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  • 301.
    Larsson Christensen, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    What you mean, laa? Scouse - dialect or accent?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Liverpool English, also known as Scouse, is an easily distinguishable accent, but whether or not it contains enough regionally specific grammar and vocabulary to be considered its own dialect is another matter. This Bachelor’s thesis set out to investigate this using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods on data consisting of informal interviews found on the website Youtube with people from Liverpool. These videos were selected based on the assumption that people with discernible accents are most likely to also speak with a dialect. The results of the research showed that discerning whether or not Scouse is a dialect is not as straightforward as it would seem. Depending on the judgment of how many regional features are enough, the conclusion of this project was that the appearance of any items is sufficient to claim that Scouse is indeed a dialect.

  • 302.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Metoder för inlärning av ordbetydelser i läroböcker: -  en analys av textböcker för SFI kurs B och C2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie hade till syfte att undersöka vilka metoder för ordinlärning med fokus på betydelse som förekom i textböcker för SFI kurs B och C. Frågeställninggen förankrades teoretiskt i tidigare språkvetenskaplig och psykologisk forskning om ordinlärningsmetoder. Fyra textböcker granskades för att identifiera och kategorisera ordinlärningsmetoder med fokus på betydelse enligt Nations (2011) kategorisering av betydelserelaterade aspekter av ordkunskap (associationer, begrepp och referens, form-betydelsekoppling). Därefter analyserades fynden enligt Cummins fyrfältsmodell (2017). Resultatet visade att en typ av aktivitet inom aspekten begrepp och referens (svara på frågor som innehåller målorden) dominerade och utgjorde över 50% av de betydelserelaterade ordinlärningsaktiviteterna i textböckerna. Det var också den enda typen av aktivitet inom begrepp och referens. För aspekterna associationer och form-betydelsekoppling förekom varierande aktiviteter. Därmed erbjuder böckerna en variation av metoder för inlärning av ordbetydelser inom två aspekter men endast en metod inom en aspekt. Detta begränsar vägarna till att främja inlärarens lärandeprocess då fler metoder kan erbjuda olika positiva effekter på ordinlärning.

  • 303.
    Larsson, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Beliefs regarding accommodation of dialects2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate non-linguists' ideas about dialect accommodation. That is to say, the research questions concern people's beliefs about whether they accommodate their dialects to their interlocutors. In addition, one research question concerns people's suggestions as to why they adjust their speech and if differences between native and foreign languages can be found.

     

    The investigation was carried out as an informant survey and a total of 26 participants, between the ages 20 and 30, answered the questions. The data were analysed and discussed from a sociolinguistic and a sociopsychological perspective, with the theory CAT as a foundation for the interpretations.

     

    The results show that people believed they change their speech depending on conversation partner. This was thought of as subconscious behaviour and was mainly reflected upon afterwards.

    Furthermore, comments from the questionnaire concern changes in speech when talking to friends, when the interlocutor's dialect is distinct and when the informants visit a different geographical area. In addition, the informants have ideas about efficient communication when it comes to comprehensibility between the conversation partners' vocabularies as well as being on the same communicative level.

     

    The results from a native language accommodation situation and a foreign language accommodation situation showed similar ideas. That is to say, people's perceptions about accommodation did not differ much depending on what language they used.

  • 304.
    Larsson Ringqvist, Eva
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. franska.
    Le développement des connaissances métalinguistiques des apprenants de francais langue étrangère2006In: Synergies Pays Scandinaves, ISSN 1901-3809, no 1, p. 100-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dans cet article seront présentés les résultats préliminaires d’un projet de recherche qui vise à capter les représentations mentales des étudiants suédophones du français langue étrangère dans un domaine de la grammaire française qui continue à poser des problèmes même à un niveau avancé, à savoir la distinction entre les temps du passé. Les connaissances métalinguistiques des apprenants évoluent vraisemblablement sous l’influence de divers facteurs présents dans l’enseignement : les textes des manuels, les explications fournies en classe et l’exposition des apprenants à la langue elle-même. Même s’il s’agit, en premier lieu, d’une acquisition du savoir sur le mode explicite, il existe des indices que l’acquisition se fait simultanément aussi sur le mode implicite. L’établissement des représentations chez les apprenants suppose, dans les deux cas, une phase d’interprétation et de reconstruction du savoir, ce qui rend plausible l’existence d’écarts entre les représentations individuelles de différents apprenants, et entre les représentations des apprenants et celles des enseignants et des grammairiens. Ces écarts risquent d’être cachés par l’utilisation commune d’une terminologie non scientifique relativement vague, ce qui indique la nécessité d’une négociation continue et approfondie du sens des notions fondamentales.

  • 305.
    Larsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Karlsson, Agnes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Att arbeta med faktatexter i en flerspråkig klassrumskontext2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att bidra med ökad kunskap om lärares arbete med faktatexter i flerspråkiga klassrumskontexter. I studien undersöks därför hur två lärare strukturerar textarbetet i momentet ekonomi i samhällskunskap, vilka olika sätt att förhålla sig till en text som möjliggörs för eleverna genom de två lärarnas sätt att ställa frågor och tala om texten i undervisningen, samt hur lärarna i undervisningen stöttar elevers användning och förståelse av ämnesspecifika ord och begrepp. I studien antas ett receptionsteoretiskt perspektiv på läsande, där det i interaktionen mellan läsare och text anses ske meningsskapande möten. Vidare antas i studien ett sociosemiotiskt perspektiv, som ger språkvetenskapliga verktyg för att beskriva hur lärarna skapar struktur och använder texters ämnesbegrepp i undervisningen. I diskussionen av hur lärare rör sig diskursivt mellan ett ämnesspecifikt språk och ett vardagsspråk är Vygotskijs (2001) teorier om elevers begreppsutveckling relevanta i studien. Materialet i studien består av videofilmade lektioner från två olika klasser i år 5, när klasserna arbetade med temat familjens ekonomi inom ämnet samhällskunskap. I videofilmerna fokuseras läraren i respektive klass. Materialet har transkriberats och analyserats med utgångspunkt i makrogenrer operationaliserat som läsförlopp, textrörlighetsmodellen samt idéerna om diskursiv rörlighet. Resultatet visar att lärarna, som arbetade med samma tema, hade olika sätt att strukturera sina arbeten med texten. Trots olika arbetssätt framträder dock en varierad textrörlighet i båda lärarnas undervisning. Resultatet visar också att de filmade lärarna bygger broar mellan en ämnesspecifik språkdiskurs och en vardaglig språkdiskurs genom att använda sig av olika språkliga sambandsmarkörer. Sammanfattningsvis visar resultatet att i den lektion som består av flertalet av läsförloppets sekvenser visas variation i fler typer och dimensioner av textrörlighet och dessutom används fler sambandsmarkörer, jämfört med i den lektion som består av ett färre antal av läsförloppets sekvenser.

