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  • 251.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey based evidence from Sweden2018Ingår i: Paper presented at the 58th ERSA Congress “Places for People: Innovative, Inclusive and liveable Regions”, Cork, Ireland, August, 28-31, 2018, The European Regional Science Association (ERSA) , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 252.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Två nationalekonomer: Företagande inte rätt väg2017Ingår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    DEBATT. Förhoppningen om att företagande ska öka sysselsättningen hos nyanlända är riskabel. De som startar företag i brist på andra alternativ kan faktiskt försämra sina möjligheter på lång sikt. Och utomeuropeiska företagare möter andra problem än svenskfödda, skriver Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén.

  • 253.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Bättre villkor för företagen kan underlätta integration2018Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2018-10-09Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    DN DEBATT 9/10. Framgångsrika företagare födda utomlands spelar en viktig roll i integrationen av utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden. Vår undersökning visar att företag som drivs av personer födda utanför Europa, och som anställer personal, i väsentligt högre grad anställer nyanlända personer från länder utanför ­Europa, skriver forskarna Mats Hammarstedt och Chizheng Miao.

  • 254.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Företagande bland utrikes födda - ett bidrag till integrationen?2019Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 37-43Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utrikes födda företagare spelar en viktig roll för integration av andra utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden. Vi visar att företag som ägs av utrikes födda personer i hög grad anställer andra utrikes födda personer. Framför allt anställer företagare födda i länder utanför Europa i högre grad än andra företagare nyanlända personer från länder utanför Europa. Resultaten innebär inte nödvändigtvis att satsningar på ett ökat företagande bland utrikes födda är effektiva för att öka sysselsättningen. Politiken bör utformas så att villkoren för företagande i allmänhet förbättras. Då förbättras möjligheterna för utrikesfödda företagare som har förutsättningar att driva företag att expandera sina verksamheter.

  • 255.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    ”Kvinnliga invandrar­företagare viktiga för integrationen”2019Ingår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 2019-01-04Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnor med utomeuropeisk bakgrund som har framgång i sitt företagande anställer i hög grad andra kvinnor med utomeuropeisk bakgrund, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Chizheng Miao med anledning av en ny studie.

  • 256.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of immigrant self-employment in Sweden using the recent matched employer-employee data from 2014. We find large variations in self-employment rates among immigrant groups as well as between immigrants with different points for their time immigration to Sweden. High self-employment rates are found for male immigrants from the Middle East. Immigrants are less likely than natives to have employees in their firms but after controlling for firm characteristics we find that self-employed immigrants are more likely than self-employed natives to have employees. Especially non-European immigrants are more likely than natives to employ other immigrants, and even non-European and recently arrived immigrants, in their firms. Immigrants are more likely than natives to hire their spouses as employees. We conclude that self-employed immigrants play a role in the labour market integration of other immigrants. We also conclude that that the family plays a central role for self-employment activities among immigrants and that more knowledge regarding the explanations behind the results is needed.

  • 257.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data2019Ingår i: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of the employees of self-employed immigrants with unincorporated firms in Sweden using matched employer-employee data from 2014. Non-European immigrants are more likely than natives to have employees in their firms. Furthermore, immigrants, especially non-European immigrants, are more likely than natives to employ immigrants in their firms, and non-European immigrants are most likely to employ recently arrived non-European immigrants with low education in their firms. Males are more likely than females to have employees in their firms, but self-employed females are more likely than self-employed males to have female employees. This is the case for all immigrant groups as well as for natives. We conclude that self-employed immigrants play a role in the labour market integration process since they create employment opportunities for immigrant groups that have difficulty entering the labour market.

  • 258.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of immigrant self-employment in Sweden using the recent matched employer-employee data from 2014. We find large variations in self-employment rates among immigrant groups as well as between immigrants with different points for their time immigration to Sweden. High self-employment rates are found for male immigrants from the Middle East. Immigrants are less likely than natives to have employees in their firms but after controlling for firm characteristics we find that self-employed immigrants are more likely than self-employed natives to have employees. Especially non-European immigrants are more likely than natives to employ other immigrants, and even non-European and recently arrived immigrants, in their firms. Immigrants are more likely than natives to hire their spouses as employees. We conclude that self-employed immigrants play a role in the labour market integration of other immigrants. We also conclude that that the family plays a central role for self-employment activities among immigrants and that more knowledge regarding the explanations behind the results is needed.

  • 259.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Arbetsmarknadens parter bör experimentera med minimilöner2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktuell forskning visar små och osäkra effekter av hur sänkta lägstalöner påverkar sysselsättningen. För att öka kunskaperna om minimilönernas effekter borde arbetsmarknadens parter genomföra regelrätta experiment inom det nya etableringsuppdraget, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Per Skedinger.

  • 260.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ekonomer: Gör experiment med minimilöner2016Ingår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns inte så mycket forskning om minimilöner och effek­ten på integration och sysselsättning. Ett sätt att förbättra ­kunskapen är regelrätta experiment, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Per Skedinger.

