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  • 251.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Opportunities for robotic automation in wood product industries: The supplier and system integrators' perspective2017In: 27th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM2017 / [ed] Pellicciari, M; Peruzzini, M, Elsevier, 2017, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunities for automation in the poorly automated wood product industry are highlighted. This isaccomplished by conducting a qualitative interview study of suppliers and system integrators for industrial robots active in thisparticular industry sector. Five case companies are chosen in order to explore the unique dimensions responsible for successfulautomation implantation in wood product companies. Results show that a low understanding of automation opportunities, unclearrequirements specifications, and small production volumes are the main problems for suitable automation solutions. Althoughwood is a fragile and changeable material, existing technology allows its manipulation with industrial robots.

  • 252.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wester, Hans
    Yaskawa Nordic AB.
    The future of industrial robot business: Product or performance based?2018In: Proceedings of the 8th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2018) / [ed] Mauro Onori, Lihui Wang, Xi Vincent Wang, Wei Ji, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 25, p. 495-502Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The robot market today is mainly based on product-centered sales concepts. In the future, traditional procurement of industrial robots can be expected to become less important and the business models will shift the focus towards leasing or even pay-per-use. This paper discusses how these new business models should be designed and what components and features are needed for successful implementation. Digitalization, circular economy, cultural barriers, business traditions and fear of new philosophies are investigated and put into the context of the advantages offered. A possible transformation process is set into the context of the product-process matrix.

  • 253.
    Lans, Gusten
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Identifikation och analys av korta produktionsstopp i justerverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sågverket Wallnäs AB har ett behov att identifiera, analysera och åtgärda produktionsstopp kortare än två minuter på sitt justerverk. Syftet med studien är att identifiera korta stopp, var och varför de uppkommer, och ge förslag till förbättringsåtgärder. Studien visar att det vanligaste stoppet orsakas av virkesstycken som hamnar i oordning och att ny maskinutrustning kan avhjälpa problemet.

  • 254.
    Lars, Eliasson
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skotning av grot direkt efteravverkning eller efter hyggeslagring: Effekter på näringsuttag, barravfall och fukthalt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tops and branches from final felling (logging residues) have been harvested for use as a fuel in heating and combined heat and power plants since the 1970s. It has been recommended that the residues be stored in small piles on the clear-cut for a summer to facilitate drying and shedding of needles. Drying increases the effective heating value of the biomass and thereby the economic value as a fuel. Another perception is that future forest growth is positively affected by nutrients that are released from the biomass through leaching and as needles and fi ne twigs loosen from the residues during the storage period.

    However, there are also drawbacks when residues are stored on the clear-cut. Costs are increased, as the same forwarder that extracted the roundwood cannot be used to extract the logging residues, so another forwarder has to be transported to the area. Furthermore, extraction of residues becomes a seasonal work concentrated to late summer and autumn, so areas with soft soil harvested during frozen winter conditions have to be trafficked in unfrozen conditions, thereby increasing the risk of ruts. Finally, the establishment of new forest is delayed, as the clear-cut is filled with residue piles and not available for scarification and planting the first summer after the harvest.

     To avoid these drawbacks, interest is growing in extracting the residues at the same time as the other assortments and drying them in a stack on the landing instead. A literature survey was carried out to obtain an overview of the effects of these two strategies for residue extraction.

     The survey showed that:

    - More than 20 per cent of the top and branch biomass is left on the clear-cut, regardless of extraction strategy.

    - Storing residues on the clear-cut does not necessarily lead to nutrient release and shedding of needles in residue piles.

    - The moisture content of the biomass at time of delivery to the customers is not affected by the extraction strategy.

    - The possible effects on future forest yield should be smaller than the relatively small effects found in studies of full-tree extraction, as biomass is left on the clear-cut.

    - The economic effect on the future yield is reduced, as replanting can be done at least one year earlier if the residues are extracted at the time of roundwood extraction, thereby reducing the time to next harvest.

  • 255.
    Larsson, Adam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Påverkas geometriska krav på skogsbilvägar om ST-fordon införs?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out if it is possible to introduce a higher gross weight of trucks, from the current 64 tonnes to 74 tonnes. It would mean that the Swedish transportation would be more efficient and it would strengthen the Swedish business sector 's international competitiveness and also support the continued productivity, thus an efficient forest infrastructure is the key to obtain this. The report's input are from literatures, the Swedish Forest Agency’s recommended width increases of the road and simulations based on radius and angle of the curves. The results are based on calculations made ​​from the input data. The results of the report shows that the Forest Agency’s recommended width increases are enough to drive a 74 tonnes truck, which means that the 74 tonnes trucks are useable in the forestry after adjustments of the road. An increase from 64 tonnes to 74 tonnes would from an environmental point of view reduce carbon dioxide emissions by up to 11% and also the road would be better preserved when the axle load is distributed in a more efficient way.

  • 256.
    Larsson, Anton
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hur håller sig skogsentreprenörer uppdaterade gällande författningar och föreskrifter?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over 90% of forestry work is carried out today by contractors, therefore

    clear agreements between the client and the contractor it is of utmost

    importance. Contract Packages for work within the forest sector (APSE) is a

    collection contract templates that the industry jointly developed for this

    purpose. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how forest contractors do

    to keep themselves updated of the current laws and government regulations,

    which channels are available to accomplish this and what possible obstacles

    may occur. 20 interviews were conducted with contractors engaged in

    logging. The results show, among other things, the availability of and which

    channels most contractors use out of which aggravating circumstances exist

    and how strong they are perceived and what is expected of the client in this

    regard.

  • 257.
    Larsson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bergman, Adam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Korslimmat trä av sidobrädor: En hållbar framtid2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Korslimmat trä, KLT, är byggelement av trä vars efterfrågan ökat de senaste åren och som fortsätter öka. Därför ligger det i sågverksindustrins intresse att kunna använda sig av billigt råmaterial i konstruktionen av KLT-elementen då skulle öka lönsamheten för sågutbytet. Syftet med detta arbetet är därför att konstruera och pröva hållfasthets- och styvhetsegenskaper för KLT-element konstruerade med ej hållfasthetsklassade sidobrädor. Idag får nämligen bara hållfasthetsklassade brädor används i konstruktionen. I detta arbetet prövas två olika konstruktioner av KLT-element i böjtest vilka båda visar goda resultat för de studerade hållfasthets- och styvhetsparametrarna. De uppnådda värdena för parametrarna jämförs med teoretiskt beräknade värden för ett KLT-element av råmaterial med hållfasthetsklassen C24. Variation finns dock mellan de olika testelementen vilket är en orsak av att trä är ett heterogent material. Värdena mellan olika testelement skiljer ibland markant. Däremot visar till och med det testelement med sämst hållfasthets- och styvhetsegenskaper högre värden för de studerade parametrarna än de teoretiskt beräknade. Därför kan sidobrädor som råmaterial till KLT-produkter konstateras som ett bra konstruktionsmaterial.

