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  • 301.
    Hollander, Anna-Clara
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Bruce, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Burstrom, Bo
    Karolinska Inst.
    Ekblad, Solvig
    Karolinska Inst.
    Hospitalisation for depressive disorder following unemployment-differentials by gender and immigrant status: a population-based cohort study in Sweden2013In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 875-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between unemployment and poor mental health in general is explained by both causation and selection. The aim was to study whether experiencing unemployment was a risk factor for hospitalisation for depressive disorder specifically, and whether gender and immigrant status modified the hypothesised risk. Methods A register-based prospective cohort study, 2000-2006, of persons aged 18-64 with a strong connection to the Swedish labour market. Outcome: hospital admission for a depressive episode; F32 in International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Exposure: employment status. Explanatory variables: gender and immigrant status. Confounders: age group, education and marital status. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs with 95% CIs. Results The cohort comprised 3 284 896 adults, 47.5% women. An excess relative risk for hospitalisation was found among those who became unemployed (HR=1.94, 95% CI 1.85 to 2.03). Foreign-born women who experienced unemployment had the highest relative risk (HR=3.47 95% CI 3.02 to 3.98). Conclusions Among persons with a strong connection to the labour market experiencing unemployment, is a risk factor for hospitalisation for depressive disorders. Unemployed foreign-born women had the highest relative risk compared with all Swedish born, all foreign-born men and to employed foreign-born women.

  • 302.
    Hu, Di
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Xin, Yuxiang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Occupational Attainment of immigrants: The case of Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants have become a big part in host country’s daily life. Pervious research study

    immigrants usually focus on the factors that influence the earnings of immigrants. In contrast,

    this paper analyzes occupational attainment of immigrants and compares occupational

    attainment between immigrants and natives. In general, the same as natives, nearly half of

    immigrants are employed in low-skilled occupations, which cover upper secondary education

    and tertiary level of no more than 2 years in length. However, immigrants have the less

    probability of being in skilled and high-skilled occupations than natives. For immigrants from

    western countries, their occupational attainment are similar to natives, that is, high-skilled

    occupations accounts for a higher proportion and they are less likely to be engaged in

    unskilled occupations comparing with immigrants from Africa and Asia and South America.

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  • 303.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hedging with trees: Tail-hedge discounting of long-term forestry returns2018In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 30, p. 52-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tail-hedge discounting is based on decomposition of returns from long-term investments in a fraction (gamma) that is correlated with consumption and another that is not. The first part is discounted at a discount rate that includes a risk premium, the other with the risk-free rate. We estimate gamma for forestry on Swedish data for stumpage prices and GDP per capita 1909-2012. We demonstrate that the result considerably changes the expected present value of medium-term and long-term forest investments. (C) 2018 Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 304.
    Hussain, Shakir
    et al.
    University of Birmingham.
    Al-Alak, Mehdi
    Central Organization for Statistics, Baghdad.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Conditional two level mixture with known mixing proportions: applications to school and student level overweight and obesity data from Birmingham, England2014In: International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, ISSN 1929-6029, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 298-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Level (TL) models allow the total variation in the outcome to be decomposed as level one and level two or ‘individual and group’ variance components. Two Level Mixture (TLM) models can be used to explore unobserved heterogeneity that represents different qualitative relationships in the outcome.

    In this paper, we extend the standard TL model by introducing constraints to guide the TLM algorithm towards a more appropriate data partitioning. Our constraints-based methods combine the mixing proportions estimated by parametric Expectation Maximization (EM) of the outcome and the random component from the TL model. This forms new two level mixing conditional (TLMc) approach by means of prior information. The new framework advantages are: 1. avoiding trial and error tactic used by TLM for choosing the best BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion), 2. permitting meaningful parameter estimates for distinct classes in the coefficient space and finally 3. allowing smaller residual variances. We show the benefit of our method using overweight and obesity from Body Mass Index (BMI) for students in year 6. We apply these methods on hierarchical BMI data to estimate student multiple deprivation and school Club effects.

  • 305.
    Hussain, Shakir
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mohammed, Mohamed A
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Congenial Multiple Imputation and Matched Pairs Models for Square Tables: An Example of patients’ self-management2013In: Journal of Business Administration Research, ISSN 1927-9507, Vol. 2, no 1, p. Article ID: 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental studies often measure an individual’s quality of life before and after an intervention, with the data organized into a square table and analyzed using matched pair modeling. However, it is not unusual to find missing data in either round (i.e., before and/or after) of such studies and the use of multiple imputations with matched-pair modeling remains relatively unreported in the applied statistics literature. In this paper we introduce an approach which maintains dependency of responses over time and makes a match between the imputer and the analyst. We use ‘before’ and ‘after’ quality-of-life data from a randomized controlled trial to demonstrate how multiple imputation and matched-pair modeling can be congenially combined, avoiding a possible mismatch of imputation and analyses, and to derive a properly consolidated analysis of the quality-of-life data. We illustrate this strategy with a real-life example of one item from a quality-of-life study that evaluates the effectiveness of patients’ self-management of anticoagulation versus standard care as part of a randomized controlled trial.

  • 306.
    Hwang, Aron
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ström, Christoffer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Differences in Educational Match between Natives and Immigrants: A study from the Swedish labor market 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the potential educational mismatch of immigrants compared to natives concerning the Swedish labor market. The data is collected from the European Social Survey between 2002-2014. Our results show that immigrants tend to be more overeducated than natives. Our results also indicate that more recent cohorts are more likely to be overeducated compared to cohorts that have lived for a longer time period in Sweden. Disparities in language and country specific skills but also if a person belong to an ethnic minority are reasons for why these mismatches occur. 