  • 261.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Minimilöner och integration av flyktingar på arbetsmarknaden: så kan experiment förbättra kunskapsläget2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel inleds med en översiktlig beskrivning av flyktingars situation på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Sedan kartläggs kunskapsläget beträffande effekter av förändrade minimilöner på sysselsättningen.

    Både teori och empiri pekar på att effekterna på sysselsättningen inte nödvändigtvis är symmetriska, utan att effekterna av sänkningar är mindre eller mer osäkra än effekterna av höjningar. Den osäkerhet som finns kring sysselsättningseffekterna av sänkningar av minimilönen måste därför anses vara större än den som rör effekterna av höjningar.

    Avslutningsvis presenterar vi ett konkret förslag på hur kunskaperna om minimilönernas effekter på sysselsättningen kan förbättras med hjälp av regelrätta experiment.

  • 262.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Minimilöner och integration av flyktingar på arbetsmarknaden: så kan experiment förbättra kunskapsläget2017Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 30-40Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel inleds med en översiktlig beskrivning av flyktingars situation på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Sedan kartläggs kunskapsläget beträffande effekter av förändrade minimilöner på sysselsättningen. Både teori och empiri pekar på att effekterna på sysselsättningen inte nödvändigtvis är symmetriska, utan att effekterna av sänkningar är mindre än effekterna av höjningar. Den osäkerhet som finns kring sysselsättningseffekterna av sänkningar av minimilönen måste därför anses vara större än den som rör effekterna av höjningar. Avslutningsvis presenterar vi ett konkret förslag på hur kunskaperna om minimilönernas effekter på sysselsättningen kan förbättras med hjälp av regelrätta experiment.

  • 263.
    Hansen, Bjorn Gunnar
    et al.
    TINE SA, POB 58, Norway.
    Li, Yushu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Univ Bergen, Norway.
    An Analysis of Past World Market Prices of Feed and Milk and Predictions for the Future2017Ingår i: Agribusiness, ISSN 0742-4477, E-ISSN 1520-6297, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 175-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of price behavior is a critical element to make decisions in uncertain conditions that significantly influence the return of dairy market participants. Increased variability in both the world milk price and the world feed price during the last 7-8 years has increased the need for research on price dynamics and price forecasting. The aims of this paper are to explore the dynamics embedded in and between the world milk and feed prices, and to produce reliable forecasts for both prices. We collected the world milk price and the world feed price series from 2002 to 2015 from the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN). The analysis revealed that the two price series contain business cycles of approximately 32 months. Further, the two series are co- integrated, with the feed price as the leading variable. A combination of three different forecasting models can provide reasonably good forecasts of both prices. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 264.
    Hansson, Fredrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Does Canada Achieve Their Inflation Target at the Expense of Real Economic Stability?: An Empirical Comparison of Sweden and Canada2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The essay investigates if one monetary policy goal could be sufficient to stabilize both inflation and real economic fluctuations. The results indicate that one policy goal could be sufficient, nonetheless when empirically comparing Sweden and Canada’s monetary policy and the market outcome in these markets.

  • 265.
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Stockholm University, Sweden;IZA, Germany.
    Gender identity and relative income within households: evidence from Sweden2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bertrand et al. (2015) show that among married couples in the US, the distribution of the share of the household income earned by the wife exhibits a sharp drop just to the right of .50. They argue that this drop is consistent with a social norm prescribing that a man should earn more than his wife. We repeat this analysis for Sweden, ranked as one of the world’s most gender equal countries. Analyzing Swedish population register data, we do not find support for the norm that a man should earn more than his wife.

  • 266.
    Heidrich, Stefanie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Intergenerational mobility in Sweden: a regional perspective2017Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 1241-1280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I employ high quality register data to present new facts about income mobility in Sweden. The focus of the paper is on regional differences in mobility, using a novel approach based on a multilevel model. This method is well suited when regions differ greatly in population size, as is the case in Sweden. The maximum likelihood estimates are substantially more precise than those obtained by running separate OLS regressions. I find that few regions are statistically significantly different from the Swedish average when measuring mobility in relative terms, while a greater number of regional differences emerge when focusing on absolute outcomes. Compared to growing up in the least favorable region, children from the most favorable region with parents located at the 25th percentile in the income distribution reach higher income ranks corresponding to approximately one monthly salary for an average Swedish worker per year.

  • 267.
    Henningsson, Karolina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Effekter av sänkt mervärdesskatt på restaurang- och cateringtjänster2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mervärdesskatten på restaurang- och cateringtjänster sänktes från 25 procent till 12 procent den 1 januari 2012. Sänkningen var en del i den sittande regeringens övergripande mål om en högre varaktig sysselsättning.

    De flesta utvärderingar på sänkt mervärdesskatt har fokuserat på effekter i konsumentpriser. De utvärderingar som genomförts pekar alla på att övervältringen i konsumentpris har varit relativt låg, varför mervärdesskattesänkningar sällan verkar komma konsumenten till godo.