  • 258.
    Larsson Ekström, Albin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Diameter, höjd och stamantal före och efter krankorridorgallring i ett sydsvenskt tallbestånd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a growing number of unmanaged stands with a high number of stems per hectare and low diameters, and with growing interests in biomass extractions for fuel, development of proper technology and methods to extract these resources is required. By mechanical harvesting of trees in corridors, the number of crane movements per tree is decreased, resulting in lower harvest costs. In a pine stand in southern Sweden, this method of boom-corridor thinning was examined. This was done by measuring, perpendicular to the strip road, mean heights, breast height- and stump diameters, number of stems, tree species composition, stump heights and damages from thinning and later calculated in Excel. The relationship between harvested and standing tree diameters where 0,77, which can be compared to a heavy thinning from below. The thinning grade resulted in 53% with 61% trees harvested in boom-corridors. Damage percent resulted in 1.5% and the mean stump-height was 48 cm, none of these factors could be connected to their strip-road distance. Before thinning the number of stems was 2267 stems >3cm per hectare. For a better evaluation of the method, stands with higher number of stems would be required.

  • 259.
    Liao, Yin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Designing an efficient Collection process for Discarded furniture2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The furniture industry is a thriving industry in the past decades all over the world. The increase in production and sales of furniture products means that more raw materials are needed and more furniture waste is produced at the same time. Taking into account the unsolved environmental issues, it is necessary to make innovation changes to reduce the waste and overcome the continuously increasing resource consumption. Circular economy draws a wide attention under this situation. As an alternative to replace the traditional linear consumption model, it balances the economic development and environmental concern. Turning waste into a new resource is a profitable opportunity for the furniture industry. However, product recovery in this industry meets obstacles due to the character of the furniture.This study considers discarded bulky furniture products. It focuses on the first step of furniture waste recovery: the collection process. The aim of this research is improving the efficiency of a “many to one” collection process in a reverse logistics system and increasing the recovery level within the hierarchy of options for discarded furniture. By using the soft system methodology, this study explores the current discarded furniture collection situation within Europe and then analyzes each essential element of this collection system. After that, combining with the relevant circular economy theory and information gathered from a case furniture company, we design a new conceptual business process model for discarded furniture collection.In the newly designed model, the collection process is carried out by the individual transport option with sufficient capacity from customer’s home to the furniture store. The new model is based on a collaborative lifestyle information platform. By managing the real-time information, the platform aligns individuals’ transport resources with discarded furniture demand to reduce the transport cost of the collection process. This model aims for optimal use of the available individual resources to complement the transport process. Moreover, this information platform helps to collect information in the early stage to reduce the uncertainty of reverse logistics.

  • 260.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Assessing corporate economic distress: a study of the wood construction industry2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 594-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood buildings are considered as a viable option to support the effort minimizing the current housing shortage in Sweden. Companies trying to develop into this industry are needed to increase the use of prefabricated wooden elements, volumes or modules in an industrialized way. Suitable companies to make this development could be found amongst firms producing wooden single-family houses. These companies currently act on a highly competitive market with many companies offering relatively homogeneous products or services. Therefore, differentiation towards the wooden multi-family house industry could be considered as a long-term strategy, minimizing the economic distress and improving the survival of the company.The study is aiming at describing the development of economic distress and market concentration ratio in the Swedish industry for wooden single-family houses, for an eleven-year period from 2005 to 2015. The companies could be helped to understand, if and how the market concentration ratio and the economic distress are connected, linking company size to economic stability and efficient resource utilization. This will be conducted by applying Altman’s Z’-score model, grouping firms into a risk, a grey or a safe zone, combined with calculating the industry structure by means of the concentration ratio model. The required data were collected from the annual reports of the 51 relevant firms in the industry.

  • 261.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    ATEA Logistics.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Changes in Industry Structure and Concentration?: Welfare Loss due to Perfect Competition in the Swedish Industry for Wooden Single-Family Houses2016In: 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As studies based on data from 2012 show, the Swedish market for wooden single-family houses is highly competitive, with many firms offering relatively homogeneous products or services. In order to serve the demand on that market, only 38 % of the existing firms actually were needed. Thus, an uneven distribution of resource utilization let to welfare losses. Yet since 2012, the demand on the market increased by more than 35 %, which potentially had an effect on resource utilization.

    This study is aiming at describing the development of the structure and concentration in the Swedish industry for wooden single-family houses, for a five year period from 2010 to 2014. This could help to understand, if and how market demand affects structure, concentration rate and consequently welfare loss due to resource utilization. The required data were collected from the annual reports of the 52 relevant firms in the industry. By means of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the Herfindahl-Hershamann Number Equivalent, industry structure and concentration rate was calculated.

    The results will show how the industry structure and concentration rate developed from 2010 to 2015, the distribution of resource for welfare purposes and thus, how many firms there actually were needed to serve the market.

  • 262.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    ATEA Logistics.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Evaluating profitability of Firms in the Swedish Industry for Wooden Single-Family Houses2016In: The 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for Swedish wooden single-family house producers is characterized by perfect competition, i.e. products are highly substitutional and firms mainly compete by prices. Variance in net profit margins, as a key number for profitability, for firms in this industry ranges by 60 %. As net profit margin is defined as net profit divided by revenue, these latter two directly affect net profit margin. Yet, leaving the obvious determining mathematical explanations aside, other factors might affect the profitability of the firms, showing, what distinguishes successful firms from less successful ones.

    This study is aiming at exploring the factors affecting the profitability of Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses. By means of those factors, variances in net profit margins might be explained more thoroughly. Data from annual reports were collected from 52 firms in the industry and a correlation analysis performed.

    The results will show if there are factors that correlate with net profit margins and if yes, what explanatory power these factors have. This in turn might serve as an input for the firms’ strategic development towards a higher profitability of their businesses.

  • 263.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Identifying market mobility barriers for wooden single-family house producers to enter the multifamily segment2018In: Social Influences, Forest Products Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, the housing shortage in Sweden accumulated to a level that led to acute problems for many people combined with continuously rising housing prices. The market for single-family houses, where wood dominates with 85 – 90 % of market share, is highly competitive with many companies offering relatively similar products or services. To serve the demand on that market, only 38 % of the existing companies were needed. One way to tackle the existing housing shortage, and to develop new business opportunities, could be to get more companies from the single-family house industry to produce multi-family houses. Current competence in prefabricated house production could be utilised, yet, other areas could act as barriers for these companies. The aim of this study is to identify potential market mobility barriers for Swedish companies currently producing wooden single-family houses to develop towards the construction of multi-family houses. This will be conducted by initial interviews with decision makers in those companies, combined with a survey-study covering companies within the industry. The results show that the main market mobility barriers are related to the strong market presence of traditional building materials, lack of knowledge by the market of wood as a suitable building material and the importance of governmental guidance and actions.