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  • 307.
    Ivarsson, Ellinor
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Arbetsmiljö & Pension: Kan en bättre arbetsmiljö förlänga arbetslivslängden?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic change in Europe is a challenge not to be ignored. The ageing population, the later entry to the labor market and the decreased fertility rate demands increased attention from the decision makers. The taxes of the working population is not enough to pay for the future retirements and it is essential to find a way to increase the time spent in the labor market to avoid this upcoming financial trap. This paper examines whether the work environment has an impact of how long an individual stays in the labor market by looking on the self-rated retirement age. Cross-sectional data from the work environment survey submitted by the Swedish Work Environment Authority and Statistics Sweden from the years 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011 are used to examine this relationship. The dependent variable is based on the following question: “Do you estimate that you will be able to work until the ordinary retirement age in your current occupation?”. The binary logistic regression analysis controls for the physical and the psychosocial work environment, education, gender, age, health, occupation, industry etc.

     

    The results show that the work environment has an impact on how the individual estimate their point of retirement. When looking on the impact of the physical work environment it is shown that heavy work and/or frequent contact with fluids decrease the probability for the individuals to estimate an ordinary retirement age (i.e. 65 years). Regarding the psychosocial work environment it is revealed that a low level of control combined with high demands has a negative effect of the self-rated retirement age. The same is found for psychological stress (based on psychosomatic disorders, lack of time for family and friends and the feeling of insufficiency). Job satisfaction and, on the contrary to previous research, frequent contact with clients or costumers had a positive impact on the self-rated retirement age. All gender differences were explained by the explanatory variables included in the model.   

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  • 308.
    Ivarsson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Linder, David
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Assimilation of Scandinavian Immigrants in Sweden: How do immigrants from Norway and Denmark assimilate to the Swedish income level and is the assimilation negative?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the earnings between Scandinavian immigrants compared to the Swedish natives (Scandinavia refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden). The researchers have up until today devoted considerable effort to describe the phenomenon involving the positive assimilation, but never taken the time to analyse the appearance of the opposite outcome. The main objective of this essay is to observe if we can detect a case of negative assimilation among the Scandinavian immigrants in Sweden. The reason this paper is focused on Scandinavia is mainly because of the transferability of human capital that these ethnic groups hold, compared to the Swedish natives, with their cultural and linguistic consistency.

    An empirical analysis has been conducted using OLS on a pooled data sample for immigrants from Norway and Denmark entering the Swedish labour market. Our results show that there is a negative assimilation among the male immigrants at a linear pace. This was observed with the appearance of an initial higher income level than the natives, which implied a regression towards the mean. Among the females no observable assimilation pattern could be detected and they had an entry disadvantage upon arrival in Sweden.  

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    The Assimilation of Scandinavian Immigrants in Sweden
  • 309.
    Jansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Tyrefors, Björn
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Förväntningseffekter av en lag: fallet kvotering av kvinnor i börsbolagsstyrelser2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 14-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är troligt att företag agerar innan en lagstiftning träder i kraft. Om hänsyn inte tas till förväntningseffekterna kan en felaktig effekt av lagen skattas. Vi visar att förväntningseffekterna av en kvoteringslag gällande svenska börsbolagsstyrelser inte var försumbara, varken mätt som förändring i antalet kvinnliga ledamöter eller som förändring av t ex vinsten. Vi argumenterar för att vårt resultat innebär att summan av förväntningseffekten och effekten av den tvingan de lagstiftningen skulle kunna vara noll med avseende på börsbolagens vinst. Därmed motsäger våra resultat varken de senaste effektutvärderingarna av den totala effekten av den norska lagstiftningen eller de något äldre studierna.

  • 310.
    Jintarith, Pimolporn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Vorayotsri, Nannapat
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Is There A Glass Ceiling In Japan?: Occupational Segregation and Sex Differences inManagerial Promotions in Japan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the difference probability in holding managerial positions between men and women in Japan as the glass ceiling effect. In addition, we analyses whether the difference is affected by gender composition within the workplaces. We estimate two specifications of an ordered logit model on Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS) as well as Japanese yearbook of labor statistics in the year 2010. The results indicate that there is different probability of holding managerial status that women have lower probability of holding managerial positions irrespective of management level comparing to men. However, we can observe that the differentials are decreasing as the managerial positions move up into higher managerial hierarchies. This finding indicates that women have higher chance to hold higher positions. Thus, it is contradict to our hypothesis. In addition, the result suggests that the gender composition also matter in probability of holding managerial status between male and female in Japan. We inspect that the difference probability in holding managerial status between genders is greater in female dominated occupation. This finding shows the effect of glass ceiling that occurs when women work in female dominated occupation as it follows the theory.

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  • 311.
    Johansson, Carolina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lower payroll taxes for young workers: Was the introduction of the payroll tax reductions for young employees an effective way to lower youth unemployment?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the effects on the unemployment rate and average income due to the payroll tax cuts for young workers in Sweden. The method that has been used is a difference-in-difference approach with two different control groups. The unemployment rate for Swedish individuals at age 15-24 has been matched towards individuals at the same age in Finland and Denmark. The data behind the estimations is picked from the database of Eurostat. The results indicate an increase in the unemployment rate, contrary to the expectations from the theoretical framework in the subject. One possible explanation for a lack of increase in employment due to a targeted tax cut is shifting, meaning that the lowered cost for firms is shifted onto the employees’ wages. However, no significant results on the wage effect were found, so no such conclusion can be made. The explanation could lay in modeling problems, a growing labor force or the supply of labor (which may choose other alternatives than employment). By the results of this report, the main conclusion is that the payroll tax reductions did not reduce the high unemployment rate among young individuals in Sweden. 

