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  • 301.
    Ledreux, Aurelie
    et al.
    Univ Denver, USA.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tewele, Mhretab Kidane
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Columbo, Laura
    Med Univ South Carolina, USA.
    Terjestam, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ryan, Eliza
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Tusch, Erich
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Daffner, Kirk
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte
    Univ Denver, USA;Med Univ South Carolina, USA;Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Differential Effects of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness Practice on Serum BDNF Levels in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study2019In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 1245-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that an active lifestyle is associated with better brain health and a longer life, compared to a more sedentary lifestyle. These studies, both on human and animal subjects, have typically focused on a single activity, usually physical exercise, but other activities have received an increasing interest. One proposed mechanism is that physical exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. For the first time, the long-term effects on serum BDNF levels were compared in persons who engaged in either physical exercise training, cognitive training, or mindfulness practice during 5 weeks, and compared with an active control group. Two cohorts of healthy older individuals, one from the Boston area in the US and one from the Vaxjo area in Sweden, participated. A total of 146 participants were randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All interventions were structurally similar, using interactive, computer-based software that directed participants to carry out specified activities for 35 minutes/day, 5 days per week for 5 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and soon after the completion of the 5-week long intervention program, and serum BDNF levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA. Only the group that underwent cognitive training increased their serum BDNF levels after 5 weeks of training (F-1,F-74 = 4.22, p = 0.044, partial eta(2) = 0.054), corresponding to an average 10% increase. These results strongly suggest that cognitive training can exert beneficial effects on brain health in an older adult population.

  • 302.
    Lichtenstein, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tolstoy, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och grundläggande psykologiska behov: En studie i lärares motivation utifrån  Self Determination Theory2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studied teacher motivation based on Self Determination Theory. The study researched motivation based on teachers' experiences of how motivated they are and if this perception can be predicted based on the experience that the basic psychological needs according to Self Determination Theory are met. Motivation can be divided into external and internal, where the existence of internal motivation is when the individual performs an activity that he / she really wants without any external reward or punishment. Teachers with intrinsic motivation contribute to better results and achievement for their students (Lutz, 2016). The study was conducted as a quantitative research which respondents answered to an online survey. The study had 175 participants, 30 were men and 145 women. The purpose of the thesis was to study if perceived satisfaction with basic psychological needs, according to SDT, for teachers can predict their perceived work motivation, as measured by SKL's Sustainable Employee Engagement in Municipalities and Regions. Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale was used as the instrument for examining internal motivation.

    The regression analysis showed that the result for the model as a whole was significant. Perceived satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs according to Self Determination Theory predicted 44.1% of the variation in motivation for the participants in the study. Separately, autonomy and competence were predicted to be significant while the value of relatedness was not significant.

  • 303.
    Lilja, Claes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exercise, visuospatial rotation performance and life satisfaction: A study of correlations between physical activity and some presumed benefits2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/ClaesAct/Dropbox/LNU%20psykologi/Uppsats/Examensarbete_ClaesLilja_HT16_2PS600.doc

    Physical exercise has been associated with various health benefits, including improved cognitive functioning, well-being and life satisfaction. Other variables that have been found to explain these areas include gender, age, dispositional optimism, meditation practice, and videogame habits. The aim of the present study was to explore whether physical exercise on its own has benefits for visuospatial rotation abilities and life satisfaction. It was also the intention to examine how other known factors of age, gender, dispositional optimism, meditation, and videogames may help predict visuospatial rotation abilities and satisfaction with life. The results showed no significant explanation for visuospatial performance while finding some exercise measurements and physical activity level to have significant correlations with life satisfaction. Dispositional optimism was found to be the strongest indicator of life satisfaction, while gender was determined to not hold explanatory power for either of the criterion variables.

  • 304.
    Lind, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hatt, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deltagares upplevelser av Affektskola: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine the experience of the participants of Affect School, from a qualitative point of view. At the time the study was made, Affect School was a relatively new psychoeducational method created by Armelius and Bergdahl, based on Tomkins Theories of Affect. The novelty and promising results of this method warranted further research on the experience of the participants. The objective of Affect School is to raise the participants affect consciousness and restore the signal value of Affects. The research had a phenomenology stance through semi-structured interviews with four participants. The thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: Saftey, Group Aspect and Exploration. The results showed that the participants carried explicit knowledge from the psychoeducational part and the reflections in the group led to new experiences with affects, emotions and feelings. For which the participants expressed satisfaction. 

  • 305.
    Lindau, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Almkvist, O.
    Stockholm University ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory2016In: Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior, Academic Press, 2016, p. 153-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, which causes the release of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones. Stress also activates the sympathetic nervous system and thereby, the release of the transmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline. Stress has a memory-modulatory effect in humans as well as in animals. In humans, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala are rich in cortisol receptors. Acute and tolerable stress may increase memory performance, while excessive levels and chronic stress may have negative effects, thereby mimicking the pattern in animals. Stress in humans seems to have different effects on the various stages of memory (the memory process: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval) and can be enhanced by emotional arousal. Animals learn to associate events in their environment. Studies of the effects of manipulation of corticosterone levels in animals have helped to disentangle the influences of stress on memory and learning, and indicated that low levels enhance spatial learning, whereas higher levels impair performance. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 306.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Self-concepts and psychological health among children and adolescents with reading disabilities and the influence of assistive technology2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that have all aimed to increase the understanding of the interactions and connections between self-concepts, reading impairment, psychological health and Assistive Technology (AT). The use of applications in tablets as assistive technology to facilitate reading and compensate for reading impairment and its impact on the participants’ self-concepts and psychological health as well as on their reading abilities was also of interest.

    The first study included 67 pupils in school years 4-9. They were assessed by the Beck Youth Inventory (BYI) regarding self-image, anxiety and depression. The results showed no deviance from age-equivalent norm group scores. The second study included 35 pupils in school years 4-6. This study aimed at investigating the transfer effects on decoding and general reading ability after 20 intervention sessions where AT (applications in tablets) were used. Results showed that the decoding ability had progressed at the same rate as that of the norm group. The results also showed that using AT increased motivations to learn, as well as independence and improved family climate. The third study was a randomized control study (RCT) with 137 participants in school years 4, 8 and high school. The results showed that reading impaired children and adolescents to a great extent, but not completely unanimously, did not depict any different self-image or self-esteem than peers with an expected reading ability of the same age. Self-esteem was investigated by the Cultural Free Self Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-3). The CFSEI-3 scores showed no effect by interventions with AT. The results also showed that there were no signs of depression, assessed by BYI, in the investigated groups, but somewhat inconclusive results regarding anxiety where the school-year 4 group depicted higher levels of anxiety.

