getting the opportunity for participation and influence. Personal qualities such as responsibility alongside with the social environment’s acceptance creates the conditions and opportunities to participation and influence. One conclusion is that; affiliation, inclusion, interaction with the social environment, individual characteristics and social relationships to friends and youth recreation leaders can influence the girl’s interpretations of participation and influence. The main conclusion is that opportunities to exercise participation and influence is seen as a process of becoming a future citizen.    

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  • 263. Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    et al.
    Tornhill, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Stockholm university, Sweden.
    ¿Atrapadxs entre el neoliberalismo y el populismo autoritario? : Movilización iliberal, feminismo corporativo y crítica anticapitalista2019In: Feminismos y populismos del siglo XXI: Frente al patriarcado y al orden neoliberal / [ed] Graciela di Marco, Ana Fiol & Patricia Schwartz, teseo editore, 2019, p. 47-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 264. Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    et al.
    Tornhill, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Düşmanın Düşmanı: Queerfeminist anti-kapitalist tasavvurlara duyulan ihtiyaç ve toplumsal cinsiyet karşıtı politikalar2018In: Kaos GL, ISSN 1302-5015, Vol. 163, p. 43-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [tr]

    Bu kısa makalede, eleştirel feminizme düşen bu iki zorlu görevi, toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği ve cinsel çeşitliliğin radikal bir şekilde tekrardan politize edilmesi meselesini tartışacağız. 

    Ekonomik rekabet ve büyümeye dair hâkim çıkarları ile çatışmadıkça kapitalizm, ekolojik tüketimden kadınların güçlenmesine, LGBT haklarından barışa her türlü şeyi kucaklayabileceğini kanıtlamıştır. Kadınların güçlenmesi, büyük-ölçekli şirketler gibi bir dizi neo-liberal küresel yönetim aktörlerince desteklenirken, solcu ve feminist eleştirmenler feminizmin bu şekilde kullanımının depolitize edici sonuçları olabileceğine dikkat çekmiştir (Fraser 2009; Eisenstein 2009; Roberts 2015).  

    Fakat toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliğinin tekrardan politize edilmesi için yapılan feminist çağrılar, akademik ve aktivist çevrelerin dışında pek bir etki yaratmadı. Bunun yerine, beklenmedik bir şekilde, toplumsal cinsiyet ve cinsellik meseleleri başka bir alanda tekrardan politize edildi: giderek daha çok ulusal ve uluslararası, dindar ve seküler muhafazakâr aktör, toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliğini temel alan politik perspektife, cinsellik eğitimine, kadına karşı şiddet ile mücadele etmeye yönelik BM politikalarına, eşcinsel evlilik ve kürtaj gibi meseleleri kapsayan ve adına “toplumsal cinsiyet ideolojisi” dedikleri şeye karşı birleşti. Yıllardır süren örgütlenmelerinin sonucunda, bu aktörlerin etkileri küresel, yapılanmaları ise genelde ulus aşırı hale geldi (bkz. ör. Kuhar & Paternotte 2017; Korolczuk & Graff 2018). 

    Peki, toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği, cinsel çeşitlilik ve toplumsal cinsiyet karşıtı hareketlerin depolitize edici mutabakatlarının buluştuğu bu kavşağın ortasında, “toplumsal cinsiyeti” yeniden politize etmek için seçenekler neler? Benzer bir şekilde, küresel şirketler toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliğinin ve LGBTQ haklarının destekçileri olarak ortaya çıktığında, bunun sonucunda da toplumsal cinsiyet karşıtı hareketin hedefi haline geldiğinde, düşmanın düşmanını dost haline getirmek için alternatifler nelerdir? Bu kısa makalede, eleştirel feminizme düşen bu iki zorlu görevi, toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği ve cinsel çeşitliliğin radikal bir şekilde tekrardan politize edilmesi meselesini tartışacağız.