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  • 312.
    Johansson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Knutsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fastighetsskattens omfördelande effekter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the power of the property tax as a tool for redistribution. The property tax was abolished in Sweden in 2007 and was replaced with a municipal property tax. In this essay, we critically assess the abolition of the property tax in Sweden through the lens of economic theory. Sweden is a country that has long been known to be quite equal, but is experiencing increasing differences between income and wealth groups. We use data provided by Statistics Sweden on total earned income and wealth, and divide individuals into decile groups according to their total earned income. We calculate different ratios as measures of inequalities in the wealth distribution and perform simulations where we test different compositions of income tax and property tax to investigate how these ratios change. Our analysis shows that a tax reform in which the municipal income tax is reduced, while introducing a municipal property tax, can have beneficial redistributional effects on the wealth distribution in Sweden. Our alternative tax systems illustrate the strength of the property tax as a redistribution tool.

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    Johansson&Knutsson
  • 313.
    Jonason, Gustav
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Jismark, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The nonlinear relationship between inflation and economic growth: A dissection of the threshold level between inflation and economic growth in Sweden between 1971-2017.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common belief about inflation and economic growth has developed during recent years. This belief is that a “low” and stable inflation rate favors economic growth. The underlying arguments for this are that a low inflation rate create a beneficial playground for all participants. A playground which will meliorate investments and ensure a stability for consumers which in return will give a favorable environment for the economy to thrive. This paper aims to clarify this relationship between inflation and economic growth in Sweden between the period 1971-2017 and thus investigate the co-integration relation between the two variables. Additional test will be conducted to explore a potential threshold level of inflation. This threshold level is defined as the point where inflation starts to harm growth.  

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  • 314.
    Juguet, Rozenn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Clappier-Kervoël, Anna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Childcare and maternal employment in Europe: How childcare cost differences among European countries influence the labour force participation of mothers?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine the influence of childcare costs on mother’s employment in European countries. Previous literature indicates that having a child represents a penalty for a woman’s career and integration into the labour market. An empirical analysis has been conducted using the OLS method and cross-national data. We have focused our study on 17 European countries and on data from one particular year.Our findings suggest that a high childcare cost is related to a low maternal employment rate and/or a high share of employed mothers working part-time. As a result, the variations in childcare cost may be partly responsible for the variation in mother’s employment across European countries.The main limitation of this analysis is the small number of observations. Due to the lack of statistical significance of most of the coefficient, we can only suggest a hypothesis that needs to be investigated by further research.

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  • 315.
    Juselius, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tarp, Finn
    UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The real exchange rate, foreign aid and macroeconomic transmission mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent study of 36 sub-Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in theabsolute majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aidrecipients, aid did not seem to have been equally beneficial. This paper singles out these twocountries for a more detailed empirical investigation. The focus is now on the effect of aidwhen allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmissionmechanism. We conclude that aid played a significantly positive―but very different―role inthe two countries. Due in part to generous aid inflows Tanzania experienced positiveinvestment and GDP growth from the late 1960s to 2007. But, until the mid-1980s, theimpact of aid on growth was well below its potential as the large inflows of aid facilitated aserious over appreciation of the real exchange rate. In Ghana, declining aid in the 1970s wasassociated with lacking growth while the reactivation of aid flows in the 1980s supported aneconomic rebound. When monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, we findthat aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment.

  • 316.
    Juselius, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tarp, Finn
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; United Nations University World Institute of Development Research (UNU-WIDER), Finland.
    The real exchange rate, foreign aid and macroeconomic transmission mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana2017In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1075-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent study of 36 sub-Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in the majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aid recipients, aid did not seem to have been equally beneficial. This study singles out these two countries for a more detailed empirical investigation. The focus is on the effect of aid when allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmission mechanism. We conclude that when monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, then aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment.

  • 317.
    Karaarslan, Can
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Differences in Unemployment due to Sexual Orientation: Evidence from the Swedish Labour Market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides the first investigation of differences in labour market outcomes by sexual orientation utilizing Survival Analysis techniques. A three-stage modelling approach has been utilized. Zero- Inflated Negative Binomial regression has been conducted to the duration in unemployment, while Probit analysis to the probability of employment. A parametric Gompertz baseline hazard has been determined, which enables us to fuse unemployment duration and employment event into one analytical feature. Significant differences by sexual orientation have been detected. Regarding employment probabilities, homosexual males face a disadvantage of seven per cent compared to heterosexual males, while the probability for homosexual females increases positively with the duration in unemployment. No significant differences have been found regarding unemployment duration. When unemployment duration and probability are set into relation, differences by sexual orientation vanish.

  • 318.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Investigation of the time-dependent dynamics between government revenue and expenditure in China: a wavelet approach2020In: Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, ISSN 1354-7860, E-ISSN 1469-9648, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 250-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike previous studies on causal relationships between government revenue and expenditures in China, this study takes into consideration structural breaks in the data by performing wavelet decomposition prior to testing for Granger causality between the fiscal components. The use of wavelet decomposition is motivated by economic theories, which suggest allowing for different budgetary considerations at different time horizons, as well as by the existence of special properties in the data in the form of unit roots and structural breaks. The results from the Granger causality test when using the wavelet-decomposed quarterly data over the period 1980–2015 indicate that government revenue Granger-causes government expenditure (tax-and-spend hypothesis) in the wavelet scales of two to four quarters. The results also show that bidirectional causality (fiscal synchronisation) exists in the wavelet scale of eight to sixteen quarters. Understanding the causal relationships between revenue and expenditure at different time scales is important for formulating relevant policy measures in order to maintain fiscal sustainability in China.