    The results generally showed a more positive depiction than what previous studies within the field have presented, which was interpreted as being due to the development of efficient pedagogical strategies and supportive attitudes in the school context, as well as among family members or peers. 

  • 307.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assistive technology as reading interventions for children with reading impairments with a one-year follow-up2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 713-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This pilot study investigated the possible transfer effect on reading ability in children with reading difficulties after a systematic intervention to train and compensate for reading deficiencies by using applications in smartphones and tablets. The effects of using assistive technology (AT) one year after the interventions were completely studied. School related motivation, independent learning and family relations were also considered.

    METHOD: 35 pupils aged 10-12 years participated. They were assessed five times with reading tests. The participants, their parents and teachers were surveyed with questionnaires regarding their experience of using AT. The data from the assessments were analyzed with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: The paper shows that using AT can create transfer effects on reading ability one year after the interventions were finished. This means that reading impaired children may develop at the same rate as non-impaired readers. Also, increased school motivation and an increase in independent learning and family effects have been shown.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides implications in how to facilitate reading impaired pupils' learning process and realizes the need to challenge the concept of reading to change to fit modern means of gaining information. Implications for rehabilitation Children with reading impairment could benefit from assistive technology in regards of their reading development process and increase their chances of not falling behind peers. Assistive technology as applications in smartphones and tablets may aid children with reading impairment to have an equal platform for learning in school as their peers without reading difficulties. Assistive technology could facilitate the information gaining process and subsequently increase motivation to learn and increase interest in reading activities. Assistive technology had wider effects on its users: stigmatizing situations when leaving the classroom for special education were avoided and positive effects on family life were noted.

  • 308.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concepts and psychological health in children and adolescents with reading difficulties and the impact of assistive technology to compensate and facilitate reading ability2019In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-18, article id 1647601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated self-image, psychological health, and the impact of Assistive Technology (AT) on self-concept and psychological health in 137 children and adolescents with reading difficulties during a systematic intervention program and in a one-year follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group. The interventions aimed to teach participants how to understand texts using AT. The control group received no intervention. To investigate self-esteem, self-image, anxiety, and depression, all participants were assessed with the Cultural Free Self-Esteem Inventory, 3rd edition (CFSEI-3) before intervention and one year post-interventions. Forty-one participants were also assessed on the Beck Youth Inventory (BYI). The AT was found to have no impact on participants' self-esteem. The CFSEI-3 showed similar values for self-esteem in a norm group and the study groups at pre-intervention, which made an increase from using AT less expected. The results are discussed in terms of contextual explanatory factors, such as educators' increased knowledge of reading difficulties and dyslexia. The results on the BYI were somewhat inconclusive since the younger group of participants showed more anxiety than the norm group, but the adolescent group did not. This may be due to small sample size, so further research is recommended.

  • 309.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed By Beck Youth Inventory Among Pupils with Reading Difficulties2016In: Reading Psychology, ISSN 0270-2711, E-ISSN 1521-0685, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 449-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10–16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict negative self-image and showed few symptoms of depression or anxiety at group level in comparison to a norm group. These results could be seen as contradictory to previous research. A questionnaire regarding self-efficacy was also distributed and showed that the participants had low self-knowledge about their reading impairments. The results were interpreted as a possible increase in knowledge among teachers and subsequent change in pedagogical strategies. In addition, technological advances may have improved the academic situation for dyslexic children. This study was a partial study in a larger project that aimed to evaluate the efficiency of assistive technologies for dyslexic children.

  • 310.
    Lindell, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marquardt, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farmers´(local and colonists) perceptions of environmental changes in the forest frontier of the upper Amazon, Peru2014In: International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, ISSN 1462-4605, E-ISSN 1741-5004, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 394-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amazon ecosystem degradation profoundly impacts life supporting processes of global importance such as climate regulation, as well as localconditions for livelihoods. In Peru’s highland jungle, an expanding deforestationfront of forest conversion to agriculture has vastly transformed the landscape.

    Small-scale farming, the main driver of forest degradation, and consequently household natural resource management affect ecosystem functionality.To investigate farmers’ attitudes and priorities to services provided by the ecosystems (ES) we interviewed 51 farmers, both local and colonists. They strongly agreed that over the last three decades, local conditions for livelihoods have deteriorated following forest degradation and climate change. The latterwas reported the primary contributor to an impaired life quality and their greatest concern. Overall, local farmers perceived greater than did colonists who were also more positive towards intensive agricultureand forestry. This should be considered in environmental conservation efforts in the upper Amazon.

  • 311.
    Lindersson, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving2019In: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-6, article id e1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness of conveying descriptive norms (“this is what most people do”) for prosocial purposes such as environmental conservation and charitable giving has recently been called into question. Two experiments (N = 748) evaluated the hypothesis that descriptive norms increase people's intentions to donate to charity. Overall, the results supported this hypothesis. Another aim was to examine the robustness of the local norm superiority effect that proposes that the local norms of one's immediate environment are superior to other descriptive norms (global and social identity norms). This hypothesis was not supported. The results suggest that differences between different types of norms are likely to be small.

  • 312.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    87 lärares rörelser till, från och inom yrket 1993-2013: En rapport från projektet Vägskäl - en longitudinell studie av val och ideal i lärares yrkesbanor2014Report (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Teacher attrition the first five years - A multifaceted image2014In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a longitudinal study on Swedish teachers' (N = 87) career trajectories this article presents a comparison between quantitative and qualitative data within the cohort and puts this in relation to general statistics on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that caution is advised in interpreting and making use of general statistics. Teacher attrition is a more non-linear and complex phenomenon than what is typically proposed. In many cases drop-outs are temporary. Individuals not only leave, but also return to, the profession over time and their out-of-school experiences can in many cases be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teaching ability in the long run.

  • 314.
    Lindström, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frekvens av fysisk aktivet under sex månader.: En retrospektiv studie av relationerna mellan fysisk aktivitet och hälsa samt välbefinnande med hänsynstaget till kön och ålder.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 315.
    Ljungqvist, Ingemar
    et al.
    Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Topor, Alain
    Stockholm University;University of Agder, Norway.
    Forssell, Henrik
    Blekinge County Hospital;Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidson, Larry
    Yale University, USA.
    Money and Mental Illness: A Study of the Relationship Between Poverty and Serious Psychological Problems.2016In: Community mental health journal, ISSN 0010-3853, E-ISSN 1573-2789, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have indicated a co-occurrence between mental problems, a bad economy, and social isolation. Medical treatments focus on reducing the extent of psychiatric problems. Recent research, however, has highlighted the possible effects of social initiatives. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between severe mental illness, economic status, and social relations.