  • 306.
    Larsson, Therese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Different ‘colo(u)rs’ of the English language: A corpus-based study on Swedes’ choices in spelling, vocabulary and grammar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to discover if Swedish writers use American or British spelling, vocabulary and grammar when writing a text in English. The focus is on differences in spelling categories, lexical variation between the two varieties as well as differences in the usage of non-finite complementation. This is a quantitative study based on material from the Swedish in English Newspapers Corpus (SWENC), the Blogs in English by Swedes Corpus (BESC), and the Corpus of English Tweets by Swedes (CETS). The results show that Swedish writers of English prefer to use British English spelling, American English vocabulary and that they tend to imitate American English grammar usage when it comes to non-finite complementation. The conclusions are that the English of Swedish writers is affected by the standards of the English used in at least two of the countries in the Inner Circle, i.e. American and British English, and that it seems to be influenced both by what is taught in school and what the writers see and hear in the media.

  • 307.
    Leire Heim, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Die bauphysikalisch bessere Lösung: Zur Übersetzung von Nominalphrasen mit erweiterten Attributen ins Schwedische in einem Fachtext über Strohballenbau2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main characteristics of German technical language is the nominal style, which includes complex pre-nominal and post-nominal extended modifiers. A commonly held view is that these are less common in Swedish due to language-specific restrictions and preferences. As such, they may pose a challenge to Swedish translators. This essay examines this particular problem and focuses on the translation of four different complex extended modifiers: adjectival, participial, genitival and prepositional.The aim of this study was to determine which syntactic structures are used when these modifiers are translated into Swedish and to identify shifts using the concept “grammatical metaphor”, thereby focusing on the degree of grammatical metaphoricity. For the purposes of this study, a chapter of the technical book Neues Bauen mit Stroh in Europa by Gruber, Gruber and Sentler was translated into Swedish and then analysed with the above-mentioned aims in mind.The study showed that out of the 117 noun phrases with extended complex modifiers in the source text 21 were transposed into a less explicit, direct structure and more metaphorical language. The metaphorization was in some cases a result of simplification/omission of less dense semantic material and/or the translation into compounds. In 46 cases, the extended modifiers showed the same degree of grammatical metaphoricity as the source language expression and thus were re-metaphorized. In the remaining cases, a verbal or more explicit structure was chosen in the translation. This especially proved to be the case with pre-nominal extended adjectival and participial modifiers.

  • 308.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    English hyphenated premodifiers in German and Swedish translations: A cutting-edge-state-of-the-art study2015In: ICAME 36: Words, Words, Words – Corpora and Lexis : Abstracts, 2015, p. 27-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study stems from our work training translators where we have noticed that trainee translators struggle with English hyphenated premodifiers. Such premodifiers come in a variety of different forms, e.g., N + ed-participle (pig-headed losers), adjective + ing-participle (a tight-fitting beret), NPs (the end-of-term reports) and verb phrases (a go-along-and-enjoy-yourselves gesture) (for an overview, see Biber et al. 1999: 534–5). As indicated in these examples, hyphens are used both with highly lexicalized premodifiers (Arnaud et al. 2008: 116) and ad hoc constructions. The aim is to investigate how professional translators translate these construction types into German and Swedish in the Oslo Multilingual Corpus, focusing on how the structural means of the two target languages affect the choices made. The results will also help to improve teaching materials for trainee translators, by providing an overview of the strategies used by professionals.

    Previous findings suggest that premodification is more common in German than in Swedish source texts, which favour postmodification (cf. Fleischer & Barz 1995: 320–31; Teleman et al. 1999: III: 71–84). It can therefore be assumed that translations into these languages also have different preferences.

    Our data show that different construction types are connected to different types of translation alternatives, and there are some indications of target-language-specific preferences. For example, ed-participles are generally rendered as similar adjectives in the translations (liver- coloured > leberfarbene/leverfärgad), and relative clauses are more common in Swedish translations (a market-analysis firm > ett företag som gjorde marknadsanalyser) which confirms the observation that Swedish is more prone to postmodification. In the German translations, on the other hand, complex premodifications are more often rendered as extended participial premodifiers (sea-washed stone > vom Meer glattgeschliffenen Stein). Other frequent translation strategies involve compounding and prepositional phrases. These premodifiers often lack lexicalized equivalents, and they are often omitted, restructured or rendered word-for-word.

    Our results indicate that there is a relatively low degree of correspondence between the structures chosen in the target languages, at least regarding the more lexicalized instances. This suggests that the structural means of the individual languages affect the strategies used by either allowing or forcing translators into making different choices. The degree of lexicalization is a key factor when translating more freely or word-for-word. 

  • 309.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From language to language, from time to time: echoic binomials in an English-German-Swedish perspective2019In: Language in time, time in language. ICAME40: Book of abstracts. June 1-5, 2019, Neuchâtel: Université de Neuchâtel , 2019, p. 51-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Echoic, or repetitive, binomials (Mollin 2013: 172; Gustafsson 1975: 9) are a cross-linguistic phenomenon dating back at least to biblical times (tooth for tooth) (Malkiel 1959: 125–126). Such binomials are characterized by a tripartite structure in which two tokens of the same lexical type are linked by the coordinator and or a preposition. The repeated words may be nouns (day by day), adverbs (again and again) or adjectives (smaller and smaller). Although such constructions occur in many languages (Jackendoff 2008: 8), contrastive studies are lacking.

    Echoic binomials express a variety of meanings, but in our data as many as three out of four relate to time. The repeated lexical items either already denote concepts of time (hour after hour) or the binomial invokes a temporal or aspectual reading (collapse bit by bit and grow brighter and brighter). Although German and Swedish have corresponding phraseological patterns, parallel corpora reveal that the forms, functions and distributions of these binomials differ cross-linguistically.   

    This study is based on the Linnaeus University English-German-Swedish corpus and the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. A customized script was used to retrieve all relevant occurrences in both source and target texts. Our findings suggest that echoic binomials are equally common in English and Swedish but much rarer in German. In German, competing phraseological patterns are more pervasive, an example being the immer COMP.ADJ construction used for English adjectival binomials (a bigger and bigger hit > einen immer größeren Kick [‘ever bigger’]).

    Interestingly, echoic binomials appear to be more common in translations than in originals. About half the instances are translated into corresponding binomials (step by step > steg för steg), and a large number are also “introduced” in translations. In the latter case, echoic binomials fill constructional gaps as when the continuative-iterative reading of the English keep V-ing construction is rendered as the Swedish binomial om och om (igen) (we kept saying > om och om igen sa vi [‘again and again we said’]). Moreover, some language-specific binomials may be “overused” in translations, leading to reduced lexical variation. This is the case for German nach und nach which is a frequent choice for many different English source-text items (gradually, finally, begin to, Ø).

    A data-driven approach to echoic binomials enables researchers to uncover cross-linguistic patterns. One notable finding is that when the correspondents are not echoic, meanings still tend to be expressed by related recurring phraseological patterns, e.g., line by line > en rad i taget [‘a line at a time’]. Thus, recurrent meanings tend to be expressed by recurrent patterns.   