  • 319.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    Wavelet quantile analysis of asymmetric pricing on the Swedish power market2017In: Empirica, ISSN 0340-8744, E-ISSN 1573-6911, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate if the Swedish consumer prices for electricity are adjusted equally fast regardless of whether the NordPool power market prices are decreased or increased. Due to relatively moderate variations in the variables, we have applied quantile regression, since it is mainly the large changes (above the median) that essentially tend to have a considerable effect on the consumer prices. Moreover, in order to adjust for stochastic- and deterministic trends, autocorrelation, structural breaks as well as to measure APT effects in the short- and in the medium-run, we apply a wavelet decomposition approach. Our results show evidence that significantly positive asymmetric price transmission (APT) effects exist in this market. More specifically, in the short-run (based on the wavelet decomposition D1 for 1–2 months cycles), we find that that there is a higher propensity to rapidly and systematically increase the consumer prices subsequently to an increase in the NordPool market price, compared with the propensity to decrease their customers prices subsequently to a corresponding drop in the NordPool market prices. However, no significant APT effects were detected in the medium- or in the long-run (i.e. the asymmetric price transmission effects are observed only in the short-run). In summary, we could isolate significant APT effects in the short-run (1–2 months decomposition cycles), and for large changes in the dependent variable (percentiles = 0.9). Therefore, only large changes in the NordPool prices lead to feedback effects in the form of asymmetric price transmission effects. Our evidence supports the notion of firms’ downward stickiness of retail prices for maximizing profit, which are not expected to be found on a fully efficient market. Although our finding shows that the price inefficiency is short-lived, these large temporal inefficiencies are still costly for the consumers. It should be noted that blunt traditional powerless methods do not detect these APT effects, while our wavelet quantile methods are powerful and make a significant contribution in the literature by providing new empirical evidence.

  • 320.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Li, Yushu
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Causal Nexus between Oil Prices, Interest Rates, and Unemployment in Norway Using Wavelet Methods2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-15, article id 2792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA), combined with two types of causality tests, to investigate causal relationships between three variables: real oil price, real interest rate, and unemployment in Norway. Impulse response functions were also utilised to examine effects of innovation in one variable on the other variables. We found that causal relations between the variables tend to be stronger as the wavelet time scale increases; specifically, there were no causal relationships between the variables at the lowest time scales of one to three months. A causal relationship between unemployment rate and interest rate was observed during the period of two quarters to two years, during which time a feedback mechanism was also detected between unemployment and interest rate. Causal relationships between oil price and both interest rate and unemployment were observed at the longest time scale of eight quarters. In conjunction with Granger causality analysis, impulse response functions showed that unemployment rates in Norway respond negatively to oil price shocks around two years after the shocks occur. As an oil exporting country, increases (or decreases) in oil prices reduce (or increase) unemployment in Norway under a time horizon of about two years; previous studies focused on oil importing economies have generally found the inverse to be true. Unlike most studies in this field, we decomposed the implicit aggregation for all time scales by applying MRA with a focus on the Norwegian economy. Thus, one main contribution of this paper is that we unveil and systematically distinguish the nature of the time-scale dependent relationship between real oil price, real interest rate, and unemployment using wavelet decomposition.

  • 321.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hacker, R. Scott
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Revisiting the nexus of the financial development and economic development: new international evidence using a wavelet approach2020In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Granger causality and instantaneous causality between financial development and economic development for 76 economies of four different income levels. The main novelty of the study is that it fills a gap in existing studies on the relationship between financial development and economic development by employing wavelet analysis, which enables us to study the varying time-scale relationships of the variables. Among the findings is that at the scale of 4-8 years it is more common for financial development and economic development to support each other once a country achieves at least lower-middle-income status.

  • 322.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Investigation of the nonlinear behaviour in real exchange rates in developing regions2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory holds or not for the economies in different developing regions located in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In order to investigate this issue, a nonlinear panel unit root test is used to determine if some or all of the real exchange rates in a panel follow a stationary exponential smooth transition autoregressive process. By applying the nonlinear panel unit root test, our results demonstrate an empirical support for the theory of PPP for the economies in developing regions.

  • 323.
    Karlsson, Hyunjoo Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Unveiling the Time-dependent Dynamics between Oil Prices and Exchange Rates: A Wavelet-based Panel Analysis2020In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 41, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between real oil prices and real effective exchange rates (REER) for major oil-exporting countries with floating exchange rates. We apply the wavelet-based principles of Gallegati et al. (2016) using monthly data for the period 1996 to 2015. In contrast to many previ-ous studies, our results support the theoretically expected positive nexus between the real oil prices and REER for our dataset. This (theoretically-expected) positive relationship is stronger at the larger time scales (that is, at the 4-8 and 8-16 month wavelet scales) compared to the smaller time scales (that is, at the 1-2 and 2-4 month wavelet scales). The findings of this study therefore add to the existing literature, since they disentangle the specific relationship between oil prices and exchange rates at different time scales, which has important policy implications.

  • 324.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Getting a full-time job as a part-time unemployed: How much does spatial context matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which differences in the probability to exit from part-time unemployment to a full-time job are accountable for by spatial contextual factors and individual characteristics. To correctly incorporate contextual effects a multilevel analysis applied using a mixed-effects model, a method frequently used in other disciplines but rarely used in economics, is adopted here to explore whether contextual factors account for differences in the probability of transition to full-time employment between individuals with different characteristics. The results indicate that there is a contextual effect and that there are some spatial spill-over effects from neighbouring municipalities, and unemployment rate partly explains the context variability. Furthermore, the contextual effect is found to be especially large for individuals without a university degree.