    METHOD: a financial contribution per month was granted to 100 individuals with severe mental illnesses for a 9-month period. Assessments of the subjects were made before the start of the intervention and after 7 months' duration. A comparison group including treatment as usual only was followed using the same instruments. Significant improvements were found for depression and anxiety, social networks, and sense of self. No differences in functional level were found. Social initiatives may have treatment and other beneficial effects and should be integrated into working contextually with persons with severe mental illnesses.

  • 316.
    Lu, Judy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetsdrag och självrapporterade betyg: En svensk studie om studenters personlighetsdrag  och självrapporterade betyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Resultat från tidigare forskning har visat att det finns ett förhållande mellan personlighetsdrag och akademisk prestation. I en svensk studie av Rosander, Bäckström och Stenberg (2011) användes en kort version av personlighetstestet IPIP-NEO-PI, en femfaktorsmodell som har fem grundläggande personlighetsdimensioner; neuroticism, extraversion, öppenhet, sympatiskhet och samvetsgrannhet. Resultaten tydde på att det fanns ett samband mellan personlighetsdrag och studenters skolprestation.

    Den här studien  undersökte bland annat om Eysencks personlighetstest skulle få liknande resultat om endast två av de fem personlighetsdragen, neuroticism och extraversion användes.

    Syfte: Studien undersökte om det fanns ett samband mellan studenters personlighetsdrag neuroticism och extraversion, självrapporterade studieresultat och kön.

    Metod: Deltagare: Kvinnor och män i  åldern  20-37 år som studerar på ett svenskt landsortsuniversitet. 

    Datainsamling: Enkäter skickades ut till klassgrupper via Facebook till  studenter från olika svenska universitet på följande program:  tandhygienistprogrammet, psykologprogrammet, civilingenjörsprogrammet i maskinteknik, datateknikprogrammet och ekonomprogrammet.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att neurotiska studenter som skattade högt på Eysencks personlighetstest neuroticism hade sämre självrapporterade betyg än de studenter som skattade högt på personlighetsdraget extraversion, vilka rapporterade bättre betyg. Skillnaden var dock inte statistisk signifikant. Gällande betygen som rapporterades av studenterna framkom inte heller en statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan män och kvinnor.

  • 317.
    Lundgren, Fanny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Filip, Modin Håkansson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stroop color coding and the relationship of personality in performance: An experimental study on Stroop color coding controlling for personality traits2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Stroop Color coding and word test (Stroop, 1935) is a well-known phenomenon investigating cognitive inhibition, cognitive speed, attention and cognitive flexibility. The Stroop effect refers when processing a stimulus while being exposed to another stimuli simultaneous interfering with the first (Scarpina & Tagini, 2017). This study focuses on a performance part of the Stroop color coding and word test and its relation to personality traits in the HEAXCO-PR using the Mini-IPIP6 (Ashton & Lee, 2007; Sibely, 2012). An experiment was conducted with the control group ( N = 30 ) solving a Stroop color coding and word test and the experiment group ( N = 30) being exposed to two stimuli (audio and visual) with purpose to induce stress. The result of an independent t-test indicated that you can manipulate the result of a Stroop test measuring two outcome variables (Time and Error). One-way MANCOVA was performed with the personality traits used as covariates. The analysis indicated that Extraversion had a significant small impact on Time (F (1,52) = 6.872, p = .011 η2 = .117) ) and Openness had an effect on Error (F (1,52) = 3.167, p = .008 η2 = .057). Openness showed a significant effect on error rate in the performance. Extraversion showed significant effect as a covariate on the completion time of the test. Time and Error showed a significant correlation. To establish the relationship between cognitive inhibition and personality more research is required. More research is also required for the result of this theoretical study to potentially become applicable.

  • 318.
    Lundmark, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nielsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    När barnets kropp inte stämmer överens med det upplevda könet: En kvalitativ studie av föräldrars erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how parents experience the situation of having a child whose body does not harmonize with their experienced gender, in order to identify and highlight relevant aspects for better understanding and improvements within the field. No such research has been carried out in Sweden previously. Data was collected by semi- structured interviews with eight parents of children with gender dysphoria. The data was analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. The outcome was three central themes: Availability, Knowledge and competence and The Journey. Conclusions were that the parents fill the function as informers, advisors and sustaining persons in relation to others – functions that they request, should get and need for themselves - and that health care and schools need to explicate their competence regarding gender dysphoria and trans to better meet the needs of both children and parents.

  • 319.
    Lysek, Michal
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandenskog, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation till innovation på arbetsplatsen: En studie av intern och extern motivation hos anställda med omfattande eller måttlig kundkontakt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innovation är viktigt för såväl företag som för samhället, men för att anställda skall kunna skapa innovation krävs det att de är motiverade till att göra detta. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka ifall det finns ett samband mellan måttlig och omfattande kundkontakt och anställdas motivation till innovation, samt hur detta inverkar på deras inre eller yttre motivation. Denna enkätstudie genomfördes på ett svenskt företag verksamt inom teknikbranschen. Datamaterialet analyserades först med en faktoriell 2x2 blandad-design ANOVA och visade på en tydlig interaktion mellan motivation och kundkontakt. Sedan genomfördes två ”paired t-test” som gav ett Cohens d-värde på 1.075 för måttlig och 2.704 för omfattande kundkontakt. Slutresultatet visade på en signifikant skillnad mellan inre (starkast effekt) och yttre motivation till innovation, samt att det fanns en tydlig skillnad mellan omfattande (starkast effekt) och måttlig kundkontakt. Det kunde dock inte konstateras om kundkontakt var den enda faktorn som orsakade denna skillnad i motivation till innovation.

  • 320.
    López Rúa, Germán
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perez Alcántara, Maria Fernanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional Intelligence as coping skill for perceived stress2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this current study is to evaluate if there is a relation between Emotional

    Intelligence, Perceive Stress and Coping Skills in a sample of Mexican employees in a

    medium size international organization (n =102). The questionnaires used were a

    compendium of three different instruments; including: 33-item Self-report measure of

    Emotional Intelligence, four COPE Inventory’ subscales and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-

    14). After analyzing the gathered data, Multiple Regression was applied. Significant

    correlations in the expected direction were found, indicating that Emotional Intelligence can

    be useful as a coping skill towards perceive stress.