    References

    Gustafsson, Marita. 1975. Binomial expressions in present-day English. Turku: University of Turku.

    Jackendoff, Ray. 2008. Construction after construction and its theoretical challenges. Language, 84(1), 8–28.

    Malkiel, Yakov. 1959. Studies in irreversible binomials. Lingua 8, 113–160.

    Mollin, Sandra. 2013. Pathways of change in the diachronic development of binomial reversibility in Late Modern American English. Journal of English Linguistics 41(2), 168–203.

  • 310.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Give and Take: A contrastive study of light verb constructions in English, German and Swedish2015In: Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Verb Constructions / [ed] Signe Oksefjell Ebeling, Hilde Hasselgård, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 144-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates light verb constructions (LVCs) with give/geben/ge and take/nehmen/ta in English, German and Swedish in the Oslo Multilingual Corpus and the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. The results indicate that LVCs express aspectual distinctions (which is often done through quantification) and carry (mostly adjective) modifications. English prefers LVCs with zero-derived nouns, German mostly uses suffixed nouns and Swedish mainly nouns without equivalent verbs. Swedish translations from and into English are affected by the types of LVCs translated while German translations are less so. In general, LVCs with give/geben/ge are more similar cross-linguistically than those with take/nehmen/ta because the former are often based on the double-object construction.

  • 311.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From the BBC to the PFC and CAPTCHA: Acronym typology from a cross-linguistic perspective2018In: ICAME 39, Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018, Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society: Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 108-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acronyms are prevalent and increasingly frequent both in English (Leech et al. 2009: 212–213) and other languages, such as German (Steinhauer 2000: 1), a development which mirrors the increasing societal prominence of science/technology and politics/business outside specialized domains (Kobler-Trill 1994: 200). Although acronyms allow brief and unambiguous communication among experts, they also decrease transparency for non-experts both when it comes to retrieving the full form of the acronym (e.g., LSD) or its referent (UNFCCC). The potential lack of transparency is further compounded in translations due to cultural differences. However, few previous studies have addressed the translation of acronyms and none from a corpus-based perspective.

    This study investigates the use of acronyms in English originals and their translations into German and Swedish, comparing forms, functions and distributions across the languages. A major outcome will be a typology of translation strategies and acronym use in the three languages. The material consists of an English-German-Swedish popular non-fiction parallel corpus currently being compiled by the authors. This genre covers, for instance, popular science and biographies, and the texts are aimed at informing and entertaining non-specialist audiences. Therefore, writers and translators need to strike a balance between brevity and transparency without compromising accuracy or alienating readers.

    Preliminary results suggest that acronyms most often occur as noun phrase heads (When IBM introduced…), but they are also frequent in more complex structures such as English premodifiers (PGP encryption) and German (UN-Klimakonvention) and Swedish compounds (NKVD-officer) (cf. Ström Herold & Levin in preparation). They also occasionally form part of new words (NAFTA-style). This flexibility is likely facilitated by the simplex forms of acronyms (Fleischer & Barz 2012: 284).

    The first-time mentions of acronyms in texts are of particular interest. Based on our popular non-fiction corpus, knowledge of some frequent acronyms is presupposed (e.g., DNA tests), others are given as appositive noun phrases alongside the full form (The chemical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (usually known as DDT) […]) (cf. Biber & Gray 2016: 202–207), while some receive more extensive meta-linguistic comments (WYSIWYG, pronounced "wiz-ee-wig," an acronym for "What you see is what you get."). This is also found in translations, which can be either more or less explicit than the original:

    (1a)  Complete the CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart), and you're in.

    (1b) den CAPTCHA […] (den ”Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart", also den ”vollautomatischen öffentlichen Turingtest zur Unterscheidung von Computern und Menschen") [’i.e. the ”completely-automated…”’]

    (1c) captcha-rutan (ett robotfilter för att skilja människor från datorer) [’the captcha-box (a robot-filter to tell …’]

    The translations of first-time mentions vary greatly between German and Swedish target texts. Important factors are the target audience’s (assumed) culture-specific knowledge and their knowledge of English. Our acronym typology will consider structural and pragmatic features and their relevance to translation.

    References

    Biber, Douglas & Bethany Gray. 2016. Grammatical complexity in academic English. Linguistic change in writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Fleischer, Wolfgang & Irmhild Barz. 2012. Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Kobler-Trill, Dorothea. 1994. Das Kurzwort im Deutschen. Eine Untersuchung zu Definition, Typologie und Entwicklung. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

    Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English. A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Steinhauer, Anja. 2000. Sprachökonomie durch Kurzwörter: Bildung und Verwendung in der Fachkommunikation. Tübingen: Narr.

    Ström Herold, Jenny & Magnus Levin. In preparation. The Obama presidency, the Macintosh keyboard and the Norway fiasco. English proper noun modifiers in German and Swedish contrast. Paper presented at BICLCE, Vigo, September 2017.

  • 312.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Oral language skills and reading in relation to written text production: A longitudinal study of 85 students' written text production in Year 3, 6 and 92017In: Presented at LITUM symposium, Umeå, May 4th 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Samband mellan språklig förmåga och skriven textproduktion hos elever med lässvårigheter2016In: ASLA : Språk och norm: Sammandrag av sektionsföredrag, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriven textproduktion är en utmaning för många elever med språk- och lässvårigheter. Tidigare studier har visat att språklig förmåga, arbetsminne och fonologiskt processande utgör centrala förutsättningar inte bara för automatiserade processer i skrivandet (stavning och interpunktion) utan också för skrivprocesser på en högre kognitiv nivå (textens språkliga kvalitet, textorganisation och textlängd). I den föreliggande studien undersöker vi relationen mellan språklig förmåga, fonologiskt processande, verbalt arbetsminne, läsförmåga och skriven textproduktion hos 40 elever som identifierades med svag läs- och stavningsförmåga i årskurs 2. I årskurs 3 deltog dessa elever i en logopedutredning som omfattade en bedömning av fonologiskt processande, receptiv och expressiv språklig förmåga (ordförråd, grammatik och hörförståelse av text), korttidsminne, arbetsminne, ordavkodning, läsförståelse och icke-verbal problemlösning. Utfallet i logopedutredningen undersöktes i relation till den narrativa skrivuppgiften som eleverna genomförde i de nationella proven i svenska i årskurs 3. Elevernas texter analyserades utifrån ett flertal mått på textproduktion på olika nivåer: transkriptionsnivå (stavning och interpunktion), lexikal nivå (lexikal variation och densitet), meningsnivå (syntaktisk komplexitet, morfologiska och syntaktiska avvikelser) och textnivå (textlängd). Utifrån modellen ”Simple View of Writing” och resultat från tidigare forskning formulerades följande hypoteser: (1) receptiv och expressiv språklig förmåga, verbalt arbetsminne, avkodning och läsförmåga relaterar till textproduktion på ord- och meningsnivå och till mått på textnivå, och (2) fonologisk processande, avkodning och verbalt arbetsminne relaterar till stavning på transkriptionsnivån. Pearsons produktmomentkorrelation användes för att analysera relationen mellan språklig förmåga, fonologiskt processande, verbalt arbetsminne, läsförmåga och skriven textproduktion. Resultaten presenteras och diskuteras utifrån både metodologiska och teoretiska aspekter.