  • 265.
    Gunzelmann, Janine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Intersecting Oppressions of Migrant Domestic Workers: (In)Securities of Female Migration to Lebanon2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master’s thesis explores the intersection of powers that create (in)secure female migration to Lebanon. It contributes to a growing literature corpus about the lives of women, originating from South/ South-East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, who migrate to Lebanon to work in the domestic work sector. Ongoing exploitations of migrant domestic workers (MDWs) under Lebanon’s migration regime, the kafala system, have been documented in detail. Yet, the question about which overlapping powers actually shape the migratory experience of MDWs calls for closer inspection – especially in light of previous unidirectional analyses that seem to obscure the intersectional experiences of migrant women. By uncovering intersecting systems of domination and subordination, this analysis aims to deconstruct oppressive powers and to answer the research question about which powers create (in)secure female migration to Lebanon. This objective is approached through ethnographic-qualitative methods of semi-structured interviewing and participant observation during a seven-week field research in Lebanon. Data contributed by research participants, i.e. MDWs themselves and individuals that have experience in supporting them, are analyzed through an intersectional lens that acknowledges the multifacetedness of MDWs as social beings comprised of overlapping and intersecting dynamic facets. This analysis argues for multiple levels and layers that create an enmeshed web of interacting categories, processes and systems that render female migration insecure. Detected underlying powers range from global forces over specific migration regulations to societal structures that are based on sexism, racism, cultural othering and class differences - amongst others. These forces are impossible to deconstruct in isolation because they function through each other. Their multilevel intersections lead to power imbalances between worker and employer, isolation and invisibility of the former on several levels as well as the commodification, dehumanization and mobility limitations of MDWs. Yet, female labor migrants counter these intersecting powers through creative and dynamic acts of resistance and self-empowerment and, thus, prove that the dismantling of overlapping oppressions calls for intersecting multilevel deconstructions.

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  • 266.
    Gustafsson, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Coming Home: Female Ex-combatants and their Reintegration into Society2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where conflict can be found in numerous places, the need for planned reintegration efforts is frequently discussed. However, it is important to define the topic of reintegration, in order to fully understand what it actually entails. According to the international community and scholars, reintegration can be divided into three main categories; economic, social and political reintegration.

     

    During conflict, men are normally described as the foremost violent perpetrators and in turn, the main focus when discussing reintegration as part of DDR processes. However, a large amount of research indicates that female combatants comprise up to 30 percent of certain combat groups (Bouta, Frerks and Bannon 2005, 9). Still, research indicates that the needs of female ex-combatants tend to be ignored in the reintegration programs, resulting in a large number of reoccurring challenges. Therefore, an analytical framework was created using the three categories of reintegration, focusing on specific variables, which was then applied to three case studies; Guatemala, Sierra Leone and Sri Lanka. Conclusively, one can argue that general challenges and difficulties regarding reintegration of female ex-combatants do exist. 

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    Coming Home
  • 267.
    Gustafsson, Cornelia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Brückner, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Att skära guld med kniv: En studie om hur bostadsmarknaden påverkat fastighetsmäklaryrkets professionaliseringsprocess2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to scrutinize how adjustments made in the housing market has affected the profession of estate agents. Our premise is based on that social facts can be interpreted by social facts and the aim is to understand the factors affecting the profession in today's society that are developed in interaction with societal factors. In order to fathom this phenomenon, we have chosen to study the profession of estate agents and how it has been affected by the housing market. The empirical material is based on real estate agents’ experience and is therefore collected through a qualitative method based on interviews. The study is interpreted by a professional theoretical perspective, where we have assumed the thesis that all professions can be professionalised. The theoretical conceptual apparatus consists of autonomy, social closure, legitimacy, authority and will be used to understand the professionalisation process, that is when and why professions arise.