    En sänkt mervärdesskat, som inte resulterar i ett fullt prisgenomslag på konsumentpriser, skapar ett ekonomiskt utrymme för de företag som blir träffade av reformen. Det utrymme som skapas har företagen full dispositionsrätt över, varför en utvärdering på endast konsumentpris är allt för begränsad och riskerar att inte fullständigt fånga reformens effekter. Denna utvärdering utökas till att omfatta effekter på sysselsättning, omsättning, produktionskostnader och investeringar.

    Då den här typen av reform är svårutvärderad i sin natur, på grund av bristen på kontrafaktiska utfall, tar studien fasta på att det finns gränsregioner i Sverige som är utsatta för internationell konkurrens, vilket gör det möjligt att förhålla sig till effekter utöver ett före- efterperspektiv. Utvärderingen använder gränsregionen Helsingborg- Helsingör där restauranger i Helsingör utgör en kontrollgrupp till restauranger i Helsingborg. 

    Rapportens övergripande slutsats är att mervärdeskattesänkningen på restaurang- och cateringtjänster är en lyckad reform i sin ambition att påverka sysselsättningen positivt. De sysselsättningsökningar som observeras kommer dock vare sig från en ökad konsumtion eller från en arbetskraftförflyttning från hemmet till marknaden till följd av lägre konsumentpriser, utan från att det enskilda företaget identifierat ett behov av att anställa personal, som den sänkta mervärdesskatten har gett dem ekonomiskt utrymme att fylla.

  • 268.
    Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    IFN, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). IFN, Sweden.
    Employment Protection Reform, Enforcement in Collective Agreements and Worker Flows2016Ingår i: Industrial Relations, ISSN 0019-8676, E-ISSN 1468-232X, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 662-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a reform of notice periods for employer-initiated separations in Sweden, which reduced the notice periods for newly hired older workers substantially but implied minor or no changes in the advance notices for younger workers. The reform was initiated at different times depending on collective agreement. These circumstances provide ample opportunity for the identification of its effects. Our findings indicate heterogeneous effects on hirings and separations across collective agreements.

  • 269.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    A note on a commonly used ridge regression Monte Carlo design2015Ingår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 2176-2179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ridge estimators are usually examined through Monte Carlo simulations since their properties are difficult to obtain analytically. In this paper we argue that a simulation design commonly used in the literature will give biased results of Monte Carlo simulations in favour of ridge regression over ordinary least square (OLS) estimators. Specifically, it is argued that the properties of ridge estimators that are functions of pdistinct regressor eigenvalues should not be evaluated through Monte Carlo designs using only two distinct eigenvalues.

  • 270.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Festschrift in honor of Professor Ghazi Shukur on the occasion of his 60th birthday2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 271.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    How to formulate relevant and assessable learning outcomes in statistics2016Ingår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 669-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Course syllabuses, outlines or similar academic documents specifying the content of a course will often be a helpful tool both for teachers and students to grasp the content and purpose of a course. In many cases, however, the compilation of such documents is a painstaking process for the educator designing it, and is a task that many teachers will shun. In this paper we propose a fairly simple pedagogical model for designing specific learning outcomes that the students are expected to attain after completion of a course.

  • 272.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Stephan, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    A risk perspective of estimating portfolio weights of the Global Minimum Variance portfolio2016Ingår i: Presented at Statistischen Woche 2016, Augsburg, Germany, September 13-16, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of how to maximize the return on a given portfolio of assets within the theory of Markowitz has been given considerable attention in the literature and improvements of standard methods continues to progress. Recent developments, often based on Stein estimators or other regularized estimators, usually focus on settings when the numbers of assets (say p) is close to the number of observations (n) since this is the scenario met in most real applications. Before any specific method is applied investors would want to know the basic properties and the relative performance of them. The performance of any estimation method, however, depends on which quality criterea of judgement is being used. Proposed methods may be optimal with respect to precision of the parameters involved in the portfolio procedure, on the proximity between estimated vs true global minimum variance portfolio (GMVP) weights, on the out-of-sample performance etc. Moreover, regularized estimators are often associated with very complicated or even unknown sampling distributions, which in turn complicate statistical inference drastically. The extent to which a method allows for statistical inference therefore also becomes an important matter when judging the properties of a data driven GMVP estimator. In this paper we give an in-depth discussion of risk critereas and their impact on GMVP optimization. A Monte Carlo simulation investigating the properties of some common estimators, including a new one proposed by the authors, with respect to several quality critereas is included to compare and contrast recent proposals. An empirical study is also included using Stockholm stock exchange data. 

  • 273.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A risk perspective of estimating portfolio weights of the global minimum-variance portfolio2019Ingår i: AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, ISSN 1863-8171, E-ISSN 1863-818X, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of how to determine portfolio weights so that the variance of portfolio returns is minimized has been given considerable attention in the literature, and several methods have been proposed. Some properties of these estimators, however, remain unknown, and many of their relative strengths and weaknesses are therefore difficult to assess for users. This paper contributes to the field by comparing and contrasting the risk functions used to derive efficient portfolio weight estimators. It is argued that risk functions commonly used to derive and evaluate estimators may be inadequate and that alternative quality criteria should be considered instead. The theoretical discussions are supported by a Monte Carlo simulation and two empirical applications where particular focus is set on cases where the number of assets (p) is close to the number of observations (n).