  • 264.
    Lindgren, Gustav
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Justerverksuppföljning vid företaget JG Anderssons söner AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport redovisas en studie av det nya justerverket vid JGA:s (JG Anderssons söner AB) sågverk i Linneryd. Studien är inriktad på åtgärder som kan öka produktiviteten samt förbättra arbetsprocessen. De faktorer som studerats i justerverket är produktivitet, spill, kvalitetsutfall, kostnad/förtjänst och tillgången på sorteringsfack. Beräkningar av faktorerna har utförts med användning av lagrade driftsdata från justerverket. I arbetet ingår en jämförelse med driftsdata från det gamla nu utbytta justerverket. Resultaten visar att produktiviteten ökat kraftigt i det nya verket. Även spillet har ökat, vilket i någon mån kompenseras av att kvalitetsutfallet har förbättrats. Tillgången på sorteringsfack orsakar emellanåt stopp i produktionen. Stoppen bör kunna minskas genom att styra produktionen av olika dimensioner, så att tömning av enskilda fack kan ske mindre ofta.

  • 265.
    Lindgren, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hur stor är kunskapen om och intresset för skog och skogsbruk?: En enkätundersökning bland högstadieelever och lärare i årskurs 9 i Västerbottens län2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out what knowledge of and interest in forest and forestry students in grades 9 have, to describe student’s choice of secondary school program and interest in forestry professions, and to find out if there is a relationship between students and teachers knowledge of and interest in forest and forestry. The study was performed with a questionnaire answered by 273 students and 11 teachers in Västerbotten county. The results showed that there was no difference in knowledge between gender and that much of the knowledge come from home. There was no clear relationship between students and teacher’s knowledge and interest. 9 students applied for an agricultural program in high school. 14% of the students could well imagine work in forestry in the future, but the interest in forests and forestry were generally low.

  • 266.
    Lindstam, Gustaf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effect of relative humidity and temperature on the strength properties of finger-jointed furniture components from solid scots pine2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical strength in wood has always been compromised due to the complex behaviours of the material when interfered with moisture and heat. These factors has always limited the use of the material. However, the will of using more sustainable materials such as wood has contributed to a wider use of the material and several new ways that lead to improvement. Several of these methods emphasizes the joining of two wood components together endwise, where finger-joints are the most commonly used method. Several studies regarding how well finger-joints can withstand external load has been made over the years. However, many of these studies focuses on geometrical properties or strength varying in different species.

    This study focuses on how relative humidity and temperature affects mechanical strength in finger-jointed wood products. There were beliefs before the research started that increasing temperature would affect mechanical strength greatly. However, it turned out to only affect the mechanical strength marginally, and that relative humidity was the largest contributor to decreasing tolerance levels. It is important to notify that mechanical strength seemed to be directly affected to moisture content (MC), which is a result of an interactive relationship with both temperature and RH. It was particularly MC-levels above 9.2% that showed a decrease in mechanical strength.

    This research also focused on estimating the relative MOR per cross-section in varying conditions. This method could be used to better understand to which degree hygroscopic factors affects mechanical strength relative to the glued-surface area between finger-joints. Even though the findings in this study indicates that there seems to be possible to estimate strength in regards to relative MOR per cross-section, the results were not sufficient to be viewed as scientifically proof. The findings could however be used as ground for future studies.

  • 267.
    Lisa, Skagerberg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hur stämmer svarskorten från markägarna överens med verkligheten?: - En studie gällande återväxt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Forest Care Act, an approved rejuvenation is required no later thanthree years after rejuvenation has been made. Approved rejuvenation methods arenatural rejuvenation, sowing or planting. In 1903, the first law on recapture wasintroduced and since then the law has gradually changed. From 1993 onwards,environmental and production goals are equal. Replanting has to be reported bylandowners to the Forest Board and this is done by filling in and returning a reply card.The report shows the growth in the field and compares this with the answers from theresponse cards. Hylte municipality, all response cards match the observations in thefield. In Halmstad municipality, 18 areas have been observed, of which 14 have beenreported by the landowner that a rejuvenation has been carried out.The intention of the report is also to review how the response cards look and howlandowners perceive them. What could be improved on current response cards?Landowners have been interviewed and data has been collected through fieldobservations. The results have then been compiled and describe the differences observedbetween two different municipalities. In Hylte municipality, the proportion ofrejuvenated areas is 95 percent, while in Halmstad municipality only 79 percent.

  • 268.
    Liss, Lars Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Snytbaggeskador på Conniflex-behandlade plantor: en studie av tre olika markberedningsmetoder ett år efter plantering på färska hyggen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens svenska skogsbruk är snytbaggeskador på planterade plantor av gran och tall ett stort problem. Syftet med detta examensarbete vara att efter den första tillväxtsäsongen utvärdera snytbaggeskador och planttillväxt i 15 praktiska planteringar med tre olika markberedningsmetoder där plantorna behandlats med Conniflex. Fältundersökningen skedde på färska hyggen belägna i norra Uppland och södra Gästrikland. Medelvärdet för andelen snytbaggeskadade plantor låg på drygt 8,5 % per lokal. Risken för snytbaggeskador minskar rejält då planteringspunkten är i ren mineraljord eller humusblandad mineraljord. Skillnaden i granens toppskottstillväxt var liten mellan de olika markberedningsmetoderna. Det var ingen signifikant skillnad i snytbaggeskador mellan de olika markberedningsmetoderna även om tendensen var att inversmarkberedning hade något färre snytbaggeskadade plantor.

  • 269.
    Ljungar, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ottosson, Linnea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ny metod för behandling med viltskydd på skogsplantor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A threat is that some of the tree species that are important for the biodiversity are under a lot of pressure because of the high browsing activity. The Swedish forestry agency has now together with the forest industry set an acceptable level of browsing on production forest that 70% must be non-browsed when the stands are 5 meters or higher.

    To protect the production forest from browsing the landowner can choose from several options, the conventional way is yet to point treat every production plant with a game repellent, but that way isn’t very time saving as to treat with this new method.This study is trying out a new method to treat the whole stand instead of point treating every production plant. The method was to use a petrol mistblower (Stihl SR200) and treat one hectare with 9 litres of water and 1 litre of the game repellent Trico viltskydd. Two inventories were made, one before treatment and one after treatment. In total 200 sample surfaces of 2,82m in radius where collected, 100 of them where control surfaces. Every tree species in the sample surfaces where record and if it was or wasn’t browsed.

    The result of this study shown that the increase of browsing on all tree species was reduced with the treatment method. The new method shows that it can have positive effects on preserving the bio diversity.