    Despite the fact of the profession’s changes, it has not been enough for the profession to be professionalised in the classical term. It can be said that the housing market has affected the professionalisation process of profession of real estate brokerage, which means that social factors can influence the professionalisation process. What prevents the profession from change and development of their professional position is the lack of autonomy. Due to the runaway housing market, a regulator was established to combat irregular transactions, which lead to decreased autonomy. A stronger professional status would derive from an increased authonomy and the conclusion is therefore that as long as the profession is under external control, it will not be professionalised.

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  • 268.
    Gustafsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Don't you forget about me: En studie kring teorin om det ideala offret och dess påverkan i fall av barnkidnappning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers Nils Christie’s theory of the ideal victim with its output in different cases of child abduction. Two parts illuminate the similarities and differencies between family and stereotypical abductions and between different cases based on Christie’s theory. The purpose of the paper is to investigate if the theory appears to explain why one kind seems to receive more attention than the other, even though it is basically the same crime. The thesis also examines which of Christie’s criteria that seems to be of most importance to give the victim attention.

     

    The study categorizes the different criteria under three different titles: ideal victim, ideal perpetrator and ideal circumstances, illustrated by a model which defines the concept with the denomination, a true ideal victim. The investigation is carried out through an internet search of the number of hits at the Google search engine, as well as through close up studies of a few cases. The possibilities for abducted children and their families to claim a valid status as a victim is highlighted as of very great, if not of the most, significance for generating attention. The differences between the two types according to Christie’s theory is shown, as is the difference in hits between the two which indicates that ideal victims of abduction get more attention.

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  • 269.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Rättvis, tillrättavisande och sympatisk: En studie om manliga lärarstudenters relation till sitt framtida yrke2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gender balance in Swedish preschool and elementary schoolteachers is highly uneven. Male preschool and elementary schoolteachers consist of only 4% and 25% respectively. The study’s motivation is found here. The aim is to get knowledge of the way male students at university who are studying to become preschool or elementary schoolteachers use and take benefit of existing male discourses and if they make opposition on these discourses.

    By the use of qualitative interviews, the material in this study is based on subjective views and experiences of male students doing gender in the context of a female-dominated space of study and anticipated future career.

    Within a broader social constructive approach, the empirical material is analyzed by the use of Connell’s theory on gender and hegemonic masculinity. Other theoretical concept that have been used in this study to display and analyze the way the students are doing gender are such as “male discourses” and “masculinity”.

    The result of this study suggest that male students are not giving up their use of male discourses, instead they are constructing a new role in relation to their future profession and existing discourses. They construct their profession roles in relation with their use of existing male discourses as well as opposition towards them, as well as the use of female discourses.

    The result of this study suggest that male students are in some cases using existing male discourses in relation to their profession, but that they are also using active resistance towards these discourses with the use of female discourses.

    These results go mostly in line with results presented by earlier studies in the field. The students are negotiating with the hegemonic masculinity in the way they are constructing their professional role as teachers and role models.

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    Rättvis, tillrättavisande och sympatisk
  • 270.
    Göransson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Who gets to decide the path to peace?: - A study of the participation of women during the peace process in Burundi and the obstacles for their participation. 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The participation of women in peace processes has received increased attention in recent years and it is possible to identify several arguments of why it is of importance to include women to a larger extent. As the debate regarding the presence of women in peace processes is focused around the importance of including women to a larger extent, it can be valuable to further explore the role of women in peace processes in terms of their participation and the obstacles present for their participation. The focus of this study is the peace process in Burundi from the beginning of the Arusha negotiations in 1998 and onwards, as it can be considered a country with a positive outcome in terms of the inclusion of women’s situation in the final peace agreement. The participation of women during the peace process is studied with the aim to identify the main obstacles for women’s participation. The first aspect studied is the participation of women during the peace process both in the formal and informal part of the process. The outcome in terms of the peace agreement signed in 2000 and the situation for women’s participation after the agreement is also considered. Furthermore, the obstacles present for women’s participation in the peace process are studied. To explore the participation of women as well as the obstacles present for women’s participation in Burundi, the case study method is chosen together with the use of theory testing and content analysis. The case of Burundi is placed in relation to theories regarding women’s participation in peace processes and the obstacles identified in Burundi are placed in relation to findings in other studies regarding obstacles present for women’s participation. Content analysis is used when studying the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement, in order to explore the inclusion of women’s specific situation in the agreement.  