  • 321.
    Löwegren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Evelina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Integrerad Beteendehälsa i primärvården - studie av processfaktorer och behandlingsutfall.: En enkelblind randomiserad klinisk prövning av Brief Interventions och vägledd självhjälp.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A commitment of primary care is mental health treatment. At present the need for treatment exceeds accessible resources. Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) is a model of organization of primary care with the aim to make access to mental treatment from a time-efficiency perspective. The present study was conducted between January and April 2019 at Vårdcentralen Centrum, a primary care unit organized in accordance with PCBH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Brief Interventions (BI) and guided self-help regarding daily functioning, quality of life and aggregate level of symptoms. Self-assessments were filled out by the patients before treatment, at FU4 and at FU8. Furthermore, proportion of patients suitable for self-help treatment was examined, and whether introduction of such a treatment might be justified in the context of primary care on basis of time effectiveness approach. In overall, 41 patients were randomized to two conditions: BI treatment and, respectively, extended assessment with subsequent self-help treatment. Participants, not found suitable for self-help at the extended assessment, got treatment with BI. Within the study, 29 patients went through treatment. The results showed that groups treated with BI and self-help had improved significantly between before treatment and FU8 regarding daily functioning, quality of life and level of symptoms. There were in general little differences in improvement between the two groups. Furthermore, timescale for the group that got extended assessment and subsequent self-help treatment, was significantly larger than timescale for the group that got BI treatment. For future research, evaluation of short-term forms of mental treatment in primary care ought to be relevant.

  • 322.
    Ma, Shuangjie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Njeru, Stellah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The impact of culture (individualism and collectivism) on identified multicultural group work challenges: A study at Linnaeus University2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to measure the kinds of challenges faced by multicultural studentgroups and the influence of culture (individualism and collectivism) on student'sperception of importance on each of the challenges discovered. A 19-item questionnairewas completed by students (N = 234) from different faculties including natural andsocial sciences at Linnaeus University, students were from 47 countries. Challenges inmulticultural groups were measured using a Likert scale (from 1 to 5) that assessedmember participation, communication, group processes and group member compositionand analysed by exploratory factor analysis. To examine the differences in perception ofimportance of the challenges discovered between individualists and collectivists basedon Hofstede's culture framework, t-tests and Mann-Whitney test were conducted. Theresults suggested three main kinds of challenges: culture related challenges, genericgroup work challenges and membership resemblance. Membership resemblance was theonly kind of challenge that significantly differed between individualists and collectivists.Further discussions explaining the results and implementation of this study werepresented.

  • 323.
    Machiha, Mutsa Marcia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Swedish Institute Study Scholarships.
    Brew, Gladys
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictors of Work Engagement Among University Teachers: The Role of Personality and Perceived Organisational Support.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating whether perceived organisational support or HEXACO personality traits: honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness; was a better predictor of work engagement among university teachers. A sample size of 157 university teachers was conveniently drawn both online and in person. The HEXACO-PI, Survey of Perceived Organisational Support (SPOS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were used to measure personality, perceived organisational support and work engagement respectively. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to examine the data. The study revealed that Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Perceived Organisational Support were significant predictors of work engagement. The similarities in beta values suggest that both personality traits and perceived organisational support were crucial to work engagement. Limitations, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  • 324.
    Magamba, Felix
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ghodsieh, Alex
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skiljer sig den inre och yttre motivationen hos studenter vid olika högskoleutbildningar?: En kvantitativ studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether student’s intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) differs depending on which university program the individual has chosen. Previous studies have shown that there is a difference between the level of motivation among different college students. 46 Swedish university students from the Music Production Program and 39 Swedish students at the same university from the Civil Econom Program participated in the study. The results showed that the Civil Economic students had significant differences between motivational types. The majority of Civil economic students estimated higher values in EM compared to IM. The Civil Economic students even showed higher values in EM compared to students from the Music Production program. The values in IM and EM were equally distributed within students from the Music Production program and the Amotivation proved to be low among all students. The grade and the gender of the participants were covariates that were controlled in the study. The participants grade and gender showed to have correlations that were significant with the students’ level of IM and EM. Conclusions from the results are that students from the Music Production program are likely to have goals based on personal interest and external rewards while the majority of civil Economic students only seems to be motivated by external rewards.

  • 325.
    Magnusson, Vide
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Roller och ledarskap hos lärare: Tyska studenters upplevelser av lärare i Tyskland och Sverige2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år kommer internationella studenter till Sverige och flest av dessa kommer från Tyskland. Kulturella skillnader kan skapa svårigheter för studenterna och att som lärare kunna ta an olika roller kan förbättra klassrumsmiljön och därigenom förbättra studenternas upplevelse. Syftet med den föreliggande studien var att utforska lärares roller och ledarskapsstilar utifrån tyska universitetsstudenters upplevelser. För att utforska lärarroller användes intervjuguide och semistrukturerade intervjuer för att samla data från åtta informanter där samtliga var tyska studenter. Detta gav möjligheten att utforska lärarroller i Sverige och i Tyskland. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för att analysera datan. Resultatet visade på tre teman av roller: 1) ämnesorienterade 2) studentorienterade och 3) personlighetsorienterade. Resultaten visade även att vissa elever efterfrågade en lärare som både kunde agera föreläsare men även hjälpa studenterna ifall de hade problem sidan av skolan. Vidare att roller kopplade till interaktion mellan studenter och lärare och möjligheten för handledning gjorde att eleverna kände sig uppmärksammade och motiverade. Slutsatsen som kan dras är att lärare använder sig av många olika roller och lärarens personlighet och normer pekas ut som förklaring. Vilka roller läraren använder sig av kan översättas till att studenterna känner inspiration till att de väljer att inte lyssna.

  • 326.
    Malmkvist, My
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Witalisson, Kristin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neuroticism i relation till motivation, självkänsla samt affektivitet.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns ett samband mellan personlighetsdraget neuroticism och yttre motivation, a-motivation, låg självkänsla samt negativ affekt. Syftet med studien var att öka förståelsen för neuroticism som personlighetsdrag utifrån individernas motivationstyp, självkänsla samt individernas affektiva tillstånd. Studien undersökte även reliabiliteten hos instrumentet Mini-IPIP som har undersökt personlighetsdrag inom Big-five-teorin. Syftet testades med hjälp av fyra självskattningstester. Dessa var Mini-IPIP, Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS), Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) samt Rosenbergs Self-esteem Scale (SES). I studien deltog N=110 deltagare i åldrarna 19-53 år. I avsikt att bättre förstå neuroticism och dess relation till motivation, självkänsla samt affekt genomfördes statistiska analyser såsom korrelation och regressionsanalys. Resultatet visade, med hjälp av en korrelation, att det fanns ett samband mellan negativ affekt och neuroticism som personlighetsdrag. Regressionsanalysen bekräftade samband mellan neuroticism som personlighetsdrag och motivationstyperna a-motivation samt yttre motivation. Dock kunde inget samband mellan neuroticisms och självkänsla bekräftas.