  • 270.
    Ljungberg, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsbränslets fraktionsfördelning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has analyzed particel size distribution and needle content in chipped logging residuals (branches and tops) delivered to the district heating plant Ryaverket in city of Borås, Sweden. Two fuel assortments has been analyzed: Chipped logging residuals from pure softwood and from mixed fuel (connifers and broadleaves). The samples has been sieved at Linneaus University laboratory.

    The study of particle sizes indicates that only 53,2 % of delivered fuel is within the fuels specification (7– 45 mm). The needle content is in this study 12,4 % (dry mass) which is higher than expected.

  • 271.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Comparison of carbon balances between continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no supplement 2, p. S203-S213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous-cover forestry (CCF) has been recognized for the production of multiple ecosystem services, and is seen as an alternative to clear-cut forestry (CF). Despite the increasing interest, it is still not well described how CCF would affect the carbon balance and the resulting climate benefit from the forest in relation to CF. This study compares carbon balances of CF and CCF, applied as two alternative land-use strategies for a heterogeneous Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand. We use a set of models to analyze the long-term effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and carbon stock changes. The results show that biomass growth and yield is more important than the choice of silvicultural system per se. When comparing CF and CCF assuming similar growth, extraction and product use, only minor differences in long-term climate benefit were found between the two principally different silvicultural systems.

  • 272.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gustav, Stål
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Carbon balance in production forestry in relation to rotation length2018In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 672-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of a rotation length is an integral part of even-aged forest management regimes. In this study, we have simulated stand development and carbon pools in four even-aged stands representing the two most common tree species in Fennoscandia, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), growing on high and low productive sites. We hypothesized that increased rotation lengths (+10, +20 and +30 years) in comparison with today’s practice would increase forests’ average carbon stock during a rotation cycle, but decrease the average yield. The results showed that for spruce a moderate increase in rotation length (+10 years) increased both average standing carbon stock and average yield. For the longer alternatives (+20 and +30 years) for spruce and for all pine alternatives prolonging rotation lengths resulted in increased average standing carbon stocks but decreased average yield resulting in decreased carbon storage in forest products and decreased substitution effects. Decreasing the rotation lengths (-10 years) always resulted in both decreased average standing carbon stocks and decreased yields. We conclude that a moderate increase of rotation lengths may slightly increase forests’ climate benefits for spruce sites but for all other alternatives there was a trade-off between the temporary gain of increasing carbon stocks and the permanent loss in productivity and consequently substitution potential.

  • 273.
    Löf, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Finns utarbetade riktlinjer för hur vi ska bevara de unika svenska naturmiljöerna i ett förändrat klimat?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to find out if there are regional/national strategies,

    and thus evaluate, how well prepared Sweden is to preserve the unique

    Swedish natural environments in view of the ongoing climate change. In this

    work the study is limited to comprise the preservation of protected areas in

    the Swedish forests.

    The data collection for the study was done by qualitative interviews to

    obtain data for the analysis template, where interviews were processed and

    indexed. The study reveals that the authorities have not come that far. More

    research is needed with reference to how our unique Swedish natural

    environments are affected by the changing climate in order to find relevant

    data for a strategy. In terms of strategy for the preservation of biodiversity,

    results indicate a slightly better outcome for the authorities.

  • 274.
    Magnusson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Effektivare Askåterföring: Kombimetoden2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens resultat visar att det finns betydande kostnadsbesparingar att göra vid införandet av en ny metod för askåterföring. Den nya metoden medför betydligt mindre transporter vilket leder till ett reducerat utsläpp av koldioxid och andra ämnen som har en negativ miljöpåverkan.

    I den nya metoden utnyttjas i viss utsträckning timmerbilarnas lediga kapacitet för transport av aska ut till spridningsområdet vilket då ökar chansen till högre lönsamhet för åkerinäringen.

  • 275.
    Magnusson, Katrin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nulägesanalys av drönaranvändningen i svenskt skogsbruk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A drone is an aircraft that can fly itself or be remotely controlled by a driver elsewhere while collecting data of various kinds. In Swedish forestry drones are used today both by professionals and by private forest owners. The aim of this study was to find out how drones are used in Swedish forestry today, describe their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and find out what developmental areas there are for drones. Data was collected through telephone interviews with nine respondents with different geographical locations in Sweden and with different practical experiences.

    Drones are primarily used in forestry planning. In the SWOT analysis, most responses were in the category of strengths. Examples of strengths many saw were more effective work and planning. The main opportunity was the rapid development of technology. Weaknesses mentioned were that they lacked equipment and the largest threat was the authorities. Many respondents wanted to see development of apps and program.

  • 276.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Processmätning av kapsåg vid husfabrik: Fallstudie vid Svensk Husproduktion AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur en process i en tillverkningsindustri kan effektiviseras och få en ökad förståelse kring produktionsutveckling. Studien ska utvärdera utnyttjandegraden för en process hos en svensk träshustillverkare och undersöka processen för att kunna ge förslag på förbättringsåtgärder. Examensarbetet utfördes på Svensk Husproduktion AB som ligger i Bromölla och tillverkar prefabricerade småhus i trä. Tidsstudier har utförts dels på en operatör vid en arbetsstation, dels på maskinen som operatören arbetar vid. Syftet med tidsstudien är att få fram utnyttjandegraden på maskinen, samt att räkna ut operationstider för olika produktvarianter. När nuläget analyserades kunde forskaren konstatera att vid ökad produktion är den undersökta processen en flaskhals. Baserat på mätningar, observationer och intervjuer analyserades data och genom olika förbättringsförslag kan utnyttjandegraden vid processen öka till önskad nivå och flaskhalsen elimineras. Förbättringsförslagen utgår från att eliminera slöseri och öka andelen värdeskapande tid. Förslagen presenterades i två olika scenarier beroende på om företaget väljer att investera i robotautomation eller att förändra arbetsmetod och bemanning vid arbetsstationen. 

  • 277.
    Malin, Lundström
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nytta med obruten spårbarhet från plantskola ut till planteringspunkt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A successful forest generation is important for several operators

    and a lot can happen on the way from nursery to established plant.

    Therefore traceability of forest plants is important. Sveaskog is

    one of Sweden’s big producers of forest plants thru their business

    Svenska skogsplantor. Today it’s possible to trace forest plants

    grown by Svenska skogsplantor and planted by Sveaskog, but the

    chain of traceability cannot be considered unbroken since its

    partially uncertain under the treatment what happens to the plants.

    Today systems with barcodes, computer systems and applications

    in smartphones can be at help to create unbroken chains of

    traceability and the purpose of this work was to examine of what

    an extended traceability of forest plants could be. The work was

    done with qualitatively method and semi-structured interviews

    and the result show that people who work with establishment of

    forest plants where satisfied with the current traceability but could

    see benefits like increased control, more interesting work and

    substratum for statistics as good usage from improved traceability.