  • 325.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Capitalisation of Single Farm Payment on farm price: an analysis of Swedish farm prices using farm-level data2014In: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 279-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates capitalisation effects of farm attributes with a particular focus on the decoupled Single Farm Payment (SFP) on prices. The spatial analysis employs a sample of mainly small- and medium-sized Swedish farm transactions sold all across Sweden; the results from a spatial multiple-membership model suggest that decoupled SFP has no influence on farm prices. Prices are profoundly influenced by residential characteristics and accessibility to urban amenities. Spatial heterogeneity is found for both regional and local levels, and a large spatial spillover effect is found between neighbouring farms. Results are confirmed by sensitivity analyses.

  • 326.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do employers care about which school I went to?: It depends. Independent upper-secondary schooling as a signal of ability.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate if employers sort job applicants based on information about whether the applicants attended a public or an independent upper-secondary school. I perform a stated choice experiment where real employers in Sweden are enrolled and asked to evaluate fictitious job candidates for a current job opening. I find no evidence of such signaling effects for candidates with a typical Swedish name. However, candidates with a Middle Eastern sounding name experience a probability of being invited to an interview that is 14-19 percentage points higher if their resume reveal that they went to an independent, in contrast to a public, school. I show that, under some assumptions, these outcomes can be explained by theories on labor market signaling. There exits very little empirical evidence on the relationship between school choice and sorting in the labor market. Consequently, these findings fills an important gap in our knowledge and brings new perspectives for educational policy.

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  • 327.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The global labor market for soccer players: Examining wage differentials between natives and immigrants in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies wage differentials between foreign born and native players in

    Swedish soccer. For this essay, panel data for the years 2001-2015 on all clubs and players in top Swedish soccer leagues Allvenskan and Superettan have been collected. The data is examined by applying a market-test approach to test for any significant wage differentials.

    The results show that foreign born players earn a significant salary premium compared to native players of similar productivity. There is no evidence of salary or fan discrimination against foreign born players. Results can be explained by market imperfections and/or risk-seeking behavior from team managers although this could be further investigated in future studies. 

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    The global labor market for soccer players
  • 328.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labor income inequalities in Swedish municipalities 1991-2017: A study on regional effects and possible origins2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Income inequalities have become a matter of major concern following reports that the working class and lower middle class of developed economies have income levels that are falling behind. Few studies have been conducted on the regional level even though this perspective might better capture the development of income inequalities, since national averages might hide local differences. This study uses panel data for 286 Swedish municipalities in between 1991-2017 and fixed effect regressions, to examine if the theory of a skill-biased technological change could be used to explain resent developments. We find an labor income divergence for Swedish municipalities within the studied time period. The share of high skilled workers is found to be a good predictor of the growth in regional labor income inequalities, while an ageing population of the regions falling behind counteracts the growth of inequality, possibly leading to an underestimation of the size of regional labor income divergence. These results are in support of a skill-biased technological change at work and a job polarization transforming regional labor markets and regional societies. We conclude that adopting a regional perspective in the analysis and development of future economic growth policies is necessary to ensure long term economic growth, equality of opportunity and social cohesion.

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  • 329.
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Performances of model selection criteria when variables are ill conditioned2019In: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model selection criteria are often used to find a "proper" model for the data under investigation when building models in cases in which the dependent or explained variables are assumed to be functions of several independent or explanatory variables. For this purpose, researchers have suggested using a large number of such criteria. These criteria have been shown to act differently, under the same or different conditions, when trying to select the "correct" number of explanatory variables to be included in a given model; this, unfortunately, leads to severe problems and confusion for researchers. In this paper, using Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the properties of four of the most common criteria under a number of realistic situations. These criteria are the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2-adj), Akaike's information criterion (AIC), the Hannan–Quinn information criterion (HQC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The results from this investigation indicate that the HQC outperforms the BIC, the AIC and the R2-adj under specific circumstances. None of them perform satisfactorily, however, when the degree of multicollinearity is high, the sample sizes are small or when the fit of the model is poor (i.e., there is a low R2) . In the presence of all these factors, the criteria perform very badly and are not very useful. In these cases, the criteria are often not able to select the true model.

  • 330.
    Kastrat, Merima
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tas, Dilan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Does immigration affect native's labor market outcomes in Germany?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Germany is one of the several countries in Europe that have opened its borders to immigrants for many years. The admission of immigrants into Germany has contributed to the country being the second largest immigration destination in the world, and this has resulted in both negative and positive outcomes for the natives. In this essay, the effect of immigration on natives’ hourly wages and employment was examined, by using microdata for Germany. Native workers’ educational level attainments and 16 different regions in Germany were taken into account to obtain regional variation. Cross-sectional data was used for the years 2005, 2009 and 2015 in order to measure the effect of the share of immigrants on natives’ hourly wages and employment. The findings showed that the share of immigrants, had a positive effect on natives’ wages and employment in 2005 and 2009. In 2015, however, a negative relationship was found, with the share of immigrants impacting negatively on natives’ wages but not on employment. Thus, the study highlights the importance of immigrants on natives’ hourly wages and employment.