  • 327.
    Mariannesdotter, Joline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandgren, Oskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Välbefinnande och Kognitiv Prestation: En experimentell studie om positiv sinnesstämning främjar kreativitet och flexibelt tänkande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate, through an experiment, if positive mood promotes creativity and flexible thinking. Participants were a total of 93 college students. The main hypothesis was that subjects induced with positive mood would perform better than subjects induced with negative mood, at a test reflecting creativity. To further explore the implications of priming (subliminal manipulated moods), a neutral control group was included. The cognitive test used in the study was Duncker´s The Candle Problem, a test which aims to get the subjects to apply flexible and creative thinking. The priming methods applied in the study was music and video clips. To measure the participant’s subjective mood a self-report scale, Mood Adjective Check List (MACL), was included as a successful manipulation control. The result showed a clear relationship between positive and negative priming, implying that subjects induced with positive mood performed significantly better than subjects induced with negative mood. There was no significant relationship between the groups induced with neutral and negative mood.   

  • 328.
    Marthasdotter-Larsson, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnors hälsa - Sju kvinnors livsberättelser: En intervjustudie kring kvinnors förmåga till hälsa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 329.
    Martin, Sonia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Human Perception: A comparative study in how others perceive me and how I perceive myself2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to see how you as a person perceive yourself in comparison to how others perceive you. For this particular study a comparison has been made between people living together and how they view themselves versus how their friends/spouses/partners/family members view them. The hypothesis was that there would be a difference between how the individual living with you perceives you and how you perceive yourself. Individuals tend to stretch the truth about themselves and they tend to see themselves in a more positive light than others might see them. The study was conducted by handing out questionnaires consisting of Big Five and Marlowe Crowne scale. There were totally 40 participants in the study, 24 women and 16 men. The results showed no correlation and no statistical significance in any of the analyses. This was due to few participants in the study.

  • 330.
    Mehari, Bitieal
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Transformational leadership and well-being: The mediating role of trust in leadership, meaningfulness and job satisfaction2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research study is to explore the mechanisms involved in the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee well-being in the workplace. Previous evidence has shown that transformational leadership is linked with employee well-being. However, it is not clear whether transformational leadership have an indirect effect on employees work environment, and that this subsequently meditates that relationship. A theory driven model was tested by applying a parallel multiple mediation anlysis. This was conducted on a cross-sectional data sample of 82 employees working in a public psychiatric hospital in Sweden. The results indicated that transformational leadership and employee well-being is correlated, and that job satisfaction indirectly mediated this relationship. However, contrary to previous studies, the results did not indicated that transformational leadership had an indirect effect on employees’ wellbeing, though, its effect on trust in leadership and employees’ sense of meaning in work. Theoretical and practical contributions as well as limitations of the research study are discussed.

     

  • 331.
    Melin, Eva O.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ralph
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustavsson, Sven-Åke
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Winberg, Agneta
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Denward-Olah, Ewa
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Lund University, Sweden;Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Affect school and script analysis versus basic body awareness therapy in the treatment of psychological symptoms in patients with diabetes and high HbA1c concentrations: two study protocols for two randomized controlled trials2016In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 17, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is linked with alexithymia, anxiety, high HbA1c concentrations, disturbances of cortisol secretion, increased prevalence of diabetes complications and all-cause mortality. The psycho-educational method 'affect school with script analysis' and the mind-body therapy 'basic body awareness treatment' will be trialled in patients with diabetes, high HbA1c concentrations and psychological symptoms. The primary outcome measure is change in symptoms of depression. Secondary outcome measures are changes in HbA1c concentrations, midnight salivary cortisol concentration, symptoms of alexithymia, anxiety, self-image measures, use of antidepressants, incidence of diabetes complications and mortality. Methods: Two studies will be performed. Study I is an open-labeled parallel-group study with a two-arm randomized controlled trial design. Patients are randomized to either affect school with script analysis or to basic body awareness treatment. According to power calculations, 64 persons are required in each intervention arm at the last follow-up session. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were recruited from one hospital diabetes outpatient clinic in 2009. The trial will be completed in 2016. Study II is a multicentre open-labeled parallel-group three-arm randomized controlled trial. Patients will be randomized to affect school with script analysis, to basic body awareness treatment, or to treatment as usual. Power calculations show that 70 persons are required in each arm at the last follow-up session. Patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from primary care. This study will start in 2016 and finish in 2023. For both studies, the inclusion criteria are: HbA1c concentration >= 62.5 mmol/mol; depression, alexithymia, anxiety or a negative self-image; age 18-59 years; and diabetes duration >= 1 year. The exclusion criteria are pregnancy, severe comorbidities, cognitive deficiencies or inadequate Swedish. Depression, anxiety, alexithymia and self-image are assessed using self-report instruments. HbA1c concentration, midnight salivary cortisol concentration, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations and anthropometrics are measured. Data are collected from computerized medical records and the Swedish national diabetes and causes of death registers. Discussion: Whether the "affect school with script analysis" will reduce psychological symptoms, increase emotional awareness and improve diabetes related factors will be tried, and compared to "basic body awareness treatment" and treatment as usual.

  • 332.
    Melin, Eva O.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ralph
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Psychoeducation against depression, anxiety, alexithymia and fibromyalgia: a pilot study in primary care for patients on sick leave2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 123-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Feasibility testing of a psychoeducational method - The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - in a Swedish primary care setting. Exploring associations between psychological, and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Design: Pilot study. Setting: Three Swedish primary care centers serving 20,000 people. Intervention: 8 weekly 2-hour sessions with a 5-7 participant group led by two instructors - followed by 10 individual hour-long sessions. Subjects: Thirty-six patients, 29 women (81%), on sick-leave due to depression, anxiety, or fibromyalgia. Outcome measures: Feasibility in terms of participation rates and expected improvements of psychological symptoms and MUPS, assessed by self-report instruments pre-, one-week post-, and 18 months post-intervention. Regression coefficients between psychological symptoms and MUPS. Results: The entire 26-hour psychoeducational intervention was completed by 30 patients (83%), and 33 patients (92%) completed the 16-hour Affect School. One-week post-intervention median test score changes were significantly favorable for 27 respondents, with p < .05 after correction for multiple testing for 9 of 11 measures (depression, anxiety, alexithymia, MUPS, general health, self-affirmation, self-love, self-blame, and self-hate); 18 months post intervention the results remained significantly favorable for 15 respondents for 7 of 11 measures (depression, alexithymia, MUPS, general health, self-affirmation, self-love, and self-hate). Conclusions: A psychoeducational method previously untested in primary care for mostly women patients on sick-leave due to depression, anxiety, or fibromyalgia had >80% participation rates, and dear improvements of self-assessed psychological symptoms and MUPS. The ASSA intervention thus showed adequate feasibility in a Swedish primary care setting.