  • 278.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Planting and survivability of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in Sweden: Questions of seedling storability, site preparation, bud burst timing and freezing tolerance2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-native Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) has been grown to a limited extent in the southern part of Sweden since the early 1900s. A more extensive use has probably been curtailed by its known susceptibility to damage by frost, pine weevil and other pests. Limited access to vital seedlings of suitable provenances has also restricted its more widespread growth. The need for valuable species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest for Douglas fir in Sweden.

    This thesis addresses a number of important questions relating to the planting of Douglas fir in Sweden: seedling storability, freezing tolerance, timing of bud burst, frost damage and seedling response to site preparation. Seven Douglas fir provenances originating from British Columbia, Canada were used in the experiments and where applicable, compared with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The early bud burst of interior Douglas fir provenances, observed both in greenhouse tests and in the field, results in a high risk of damage by late spring frost. This type of damage does not seem, however, to be fatal and does not obviously retard the early growth of seedlings. The difference in growth between coastal and interior provenances was insignificant, but survival was greater for interior than for coastal provenances. All the provenances of Douglas fir studied showed a later development of freezing tolerance of shoots and roots in the autumn than Norway spruce, with the coastal provenances developing such tolerance even later than interior provenances. This could be a contributory cause for the severe damage by winter desiccation observed on seedlings of coastal origin. A thorough site preparation proved to be an effective way to increase survival and root growth. Interior provenances of Douglas fir became ready for storage earlier in autumn than coastal provenances. When freezing tolerance of shoots had increased sufficiently, Douglas fir seedlings could safely be kept in frozen storage using the same procedures used for Norway spruce. The results emphasise the need to gain further knowledge about how the remaining obstacles to establishment of Douglas fir could be reduced with different silviculture methods.

  • 279.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Survival, early growth and impact of damageby late‑spring frost and winter desiccation on Douglas‑firseedlings in southern Sweden2018In: New forests, ISSN 0169-4286, E-ISSN 1573-5095, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of non-native species, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change by meeting the growing demand for biomass and high quality wood. The aim of this study was to investigate early growth, survival and damage from late-spring frost and winter desiccation. A provenance trial with four coastal and three interior provenances of Douglas-fir originating from British Columbia, Canada, was established in Southwest Sweden (56°43′N, 13°08′E). Seedling height, length of the leading shoot, and occurrence of frost damage, were measured after one, three, and six growing seasons. Timing of bud break in spring was also observed. The interior Douglas-fir were more frequently damaged by late-spring frost compared to the coastal Douglas-fir. The interior Douglas-fir still had a higher survival after six growing seasons compared to the coastal variety. All provenances were damaged by winter desiccation, but the provenances originating from the coastal area were more severely damaged. Choice of variety may reduce the risk for either late-spring frost or winter desiccation.

  • 280.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at −4°C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.

  • 281.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir2017In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1987-1998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in Sweden. One of the most common problems seen in plantations of Douglas fir seedlings is damage caused by late spring frost, known to be highly correlated with the timing of bud burst. The objective of this study was to investigate spring-related bud development under Nordic conditions of seven Douglas fir provenances and to compare data with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Results from a field trial and a greenhouse-based study were compared. The interior Douglas fir provenances exhibited an earlier bud burst than coastal provenances, both in the greenhouse and in the field trial. When comparing differences within the groups of interior and coastal Douglas fir provenances, no differences could be found. The local Norway spruce, only grown in the greenhouse, showed an intermediate bud development profile similar to the interior Douglas fir provenance Three Valley. We therefore suggest that Three Valley could be planted at the same locations as the investigated local provenance of Norway spruce in mid-Sweden. To avoid spring frost damage the Douglas fir seedlings need to be frozen stored and planted late in spring. Planting under shelterwood can also help protect the seedlings from spring frost damages. As similar results for bud development patterns of Douglas fir and Norway spruce provenances were obtained from the greenhouse and field trials, greenhouse tests could facilitate selection of provenances.

  • 282.
    Miekk-oja, Olli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kaliumgödsling på torvmark - effekt på tillväxten hos planterade granar (Picea abies)2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peat  lands  are  a  great  potential  resource  for  increased  forest  growth  in  Sweden, there  are  approximately  6.5  million  hectares  of  peat  lands,  whereof  around  70% produce less wood than one m3sk/ha and year and are therefore classed as forest waste  land.  There  are  over  200  000  hectares  of  peat  land  that  is  already  drained and  wooded,  and  that may  be  suitable  for  fertilization.  Forest  production  on  peat soils  usually  requires  drainage  and  fertilization.  Dewatering  requires  ditching  the area, so that the roots can have access to oxygen. Nitrogen is often abundant in the peat but other nutrients; especially potassium is in short supply. 

    The  purpose  of  this  work  was  to examine  the effects  of  potassium  fertilization  on the  growth  of  spruces  that  were  planted  on  drained  peat  land  and  how  different amount of fertilizers affects the growth. 

    Potassium deficiency is strongly growth inhibiting, since potassium is important for substance  transport  in  the  tree.  Potassium  is  also  important  for  the  carbohydrate formation, and because increasing the sugar content of the cells constitutes a lower freezing temperature does potassium availability in the soil play a major role in the winter  resistance  of  many  species.  Potassium  is  not  found  in  any  organic compounds in the tree, but is present in cell and tissue fluids. 

    A fertilization trial was started in 1978 in Siljansfors Experimental Forest. The plots in the experiment were fertilized with different amounts of potassium and one plot was  left  without  fertilization.  All  plots  that  were  fertilized  with  potassium  grew considerably better than the unfertilized plot. The difference in production between the unfertilized plot and the plot that received the most potassium was 7.2 m3sk/ha and year. The unfertilized plot can still be classified as waste land.

     The theoretical production capacity was estimated using a Swedish system for site quality  estimation  of  wetlands  after  ditching  (dikningsbonitering).  The  plot  with most  potassium  produced  after  fertilizationaproximately  in  level  with  theoretical estimations. 

     

    Key  words:  Peat  land,  Fertilization,  Ditching,  Growth,  site  quality.

  • 283.
    Månsson, Isabelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kulturmiljöer i skogsmark: Lämningsantal, avverkningsareal och skogsägare i relation till hänsynstagande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the number of cultural remains, the area of the final felling site and the forest owner’s knowledge, attitude and behavior related to the consideration taken to cultural environments. The study was built upon results from the HK-inventory as well as qualitative interviews with seven forest owners.

     

    The results indicated that the risk of negative impact increased when two or more cultural remains were located at the felling site. Felling sites where two or more cultural remains had been affected and where at least one of these remains was affected negatively, were also larger than those sites where adequate consideration had been taken. Furthermore, the forest owner’s knowledge and attitude could have an effect on his or her behavior in regards to cultural consideration.