     

    The findings of the study demonstrate that the case of Burundi is similar to several other cases studied in terms of the obstacles women face for their participation. The obstacles identified to be the most common were aspects related to the culture and social norms, as well as the presence of violence in society. The external support is further raised as an important factor for women’s organizations working for a more equal post-conflict society. The participation of women is argued to have had a positive effect on the outcome in terms of the consideration of women’s situation. But as it also is stated, it is difficult to identify the exact impact of specifically the women’s participation. 

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    Malin Göransson Bachelor Thesis
  • 271.
    Hagevi, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Viscovi, Dino
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Enkäter: att formulera frågor och svar2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkäten är sedan länge ett väletablerat redskap för både forskare och praktiker. De flesta vuxna får ofta fylla i formulär av olika slag, i de mest skiftande sammanhang. Hur utformar man då en enkät? Ett bra enkätformulär ska vara tydligt, överskådligt och enkelt att fylla i, och det får inte ta för mycket tid i anspråk. Dessutom ska enkäten ge undersökaren tillförlitlig och bearbetningsbar information tillbaka.

    Den här boken är en introduktion till konsten att göra enkäter, oavsett om dessa ska tryckas på papper eller distribueras digitalt. Den beskriver hur allmänna frågor kan preciseras och omvandlas till fungerande enkätfrågor och svarsalternativ. Författarna ger råd om i vilken ordning frågor bör ställas, hur formuläret kan utformas grafiskt och hur datainsamlingen lämpligen läggs upp. Allt för att undvika missuppfattningar, minimera fel och för att få många ifyllda formulär tillbaka.

    De praktiska råden inramas av en skildring av enkätens pionjärer i Sverige och en diskussion om enkätens framtid i ett alltmer digitaliserat samhälle.

  • 272.
    Hallberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Det gränslösa arbetet som gymnasielärare: En studie om gränsförskjutning mellan arbete och det övriga livet.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies, institutions and authorities are increasingly restructuring their businesses to adapt to a changing environment and working conditions are becoming increasingly looser, more indefinite and perceived as more boundless. Earlier general and more stable working time rules, norms and agreements for organizing the work have begun to be dissolved or transformed and employees must increasingly initiate, plan, implement and take responsibility for their own work. This may mean that the work is perceived as more varied by the employee, but also as more complicated, more stimulating but perhaps also more demanding, more personal but with a reduced community, more focused but more cohesive and insecure.

     

    This is a qualitative thesis conducted at the Linnéuniveritetet by Fredrik Hallberg that, through the use of grounded theory, examines questions about what affects the balance between the work of school teachers and their leisuretime. In the study, a total of seven teachers have been interviewed and the material has been analyzed and processed through a theoretical framework in the form of grounded theory. 