  • 274.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Kekezi, Orsa
    Jönköping University.
    Towards a multivariate innovation index2018Ingår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, nr 3, s. 254-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that traditional measures of innovation as a univariate phenomenon may not be dynamic enough to adequately describe the complex nature of innovation. Consequently, the purpose is to develop a multidimensional index of innovation that is able to reflect innovation enablers and outputs. The index may then be used (i) to assess and quantify temporal changes of innovation, (ii) to describe regional differences and similarities of innovation, and (iii) serve as exogenous variables to analyze the importance of innovation for other economic phenomena. Our index is defined in a four-dimensional space of orthogonal axes. An empirical case study is used for demonstration of the index, where 44 variables are collected for all municipalities in Sweden. The index spanning the four-dimensional innovation comprises size, accessibility, firm performance, and agglomeration. The proposed index offers a new way of defining and analyzing innovation and should have a wide range of important applications in a world where innovation is receiving a great deal of recognition.

  • 275.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    University of Gothenburg.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Testing for Panel Unit Roots under General Cross-Sectional Dependence2016Ingår i: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 1785-1801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we generalize four tests of multivariate linear hypothesis to panel data unit root testing. The test statistics are invariant to certain linear transformations of data and therefore simulated critical values may conveniently be used. It is demonstrated that all four tests remains well behaved in cases of where there are heterogeneous alternatives and cross-correlations between marginal variables. A Monte Carlo simulation is included to compare and contrast the tests with two well-established ones.

  • 276.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Nordström, Louise
    Jönköping University.
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University.
    Dummy Variables vs. Category-wise Models2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 233-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research frequently involves regression analysis with binary categorical variables, which are traditionally handled through dummy explanatory variables. This paper argues that separate category-wise models may provide a more logical and comprehensive tool for analysing data with binary categories. Exploring different aspects of both methods, we contrast the two with a Monte Carlo simulation and an empirical example to provide a practical insight.

  • 277.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping Int Business Sch.
    Norman, T.
    Jönköping Int Business Sch.
    Tavassoli, S.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    In the quest for economic significance: assessing variable importance through mean value decomposition2014Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 545-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic significance is frequently assessed through statistical hypothesis testing, which however, does not always correspond to the implicit economical questions being addressed. In this article we propose using mean value decomposition to assess economic significance. Unlike most previously suggested methods the proposed one is intuitive and simple to conduct. The technique is demonstrated and contrasted with hypothesis tests by an empirical example involving the income of Mexican children, which shows that the two inference approaches provide different and supplementary pieces of information.

  • 278.
    Hollander, Anna-Clara
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Bruce, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Burstrom, Bo
    Karolinska Inst.
    Ekblad, Solvig
    Karolinska Inst.
    Hospitalisation for depressive disorder following unemployment-differentials by gender and immigrant status: a population-based cohort study in Sweden2013Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 67, nr 10, s. 875-881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between unemployment and poor mental health in general is explained by both causation and selection. The aim was to study whether experiencing unemployment was a risk factor for hospitalisation for depressive disorder specifically, and whether gender and immigrant status modified the hypothesised risk. Methods A register-based prospective cohort study, 2000-2006, of persons aged 18-64 with a strong connection to the Swedish labour market. Outcome: hospital admission for a depressive episode; F32 in International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Exposure: employment status. Explanatory variables: gender and immigrant status. Confounders: age group, education and marital status. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs with 95% CIs. Results The cohort comprised 3 284 896 adults, 47.5% women. An excess relative risk for hospitalisation was found among those who became unemployed (HR=1.94, 95% CI 1.85 to 2.03). Foreign-born women who experienced unemployment had the highest relative risk (HR=3.47 95% CI 3.02 to 3.98). Conclusions Among persons with a strong connection to the labour market experiencing unemployment, is a risk factor for hospitalisation for depressive disorders. Unemployed foreign-born women had the highest relative risk compared with all Swedish born, all foreign-born men and to employed foreign-born women.

  • 279.
    Hu, Di
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Xin, Yuxiang
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Occupational Attainment of immigrants: The case of Sweden2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants have become a big part in host country’s daily life. Pervious research study

    immigrants usually focus on the factors that influence the earnings of immigrants. In contrast,

    this paper analyzes occupational attainment of immigrants and compares occupational

    attainment between immigrants and natives. In general, the same as natives, nearly half of

    immigrants are employed in low-skilled occupations, which cover upper secondary education

    and tertiary level of no more than 2 years in length. However, immigrants have the less

    probability of being in skilled and high-skilled occupations than natives. For immigrants from

    western countries, their occupational attainment are similar to natives, that is, high-skilled

    occupations accounts for a higher proportion and they are less likely to be engaged in

    unskilled occupations comparing with immigrants from Africa and Asia and South America.