     

    Larger felling sites that affect two or more cultural remains should be extra monitored before and during felling procedures to ensure adequate consideration towards cultural environments located at the site. Forest owners can probably have an influence on consideration but need more knowledge about different types of cultural environments and how to act to achieve adequate consideration towards cultural environments in general.

  • 284.
    Nerelius, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ungskogsröjning i Älvdalens socken2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka:

    Om delägarna i Älvdalens Besparingsskog röjer sin ungskog i större omfattning än andra skogsägare i Sverige.

    Hur delägarna i Älvdalens Besparingsskog utnyttjar sina skogsbruksplaner.

    Hur entreprenörerna får sina uppdrag.

    Studien genomfördes som dokument-och litteraturstudier, enkät samt personliga intervjuer.

    Röjningsfrekvensen i Sverige år 2012 var 18,4 procent av röjningsbehovet, enligt Riksskogstaxeringen.

    Skogsvårdsaktiviteten i Älvdalens socken är sannolikt högre än i landet i övrigt.

    Enkäten visar att endast cirka 38 procent av delägarna i Älvdalens besparingsskog konsulterar sin skogsbruksplan när beslut skall tas angående röjning.

    Skogsbruksplanerna används i liten omfattning.

    Entreprenörerna får sina uppdrag till cirka 80 till 90 procent genom att skogägarna kontaktar entreprenören.

    Cirka 80 till 85 procent av röjningsarbetet görs av entreprenörer med en ökande trend.

    Ungskogsröjning, Älvdalens Besparingsskog, skogsbruksplan, entreprenörer

  • 285.
    Nero, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Traktdirektiv enligt PEFC – effektiv kommunikation från skogsägare till skogsbolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogen innehåller höga värden i form av naturvärden och forn- och kulturlämningar. Dessa måste skyddas när skogen brukas för ekonomisk vinning och hur det ska ske framgår främst i arbetsbeskrivningen för varje objekt, kallat traktdirektiv. För att se var bristerna finns har inköpare/planerare samt maskinförare/entreprenörer intervjuats. En mall för utformandet av traktdirektiven skulle underlätta för alla och gynna de höga värdena i skogen.

  • 286.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Beckman, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Föryngringsresultatet efter sådd av contortatall (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) i Härjedalen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical regeneration by seeding of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) in the province of Härjedalen in Sweden was studied. After three growing seasons the total number of seedlings were 3 700 per ha and the number of main seedlings were 1 800 per ha. 2% of the sample plots had no plants within 3 m. No difference could be found between objects on high and low altitudes.

    In general mechanical seeding gave satisfactory regeneration. On low fertile soils the total number of seedlings as well as the future main seedlings was higher than on more fertile soils.

  • 287.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Extraction of logging residues for bioenergy: effects of operational methods on fuel quality and biomass losses in the forest2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood products play a key role in the transformation to a more sustainable society based on renewable bio-based resources, together with the positive effects on climate mitigation by replacing fossil fuels. However, to increase the use of forest fuel in practice it is important to understand the effects of handling and storage on its quality and removal of nutrients from the forest. This thesis addresses these effects with special focus on a comparative evaluation of the traditional dried-stacked with “new” and to some extent more controversial fresh-stacked methods for extraction of logging residues from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    The results indicate that a normal extraction of logging residues will leave at least 20% of logging residues at the clear-felled area, in accordance with Swedish Forest Agency recommendations. However, the results also indicate that the ambition of the dried-stacked method to leave the majority of the needles well spread over the clear-felled area does not meet these recommendations. In fact, the harvesting operation is more important than the extraction method, with respect to how much logging residues (nutrients) being left in the forest. The results also show that the quality of fuel yielded by the two handling methods differs only to minor extent, indicating that other factors have stronger effects, where “dried-stacked” and “fresh-stacked” logging residues from different clear-felling areas is often similar. Generally, logging residues stored over summer (regardless method), seem to provide sufficiently dry forest fuel, with a needle content of about 5–10%. There is a clear correlation between drying and effective loss of needles from twigs, but the loss does not necessarily mean that the needles will remain in the forest.  However, needle color (green or brown) is not a strong indicator for a reduction in needle content.

    Acceptance of the fresh-stacked method would provide opportunities for the development of new technologies, more efficient use of machinery throughout the whole year, reduced costs, shorter lead times and increased amounts of logging residues extracted from each clear-felled area. This is mainly because it would enable extraction at optimal times from a logistical, financial and/or forestry perspectives.

    Written in English with summary and conclusion in Swedish.

  • 288.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The influence of two different handling methods on the moisture content and composition of logging residuals2013In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 52, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most frequently used handling method in Sweden for the extraction of forest fuels is one in which logging residues are piled in harvester heaps to dry within the clear-cutting area before stacking into larger windrows. This handling method, however, requires multiple stages and the amount of handling involved results in a significant loss of biomass that could have been used for energy. This study compares two handling methods for the extraction of logging residues in stands dominated by Norway spruce. The traditional “dried-stacked” method was compared to the “fresh-stacked” method in which logging residues are collected simultaneously during normal logging operations and stacked in windrows at or near the roadside to dry. Determination of fraction composition and moisture content was carried out on the biomass provided to the energy-converting industry shortly after comminuting the logging residues. The results show that the fresh-stacked logging residues contained a higher amount of needles (8%), compared to 4% for the dried-stacked logging residues. However, the amount of needles was considered to be low in both handling methods. Both handling methods were proven to provide adequate drying with moisture content levels at approximately 36% for fresh-stacked and 31% for dried-stacked logging residues. These results indicate that weather and forest conditions have a greater impact on the moisture content than handling method. An acceptance of fresh-stacked logging residues, preferably connected to ash recycling, would afford the energy-converting industries the opportunity to use new technologies, reduce costs and extract a greater biomass total.

  • 289.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Distribution of logging residues at the clear-felled site after fuel adapted logging operations2015In: Papers of the 23rd European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economyExtracted from the Proceedings of the International Conference held in Viennna, Asutria1-4 June 2015 / [ed] Obernberger I, Baxter D, Grassi A, Helm P, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, p. 270-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During extraction of logging residues previous studies in Sweden have shown that up to 50% of the available logging residues will not reach the energy-conversion site. The remaining potential of the logging residues are therefore lost by handling either at the clear-felled site, during transportation or due to decomposition. An outtake of 100% is not possible or desired, since the Swedish Forest Agency recommends that at least 20% of the logging residues should be left at the clear-felled site after a fuel adapted logging operation. In this study the losses at the clear-felled area is examined by studying the distribution of the remaining logging residues under and between the harvester heaps as well amount of logging residues that are left at the roadside landing after comminution. The results show that most of the reaming logging residues are well distributed at the clear-felled area between the harvester heaps. Additional logging residues are left at the clear-felled area since the forwarder cannot gather all logging residues from under the harvester heaps. In addition to this a not insignificant amount of logging residues are left at the roadside landing.