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    Does immigration affect native's labor market outcomes in Germany? (2019)
  • 331.
    Khalaf, G
    et al.
    King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A Tobit Ridge Regression Estimator2014In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the effects of multicollienarity on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for the Tobit regression model. Furthermore, a ridge regression (RR) estimator is proposed since the mean squared error (MSE) of ML becomes inflated when the regressors are collinear. To investigate the performance of the traditional ML and the RR approaches we use Monte Carlo simulations where the MSE is used as performance criteria. The simulated results indicate that the RR approach should always be preferred to the ML estimation method.

  • 332. Khalaf, Ghadban
    et al.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Modified Ridge Regression Estimators2013In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1476-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ridge Regression is a variant of ordinary multiple linear regression whose goal is to circumvent the problem of predictors collinearity. It gives-up the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimator as a method for estimating the parameters of the multiple linear regression model . Different methods of specifying the ridge parameter k were proposed and evaluated in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) by simulation techniques. Comparison is made with other ridge-type estimators evaluated elsewhere. The new estimators of the ridge parameters are shown to have very good MSE properties compared with the other estimators of the ridge parameter and the OLS estimator. Based on our results from the simulation study we may recommend the new ridge parameters to practitioners.

  • 333.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    et al.
    Florida International University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A simulation study of some biasing parameters for the ridge type estimation of Poisson regression2015In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 943-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes several estimators for estimating the ridge parameter k based for Poisson ridge regression (RR) model. These estimators have been evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. As performance criteria, we have calculated the mean squared error (MSE), the mean value and the standard deviation of k. The first criterion is commonly used, while the other two have never been used when analyzing Poisson RR. However, these performance criterion are very informative because, if several estimators have an equal estimated MSE then those with low average value and standard deviation of k should be preferred. Based on the simulated results we may recommend some biasing parameters which may be useful for the practitioners in the field of health, social and physical sciences.

  • 334. Kibria, B. M. Golam
    et al.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Some Ridge Regression estimator for the zero-inflated Poisson model2013In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 721-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zero inflated Poisson regression model is very common when analysing economic data that comes in the form of non-negative integers since it accounts for excess zeros and overdispersion of the dependent variable. However, a problem often encountered when analyzing economic data that has not been addressed for this model is multicollinearity. This paper proposes ridge regression estimators and some methods of estimating the ridge parameter k for the non-negative model. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the performance of the estimators. Both mean squared error (MSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are considered as performance criterion. The simulation study shows that some estimators are better than the commonly used maximum likelihood estimator and some other ridge regression estimators. Based on the simulation study and an empirical application, some useful estimators are recommended for the practitioners.

  • 335.
    Kilic, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bengtsson, Filip
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Oil price shocks on Swedish economy: Case study on the oil's effect on a small country.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the macroeconomic performance in terms of inflation and GDP growth of Sweden in relations to oil price shocks, focusing on the differences across two periods, pre and post 2008. By using a Vector Error Correction model and linear hypothesis testing we can see short term and long term correlations between the nominal oil price and three dependent variables, GDP, CPI and GDP deflator. Our hypothesis is that the effects of oil price shocks are indifferent across our estimation period and this would be in line with previous literature.  We find that the macroeconomic factors of GDP and inflation responds differently post 2008 and by using impulse response functions (IRFs) we can see how the dependent variables responds to an oil price shock. They show that oil shocks have permanent effects in GDP and GDP deflator but transitory effects in CPI, we found short run causality for GDP and CPI but not for GDP deflator.  

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    Bachelor thesis Sebastian Kilic & Filip Bengtsson
  • 336.
    Kularatne, Thamarasi
    et al.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Wilson, Clevo
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Thammasat Univ, Thailand.
    Hoang, Vincent
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Lee, Boon
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Do environmentally sustainable practices make hotels more efficient?: A study of major hotels in Sri Lanka2019In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 71, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As environmentally sustainable practices are becoming popular in the hotel industry, their impact on efficiency is an important issue. To investigate the performance of hotels in this context, we use data envelopment analysis (DEA) double bootstrap approach to firstly assess the technical efficiency and its determinants of a sample of medium and large scale hotels in Sri Lanka for the period 2010-2014. Secondly, we evaluate the impact of a number of explanatory variables in determining hotel efficiency. The results reveal that the average technical efficiency is 61% with the maximum being 71.5% and the minimum 46.8%. The results conclude that being environmentally responsible enhances the efficiency of hotels, specifically in terms of improving energy efficiency and waste management. Water consumption is shown to have a contradictory result in relation of improving efficiency. Finally, we estimate the bootstrapped Malmquist productivity index to examine the level of productivity in the Sri Lankan hotel industry. The results of this study provide hotel operators and government with insights into the nature of competitive advantage which can assist them with strategic decision making to improve the technical and environmental management of hotels.

  • 337.
    Kuralic, Alen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Propensity and motive behind the choice of Self-Employment: in rural and urban Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and many other countries of the European Union throughout the entire twentieth century the self-employment has been important and essential for sustainable growth and welfare. The dynamics of self-employment have had an variance between areas that are characterized and distinguished by different labour market conditions, entrepreneurial traditions and other structural factors. In general, the agricultural importance in Swedish rural regions has declined over time, hence other small and medium industries have grown and gained more significance in these type of regions. A good example of the decline in industrialised importance for Swedish rural region is Bergslagen. Where the majority of the jobs in the traditional sectors of iron-ore mining were lost without any renewal.