  • 280.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hedging with trees: Tail-hedge discounting of long-term forestry returns2018Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 30, s. 52-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tail-hedge discounting is based on decomposition of returns from long-term investments in a fraction (gamma) that is correlated with consumption and another that is not. The first part is discounted at a discount rate that includes a risk premium, the other with the risk-free rate. We estimate gamma for forestry on Swedish data for stumpage prices and GDP per capita 1909-2012. We demonstrate that the result considerably changes the expected present value of medium-term and long-term forest investments. (C) 2018 Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 281.
    Hussain, Shakir
    et al.
    University of Birmingham.
    Al-Alak, Mehdi
    Central Organization for Statistics, Baghdad.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Conditional two level mixture with known mixing proportions: applications to school and student level overweight and obesity data from Birmingham, England2014Ingår i: International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, ISSN 1929-6029, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 298-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Level (TL) models allow the total variation in the outcome to be decomposed as level one and level two or ‘individual and group’ variance components. Two Level Mixture (TLM) models can be used to explore unobserved heterogeneity that represents different qualitative relationships in the outcome.

    In this paper, we extend the standard TL model by introducing constraints to guide the TLM algorithm towards a more appropriate data partitioning. Our constraints-based methods combine the mixing proportions estimated by parametric Expectation Maximization (EM) of the outcome and the random component from the TL model. This forms new two level mixing conditional (TLMc) approach by means of prior information. The new framework advantages are: 1. avoiding trial and error tactic used by TLM for choosing the best BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion), 2. permitting meaningful parameter estimates for distinct classes in the coefficient space and finally 3. allowing smaller residual variances. We show the benefit of our method using overweight and obesity from Body Mass Index (BMI) for students in year 6. We apply these methods on hierarchical BMI data to estimate student multiple deprivation and school Club effects.

  • 282.
    Hussain, Shakir
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Mohammed, Mohamed A
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Congenial Multiple Imputation and Matched Pairs Models for Square Tables: An Example of patients’ self-management2013Ingår i: Journal of Business Administration Research, ISSN 1927-9507, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. Article ID: 1-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental studies often measure an individual’s quality of life before and after an intervention, with the data organized into a square table and analyzed using matched pair modeling. However, it is not unusual to find missing data in either round (i.e., before and/or after) of such studies and the use of multiple imputations with matched-pair modeling remains relatively unreported in the applied statistics literature. In this paper we introduce an approach which maintains dependency of responses over time and makes a match between the imputer and the analyst. We use ‘before’ and ‘after’ quality-of-life data from a randomized controlled trial to demonstrate how multiple imputation and matched-pair modeling can be congenially combined, avoiding a possible mismatch of imputation and analyses, and to derive a properly consolidated analysis of the quality-of-life data. We illustrate this strategy with a real-life example of one item from a quality-of-life study that evaluates the effectiveness of patients’ self-management of anticoagulation versus standard care as part of a randomized controlled trial.

  • 283.
    Hwang, Aron
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ström, Christoffer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Differences in Educational Match between Natives and Immigrants: A study from the Swedish labor market 2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the potential educational mismatch of immigrants compared to natives concerning the Swedish labor market. The data is collected from the European Social Survey between 2002-2014. Our results show that immigrants tend to be more overeducated than natives. Our results also indicate that more recent cohorts are more likely to be overeducated compared to cohorts that have lived for a longer time period in Sweden. Disparities in language and country specific skills but also if a person belong to an ethnic minority are reasons for why these mismatches occur. 

  • 284.
    Ivarsson, Ellinor
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Arbetsmiljö & Pension: Kan en bättre arbetsmiljö förlänga arbetslivslängden?2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige, och övriga Europa, står inför en demografisk omvandling som inte bör, eller kan, ignoreras. Den åldrande befolkningen, det senare inträdet på arbetsmarknaden och den minskade fertilititeten gör det högst aktuellt att hitta ett sätt att få den arbetande delen av befolkningen att stanna längre på arbetsmarknaden. Denna studie undersöker sambandet mellan arbetsmiljö och pensionsbeslut genom att titta på den självskattade pensionsavgången. Tvärsnittsdata från Arbetsmiljöverkets arbetsmiljöundersökningar från åren 2005, 2007, 2009 och 2011 används för att undersöka detta samband. En binär logistisk regressionsanalys utförs där frågan ”Tror du dig kunna arbeta fram till ordinarie pensionsålder i ditt nuvarande yrke?” utgör den beroende variabeln. I regressionsanalysen kontrolleras det för den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsmiljön, utbildning, kön, ålder, hälsa, yrke, bransch osv.

     

    Resultatet visade att arbetsmiljön har effekt på vilka förväntningar en individ har kring sin pensionsavgång.  I den fysiska arbetsmiljön har ett fysiskt tungt arbete och/eller mycket kontakt med vätska en negativ inverkan på den självskattade pensionsavgången. I den psykosociala arbetsmiljön visade sig låg kontroll kombinerat med höga krav ha en negativ inverkan på den förväntade pensionsavgången. Detsamma gäller psykologisk stress (i form av psykosomatiska åkommor, avsaknad av tid för vänner och familj samt otillräcklighet inför arbetsuppgifter). Att ha ett trivsamt jobb och/eller ha mycket social kontakt med kunder eller klienter hade en positiv effekt på den förväntade pensionsavgången. Alla skillnader mellan kvinnor och mäns självskattade pensionsavgång kunde förklaras av de ingående variablerna i regressionsanalysen.