  • 333.
    Melin, Eva O.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ralph
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thunander, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Hillman, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gender, alexithymia and physical inactivity associated with abdominal obesity in type1 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study at a secondary care hospital diabetes clinic2017In: BMC Obesity, E-ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 4, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is linked to cardiovascular diseases and increasingly common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) since the introduction of intensified insulin therapy. Our main aim was to explore associations between obesity and depression, anxiety, alexithymia and self-image measures and to control for lifestyle variables in a sample of persons with T1DM. Secondary aims were to explore associations between abdominal and general obesity and cardiovascular complications in T1DM.

    Methods: Cross sectional study of 284 persons with T1DM (age 18–59 years, men 56%), consecutively recruited from one secondary care hospital diabetes clinic in Sweden. Assessments were performed with self-report instruments (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items and Structural Analysis of Social Behavior). Anthropometrics and blood samples were collected for this study and supplemented with data from the patients ’ medical records. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference men/women (meters): ≥ 1.02/≥0.88, and general obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 for both genders. Abdominal obesity was chosen in the analyses due to the high association with cardiovascular complications. Different explanatory logistic regression models were elaborated for the associations and calibrated and validated for goodness of fit with the data variables.

    Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 49/284 (17%), men/women: 8%/29% (P < 0.001). Abdominal obesity was associated with women (AOR 4.9), physical inactivity (AOR 3.1), alexithymia (AOR 2.6) and age (per year) (AOR 1.04). One of the three alexithymia sub factors, “difficulty identifying feelings” (AOR 3.1), was associated with abdominal obesity. Gender analyses showed that abdominal obesity in men was associated with “difficulty identifying feelings ” (AOR 7.7), and in women with use of antidepressants (AOR 4.3) and physical inactivity (AOR 3.6). Cardiovascular complications were associated with abdominal obesity (AOR 5.2).

    Conclusions: Alexithymia, particularly the alexithymia subfactor “difficulty identifying feelings”, physical inactivity, and women, as well as cardiovascular complications were associated with abdominal obesity. As abdominal obesity is detrimental in diabetes due to its association with cardiovascular complications, our results suggest two risk factor treatment targets: increased emotional awareness and increased physical activity.

  • 334.
    Melin, Eva Olga
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Hillman, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ralph
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thunander, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Lower HDL, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes2019In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 287, p. E228-E228Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Melin, Eva Olga
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Hillman, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ralph
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thunander, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Central Hospital Växjö, Sweden.
    Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross sectional study2019In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 18, p. 1-10, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression, metabolic disturbances and inflammation have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), a known marker of cardiovascular risk, have been observed in patients with major depression in psychiatric populations. Our main aim was to explore associations between depression, antidepressants, and metabolic and inflammatory variables in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A secondary aim was to explore variables associated with HDL-cholesterol. Methods: Cross-sectional design. T1D patients (n = 292, men 55%, age 18-59 years, diabetes duration >= 1 year) were consecutively recruited from one specialist diabetes clinic. Depression was defined as 8 points for Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression sub scale. Blood samples, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and data regarding medication and life style were collected from electronic health records. Non-parametric tests, multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The depression prevalence was 10 and 8% used antidepressants. Median (q(1), q(3)) HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) was for the depressed 1.3 (1.2, 1.5) and for the non-depressed 1.6 (1.3, 1.8), p = 0.001. HDL-cholesterol levels (per mmol/l) were negatively associated with depression (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.2, p = 0.007), and the use of antidepressants was positively associated with depression (AOR 8.1, p < 0.001). No other metabolic or inflammatory variables, or life style factors, were associated with depression when adjusted for antidepressants. Abdominal obesity was associated with antidepressants in women (AOR 4.6, p = 0.029). Decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with increasing triglyceride levels (p < 0.001), increasing high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (p = 0.021), younger age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), and depression (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Lower HDL-cholesterol levels, known predictors of cardiovascular disease, were associated with depression in patients with T1D. The use of antidepressants was associated with abdominal obesity in women. Depression, low-grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP, higher triglycerides, male sex, and lower age were independently associated with lower HDL-cholesterol levels.

  • 336.
    Memedi, Mirnes
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dahlgren, Susan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan användning av sociala medier, spel- och studietimmar och stress hos gymnasieelever i årskurs 32020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make a quantitative data collection to investigate the relationship between social media usage, time spent gaming, time spent studying and stress of upper secondary school students in grade 3. Two survey methods which were used in the study were Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and two questions concerning time spent gaming and time spent on homework. 

         The result showed no significant correlations to support the hypotheses except for women but as they were underrepresented the correlation was insignificant. According to the results as for the relationship between social media usage, time spent gaming, time spent studying and stress of upper secondary school students for men and women a medium strong positive correlation (r=.556) between social media usage and time spent on homework was found in the study which implies that the more social media usage for women, the more time spent studying. Future research should consider quantitative longitudinal studies for broader analyses. Qualitative studies with interviews would help achieving a deeper analysis in the field.

  • 337.
    Mesch, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Freij, Gabriella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sociala koder på arbetsplatsen: En kvalitativ studie om sociala koder på arbetsplatsen och dess möjliga begränsningar och tillgångar för den mänskliga arbetskraften.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative study regarding the phenomenon social codes was made to create a deeper understanding and develop knowledge about how social codes possibly could have an effect on human labor. The results of the study showed that social codes existed on all the participants workplaces. This was interpreted to imply that social codes was affecting all individuals in a social context on work. The questions of issue was if social codes existed on the labor market, and if these codes could possibly affect the human capital. The aim of the study was to implement interviews with four participants. Further it continued with a phenomenological analysis to illustrate differences and similarities within the results of the interviews. The participants of the study was between 23-56 years old. The study was not made to be able to generalise the studies results to a whole population, but instead to find a more profound description of the phenomenon social codes. Keywords were formulated and then decomposed into five themes to describe social codes and their impact on the human capital. The themes of the study was interpretation of rules and social interaction, alienation and communion, varied impact, changeability and work culture. The results of the study was based on subjective experiences and thoughts, which were interpreted into the discussion about how these results were useful for other employees.