  • 314.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Samband mellan språklig förmåga och skriven textproduktion hos elever med svag läsförmåga2017In: Språk och norm : Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016: [ Language and Norms : Papers from the ASLA Symposium, Uppsala University 21–22 April 2016 ] / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Marttala, Maria Westman, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2017, p. 62-70Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    WRITTEN LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN WITH WEAK READING AND SPELLING SKILLS: THE ROLE OF ORAL LANGUAGE, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING, VERBAL WORKING MEMORY AND READING2020In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 20, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of written language and the relation of oral language, phonological processing, verbal working memory and reading to written language in early writers with weak reading and/or spelling in grade 2 (n = 39). In grade 3, the students participated in an assessment of oral and written language. A resolved group with age typical oral language, phonological processing and reading (n = 11) performed better than their unresolved peers (n = 28) on almost all written language measures. Spelling, text length, grammatical accuracy and vocabulary diversity were the most challenging aspects for the unresolved group. Oral language correlated significantly with the composite written language score, text length and vocabulary diversity, while phonological processing was related to grammatical accuracy and working memory to the composite written language score and spelling. Word reading and reading comprehension were not related to any written language measures. Regression analyses confirmed that oral language contributed significantly to the variation in the composite written language score, text length and vocabulary diversity. The results emphasize the importance of oral language for written language in early writers with (a history of) weak reading and/or spelling.

  • 316.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Written text production in students with and without reading difficulties2018In: sig writing 2018: 16th international conference of the EARLI special intereset group on writing, Antwerp: University of Antwerp , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of written text is a challenge for many students with language and reading difficulties. Previous research has shown that these students, among other things, produce shorter texts, have a lower lexical variation, use a simpler syntax and make more grammatical errors and spelling errors than students with typical language and reading development (e.g. Dockrell & Connelly, 2015; Puranik, Lombardino & Altmann, 2007; Williams, Larkin & Blaggan, 2013). In the current study, we investigated narrative texts written by 64 Swedish-speaking students in grade 3. Out of these, 40 students were identified with weak reading skills in an assessment of word reading and reading comprehension in grade 2, while the remaining 24 students had age-adequate reading skills. The purpose was to compare the writing performance in these student groups and to examine how the students’ reading skills in grade 2 were related to their writing performance in grade 3. The students’ transcription skills and written language performance in grade 3 were examined using measures of spelling, punctuation, lexical variation and density, syntactic complexity, grammatical errors and text length. An analysis of Story Grammar in the students’ written narratives was also performed using the Narrative Scoring Scheme in SALT (Miller, Andriacchi & Nockerts, 2015). Multiple regression was used to analyze the relations between reading and spelling skills in grade 2 and writing performance in grade 3. In this talk, the findings are presented and discussed in relation to theoretical and methodological aspects.

  • 317.
    Lidmo Arntzen, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Olsson, Emmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    "Da er du naiv, ass": En samtalsanalys av kvinnligt och manligt språk i TV-serien SKAM2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar kvinnligt och manligt språk i TV-serien SKAM. För att undersöka detta har två olika scener och konversationer från SKAM säsong ett och två analyserats. Scenerna innehåller en konversation mellan en kvinna och en man som har ett romantiskt förhållande till varandra. Den första scenen är en konversation mellan den kvinnliga karaktären Eva och den manliga karaktären Jonas. Den andra scenen är en konversation mellan den kvinnliga karaktären Noora och den manliga karaktären William. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vem som för konversationen framåt i respektive scen och på vilket sätt detta görs, vem som har kontroll över samtalet och hur denna kontroll bibehålls och, till sist, om det förekommer kvinnliga och manliga stereotypa samtalsstilar i SKAM och i så fall hur de framträder. Den metod som har använts i uppsatsen är samtalsanalys med metodredskap hämtade från Norrby (2014). Konversationerna från de två scenerna har också transkriberats. Resultatet visar att kvinnliga och manliga stereotypa samtalsstilar förekommer i SKAM, dock mer i konversationen mellan Eva och Jonas än i konversationen mellan Noora och William.    Kvinnorna använder en passiv och icke-hierarkisk samtalsstil som kännetecknas av känslor, medan männen har en direkt och hierarkisk samtalsstil som fokuserar på problemlösning.   Resultatet visar också att det är männen som ställer majoriteten av frågorna; de har mest samtalstid och genom att ställa frågor för de konversationen framåt.

  • 318.
    Lindberg, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholm University.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University.
    Att berätta på två språk1990In: Samtal och språkundervisning: Studier till Lennart Gustavssons minne / [ed] Ulrika Nettelbladt, Gisela Håkansson, Linköping: Tema kommunikation, Linköpings universitet , 1990, p. 160-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Lindquist, Hans
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Electronic corpora as tools for translation1999In: Word, text and translation, Clevedon: Multilingual matters , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Klintborg, StaffanVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Levin, MagnusVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Estling, MariaVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    The major varieties of English1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 321.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Engelska.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Engelska.
    FOOT and MOUTH: The phrasal patterns of frequent nouns2008In: Phraseology: An interdisciplinary perspective, Amsterdam: Benjamins , 2008, p. 143–158-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper concepts from cognitive linguistics are combined with methods from corpus linguistics to study the phraseology formed around the frequent body part nouns FOOT and MOUTH. The material consists of The British National Corpus accessed through Fletcher’s (2003/2004) database Phrases in English supplemented with British, American and Australian newspapers on CD-ROM. In more than half of the occurrences in the BNC the single word forms foot, feet, mouth and mouths were used in phrases, where furthermore their meaning had often been extended metonymically or metaphorically. The frequent lemmas FOOT and MOUTH are thus frequent at least partly because they occur in conventionalized phrases.

    Body parts are frequently mapped onto topographical phenomena in phrases like the foot of the mountain and the mouth of the river. Apart from being used in such phrases MOUTH is often connected to conventional ways of describing eating, drinking, speaking and the experience and expression of emotions. FOOT more often refers to location, and also occurs in phrases expressing other meanings, such as measurement. Metonymy and metaphor play a major role in the creation and extension of new phrasal patterns. Metonymic links are frequent because a physical reaction connected to the body part is used to represent the underlying emotion. In many cases these physical reactions have become such a conventionalized way of expressing the emotion that the reaction alone can stand for the emotion. The relative transparency of some phrases such as down in the mouth, stamping one’s foot and foaming at the mouth is likely to facilitate their learning in spite of the fact that they are not very frequent in themselves.