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  • 273.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Att äta och att sova2015In: Tydningen, ISSN 2001-4570, no 17-18, p. 74-75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Berättelser – Motberättelser2014In: Eftertankens Följetong: De nordiska författarseminarierna vid Nordens Biskops Arnö 1960-2014. En dokumentation sammanställd av Ingemar Lemhagen / [ed] Ingemar Lemhagen, Stockholm: Stiftelsen Nordens Biskops Arnö , 2014, p. 151-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Dikter2015In: De Nio - Litterär Kalender 2015 / [ed] Magnus Halldin, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2015, p. 37-40Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 276.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Dikter ur Det som övar annorlunda likt ett hjärta2016In: Om detta sjunger vi inte ensamma: Dikter till samtiden och världen / [ed] Anna Jörgensdotter, Charlotte Qvandt, Stockholm: Bokförlaget ETC , 2016, 1, p. 57-61Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 277.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Jaz je clovekova najuglednejsa norost (odlomek)2016In: Brez Besed ji sledim: sodobna evropska lezbucna poezija / [ed] Brane Mozetic, Ljubljana: Zalozba Skuc , 2016, p. 119-121Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 278.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Några reflexioner och en lathund2014In: Kreativt skrivande och kritiskt tänkande i genusvetenskap / [ed] Anna Lundberg, Ann Werner, Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2014, p. 35-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Poetik för akademiker2015In: Skrivande om skrivande / [ed] Benedikte Borgström, Jenny Helin, Maria Norbäck, Elena Raviola, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Prolog till den litterära vetenskapsteorin2014Book (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Skrivandet som metod / Writing as a Method of Inquiry: En studie i poesi, skrivprocess och det reflexiva akademiska skrivandets möjligheter / A Study of Poetry, the Writing Process and the Possibilities of Reflexive Academic Writing2015In: Från konstnärlig högskola till universitet / From Arts Colleges to University: Konstnärlig forskning - Årsbok 2015 / Artistic Research - Yearbook 2015 / [ed] Torbjörn Lind, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 76-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    THE I/EYE IS IN THE VERB: TOWARDS A POETICS OF THE FEMINIST POETIC I2015In: The ninth Nordic conference on language and gender, 15-16 October 2015 Linnaeus University, Växjö, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Vald poesi2013In: Ny svensk poesi / [ed] Malin Waak & Nina Søs Vinther, Köpenhamn: Arena , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 284.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Writing on Mourning, Death and Dying: Keynote2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    El Sousi, Somaya
    Tunedal, Jenny
    Writing during war: Keynote2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Henderson, Melissa
    The Speech: Poetik för akademiker2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Lundberg, Anna
    To be or not to be in sync: On intersections between artistic research and post disciplinary feminist research2015In: Konstuniversitet – politisk dröm eller utvidgad framtid för konsten? / Art university – political dream or broadened future for art?, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist research is a field emerging from overlaps and contingencies in relation to traditional disciplinary academic structures. Hence, given this position, feminist research has produced what we want to call post disciplinary academic knowledge. Herein lies one of the strengths and major academic contributions of feminist research.

    Crucial to this post disciplinary knowledge production is not only a critical scrutiny of power hierarchies, but also a critical stance towards the power hierarchies (re)produced by scholarly norms and values, which has an impact on how academic knowledge is produced and perceived. Perhaps equally important is the influence of artistic and aesthetic productions and expressions on feminist research.

    The presentation will start out giving an account for a range of historical examples where artistic explorative work has played a distinct role on the feminist academic field. Then we will summarize and reflect upon our own experiences of and ideas about the intersections between artistic research and the research field of arts and humanities from a feminist perspective.

  • 288.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Tunedal, Jenny
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Being each others dog: or the figure wanders on alone2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Tunedal, Jenny
    El Sousi, Somaya
    Translating 51 days2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the summer of 2014 poets Somaya El-Sousi, Hanna Hallgren and Jenny Tunedal were working together in a translation workshop via skype that had been ongoing for more than a year. When war broke out in Gaza, where El-Sousi lives and works, this translation workshop transformed into a daily conversation on war, despair, food, rooms, objects, women, children, mothers, intimacy, fear, news, weather and writing.

    The differences and distances always present in translation work became enhanced and acute, as did a sense of closeness. The circumstances of war cut into our work and somehow into the everyday quotidian life of Sweden; as a shock, as a difference, as an acute experience of a lack of experience. The computer screen became, in El-Sousis words: “a blue window of hope”; the hope of continuing, linearity, future.