  • 338.
    Michaelsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elevers upplevelser av bedömning: En intervjustudie om gymnasielevers upplevda självkänsla i samband med lärares bedömning av deras skolprestationer.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan är idag resultatstyrd och det finns ett större krav jämfört med tidigare att nå mål och visa upp resultat. Uppföljning av mål- och kunskapsuppfyllelse i form av bedömning är därmed också något som fått en mycket central betydelse i skolan (Silferberg, 2013). Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka gymnasielevers upplevda självkänsla i samband med att deras skolprestationer blir bedömda av lärare. Detta undersöktes genom att intervjua 20 gymnasieelever som studerade vid Samhällsprogrammet och Ekonomiprogrammet på en skola i sydöstra Sverige. Eleverna var i åldrarna 16-19 år. Intervjuerna bearbetades enligt en analysmetod utformad av Lindseth och Norberg (2004), som sker i tre steg. Analysen visade sedan att gymnasieeleverna inte upplevde att deras globala självkänsla, enligt Rosenbergs (1989) definition, påverkades av lärares bedömning av deras skolprestationer. Bedömning upplevdes varken ha ett positivt eller negativt inflytande över hur värdefulla de upplever sig vara som människor. Av analysen framkom däremot en inverkan på elevers yttre kompetensbaserade aspekt av självkänslan, som Johnsson (2003) beskriver. Eleverna upplevde sig mer eller mindre värda i utbildnings- och yrkessammanhang beroende på hur höga betyg de får. Det konstateras att förhållandet mellan bedömning i skolan och elevers självkänsla bör undersökas vidare med bland annat statistiska metoder och med ett mer komplext perspektiv på självkänsla.

  • 339.
    Mikaelsson, Tove
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sociala Mediers betydelse för unga kvinnors självbild: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become a third important external component of identity creation and constitutes a unique context for social comparison. Previous research has shown that the exposure of internet can affect young women’s self-image and identity creation. The aim of the study was to understand how young women experiencing that their use of social media affects their self-image. The study was conducted with a qualitative method and the data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews. The study participants consisted of nine women in the aged of 23-28 years old. The transcribed material was analyzed according to qualitative manifest content analysis with latent elements. The analysis resulted in three main categories 1) The use of Social Media 2) Self-reinforcing and 3) Self-derogatory. The result of the study showed that social media can have both negative and positive effects on young women’s self-image. The relevance of continuous monitoring and problematizing social media is discussed, both for the individual but also for the society.

  • 340. Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Antonson, Hans
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Angelstam, Per
    Seiler, Andreas
    Integrating Ecological, Social and Cultural Dimensions in the Implementation of the Landscape Convention2013In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 384-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of the European Landscape Convention requires new tools that link ecological, social and cultural dimensions in practical planning. Here, we propose connectivity as a conceptual tool to include different dimensions into landscape and spatial planning. We present a short review of the connectivity concept in relation to ecological, social and cultural dimensions and illustrate it by examples from a real landscape planning case.

  • 341.
    Miraka, Oriana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tritsaroli, Vasiliki
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress and Creativity: The mediating role of Anxiety and Depression2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the field of psychology, stress and creativity are two phenomena that have been disputed by many researchers, claiming that their in between relationship is controversial. In the interim, many researches have focused on analyzing the relationship between mental illness (e.g., bipolar disorder) and creativity; only a few though have been able to draw on a systematic investigation apropos the link between creativity, anxiety, and depression.

    Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to identify the effect of stress on creativity and further investigate if anxiety and depression mediate their in between relationship.Method: A random sample of 233 students from Linnaeus University participated in the study. The questionnaires distributed consisted of 87 items; 10 items for stress, 7 items for anxiety, 20 items for depression, and 50 items for creativity. The survey was in both English and Swedish.

    Results: A parallel mediation analysis was used to examine the relationship between stress and creativity mediated by depression and anxiety. The data was assessed for outliers within each group; all tests were performed separately. The results obtained show that when the outliers are included in the analysis [a] stress is a significant predictor of creativity, [b] indirect only mediation occurs when depression mediates the stress-creativity relationship, [c] while anxiety is an insignificant mediator in the analysis. Additionally, the results indicated that when the outliers are excluded from the analysis [a] stress is not a significant predictor of creativity, [b] indirect only mediation occurs when depression mediates the stress-creativity relationship, [c] while anxiety is an insignificant mediator in the analysis.

    Conclusion: Further research should assess and explore the relationship between stress and creativity by taking into consideration mediators or moderators, which may explain the relationship between stress and creativity in more terms that are dignified.

  • 342.
    Mlinar, Marija
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neving, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress hos gymnasieungdomar: Områden som stressar och salutogena faktorer som skyddar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that the stress-related illness among adolescents has increased, especially amongst young women. The aim of this study was partly to explore the occurrence of stress in students attending the second or third year of high-school, but also to examine which areas the adolescents find the most stressful. Furthermore the aim of the study was to investigate how the two salutogenic factors self-esteem and social support affect stress-levels. Gender differences were also investigated regarding the stress-levels, the different areas of stress and self-esteem. The study was questionnaire based and the sample contained 179 students from four different schools in a medium-sized town in the south of Sweden. Results showed that 68 % of the adolescents experience high levels of stress, the women in the study reported higher levels than men. These results are consistent with previous research. The areas that could predict stresslevels the highest were stress of future uncertainties and stress of school performance, the latter had the largest effect-size. Women reported significantly higher levels of stress in four of the six measured areas. Regarding the salutogenic factors only self-esteem could predict a reduction of stress at a significant level in adolescents. Previous research has shown social support as a significant salutogenic factor as well as self-esteem, but this was not the case in the present study.   

  • 343.
    Montén, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Limegård, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En pilotstudie av hästen som relationsskapande komponent i behandling av psykisk ohälsa: Undersökning av deltagare i hästunderstödd behandling och jämförelse med en grupp fritidsryttare2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore clients undertaking equine assisted treatment for mental illness (n = 13) view of the horses attachment and working alliance facilitating abilities. Further, the study aimed to explore to which extent the respondents viewed themselves as being authoritative in relation to the horse. For comparison a group of recreational equestrians (n = 23) were used. The respondents in the client group were recruited from the association Organisationen för Hästunderstödda Insatser (OHI) and the recreational equestrians were recruited from two riding schools. The participants undertook a survey with questions regarding attachment facilitating qualities in their relationship with the horse, and which relationship facilitating characteristics they experienced in the horse. The results indicated that the respondents in both groups over all viewed the horses’ characteristics and their relationship with the horse as positive. The results indicated that the client group to a higher extent regarded the horse as having characteristics and relational qualities that could be viewed as alliance and attachment facilitating. The recreational equestrians reported an authoritative approach toward the horse to a larger degree than the client group. Although there were limitations regarding the size of the sample, and coherence in the results, the results indicated that there are grounds for future research of the subject and research question at hand, with the use of a larger population and a revised survey, as the pilot study did find significant differences between the groups.