    Phrases are often manipulated in various ways, so that they occur in non-canonical forms and in word play. The use of word play shows that the borderline between literal and nonliteral meanings is fuzzy, and that both a literal and a nonliteral meaning can be available to speakers simultaneously, although at any given moment one is usually more salient than the other.

  • 322.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Mair, Christian
    Corpus approaches to grammaticalization in English2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Lindström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Näslund, Shirley
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rubertsson, Christine
    Uppsala universitet.
    The interactional organization of sex assignment after childbirth2015In: Gender and Language, ISSN 1747-6321, E-ISSN 1747-633X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 189-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That society divides its members into females and males is the point of departure for much research on gender and language and yet the situated accomplishment of the primordial sex categorisation of the newborn child has not attracted much scholarly attention. The present study fills this research gap by exploring the interactional organisation of sex assignment in a corpus of 67 video recordings of Swedish hospital births. We present quantitative and qualitative support for the idea that sex assignment is a prioritised activity during the first minutes after childbirth. Contrary to descriptions and assumptions in previous research, we find that sex assignment typically is sequentially accomplished in the social interaction between parents and medical staff. Our analysis reveals a normative preference that selects parents (rather than medical staff) as the ones who should discover and declare sex. We also provide tentative evidence that sex assignment may be a gendered practice that prioritises the father (rather than the mother) as the individual entitled to assign sex.

  • 324.
    Linell, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Linköping University.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholm University.
    Interactional dominance in dyadic communication: a presentation of initiative-response analysis1988In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 415-442Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Ljung, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Resan till London": Språk, struktur och kvalitet i fyra narrativa elevtexter i årskurs 62015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how four pupils in sixth grade use language when writing narrative texts, examined in relation to the typical structure and linguistic features of a narrative text. Another aim was to explore the similarities and differences between texts which received an A or B grade and texts with a D or E grade. The pupils’ texts are analysed from a systemic-functional perspective on language and on the basis of the typical structure and language of a narrative text, with the focus on expressions of time, processes, descriptions and nominal groups (cf. Johansson & Sandell Ring 2012). The main finding is that the four pupils in their texts master the normal structure of a narrative text and that their texts have expressions of time, processes, descriptions and nominal groups, but they differ in extent and scope. The greatest differences between the narratives in the different grading categories are found in the introductions to the texts, the way of marking dialogue in the structure, and how the pupils use processes, circumstances and nominal groups to achieve descriptions. The text that received an E grade differs from the other texts that were graded as A, B and D, in that the writer has the shortest introduction to the text; the introductions to the other texts are relatively long. The E-graded text also differs from the other texts in the way it marks dialogue. That pupil uses quotation marks to indicate where dialogues occur, whereas the texts with A, B and D grades use a quotation dash to mark speech. All the pupils’ texts contain expressions of time. The texts also include several kinds of processes, except for the text that received a B grade, where there were no mental processes. The texts graded as A, B and D use expanded nominal groups and also various processes and circumstances to create descriptions. The text that received an E grade is the one that uses most expanded nominal groups for descriptive purposes.

  • 326.
    Ljungberg, Calle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Would you like to play?: A quantitative study about attitudes towards game-based learning in the Swedish school system2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this quantitative study is to investigate the relationship between motivation and game-based learning among Swedish students attending junior high school and high school. To investigate this, the motivational theory Self-Determination Theory was used to create a questionnaire containing questions about experiences of games in and out of school. Furthermore, this essay discusses the possibilities of bringing the concept of game-based learning into an educational environment of L2 English learning. In addition, support has been found that strengthens the claim of an existing willingness to include games as part of the education in the Swedish school system.   

  • 327. Ljunglöf, Peter
    et al.
    Claesson, Britt
    Mattsson Müller, Ingrid
    Ericsson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Ottesjö, Cajsa
    Berman, Alexander
    Kronlid, Fredrik
    Lekbot: A talking and playing robot for children with disabilities2011In: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies, Edinburgh: Association for Computational Linguistics , 2011, p. 110-119Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Lorin, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    "Translanguaging" med flera språk, går det?: En studie av hur translanguaging kan användas i den svenska skolan när flera modersmål finns representerade.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att se hur Garcías (2009a: 318ff) principer om social rättvisa och social träning kan tillämpas i grupper med flera olika förstaspråk. I min studie undersöker jag hur en lärare förhåller sig till dessa två strategiska principer vid arbetet med flerspråkighet som resurs i en femteklass. Jag har använt mig av fallstudie och metodologisk triangulering, en metodkombination bestående av observation, enkät och intervju.

     

    Resultatet visar att lärarens arbete till stor del tar fasta på Garcías två strategiska principer. Läraren arbetar mycket för att elevernas attityd till varandras språk ska vara positiv och uppmuntrande. Skolan har ett flerspråkigt perspektiv med fokus på positiv förstärkning men det saknas utsmyckningar i skolans lokaler och litteratur på andra språk. Läraren arbetar aktivt med att integrera elevernas förstaspråk i undervisningen och hennes arbete har spridit sig till andra lärare men hon saknar mer samarbete med modersmålslärarna. Alla elever använder flera språk under en dag och har utvecklat sina språkkunskaper under läsåret. Föräldrarna till eleverna är mer insatta i sina barns skolarbete nu, detta tack vare hennes fokus på flerspråkighet. En svårighet är att alla språk inte har minst två talare i klassen vilket gör att alla elever inte kan använda sitt förstaspråk för att skapa ”sense-making”. 

  • 329. Lundberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    God läsutveckling: Kartläggning och övningar2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 330.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    DISA.
    Nordqvist, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics. DISA.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Towards a language independent Twitter bot detector2019In: Proceedings of 4th Conference of The Association Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries: Copenhagen, March 6-8 2019 / [ed] Navarretta Costanza et al., Copenhagen: Digital Humanities in the Nordic countries , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes our work in developing an application that recognizes automatically generated tweets. The objective of this machine learning application is to increase data accuracy in sociolinguistic studies that utilize Twitter by reducing skewed sampling and inaccuracies in linguistic data. Most previous machine learning attempts to exclude bot material have been language dependent since they make use of monolingual Twitter text in their training phase. In this paper, we present a language independent approach which classifies each single tweet to be either autogenerated (AGT) or human-generated (HGT). We define an AGT as a tweet where all or parts of the natural language content is generated automatically by a bot or other type of program. In other words, while AGT/HGT refer to an individual message, the term bot refers to non-personal and automated accounts that post content to online social networks. Our approach classifies a tweet using only metadata that comes with every tweet, and we utilize those metadata parameters that are both language and country independent. The empirical part shows good success rates. Using a bilingual training set of Finnish and Swedish tweets, we correctly classified about 98.2% of all tweets in a test set using a third language (English).