    Continuity is complicated for anyone living in Gaza. Life is a secluded incarceration not only in space but maybe even more so in time. Future as well as political and personal history are constantly being cut off from and / or conditioned by a claustrophobic present. The disaster that war is adds enormous pressure and fear to this present, to the extend were chronological time seems almost entirely dissolved.

    We would like to examine this sense of time and how it conditions the work of female writers in Gaza. We have gathered literary texts by women living in Gaza that were written during the 51 days of war and aim to perform a reading of how the temporality of war becomes readable, and possibly shareable, in these texts; as structure, as experience, as knowledge, as the unanswerable question: ”How long is that night, how hard is that darkness?” (from Somaya El-Sousis “It does not end”, written in late July 2014)

    Our work and our friendship takes place on skype. During the conference we would like to use skype and together, yet apart, perform a poetic conversation piece on the temporality of war, of literature, of translation and of friendship.

  • 290.
    Hamid, Abdalrhman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Protracted Internal Displacement: A Case Study of Darfur IDPs2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 291.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Viscovi, Dino
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Digitalisering och integration: en studie av digital teknikanvändning bland äldre utrikes födda2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: rapporten kartlägger äldres (65-85 år) digitala vardag, och analyserar särskilt om skillnader föreligger mellan utrikes födda och inrikes födda. Analysen visar att skillnaderna grupperna emellan beträffande såväl tillgång till, som användande av, digital teknik är små. De utrikes födda har tillgång till apparater (persondatorer, smarttelefoner, surfplattor, osv.) i samma uträckning som inrikes födda. De använder dem lika ofta som inrikes födda i kontakter med offentlig service. Det visar sig därtill att utrikes födda anslår mer tid till internetanvändning än infödda. Å andra sidan har de en något snävare användningsrepertoar. Rapportens huvudsakliga slutsats är att de utrikes födda i allt väsentligt är digitalt inkluderade i samma omfattning som de inrikes födda. Data har samlats in genom en postenkät (n=3 000) där 1 000 respondenter utgörs av infödda och 2 000 av utrikes födda (invandrade till Sverige före 1990). Bruttosvarsfrekvensen är 64,1 procent.

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  • 292.
    Hammermo, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Gender Mainstreaming: A critical idea analysis of gender mainstreaming in Sida´s evaluation documents2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender inequality is a structural problem in almost all societies in the world. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) is argued to be in the front when it comes to include women and gender equality in their cooperation with other countries. However, what kind of gender mainstreaming discourses are they using?

    This study is a critical idea analysis of the evaluation documents published by Sida. The objective of the thesis is to investigate what feminist discourses Sida is using and how it can be understood from the perspective of power of Michel Foucault.

                          The major findings of the ideal type analysis are that Sida is mostly using a socialist feminist discourse in their documents. However, when applying the theory of power on the findings, a discussion about how much (and maybe what kind) of power Sida is actual practicing emerge. The main conclusion is that Sida is using power to set the norms and the discourse. On the other end could not a fully gender mainstreaming be seen, this can be resistance from the cooperation countries to adopt to the socialist discourse. 

  • 293.
    Han, Shuang
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    A Study on Chinese Teachers’ Experiences and Perceptions of Gender Roles and How it Affects Work, Family and Students2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research is a case study focusing on a group of Chinese teachers working in a senior high school in northern China. It seeks to explore their experiences and perceptions of gender roles, both in the workplace and at home. It aims to discover the impact of cultural values and beliefs on them as well as on their teaching practice, and to explore how they deal with the potential contradictions.

    There are three questions being addressed in this research: (1) In what way do male and female teachers experience and perceive gender (in)equality at the workplace? (2) In what way do male and female teachers experience and perceive gender (in)equality at home? (3) How do their experiences and perceptions of gender roles influence their teaching practice?