    This study highlights the self-employment option out of the two-folded perspective. The first and foremost is to investigate the spatial i.e. rural-urban differences with the relation to individual motives as their choice for self-employment. Also, a second and as a side goal of the research, the propensity for self-employment is considered in order to get wider insight of the regional start-up activity in urban and rural regions. By using the rich survey dataset on ex-post motives and the register-based longitudinal data from Swedish Statistics (SCB). The regional differences in determinants for self-employment are examined by applying the binary probit and multinomial logit regressions. Additionally, in order to get a coherent unity within the multidimensional motives a factor analysis is used for grouping the motive variables into the four groups. Simultaneously for easier association to labour market the motives are also divided into typology of pull-push categories. The results regarding propensity for self-employment show small or no differences in the tendency for starting the own venture in rural side or urban regions. On the other hand, results concerning spatial aspects and motive behind the choice of occupation shows that a mutually pull and push reasons are more linked to the urban region than to the rural. Comparable results are observed on the subject of single ex-post motive “non-monetary” in respective area i.e. rural and urban.   

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  • 338.
    Kuralic, Alen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Svensson, Beata
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labor Mobility and Local Labor Markets: Case of Sweden 2005-20112013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of an aging population and high, stubborn unemployment in Sweden, led us into this research area. This paper presents a quantitative study, analyzing if municipal policies are effective in attracting native- and international labor migration. Further we observe if the labor mobility has any stabilizing impact on the local labor market. By using data from 2005 - 2011, the two way fixed effect regression shows that all of our three policies, social benefits, tax rate and childcare costs have significant, but modest negative effect on native location choices. When we run the same test for foreign migration, we did not find such effect at all. The same happens when we investigating if the in- and outmigration have stabilizing effect on the unemployment/vacancy ratio which measure the local labor market, we could not obtain any significance in the tests. 

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  • 339.
    Kurdi, Heba
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of minimum wages on the incentives of education for the youth2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the incentives regarding the education decisions, resulting from a minimum wage over the period 2005-2014. The question is investigated by comparing the changes in the wage dispersion and upper secondary graduation rate in 17 OECD countries. And then, by comparing the changes in the bites of the minimum wage and educational attainment for upper secondary students in 11 OECD countries, where minimum wages are regulated by law. The majority of previous research seem to point out a negative educational effect of minimum wages. However, this paper finds no evidence that increasing the minimum wage can decrease the high school graduation rate. A possible explanation is that the correlation between the higher employment prospect and educational attainment can create incentives for young individuals to undergo education. This study seems to be the first to investigate the educational effects of minimum wages using internationally comparative data.

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  • 340.
    Kurdi, Heba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dumoulin, Marie
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    How does a decrease of the number of hours worked per week impact productivity and consequently employment?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to study the effect of the 35 hours week in France on productivity and employment.  France has  implemented  3  successive laws  to  promote  the 35  hours  week through financial incentives in order to improve work sharing.  None of the previous studies agree on the possible impact of such a policy. In this paper, we conduct a Granger Causality test in order to analyse the consequences of the decrease of working hours on productivity and then  employment.  The  results  show  no  causality from  the  number  of  working  hours  to employment. Our main explanation is that the law has never been fully applied and the period was not long enough to observe an important effect of the unemployment rate.  Besides, the level of wage compensation might not have been well calibrated. As a result of our study, we suggest that introducing such a policy, such as reducing working hours to increase employment, in countries where working hours are already short (40 or less) must be well examined before implementation and different characteristics of labour market must be taken into account.

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  • 341.
    König, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Social Status Concerns and the Political Economy of Publicly Provided Private Goods2020In: The Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the political economy of the public provision of private goods whenindividuals care about their social status. Status concerns motivate richer individualsto vote for the public provision of goods they themselves buy in markets: ahigher provision level attracts more individuals to the public sector, enhancing thesocial exclusivity of market purchases. Majority voting may lead to a public provisionthat only a minority of citizens use. Users in the public sector may enjoy betterprovision than users in the private system. We characterise the coalitions that canprevail in a political equilibrium.

  • 342.
    Lagerlöf, Caisa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Intergenerational transmission of education in Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden: How much of the parents´ education does the children inherit?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the intergenerational transmission of education in four European countries, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Ordinal variables are used to distinguish between low, middle and high education for both the respondent and the respondent´s parents. The main findings are that Portugal has the highest intergenerational transmission of education from parents to children. Spain is on a second place, Norway on a third and on a last place, Sweden. Another finding is that the respondent´s that are 50-60 years old have a significantly higher risk of being low educated and a lower chance of being highly educated in comparison to the respondent´s that are 30-40 years old. Having a highly educated parent increases the chance of being highly educated and decreases the risk of being low educated in comparison to having a low educated parent. Having a low educated parent decreases the chance of being highly educated and increases the risk of being low educated in comparison to having a highly educated parent.

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  • 343.
    Lagerlöf, Caisa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Matchningseffektiviteten för Sverige, Norrköping och Linköping: Kan beveridgekurvan förklara en del av skillnaden i arbetslöshet mellan Norrköping och Linköping och hur ser deras matchningseffektivitet ut i relation till Sveriges?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I slutet av år 2016 hade Norrköping dubbelt så hög arbetslöshet än Linköping, trots att kommunerna har många likheter och att det endast skiljer 4 mil mellan städerna. För att analysera huruvida matchningseffektiviteten skiljer sig åt mellan landet som helhet och kommunerna Norrköping och Linköping har nationella beveridgekurvor för Sverige, samt lokala beveridgekurvor för Norrköping och Linköping skapats. Minsta kvadratmetoden med fixa effekter och robusta standardfel används med näst intill alla Sveriges kommuner för att skatta den långsiktiga jämviktsrelationen mellan arbetslöshet och vakansgrad med arbetskraftens rörlighet, invandring och månatliga säsongsvariationer som kontrollvariabler.