  • 285.
    Ivarsson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Linder, David
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Assimilation of Scandinavian Immigrants in Sweden: How do immigrants from Norway and Denmark assimilate to the Swedish income level and is the assimilation negative?2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the earnings between Scandinavian immigrants compared to the Swedish natives (Scandinavia refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden). The researchers have up until today devoted considerable effort to describe the phenomenon involving the positive assimilation, but never taken the time to analyse the appearance of the opposite outcome. The main objective of this essay is to observe if we can detect a case of negative assimilation among the Scandinavian immigrants in Sweden. The reason this paper is focused on Scandinavia is mainly because of the transferability of human capital that these ethnic groups hold, compared to the Swedish natives, with their cultural and linguistic consistency.

    An empirical analysis has been conducted using OLS on a pooled data sample for immigrants from Norway and Denmark entering the Swedish labour market. Our results show that there is a negative assimilation among the male immigrants at a linear pace. This was observed with the appearance of an initial higher income level than the natives, which implied a regression towards the mean. Among the females no observable assimilation pattern could be detected and they had an entry disadvantage upon arrival in Sweden.  

  • 286.
    Jintarith, Pimolporn
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Vorayotsri, Nannapat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Is There A Glass Ceiling In Japan?: Occupational Segregation and Sex Differences inManagerial Promotions in Japan2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the difference probability in holding managerial positions between men and women in Japan as the glass ceiling effect. In addition, we analyses whether the difference is affected by gender composition within the workplaces. We estimate two specifications of an ordered logit model on Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS) as well as Japanese yearbook of labor statistics in the year 2010. The results indicate that there is different probability of holding managerial status that women have lower probability of holding managerial positions irrespective of management level comparing to men. However, we can observe that the differentials are decreasing as the managerial positions move up into higher managerial hierarchies. This finding indicates that women have higher chance to hold higher positions. Thus, it is contradict to our hypothesis. In addition, the result suggests that the gender composition also matter in probability of holding managerial status between male and female in Japan. We inspect that the difference probability in holding managerial status between genders is greater in female dominated occupation. This finding shows the effect of glass ceiling that occurs when women work in female dominated occupation as it follows the theory.

  • 287.
    Johansson, Carolina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Lower payroll taxes for young workers: Was the introduction of the payroll tax reductions for young employees an effective way to lower youth unemployment?2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the effects on the unemployment rate and average income due to the payroll tax cuts for young workers in Sweden. The method that has been used is a difference-in-difference approach with two different control groups. The unemployment rate for Swedish individuals at age 15-24 has been matched towards individuals at the same age in Finland and Denmark. The data behind the estimations is picked from the database of Eurostat. The results indicate an increase in the unemployment rate, contrary to the expectations from the theoretical framework in the subject. One possible explanation for a lack of increase in employment due to a targeted tax cut is shifting, meaning that the lowered cost for firms is shifted onto the employees’ wages. However, no significant results on the wage effect were found, so no such conclusion can be made. The explanation could lay in modeling problems, a growing labor force or the supply of labor (which may choose other alternatives than employment). By the results of this report, the main conclusion is that the payroll tax reductions did not reduce the high unemployment rate among young individuals in Sweden. 

  • 288.
    Johansson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Knutsson, Ida
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fastighetsskattens omfördelande effekter2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker fastighetsskattens kraft som omfördelande verktyg. Den statliga fastighetsskatten avskaffades i Sverige år 2007 och ersattes med den kommunala fastighetsavgift vi har i landet idag. Att den statliga fastighetsskatten avskaffades är dock något vi ställer oss frågande till, då den enligt ekonomisk teori kan vara ett verktyg för att omfördela inkomst och förmögenhet. Sverige, ett land som länge varit känt för att vara jämlikt, har under senare tid, och så än idag, upplevt en förändring med ökade skillnader mellan olika inkomst- och förmögenhetsgrupper. Vi har använt data tillhandahållen av Statistiska Centralbyrån över sammanräknad förvärvsinkomst och förmögenhetsstruktur för individer i decilgrupper indelade efter sammanräknad förvärvsinkomst. Vi beräknar olika kvoter som mått över ojämlikheten i förmögenhetsfördelningen och utför vidare simuleringar där vi testar olika kompositioner av inkomstskatt och fastighetsskatt för att undersöka hur kvoterna förändras. I korta drag visar vår analys att en skattereform där den kommunala inkomstskatten reduceras, samtidigt som en statlig fastighetsskatt introduceras, skulle ha en god omfördelande effekt på förmögenhetsfördelningen i Sverige. Våra alternativa skattesystem illustrerar styrkan i fastighetsskatten som ett omfördelningsinstrument.

  • 289.
    Jonason, Gustav
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Jismark, Pontus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The nonlinear relationship between inflation and economic growth: A dissection of the threshold level between inflation and economic growth in Sweden between 1971-2017.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A common belief about inflation and economic growth has developed during recent years. This belief is that a “low” and stable inflation rate favors economic growth. The underlying arguments for this are that a low inflation rate create a beneficial playground for all participants. A playground which will meliorate investments and ensure a stability for consumers which in return will give a favorable environment for the economy to thrive. This paper aims to clarify this relationship between inflation and economic growth in Sweden between the period 1971-2017 and thus investigate the co-integration relation between the two variables. Additional test will be conducted to explore a potential threshold level of inflation. This threshold level is defined as the point where inflation starts to harm growth.  