  • 331.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Collaborating over the Frontiers: Reflections on a French Course Given in Collaboration between Schools in Sweden and France2016In: ICERI2016 Proceedings: 9th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Seville, 14th, 15th and 16th of November, 2016, Seville: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2016, p. 6192-6200, article id 408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I describe a French course at the first level at a Swedish university, i.e. the level directly after at least one year of French studies in upper secondary school, which corresponds to level A 2.2 in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The course is given in collaboration between Linnaeus University in Sweden and a language school in Nice, France. The Swedish students study on campus in Nice, but follow the Swedish syllabus, and the teachers from Sweden are mainly involved in online teaching activities, but have the main responsibility for the assessment and the final grades. It is a situation which creates very specific pedagogical challenges which I here try to analyse on the basis of the didactic triangle (Kugel 1993, Hopman 1997).

    I thus analyse the three possible relationships between teacher, content and student, and in the process I try to identify those aspects which are especially important for this kind of course. Such aspects can for instance be the combination campus teaching/online teaching (“blended learning” according to Ellins et al 2007), informal learning, the students’ contact time with the foreign language, the collaboration between teachers coming from different teaching cultures, the different perspectives on education and general knowledge, the different views on  subject knowledge, etc.

    On the basis of these analyses, I eventually present some suggestions for constructive alignment between the course’s learning objectives, the teaching and learning activities and the feedback and assessment methods (Biggs 2012, Elmgren & Henriksson, 2010). 

    The main goal of this paper is not only to show an example of a successful collaboration between teachers from different countries, but also to reflect on possible improvements of this course, on the basis of recent research conducted in the fields of general didactics and language didactics.

  • 332.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Mircea Cărtarescu en suédois – naturalisation ou exotisation?: un exemple de traduction et de réception de la littérature roumaine en Suède2012In: International Conference on Romance Languages – In Memoriam Alf Lombard, Lund University, The Pufendorf Institute, 7-8 november 2012., LUND, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long time after their first use by Friederich Schleiermacher, the concepts of naturalization and alienation have been taken up by Lawrence Venuti (1995) in translation theory and renamed as domestication and foreignisation. The two concepts are based on the idea that the culture of the original text has to be approached in some way in the process of translation, either by adapting it to the context of the target language (domestication) or by adapting the target language to the context of the source text (foreignisation). As Lawrence Venuti claims, translations usually end up as: “an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text [i.e. domestication] or an ethnodeviant pressure on those [target-language] values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text [i.e. foreignisation]” (Venuti, 1995, p. 20).

     

    Both strategies have been criticized: domestication for betraying the culture of the source text, foreignisation for its elitistic touch (Robinson 1997, 109-112). Foreignisation can also be used to highlight the foreign identity of the source text and protecting it from the ideological dominance of the target culture, which is one of Venuti's concerns.

     

    In this paper, I will analyze some details of the translation of Mircea Cartarescu's novels from Romanian into Swedish in order to see if they can be classified according to the dichotomy domestication/foreignisation. I will also try to broaden the analysis by discussing the implications of the strategies which are used, especially when it comes to the reception of Cartarescu in Sweden.

  • 333.
    Magnusson, Sophia
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Sexist Language: Gender marking of occupational terms and the non-parallel treatment of boy and girl2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life women are exposed to sexist language. Terms and usages that exclude or discriminate women are referred to as sexist language. This takes into account that one presumes that maleness is the standard, the norm, and that femaleness is the non-standard, or the exception. The aim of this paper was to find whether gratuitous modifiers such as girl, lady, female and woman are used more frequently than the male markings and whether girl is used to a wider extent than boy to denote an adult. The aim includes two aspects of sexist language. Firstly, the aspect of calling women girls and men men, called non-parallel treatment. Secondly, the fact that it is more common for unmarked terms to refer to males while when referring to females a marked term is needed. As primary source for the study the Time Corpus was used, which is an online corpus containing over 100 million words and ranges from 1923-2007. The conclusion of this essay was that the female sex is more commonly marked and that woman/women are the most commonly used premodifiers. Gender markings most likely apply to occupations and labels which are thought of as either typically male or female. Furthermore, it was found that girl was used to a wider extent than boy to denote an adult. In addition, the results presented a possible change of trends where girl referred to a child to a larger extent in contemporary English.

  • 334.
    Malmlöv, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    “The father of evolution would be thrilled”: The Translation of Metaphors and Hedges in Professional and Popular Scientific Articles2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 335.
    Maricic, Ibolya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Pecorari, Diane
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Mind the gap!: highlighting novelty in conference abstracts2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conference abstract or proposal is a promotional genre, intended to secure the acceptance of a paper at a conference and often (especially in the 'hard' disciplines) in subsequent proceedings. It is therefore, as Hyland and Tse (2005) note, a high-stakes genre, and therefore one which early-career researchers need to master.

     

    One promotional resource is to show the research to be novel and original; to demonstrate (in Swales' 1990 terms) that a gap exists in the research literature.  Given that a significant proportion of space in abstracts is given over to material which corresponds to the introduction in the paper itself (Cutting, 2012), opportunities for highlighting the gap exist.  However, not all authors take advantage of this opportunity.  reported that Just over 40% of the TESOL abstracts were found not to contain a 'gap statement' (Halleck and Connor, 2006) . 

     

    One factor driving the propensity to include a gap statement (or not) appears to be first language (Yakhontova, 2006). In addition, novice researchers may be less likely to deploy this feature which can help them promote their work.

     

    This paper will report the results of an investigation into conference asbstracts in the sciences and engineering. Two corpora, one consisting of abstracts written by postgraduates during an academic writing course, and one consisting of accepted and published abstracts were analysed for two features: the presence or absence of a 'gap' statement, and the lexical and structural routines used for describing the gap. Comparisons between the corpora will be presented, and implications for the academic writing classroom will be addressed.

     

    References

     

    Cutting, D. J. (2012). Vague language in conference abstracts. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11, 283–293.

    Halleck, G. B., & Connor, U. M. (2006). Rhetorical moves in TESOL conference proposals. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, 70–86.

    Hyland, K., & Tse, P. (2005). Hooking the reader: a corpus study of evaluative that in abstracts. English for Specific Purposes, 24, 123–139.

    Swales, J. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Yakhontova, T. (2006). Cultural and disciplinary variation in academic discourse: The issue of influencing factors. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, 153–167.

  • 336.
    Marklund, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Translation of Technical terms: a study of translation strategies when translating terminology in the field of hydropower generation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    This study analyses the translation of a technical guidebook in the subject field of hydropower generation. The aim is to identify and apply functional translation theories when translating general technical terms, industry terms and contract terms. The theoretical basis for the study consists of Eugene Nida’s and Vinay & Darbelnet’s models for translation as well as theories on terminology by Rune Ingo and Therésa Cabré. During the translation process, technical terms were identified and subsequently translated using one or more of the theories described. The result was then analysed and discussed. Although the study is not comprehensive enough to draw significant conclusions, the result indicates that in order to render the best possible translation of technical terms, a combination of theories and methods are best applied; direct translation regarding systematized terminology similar to general technical terms and oblique translation, or dynamic equivalence, regarding industry terms and contract terms. The results further suggest that structural analysis is of great value in order to determine the correct level of the term. In addition, the translator’s experience and knowledge of the subject field as well as readiness to consult parallel texts seem to be vital to the outcome of the translation.