  • 290.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method2015In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 4212-4227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that a large proportion of available logging residues intended for extraction will not reach the energy-conversion industry, because some are lost during transportation or left on the clear-felled area. However, there is little understanding of where logging residue losses occur in the supply chain. In this study, the distribution of logging residues for two methods (dried- and fresh-stacked method) to extract logging residues were studied in one clear-felled area. In addition, residue fractions were examined in a detailed comparison. Even though the fresh-stacked method left somewhat more logging residues at the clear-felled area, the differences are small between the methods. Approximately 30% of the total amount of logging residues was left behind between the harvester heaps, with an additional 10%-15% under these heaps and approximately 2%-3% beneath the windrows. The final product that was delivered to the energy-conversion industry was very similar, regardless of the extraction method used. The delivered chipped logging residues had moisture contents of 37% and 36% following fresh- and dried-stacked methods respectively, and in both cases the needle content in the processed logging residues was approximately 10%. However, the total amount of fine fractions (needles and fines) was slightly higher following dried-stacking.

  • 291.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trublins, Renats
    SLU Alnarp.
    Sallnäs, Ola
    SLU Alnarp.
    Dahlin, Bo
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Estimating potential stump harvest from multiple data sources: an example from a county in southern Sweden2014In: Proceedings of the Precision Forestry Symposium 2014: The anchor of your value chain, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University , 2014, p. 33-34Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nutrient removal after whole-tree harvesting with the traditional Swedish dried-stacked method for removal of logging residues2015In: Papers of the 23rd European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economyExtracted from the Proceedings of the International Conference held in Viennna, Asutria1-4 June 2015 / [ed] Obernberger I, Baxter D, Grassi A, Helm P, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, p. 9-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy from logging residues is an important contributor to Swedish energy supplies. Logging residues where long defined and regarded as the unmerchantable aboveground biomass left behind in the clear-felled area, consisting of branches, tops and small trees that are gathered after the round wood harvest, but logging residues are nowadays regarded as a third assortment next to timber and pulpwood with high economic value. However long-term experiments on removal of logging residues from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.)Karst) stands have shown both growth reductions and growth increase in the next generation, because of decreasing amounts of nutrients. So an increased removal of logging residues requires some sort of compensation of nutrients. Therefore it is of importance to investigate how much nutrients that is removed from the stand after whole-tree harvesting.

    In this study the removal of the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) have been investigated by laboratory analysis of the nutrients together with the actual removal of stemwood, bark and logging residues. The study has also investigated the distribution of nutrients at the clear-felled area.

    The results show that approximately half of the total nutrient removed in whole tree harvesting is done with the removal of stemwood and bark. The results also show that approximately 30% of the total amount of nutrients is left at the clear-felled area.

  • 293.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient removal has been one of the key issues since the harvesting of logging residues started in Sweden. This study examined the actual removal of nutrients by measuring the amounts of biomass removed (from a forest products perspective) combined with their respective nutrient concentrations (N, P, Ca, K and Mg), from a clear-felled area when using the dried-stacked and fresh-stacked methods. The most important finding is that the two methods were very similar regarding nutrients remaining at the clear-felled area. Of the nutrients remaining there, most were found to be well distributed between the harvester heaps. Both methods fulfilled the requirements of the Swedish Forest Agency. A sensitivity analysis showed that even if the dried-stacked method left more needles, or the fresh-stacked method extracted more logging residues, there would only be a small impact on the levels of nutrients removed. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the amount of logging residues remaining between the harvester heaps seems to be much more important for nutrients left behind, regardless of extraction method. With this in mind, it is highly probable that improvements to the extraction of logging residues, without increasing nutrient removal, can be made.

  • 294.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Pettersson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nylinder, Mats
    The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The importance of accurate measurement of comminuted logging residues’ moisture contents for small-scale forest owners2016In: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 59, no 198, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy from logging residues is an important contributor to Swedish energysupplies. Thus, accurate measurements of delivered logging residues’ energycontents are very important for both sellers and buyers. Deliveries’ energycontents are highly correlated with their moisture contents, and thus aredetermined in southern Sweden (and elsewhere) by measuring their masses andmoisture contents. There is insufficient knowledge, however, about the variation inmoisture content within and between deliveries, and hence the minimum numberof samples needed to obtain the required precision. Thus, these variations wereexamined in detail in the presented study. Nested analysis of the variance of theacquired data shows that at least nine samples are required to obtain estimates ofa delivery’s moisture content with a 3% margin of error. For high volume trade,such as that between forest companies and the energy-conversion industry,current measurement practices are sufficiently accurate. For private forest ownersmaking single deliveries, however, higher precision is required as inaccuratemeasurements can strongly affect prices.

  • 295.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lagring av flisad grot vid värmeverk: en jämförande studie mellan vinter och sommar förhållanden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företrädare för den energiomvandlande industrin upplever i vissa fall attdet är skillnader i den inmätta energimängden och den energimängd somlevereras ut till kund. Detta gäller även vid beaktande av verkningsgrad iförbränningsanläggningen.Syftet med studien har varit att identifiera och storleksbestämma deskillnader i energiinnehåll hos två stackar om vardera 1000 m3s flisad grotsom mättes in vid leverans, samt efter tre månaders lagring strax innanförbränning. Studien är genomförd under två tidsperioder den enarepresenterande vinter- och den andra sommarförhållande, dålagringsegenskaperna skiljer sig åt beroende på årstid.Medelfukthalten för groten som flisades under den frusna delen av åretbestämdes vid leverans till 41,5 % och var efter tre månaders lagring 42,8%. Substansförlusten noterades till 5,6 % och energiförlusten till 6,1 %.För den grot som flisades under sommarförhållanden bestämdesmedelfukthalten vid leverans till 32,2 % och efter tre månaders lagringhade medelfukthalten i stacken ökat till 44,6 %. Substansförlusternanoterades till 10,1 % och energiförlusten till 14,1 % under de tresommarmånaderna.Den grot som flisades under vinterförhållanden visade vid leverans på ettfuktigare material jämfört med den grot som flisades och levereades undersommarförhållanden. Däremot ökade fukthalten endast marginellt hosbränslet som flisades under vinterförhållandena medan fukthalten ökadeavsevärt under lagringen för bränslet som flisades undersommarförhållandena.Substansförlusterna i stacken med vinterflisad grot såväl som i stackenmed sommarflisad grot visade sig ligga väl i paritet med vad tidigare 

    studier visat med substansförluster på i storleksordningen 2 – 3 % permånad under de tre månader som studien pågick. Energiförlusterna vardäremot betydligt högre för den stack med sommarflisad grot vilket varväntat då både substansförlusterna och fukthaltsökningen var större.