  • 290.
    Juguet, Rozenn
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Clappier-Kervoël, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Childcare and maternal employment in Europe: How childcare cost differences among European countries influence the labour force participation of mothers?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine the influence of childcare costs on mother’s employment in European countries. Previous literature indicates that having a child represents a penalty for a woman’s career and integration into the labour market. An empirical analysis has been conducted using the OLS method and cross-national data. We have focused our study on 17 European countries and on data from one particular year.Our findings suggest that a high childcare cost is related to a low maternal employment rate and/or a high share of employed mothers working part-time. As a result, the variations in childcare cost may be partly responsible for the variation in mother’s employment across European countries.The main limitation of this analysis is the small number of observations. Due to the lack of statistical significance of most of the coefficient, we can only suggest a hypothesis that needs to be investigated by further research.

  • 291.
    Juselius, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Tarp, Finn
    UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The real exchange rate, foreign aid and macroeconomic transmission mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent study of 36 sub-Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in theabsolute majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aidrecipients, aid did not seem to have been equally beneficial. This paper singles out these twocountries for a more detailed empirical investigation. The focus is now on the effect of aidwhen allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmissionmechanism. We conclude that aid played a significantly positive―but very different―role inthe two countries. Due in part to generous aid inflows Tanzania experienced positiveinvestment and GDP growth from the late 1960s to 2007. But, until the mid-1980s, theimpact of aid on growth was well below its potential as the large inflows of aid facilitated aserious over appreciation of the real exchange rate. In Ghana, declining aid in the 1970s wasassociated with lacking growth while the reactivation of aid flows in the 1980s supported aneconomic rebound. When monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, we findthat aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment.

  • 292.
    Juselius, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Tarp, Finn
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; United Nations University World Institute of Development Research (UNU-WIDER), Finland.
    The real exchange rate, foreign aid and macroeconomic transmission mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana2017Ingår i: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, nr 7, s. 1075-1103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent study of 36 sub-Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in the majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aid recipients, aid did not seem to have been equally beneficial. This study singles out these two countries for a more detailed empirical investigation. The focus is on the effect of aid when allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmission mechanism. We conclude that when monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, then aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment.

  • 293.
    Karaarslan, Can
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Differences in Unemployment due to Sexual Orientation: Evidence from the Swedish Labour Market2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides the first investigation of differences in labour market outcomes by sexual orientation utilizing Survival Analysis techniques. A three-stage modelling approach has been utilized. Zero- Inflated Negative Binomial regression has been conducted to the duration in unemployment, while Probit analysis to the probability of employment. A parametric Gompertz baseline hazard has been determined, which enables us to fuse unemployment duration and employment event into one analytical feature. Significant differences by sexual orientation have been detected. Regarding employment probabilities, homosexual males face a disadvantage of seven per cent compared to heterosexual males, while the probability for homosexual females increases positively with the duration in unemployment. No significant differences have been found regarding unemployment duration. When unemployment duration and probability are set into relation, differences by sexual orientation vanish.

  • 294.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Investigation of the time-dependent dynamics between government revenue and expenditure in China: a wavelet approach2019Ingår i: Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, ISSN 1354-7860, E-ISSN 1469-9648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike previous studies on causal relationships between government revenue and expenditures in China, this study takes into consideration structural breaks in the data by performing wavelet decomposition prior to testing for Granger causality between the fiscal components. The use of wavelet decomposition is motivated by economic theories, which suggest allowing for different budgetary considerations at different time horizons, as well as by the existence of special properties in the data in the form of unit roots and structural breaks. The results from the Granger causality test when using the wavelet-decomposed quarterly data over the period 1980–2015 indicate that government revenue Granger-causes government expenditure (tax-and-spend hypothesis) in the wavelet scales of two to four quarters. The results also show that bidirectional causality (fiscal synchronisation) exists in the wavelet scale of eight to sixteen quarters. Understanding the causal relationships between revenue and expenditure at different time scales is important for formulating relevant policy measures in order to maintain fiscal sustainability in China.