  • 337.
    Martinger, Henric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Terms of endearment in American Soap Operas: A corpus study of honey, sweetheart and darling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates three terms of endearment in soap operas, namely honey, sweetheart and darling. The purpose is to determine how these terms are used and in what context. 200 tokens were taken from the Corpus of American Soap Operas which contains 10 different soaps. The results indicate that more women utilize terms of endearment overall in soap operas, both to men and to other females. However, women are also mostly addressed with these terms. Honey is used mostly woman-to-woman, sweetheart most man-to-woman and darling is used mostly by women addressing men. Furthermore, honey occurs most frequently and almost all terms are used in a positive way, but there were some few exceptions however. In general, a term of endearment is mostly utilized at the end of a sentence, and individuals who are addressed with honey, sweetheart or darling do not usually respond with a similar term in return. An analysis of the social relationships between the characters/speakers of terms of endearment was also conducted, and it indicated that romantic couples and mother-to-son were common constellations where these terms often occurred. Furthermore, no instances were found where men used terms of endearment to other men. Moreover, the portrayal of men and women in soaps are not that stereotypical that one may suspect, but there are still stereotypical characteristics to find. This paper also suggests that terms of endearment are more common in soap operas than in authentic speech. The conclusion is that the findings in this thesis are important but further and more comprehensive studies have to be conducted in order to establish that the results presented here are reliable and accurate.

  • 338.
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Music for Travel: A translation study focusing on cultural aspects and the use of adjectives in a text about music and tourism2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the translation from English into Swedish of a text about music and tourism. The special areas of interest were, on the one hand, how to translate references to cultural phenomena and, on the other hand, adjectives of graphic character. The source text is Music and Tourism: on the Road Again by Chris Gibson and John Connell from which all but a few pages from the introductory chapter were translated. The reader of the text would be a person interested in music, tourism and the history of the niche music tourism. With tourism and music come different cultural references, which can pose a problem for a translator. In turn, the cultural references are often phrased in a graphic language in the text, consisting mainly in specific adjectives that need to be as graphic in the target text. To solve the problem of translating a text like this, theories on translation, such as those presented by Vinay & Darbelnet (1995), Nida (2001), Newmark (1988) and Ingo (2007) were consulted. The procedures by Vinay and Darbelnet in particular were proven to be beneficial while translating. When dealing with the references to cultural aspects, Vinay and Darbelnet‟s procedure borrowing in combination with Ingo‟s addition were the ones most useful to the translation. In terms of translating the adjectives, Vinay and Darbelnet‟s transposition was mostly used.

  • 339. McConchie, Roderick
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Historical Dictionaries in their Paratextual Context2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both dictionary and paratext research have emerged recently as widely-recognised research areas of intrinsic interest. This collection represents an attempt to place dictionaries within the paratextual context for the first time. This volume covers paratextual concerns, including dictionary production and use, questions concerning compilers, publishers, patrons and subscribers, and their cultural embedding generally. This book raises questions such as who compiled dictionaries and what cultural, linguistic and scientific notions drove this process. What influence did the professional interests, life experience, and social connexions of the lexicographer have? Who published dictionaries and why, and what do the forematter, backmatter, and supplements tell us? Lexicographers edited, adapted and improved earlier works, leaving copies with marginalia which illuminate working methods. Individual copies offer a history of ownership through marginalia, signatures, dates, places, and library stamps. Further questions concern how dictionaries were sold, who patronised them, subscribed to them, and how they came to various libraries.

  • 340. McConchie, Roderick
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Introduction2018In: Historical Dictionaries in their Paratexual Context / [ed] McConchie Roderick, Jukka Tyrkkö, Berlin & Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. vii-xiiChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Meurman-Solin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Introduction2013In: Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data / [ed] Meurman-Solin Anneli, Jukka Tyrkkö, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Meurman-Solin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaUniversity of Tampere, Finland.
    Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Moen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Worlds Apart?: A comparative study of the Swedish and Japanese syllabus of English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a comparative syllabus study that looks into the differences and similarities between the Swedish syllabus for English education and the Japanese syllabus for English education. By using White’s theory of the Type A and the Type B syllabus, which states that syllabi can be divided into two major groups based on their inherent structure, the goal is to compare the two syllabi against one another. The Type A is more traditional whereas the Type B is more experimental. The method being used is a qualitative content analysis method which categorizes the content of the syllabi into different language skills and content. The comparison itself is hermeneutic at its core, and it interprets the data against the backdrop of White’s theory. The study shows that both syllabi are of the Type A nature, although the Swedish syllabus takes influences from the Type B syllabus in the form of less authoritarian teacher-role and increased student influence. As for content, the Japanese syllabus is more focused on grammar and pronunciation, as well as on fostering a positive attitude not only towards English but also towards other cultures and countries. The Swedish syllabus on the other hand is more topic-oriented and has very little that is directly referring to grammar. This difference in the two is likely due to the position of the English language in each country’s society as well as similarities between English and Swedish and the difference between English and Japanese, the latter which requires education to focus more on correct pronunciation and grammar. Some similarities that they share are that they are notionalfunctional in structure, i.e. that they focus on topics and functions of language. Some of the topics overlap for both countries, such as situations regarding students’ daily lives, but the Swedish syllabus has a more diverse arsenal of topics that the students are to be taught.

  • 344.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Apt, Pia
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Implications of aphasia on abstract and concrete noun processing2009In: The 2nd Conference of the Swedish Association for Language and Cognition: 2009, June 10–12, Stockholm University, Sweden, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Apt, Pia
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Modelling the Meaning of Words: Neural Correlates of Abstract and Concrete Noun Processing2010In: The 20th Annual Rotman Research Institute Conference, The frontal lobes, 2010, no - 4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline a proposal to relate modelling of word meaning in terms of semantic features and frames to a general hierarchical model of neurocognitive processing [1]. The model assumes that concrete features are processed in low-level, posterior sensory networks, whereas abstract conceptualization involves integration of frame-based information, making it more dependent on higher cognitive functions orchestrated by frontal networks. Episodic memory networks are suggested to be at an intermediate level, i.e. more concrete than general semantic frames, but less concrete than sensory-based information. A word association test was used to investigate the processing of concrete and abstract nouns. Speakers with stroke-related aphasia due to anterior and posterior lesions and healthy controls participated. Assuming visual memory networks to be important for concrete noun processing, left occipital lesions were hypothesized to impair the interpretation of concrete words. Lesions affecting left anterior areas were expected to give rise to the reverse pattern due to difficulties in accessing general semantic frames. Results supported the hypotheses. Compared with controls, anterior aphasic subjects produced fewer semantic frame-based associations, but more associations based on episodic memories and sensory feature similarity. In contrast, occipital lesions implicated fewer associations based on sensory features but more on semantic frames.