    The results show that both modernization and communism have positive influences on gender equality. However, tradition and stereotype impose men and women with specific roles and qualities. They influence participants’ domestic life to different extents: decision-making, housework division, attitudes toward marriage, premarital sex and gender preference of their children. Whether caring or paternalistic, parents play a very important role in the family. It also can be seen that women are trying to take an active role in household finance management. At the workplace, the ongoing work-family conflict and stereotype about gender roles hinder women’s career development. The participation and the percentage of female representation in management positions are rather low, even though they are encouraged to take an active role. When seeking employment, women face more frustration than men. In the classroom setting, gender difference can be seen when teachers give criticism and assign legwork. Students are expected to develop different qualities: male students with “male characteristics” and female students with “female characteristics”, as a result of social pressure. 

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    A Study on Chinese Teachers’ Experiences and Perceptions of Gender Roles and How it Affects Work, Family and Students
  • 294.
    HAQUE, ZIAUL
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Spoilers in the Peace Process of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 295.
    Haraldsson, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Polisens Moral: En formande process2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by Durkheim’s (2002) moral sociology, this bachelor thesis examines what morally form individuals who take on work within the police. Specifically, this thesis identifies and analyses the steps that morally form police officers in southern Sweden from their childhood to professional life through qualitative interviews. Three police officers in chief positions were interviewed, three newly graduated police officers and two police students. The respondents spoke about a strong moral ideal from youth and this conviction was strengthened when they realized their wish to join the police force. When closing in on their goal to join the police the pressure to act morally from their peers increased. Through the statements collected this thesis identified four steps which the interviewees followed when they approached a moral code which society at large internalize. It also identified how a mission can be used to justify otherwise immoral behavior. The identified steps are: Ideal indifference and norm conformity, ideal realization, ideal and norm reinforcement and, ideal and norm insurance. The first step identified matched with the results of Jacobsson and Lindblom (2016) while the remaining were interpreted from the expressed statements of the interviewees. The second step this thesis interpreted was ideal realization, this step was defined by individuals who realized their desire to work within the police later in life. Working in tandem with ideal realization is the step ideal and norm reinforcement, this step was characterized by a phase in the interviewee life where they took steps to achieve their goal. Lastly ideal and norm insurance is the step identified when the interviewees had joined the police, distinctive for this step was their drive to ensure that every day norms was ensured and trust for the police was maintained within the populace. 

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  • 296.
    Hartelius Nilsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Kollektivets pris: Tillämpning av en teoretisk modell om organisatorisk målförändring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 297.
    Hartshorne, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Al Qaeda, the Islamic State and the Terrorist Identity: A Qualitative Comparatative Case-study on the Strategic Self-Presented Identities of the Global Jihadist Groups2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the Strategic Self-presented identity of Al Qaeda and the Islamic State, two global militant Islamic groups. Parallels are often drawn between the two groups creating a generalized image of global jihadists. This thesis argues that although certain comparisons may be made, the two groups differ in their identity and tactics. Therefore, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the violent groups it is key to analyze and compare how the two groups wish to be perceived. Through a qualitative comparative case-study this thesis sets out to recognize the strategic self-presented identities of Al Qaeda and the Islamic State. By combining the Terrorist Identity by Arena & Arrigo (2006) and Goffman’s (1959) theory of self-presentation via a theory building method this thesis argues that Al Qaeda encompasses a victim role to legitimize their cause. To the contrary, The Islamic State upholds a martial role, building on a sense of wrongdoing, violently reclaiming a geographical and social arena which they claim is rightfully theirs. The Strategic Self-presented identities of the two jihadist groups stand contrary to each other. The Islamic State proudly stands for a state which they claim deserves to be legitimized and welcomes new members to join them within their borders. Al Qaeda on the other hand continues their decentralized struggle against their suppressive opposition. The research behind the paper is a desk-study method, which practically has taken form by gathering photos, videos, interviews, statements, magazines and other outward directed documents released by Al Qaeda and the Islamic, hence, the messages which the jihadist groups wish to share with outsiders.     