    Beveridgekurvorna som skapats för Sverige, Norrköping och Linköping visar ett liknande mönster under merparten av åren från 1995. Matchningseffektiviteten har gått från en sämre matchning till en bättre, men efter den finansiella krisen 2009 återhämtade sig Linköping till en bättre matchning när Norrköping samt Sverige stagnerade på en hög arbetslöshet samt en hög vakansgrad. Regressionen skattar en jämviktsrelation mellan arbetslöshet och vakansgrad och visar ett negativt samband mellan de två. Ett högt utbyte av arbetskraft, genom in- och utpendling, samt invandring har en tilltagande effekt på arbetslösheten.

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  • 344.
    Li, Yushu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for unit roots in panel data using a wavelet ratio method2013In: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For testing unit root in single time series, most of the tests concentrate in the time domain. Recently, Fan and Gracay (2010) proposed a wavelet ratio test which took advantage of the information from frequency domain by using wavelet spectrum decompose methodology. This test shows a better power over many time domain based unit root test including the Dickey-Fuller (1979) type of test in the univariate time series case. On the other hand, various unit root tests in multivariate time series appear since the pioneering work of Levin and Lin (1993). Among them, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) (1997) test is widely used for its straightforward implementation and robustness to heterogeneity. The IPS test is a group mean test which uses the average of the test statistics for each single series. As the test statistics in each series can be flexible, this paper will apply the wavelet ratio statistic to give a comparison with the test by using Dickey-Fuller  statistic in the single series. Simulation result shows a gain in power by employing the wavelet ratio test instead of the Dickey-Fuller  statistic in the panel data case. As the IPS test is sensitive to the cross sectional dependence, we further compare the robustness of both test statistics to the cross sectional. Finally we apply a residual based wavestrapping methodology to reduce the over biased size problem brought up by the cross correlation for both test statistics. 

  • 345.
    Lif, Kim
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Migration to the European Union: A study on the effect of social expenditure on immigration2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migration to the European Union has increased the last ten years with asylum immigrants being a large part. There is an ongoing debate about the cost of migration and whether or not immigrants tend to cluster in countries with high social benefits. Theoretical framework in the field of migration economics show a connection between level of immigration and the welfare system.This thesis will use macro-data on migration flows, social expenditure, wages, employment and immigrant population from OECD which will be combined with micro-data of individual views on politics and welfare. This will hopefully shed light on if the level of social expenditure and individual opinion with regards to willingness to help others may affect immigration.The question for this thesis is : Does a generous welfare system or high level of government social expenditure in a certain country within the European Union attract a high inflow of immigrants?Results show, as other research conducted in similar fashion, both a positive and negative impact by social expenditure depending on the type of regression made. A conlusion about whether the effect of social expenditure is positive or negative could not be done at this point in time for this research.

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  • 346.
    Locking, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance of Some Ridge Parameters for Probit Regression: With Application to Swedish Job Search Data2013In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 698-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ridge regression the estimation of the ridge parameter is an important issue. This paper generalizes some methods for estimating the ridge parameter for probit ridge regression (PRR) model based on the work of Kibria et al. (2011). The performance of these new estimators are judged by calculating the mean square error (MSE) usingMonte Carlo simulations.  In the design of the experiment we chose to vary the sample size and the number of regressors. Furthermore, we generate explanatory variables that are linear combinations of other regressors, which is a common situation in economics. In an empirical application regarding Swedish job search data we also illustrate the benefits of the new method.

  • 347.
    Locking, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Ridge estimators for probit regression: with an application to labour market data2014In: Bulletin of Economic Research, ISSN 0307-3378, E-ISSN 1467-8586, Vol. 66, no S1, p. S92-S103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose ridge regression estimators for probit models since the commonly applied maximum likelihood (ML) method is sensitive to multicollinearity. An extensive Monte Carlo study is conducted where the performance of the ML method and the probit ridge regression (PRR) is investigated when the data is collinear. In the simulation study we evaluate a number of methods of estimating the ridge parameter k that have recently been developed for use in linear regression analysis. The results from the simulation study show that there is at least one group of the estimators of k that regularly has a lower MSE than the ML method for all different situations that has been evaluated. Finally, we show the benefit of the new method using the classical Dehejia and Wahba (1999) dataset which is based on a labor market experiment.

     

  • 348.
    Lundberg, Evelina
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University.
    Birth order and child health2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are however still largely unknown. In this paper we examine birth order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantage is reversed in early age and later-born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for injuries and avoidable conditions, which could be related to less parental attention. In adolescence and as young adults younger siblings are more likely to bein poor mental health and to be admitted to hospital for alcohol induced health conditions. We also critically test for reverse causality by estimating fertility responses to health of existing children. We conclude that the effects on health are not severely biased, however the large negative birth order effects on infant mortality are partly due to endogenous fertility responses.

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  • 349.
    Lundborg, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm.
    Employer attitudes towards refugee immigrants: Findings from a Swedish survey2016In: International labour review (Print), ISSN 0020-7780, E-ISSN 1564-913X, Vol. 155, no 2, p. 315-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a large-scale survey of Swedish firms, the authors identify significant heterogeneity in their attitudes towards refugee hiring, job performance, wage setting and discrimination, though experience of employing refugees reduces negative attitudes. Firms' reasons for discontinuing their employment of refugees are not related to discrimination by staff or customers, but rather to refugees' suboptimal job performance. While the majority of firms do not regard the collectively agreed minimum wages as an important obstacle to the hiring of refugees, firms with a large share of refugees on the payroll report that reducing those wage rates would enhance employment substantially.

  • 350.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund Univ ; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund university ; IZA, Bonn, Germany ; UCL, CReAM, London, England.
    Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes2014In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 37, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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