    References

    1. Fuster. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2009, 21, 2047-2072

  • 346.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Apt, Pia
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Modeling the meaning of words: Neural correlates of abstract and concrete noun processing2011In: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, ISSN 0065-1400, E-ISSN 1689-0035, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 455-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model relating analysis of abstract and concrete word meaning in terms of semantic features and contextual frames within a general framework of neurocognitive information processing. The approach taken here assumes concrete noun meanings to be intimately related to sensory feature constellations. These features are processed by posterior sensory regions of the brain, e.g. the occipital lobe, which handles visual information. The interpretation of abstract nouns, however, is likely to be more dependent on semantic frames and linguistic context. A greater involvement of more anteriorly located, perisylvian brain areas has previously been found for the processing of abstract words. In the present study, a word association test was carried out in order to compare semantic processing in healthy subjects (n=12) with subjects with aphasia due to perisylvian lesions (n=3) and occipital lesions (n=1). The word associations were coded into different categories depending on their semantic content. A double dissociation was found, where, compared to the controls, the perisylvian aphasic subjects had problems associating to abstract nouns and produced fewer semantic frame-based associations, whereas the occipital aphasic subject showed disturbances in concrete noun processing and made fewer semantic feature based associations.

  • 347.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Apt, Pia
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Abstract, concrete and emotional words in the mental lexicon: A coding scheme for analyzing verbal descriptions of word meanings2011In: The Third Conference of the Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition, SALC III: Copenhagen, June 14 - 16th 2011, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen , 2011, p. 86-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has suggested that abstract and concrete semantics are processed and conceptualized differently (Pulvermüller 1999, Crutch & Warrington 2005; Fuster 2009). Specifically, concrete semantics is assumed to be processed by posterior, sensory brain areas, as opposed to an anterior processing of abstract semantic information. In addition, other researchers raise the question whether emotional words should be included in the abstract category (Altarriba & Bauer 2004, Kousta et al. 2009).

    Following this, the present study proposes a method for analyzing spontaneous discourse produced by aphasic and healthy subjects describing the meanings of abstract, concrete, and emotional words. Linguistic data related to word meanings were obtained by asking subjects to describe the meanings of nouns varying in concreteness and emotional arousal freely and as detailed as possible, a method based on Barsalou & Wiemer-Hastings (2005). Subjects with anterior/posterior lesions and healthy controls were hypothesized to differ in their retrieval and verbalization of semantic information related to the cue words, with posterior lesions affecting concrete semantic features and anterior lesions affecting higher levels of abstraction and structuring of information. Emotional information, partly processed by subcortical structures, was expected to be well-preserved despite cortical lesions.

    A coding scheme was developed in order to capture semantic and structural information in the transcribed material, taking the following factors into account:

    • Type of information in an utterance: general/personal:episodic/personal:evaluative/procedural cues
    • Clauses: main/subordinate
    • Relation between produced content word and cue word: contextual/ property-based
    • Semantic information of produced content words: abstract/ concrete/emotional
    • Whether the topic is maintained
    • Whether the information is semantically acceptable

    The proposed coding scheme makes it possible to investigate how different brain lesions affect retrieval and expression of semantic information with differing degrees of abstractness.

    Altarriba, J. & Bauer, L.M. (2004). The distinctiveness of emotion concepts: A comparison between emotion, abstract, and concrete words. The American Journal of Psychology 117(3), 389-410.

    Barsalou, L.W. & Wiemer-Hastings, K. (2005). Situating Abstract Concepts. In Grounding Cognition: The Role of Perception and Action in Memory, Language, and Thinking. Pecher, D. & Zwaan, R.A.(Eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Crutch, S.J. & Warrington, E.K. (2005). Abstract and concrete concepts have structurally different representational frameworks. Brain 128, 615-627.

    Fuster, J. (2009) Cortex and memory: Emergence of a new paradigm. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 21,11, 2047-2072.

    Kousta, S-T., Vigliocco, G., Vinson, D.P Andrews, M. (2009). Happiness is... an abstract word. The role of affect in abstract knowledge representation. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1115-1120. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

    Pulvermüller, F. (1999). Words in the brain's language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 253-336.

  • 348.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Apt, Pia
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings2013In: The Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition. SALC IV, June 12-14, 2013. University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu: Abstracts of the presentations. May 14, 2013, Joensuu: University of Eastern Finland , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nouns with a high degree of semantic specificity (e.g., ‘robin’) can be assumed to be more closelyrelated to sensory information as opposed to more non-specific nouns belonging to the same lexicalsemantic hierarchy (e.g., ‘animal’) (Rosch, 1978). As the majority of concrete nouns denote thingsthat can be experienced visually, activation of visual information might be necessary for concrete noun processing, in which case damage to visual (occipital) cortex might selectively affect morespecific nouns. Supporting this idea, nouns (e.g., ’table’) and verbs (e.g., ’kick’) have been found toactivate brain regions involved in experiencing their referred objects and actions (Pulvermüller & Fadiga 2010).

    Individuals with lesions in visual brain areas have previously been shown to have difficulties accessing words related to the visual modality (Manning 2000; Gainotti 2004). In these studies, the focus has been on comparing different modes of presentation (e.g., visual/tactile/verbal). However, it could further be hypothesised that when visual areas are damaged, the degree of visual semantic content would also affect performance.

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semanticspecificity (e.g. ‘robin’–‘bird’–‘animal’) and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g. ‘blue’, ‘soft’, ‘fly’).

    Results showed that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement, suggesting that his anomia is sensory-specific and dependent on the modality of the semantic content of words.

    References

    Crutch, S.J. & Warrington, E.K. (2008). Contrasting patterns of comprehension for superordinate, basic level, and subordinate names in semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients. Cognitive Neuropsychology 25(4), 582-600.

    Gainotti, G. (2004). A metanalysis of impaired and spared naming for different categories of knowledge in patients with a visuo-verbal disconnection. Neuropsychologia 42, 299-319.

    Manning, L. (2000). Loss of visual imagery and defective recognition of parts of wholes in optic aphasia.NeuroCase 6 (2), 111-128.

    Rosch, E. (1978). Principles of categorization. In: Rosch, Eleanor and Barbara B. Lloyd, eds., Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 27-48.

    Pulvermüller, F. & Fadiga, L. (2010). Active perception: sensorimotor circuits as a cortical basis for language. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11, 351-360.

  • 349.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Apt, Pia
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: Data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings2014In: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., "robin"-"bird"-"animal") and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., "blue," "soft," "fly"). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement.

  • 350.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Brännström, Jonas
    Lund University.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Dichotic listening with specific, general, abstract and emotional words: semantic judgments and reaction times2014In: The Ninth International Conference on the Mental Lexicon: September 30th-October 2nd, 2014. Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Brock University & McMaster University , 2014, p. 78-78Conference paper (Refereed)
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