     

                                                                                       

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  • 298.
    Hartshorne, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Immigrant members of the Swedish Democrats: A qualitative study regarding the process in which immigrants become politically active within the Swedish Democrats.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the process that individuals who have migrated to Sweden go through when joining the Swedish Democrats (SD), a nationalistic and anti-immigration party. SDs history is filled with Racism and violence, since the parties remodelling in 1988, where the party removed its more extremist and violent grouping, SD have become the third largest political party in Sweden. Through the classic outsider theories of Elias (1999) and Becker (2006) this study is driven to explore a new theoretical view on the process of role and organizational change. By looking at what pushes the individuals away from their former organizational belonging and what pulls them towards SD, this study will try and understand the thought process and decision making of the group, immigrants in SD, around the time before and during their organizational change. As a secondary point to this paper the respondent’s sense of identity and belonging to SD will be studied. How has their change to SD affected their identity as a group and how do other groups affect them when they (SD) are trying to establish their identity. The research behind this paper is based on interviews with individuals that have migrated to Sweden and are public members of the Swedish Democrats.

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  • 299.
    Hassan, Aisha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Possibilities for Nicaraguan Mangoes: A Value Chain Analysis of Dried Mango2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two months of fieldwork was conducted during the summer of 2014 in Nicaragua, through qualitative interviews the aims was to investigate the Value Chain of dried mango and its potential as an alternative income source for livelihood improvements for households in Manzano Uno, Nicaragua. The idea to investigate dried mango in particular originates from a conversation in the spring of 2012 with Ben Orton, co- founder of local NGO Waves of Hope, who considered the idea after witnessing the huge amounts of ripe mango falling to the ground and rutting away during the peak season in Manzano Uno. The research problem in a bigger context is related to the debate on how developing countries, and rural parts in particular, are often excluded from the benefits that come with a globalized market economy, since they often lack the tools to participate or do so on unfavorable terms. The idea of a Value Chain Analysis is to detect where along the production line value is added to a product from raw to finished good. Income Diversification comes in to the investigation and contributes to the conclusion that it would be favorable for livelihood improvements to households in Manzano Uno to diversify income sources, to create more secure and higher quality income. The value chain analysis is mainly based on information provided by Sol Simple, an organic-fruit drying plant in San Ramon, Nicaragua and is one out of two fruit processing enterprises in the country. They have been growing every year and have positive expectations of the future. Dried fruit and mango in particular seems to have good prospects for future demand as export products and one important addition is the sustainable, organic and Fairtrade markets which all enable higher product prices and thereby enable bigger shares to go back to the local producers. The federal incentives in Nicaragua include focus on the foreign investment to the country and quantity secondary education, which is concluded to not always be quality education. The high share of investments and entrepreneurships from foreigners are explained by the high security profile in the country, fertile lands and the lowest minimum wage in the region.

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  • 300.
    Hassan, Sammy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Reconciliation and peace-building in post-genocide societies: A structured focused comparison in Rwanda and Cambodia2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of reconciliation in post-genocide peace building. Peace activists believe that reconciliation is necessary after a post-war conflict to ensure regeneration and lasting peace. Past research has shown that there are successful and failed cases when implementing reconciliation mechanism, however there is a lack of understanding why some models of reconciliation have succeeded, while others have failed, an aspect that is not fully explored. Therefore this study aims to explore how reconciliation is approached and implemented across different contexts, Rwanda and Cambodia, so as to understand why it brings success or failure in these contexts. The results are analyzed with the help of John Paul Lederach’s four components for reconciliation, justice, truth, mercy and peace, and compared the generated results with the previous research. The main results show that reconciliation has failed in Cambodia and Rwanda. In accordance with John Paul Lederach’s theory, there is a hindrance towards reconciliation in Cambodia because of lack of Justice and Truth as the main concepts and is identified as a structural dimension. In the case of Rwanda, there is a lack of Mercy and Truth and is identified as a relational dimension.

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