  • 296.
    Nilsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Faxhag Raymond, Glenn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mera tall - men har andelen ökat?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, there has been a change in the way reforestation is being carried

    out in the south of Sweden. Landowners have to an ever greater extent chosen to

    plant Norway spruce (Picea abies) independent of the fact that it would be better,

    due to local conditions, to plant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The reason behind this

    is that Scots pine has a higher rate of game damage than Norway spruce. The

    damage is mainly caused by elk (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Since there are ways to manage forests with a balance between wildlife and tree

    production, a collaboration was started between the forest industry and the

    Swedish Forest Agency (Skogsstyrelsen). It is called” More Scots pine” (Mera tall)

    and the aim is to change the attitudes of and to teach landowners what can be done

    to decrease game damage and how to succeed with reforestation when using Scots

    pine.

    This study is a comparison of regeneration areas that were harvested during the

    2002/03 season and the 2012/13 season, to see if there is a change of landowners

    choice of plant species.

    The result of this study showed that there’s an increase of the proportion of Scots

    pine on regeneration sites, 19,5% in 2002/3 to 29,9% in 2012/13.

    There were also changes in site adaption in regeneration sites, 12,5 % adapted

    sites in 2002/03, to 28,6% in 2012/13.

    Game damage was measured in regeneration sites from season 2012/13 on 24 %

    of Scots pine plants treated with game repellent and on 35 % of the untreated

    plants. Game damage on spruce measured 11 % on treated plants and 47 % of

    untreated plants.

  • 297.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Requirements for wood-based lightweight panels intended for furniture and interior use2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Throughout many parts of the world, forests exist in one form or another. And for the timber from these forests to be used, it must be processed by, for example, sawing into planks and dried. Studies have shown that profits for the forest owners increase from beneficial processing of these raw materials. An efficient use of this raw material is to process it into lightweight panels. Some general incentives for using lightweight constructions are: economical, technical and environmental. Some general weaknesses with sandwich constructions are more sensitive to impact and bumps, risk for delamination, harder to make fastenings, and more sensitive to the concentration of point loads. This work aims to increase the knowledge of properties and design of wood based lightweight panels used for interiors and furniture. The intention with this knowledge is that it can contribute to the development of lightweight panels.

    Material and method: A lightweight panel of cross glued sandwich type and a cross-glued multi-layered panel with densified face sheets have been used as an example to investigate and understand which parameters are crucial for a lightweight panel, made of wood. The lightweight panel of sandwich construction has been studied to consider the changes of shape brought about by moisture, as well as which mechanical properties this panel has, with a focus on creep deformation. Two methods for reducing the moisture-generated shape changes so as to increase the shape stability of the panel have also been studied. The methods are crossgluing and thermal treatment of the wood material. In the investigations of the panels, primarily quantitative methods in the form of empirical tests have been used. Some numerical simulations describing the moisture-generated shape changes and stresses that arise in the investigated lightweight panels were also made.

    Results and discussion: Cross-gluing of a multi-layered panel and also for the lightweight panel used in this study is a way to reduce the movement in the panel, generated by moisture. The drawbacks with this method are that stresses occur in the panels when the moisture change, and this can lead to a decrease in the shape stability of the panel. Thermal treatment can also be used to decrease the moisture-generated movement in wood, and in this way increase the shape stability of the product. In those cases where the empirical experiments were combined with numerical simulations, there was good agreement between the experimental and the numerical results. With the lightweight panels a weight reduction was achieved from 307 to 540 kg/m3 compared with a solid beech wood panel. The creep deformation of the lightweight panel was better or comparable for 6 of the 8 studied groups, compared to solid beech wood panel. The study also show that is possible to adapt the mechanical properties through its design of this lightweight panel.

  • 298.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bending and Creep Deformation of a Wood-Based Lightweight Panel: An Experimental Study2019In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When wood is exposed to long-term loading, creep deformation can occur because of its viscoelastic characteristic. The aim of this study was to increase the understanding and knowledge of creep deformation of a wood-based lightweight sandwich-type panel and to see if this type of panel has similar properties for creep as solid wood has. This was done by means of a study based on experiments. The panel studied consisted of two face sheets of beech wood and a core of pinewood struts cross-glued to the face sheets. A solid beech panel was used as a reference. In all, there were 27 samples for the test. The densities of the lightweight panel varied from 165 to 297 kg/m(3), compared with the density of the solid panel of 705 kg/m(3). The study consisted of two parts: a bending test and a creep test. The bending test was used to determine the maximum failure load for the panel. For the creep test, 30% of the original failure load was used. When the results from the bending tests were ranked for load capacity in relation to density, the results for the lightweight panel varied from 9.0 to 18.0 m(4)/s(2), compared with the value of the reference panel at 27.3 m(4)/s(2). This measured how effective the panel was in withstanding bending loads in relation to their density. However, this was not to say that the panel with the highest value also took the highest load in absolute terms. If the creep deformation is instead ranked in relation to density, the results for the lightweight panel varied from 10.4 to 33.7 kg/m, compared with the value of the reference panel at 45.5 kg/m. As with the bending test, these values rank how effective the panel was in resisting creep deformation in relation to density.

  • 299.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    A new light-weight panel for interior joinery and furniture2013In: Proceeding of 9th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering -WSE 11-12 September 2013, Hannover, Germany / [ed] Brischke, Christan & Meyer, Linda, Hannover: Leibnitz Universität Hannover , 2013, p. 184-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-weight materials based on wood for interior fittings and furniture have been of interest for at least the last fifty years, mainly for cost-reducing reasons. Today, the increasing care of the environment and the growing interest in the concept of a sustainable society provide further impulses for the development of light-weight materials. A common consequence of the reduction in weight of such materials is deterioration in the mechanical properties, e.g. strength, stiffness and shape stability, compared to those of solid wood. New solutions for e.g. connections and mountings are also needed. Today, new panel materials are required where the disadvantages of conventional light-weight materials are less prominent and with aesthetic and tactile properties close to those of natural wood.

    In this paper, a new type of light-weight panel is presented. The panel is cross-laminated in three layers and consists throughout of solid wood. The weight reduction is a consequence of the hollow middle-layer construction. The intention of the construction is to make it possible to mix species in the panel, e.g. a high-quality and high-density wood on the surface and a low-quality wood with low weight in the core, and thus to optimize the properties of the panel for a specific purpose and to keep costs down at the same time. In this first study, however, the whole panel is made of Scots pine.

    Bending tests show that the glue-line between the outer layers and the core is critical for the mechanical performance of the panel and this has to be developed further.

    This study shows that this light-weight panel can be used as a single component or in a system with other components for interior fittings and furniture. The current design of this light-weight panel has some deficiencies but, in addition to its low weight, it has the potential to provide the mechanical, aesthetic and tactile properties asked for.

  • 300.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology .
    Densified and thermally modified wood as outer layers in light-weight panels for furniture and joinery2014In: Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference : “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment”: May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden : book of abstracts, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, p. 79-80Conference paper (Refereed)
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