  • 344.
    Mukka, Antonia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assistant Nurses Work Engagement; The role of Emotional Labor, Empathy, and Psychosocial Conditions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From a positive psychology perspective, the aim of the present study was to explore work engagement and the role of individual factors (emotional labor and empathy), and psychosocial work conditions among assistant nurses employed in municipal elderly care. This is a highly relevant topic, since healthcare workers, particularly in elderly care, has been given a lot of attention because of sick-leave and dissatisfaction regarding their job situation. The three research questions were answered using a quantitative methodology with 131 participants from three municipalities in Southern Sweden. A set of Multiple Regression Analysis’ showed that the psychosocial work conditions explained 22% of the sample’s work engagement variance. The factors positive challenge and genuine acting (naturally felt emotions) were the strongest predictors of work engagement. Also, each sub-factor of work engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) was statistically tested, wherein the predictability of dedication was found negatively linked to surface acting (faking emotions) and positively to empathetic concern. These findings along with the theoretical framework shed light on assistant nurses engagement in their daily caring work that is governed by interpersonal interactions. Thereafter, a discussion of the findings and practical contributions are offered and ends up with this study’s strengths and weaknesses and suggestions for future research.

  • 345.
    Muntoiu, Roland
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan befolkningstäthet och depressionsdiagnoser i Sveriges tre största län: En epidemiologisk registerstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Depression är ett tilltagande internationellt samhällsproblem, som ger upphov till stora kostnader. Parallellt med detta sker en kraftig befolkningstillväxt i Sverige. Tidigare forskning gällande urbanisering och psykisk ohälsa visar på en stor heterogenitet gällande riskfaktorer och fynd, som varierar från nation till nation. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka sambandet mellan depressionsdiagnoser och befolkningstäthet i Sveriges tre största län avseende befolkningsmängd – Skåne, Stockholm och Västra Götaland - mellan år 2011-2017. Frågeställningen undersöktes genom tillgängliga registerdata, där korrelationsanalyser genomfördes mellan frekvens av depressionsdiagnoser och befolkningstäthet på lokal och kommunal nivå, samt medelålder och medelinkomst på kommunal nivå. Ingen signifikant korrelation kunde påvisas mellan diagnosfrekvens och lokal befolkningstäthet år 2015. Mellan åren 2011-2017 förekom vissa signifikanta korrelationer mellan diagnosfrekvens och de övriga undersökta variablerna, men variationen i dessa fynd var så pass stor att inga definitiva slutsatser kan dras utifrån materialet.

  • 346.
    Möricke, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liljekvist, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö: Upplevelser av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön beroende på anställningsform och kön 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to study the psychosocial work environment depending on employment and sex with a newly developed questionnaire (EPA), which was based on the latest regulations regarding organizational and social work environment. The questionnaire consisted of seven modules; workload, work organization, margin of action, leadership, support, knowledge and development and recuperation. In this study 80 persons participated, 40 of them had regulated working hours and 38 had unregulated working hours, 35 were men and 45 were women.

    The results of the study showed that persons with unregulated working hours experienced the work environment slightly better, but the result was not statistic significant. Men experienced the work environment better then women, but the result was not statistic significant. There was a statistic significant difference though, in module leadership, showing that men had a better experience of leadership. Further, the result showed that there was no diffrences in the workenvironment depending on employment and sex.

  • 347.
    Nachtweij, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What matters in the end?: En experimentell faktoriell uppföljningsstudie som undersöker effekten av olika behandlingskomponenters betydelse för internetbaserad kognitiv beteendeterapi för vuxna med depressiva besvär2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric health problems worldwide which causes great suffering among the affected individuals and causes heavy national economic losses. Few studies have examined the treatment effects of various treatment components in Internet cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) as well as the long term effects for depression. The treatment method as such has indicated large effects both immediately after treatment and in limited follow ups, up to one year. In the present study long time effects in ICBT and the various 4 treatment components support type, who is in charge of the content in treatment and supervision has been examined with a mixed factorial design within a group of adults suffering from depression (N=197). Further, the impact of acquired knowledge about treatment content on symptom reduction examined two years post treatment. Previous research has indicated divergent results in the interaction between acquired knowledge and treatment outcome. The results indicated moderate to large effects of treatment two years post treatment independent of treatment component (d =.51- 1.63). Persistent treatment effects were found in the majority of the outcome measures, measured immediately after treatment to the follow up two years post treatment. One advantage was found for the participants who received therapist with supervision on the outcome of sleeping difficulties in comparison with those who received a therapist without supervision (ղᵖ²=.076). One further advantage was found for acquired knowledge among participants who was assigned content in treatment chosen by the therapist and at the same time received support on demand in comparison with participants who got to choose treatment content by themselves and was received scheduled support. Also participants who got to choose treatment content by themselves and received scheduled support had an advantage in comparison with those who got to choose treatment content by themselves and received support on demand (ղᵖ²=.045; ղ ᵖ²=.039). Acquired knowledge did not indicate any correlations with depressive symptoms. The findings of the study indicate that ICBT is an effective treatment method among adults suffering from depression even in long term follow ups, and that the importance of specific treatment components need further research.

  • 348.
    Napadow, Miriam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sång och inlärning: En effektstudie av tre inlärningsformat2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att jämföra effektiviteten mellan tre inlärningsformat applicerat på sång: bildstöd, endast gehörsinlärning samt textstöd. I ett experiment fick deltagarna lära sig en sång, utföra en distraktionsuppgift och därefter återge sångtexten. Retrieval-based learning innebär att text tyst repeteras ur minnet snarare än att den läses upprepade gånger. Enligt dual-coding theory kan ord simultant bearbetas verbalt och visuellt och därmed förstärka inlärningen. Picture superiority effect innebär att ord är lättare att minnas då de representeras i form av bilder. Redundancy effect innebär en försämring av inlärningen då verbal information redundant presenteras både uppläst och i textform. Resultatet visade att bildstöd var signifikant mer effektivt för inlärningen än både textstöd och endast gehörsinlärning. Dock fanns ingen signifikant skillnad i jämförelsen mellan endast gehörsinlärning och textstöd. Vidare innebär detta att mer forskning måste göras för att utreda teoriernas tillämplighet på sång samt hur de relaterar till varandra.

  • 349.
    Navrozidou, Natalie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sofianidou, Stephanie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns det ett samband mellan personlighet och upplevd stress bland gymnasieelever?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 350.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Normpåverkan vid välgörenhetsdonationer: Ett kvantitativt fältexperiment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether people´s intent to donate money is influenced by descriptive norms. Our hypotheses were as follows: 1) Both the social closeness norm (you behave as people close to you do) and the provincial norm (you behave as the local norms of the location where you are at prescribe) increase people´s self-reported intent to donate money to charity compared to the control group where the welfare organisation only try to activate your altruistic ideals and 2) Social closeness norms induce a stronger intent to donate money compared to provincial norms. A qualitative method has been used and the instrument was a self-report questionnaire. One hundred eighty people participated in the study and were thereby given one of the tree conditions (social closeness norm, provincial norm, or the standard condition). The use of provincial norms leads to a higher donation frequency than the standard condition and the social closeness condition. 

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