  • 295.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    Wavelet quantile analysis of asymmetric pricing on the Swedish power market2017Ingår i: Empirica, ISSN 0340-8744, E-ISSN 1573-6911, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 249-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate if the Swedish consumer prices for electricity are adjusted equally fast regardless of whether the NordPool power market prices are decreased or increased. Due to relatively moderate variations in the variables, we have applied quantile regression, since it is mainly the large changes (above the median) that essentially tend to have a considerable effect on the consumer prices. Moreover, in order to adjust for stochastic- and deterministic trends, autocorrelation, structural breaks as well as to measure APT effects in the short- and in the medium-run, we apply a wavelet decomposition approach. Our results show evidence that significantly positive asymmetric price transmission (APT) effects exist in this market. More specifically, in the short-run (based on the wavelet decomposition D1 for 1–2 months cycles), we find that that there is a higher propensity to rapidly and systematically increase the consumer prices subsequently to an increase in the NordPool market price, compared with the propensity to decrease their customers prices subsequently to a corresponding drop in the NordPool market prices. However, no significant APT effects were detected in the medium- or in the long-run (i.e. the asymmetric price transmission effects are observed only in the short-run). In summary, we could isolate significant APT effects in the short-run (1–2 months decomposition cycles), and for large changes in the dependent variable (percentiles = 0.9). Therefore, only large changes in the NordPool prices lead to feedback effects in the form of asymmetric price transmission effects. Our evidence supports the notion of firms’ downward stickiness of retail prices for maximizing profit, which are not expected to be found on a fully efficient market. Although our finding shows that the price inefficiency is short-lived, these large temporal inefficiencies are still costly for the consumers. It should be noted that blunt traditional powerless methods do not detect these APT effects, while our wavelet quantile methods are powerful and make a significant contribution in the literature by providing new empirical evidence.

  • 296.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Li, Yushu
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Causal Nexus between Oil Prices, Interest Rates, and Unemployment in Norway Using Wavelet Methods2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 1-15, artikel-id 2792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA), combined with two types of causality tests, to investigate causal relationships between three variables: real oil price, real interest rate, and unemployment in Norway. Impulse response functions were also utilised to examine effects of innovation in one variable on the other variables. We found that causal relations between the variables tend to be stronger as the wavelet time scale increases; specifically, there were no causal relationships between the variables at the lowest time scales of one to three months. A causal relationship between unemployment rate and interest rate was observed during the period of two quarters to two years, during which time a feedback mechanism was also detected between unemployment and interest rate. Causal relationships between oil price and both interest rate and unemployment were observed at the longest time scale of eight quarters. In conjunction with Granger causality analysis, impulse response functions showed that unemployment rates in Norway respond negatively to oil price shocks around two years after the shocks occur. As an oil exporting country, increases (or decreases) in oil prices reduce (or increase) unemployment in Norway under a time horizon of about two years; previous studies focused on oil importing economies have generally found the inverse to be true. Unlike most studies in this field, we decomposed the implicit aggregation for all time scales by applying MRA with a focus on the Norwegian economy. Thus, one main contribution of this paper is that we unveil and systematically distinguish the nature of the time-scale dependent relationship between real oil price, real interest rate, and unemployment using wavelet decomposition.

  • 297.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    Investigation of the nonlinear behavior in real exchange rates in developing regions2017Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 335-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory holds or not for the economies in different developing regions located in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In order to investigate this issue, a nonlinear panel unit root test is used to determine if some or all of the real exchange rates in a panel follow a stationary exponential smooth transition autoregressive process. By applying the nonlinear panel unit root test, our results demonstrate an empirical support for the theory of PPP for the economies in developing regions.

  • 298.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Getting a full-time job as a part-time unemployed: How much does spatial context matter?2014Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 179-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which differences in the probability to exit from part-time unemployment to a full-time job are accountable for by spatial contextual factors and individual characteristics. To correctly incorporate contextual effects a multilevel analysis applied using a mixed-effects model, a method frequently used in other disciplines but rarely used in economics, is adopted here to explore whether contextual factors account for differences in the probability of transition to full-time employment between individuals with different characteristics. The results indicate that there is a contextual effect and that there are some spatial spill-over effects from neighbouring municipalities, and unemployment rate partly explains the context variability. Furthermore, the contextual effect is found to be especially large for individuals without a university degree.

  • 299.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Capitalisation of Single Farm Payment on farm price: an analysis of Swedish farm prices using farm-level data2014Ingår i: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 279-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates capitalisation effects of farm attributes with a particular focus on the decoupled Single Farm Payment (SFP) on prices. The spatial analysis employs a sample of mainly small- and medium-sized Swedish farm transactions sold all across Sweden; the results from a spatial multiple-membership model suggest that decoupled SFP has no influence on farm prices. Prices are profoundly influenced by residential characteristics and accessibility to urban amenities. Spatial heterogeneity is found for both regional and local levels, and a large spatial spillover effect is found between neighbouring farms. Results are confirmed by sensitivity analyses.

  • 300.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Do employers care about which school I went to?: It depends. Independent upper-secondary schooling as a signal of ability.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate if employers sort job applicants based on information about whether the applicants attended a public or an independent upper-secondary school. I perform a stated choice experiment where real employers in Sweden are enrolled and asked to evaluate fictitious job candidates for a current job opening. I find no evidence of such signaling effects for candidates with a typical Swedish name. However, candidates with a Middle Eastern sounding name experience a probability of being invited to an interview that is 14-19 percentage points higher if their resume reveal that they went to an independent, in contrast to a public, school. I show that, under some assumptions, these outcomes can be explained by theories on labor market signaling. There exits very little empirical evidence on the relationship between school choice and sorting in the labor market. Consequently, these findings fills an important gap in our knowledge and brings new perspectives for educational policy.

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