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  • 301.
    Nilsson, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Customer requirements on solid wood material: A birch roundwood case-study2016In: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood Science and engineering - a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, p. 22-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today a majority of the pre-commercial thinning (PCT) cut birch stems in Sweden are retained on the site for biodegradation, since their market value is lower than the cost of harvesting. Some stems are removed as firewood. The uses of the PCT material can be difficult to find, and the costly PCT is carried out in expectation of greater returns later in the forest rotation. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the possibility of using low value wooden material for furniture and interior purposes. While some research has been carried out on character-marked wood, there have been few investigations on utilization of small-dimensioned roundwood. However, proper utilisation of this material requires appropriate matching of the material attributes with the end-user’s expectations on furniture or joinery products. The aim of this work is to understand challenges and possibilities for the utilization of small-dimensioned roundwood birch in furniture and joinery products. The study synthesizes literature on customers’ demands on hardwood and important material properties. A case-study approach was used to evaluate how a bench, made out of small-dimensioned roundwood birch, can meet the requirements from customers and manufacturing industries. The results demonstrate that opportunities exist within the customer segment appealed by naturalistic furniture design. Proposals are made for future research needed for successful use of small-dimensioned roundwood birch for furniture applications.

  • 302.
    Nilsson, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Potential of utilizing small-dimensioned roundwood birch2016In: The 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nordic countries, birch wood has gained interest in furniture and interior applications due to its very unique aesthetic qualities. A significant share (33%) of the small-dimensioned (diameter at breast-height smaller than 9 cm) standing tree volumes in the Swedish productive forest land consists of silver and downy birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens). In today’s forest industry, the small-dimensioned material from pre-commercial thinning operations of birch and Norway spruce mixed forests is normally left in the forest if not used as fire-wood. For the furniture industries these fractions may be a new source of raw materials’ supply. However, a proper utilization of this material requires a better knowledge of its properties. This paper presents a review on the utilization aspects of solid wood from small-dimensioned timber as well as some useful concepts for successful material selection in product design. Therefore, based on customer requirement concepts, it is analyzed which wood material properties are important for furniture or joinery applications from hardwoods and how small-dimensioned roundwood birch could meet the requirements. Proposals are made for future research needed to fully explore the potential of using small-dimensioned roundwood birch for furniture applications.

  • 303.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kostnadseffektiv skogsbränslehantering: Hur ska vi hantera skogsbränslet för bästa ekonomiska resultat2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kostnadsjämförelse har gjorts för de två vid avlägg vanligast förekommande

    sönderdelningssystemen samt vilken betydelse det har för ekonomin om man direktlevererar

    till ett värmeverk eller mellanlagrar flis en månad vid flisterminal. Vidare undersöktes det

    ekonomiska utfallet för sönderdelning av energived vid värmeverk respektive terminal.

    Studien avsåg även att utröna om det fanns andra skäl än ekonomiska att välja en metod

    framför den andra.

    Systemen vid avlägg i skogen var huggbil och maskinburen hugg och för sönderdelning av

    energived mobil och stationär hugg.

    I beräkningarna som gjorts utifrån annuitetsmetoden har fasta kostnader, utnyttjandegrad,

    personalkostnader, rörliga kostnader samt prestation använts där prestationen bygger på

    försök vid Skogforsk.

    Huggbilen är det billigaste systemet för sönderdelning vid avlägg i skogen där skillnaden var

    11 Sek per ton/ts.

    För sönderdelning av energived vid värmeverk respektive flisterminal var skillnaden 5 Sek

    per ton/ts.

    Det ekonomiska utfallet beroende på om man direktlevererade eller mellanlagrade en månad

    utgjorde en skillnad på 118 Sek per ton/ts.

  • 304.
    Norby, Richard J.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Gu, Lianhong
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Haworth, Ivan C.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Turner, Benjamin L.
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
    Walker, Anthony P.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Warren, Jeffrey M.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Weston, David J.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Xu, Chonggang
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA.
    Winter, Klaus
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
    Informing models through empirical relationships between foliar phosphorus, nitrogen and photosynthesis across diverse woody species in tropical forests of Panama2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 215, no 4, p. 1425-1437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objective was to analyze and summarize data describing photosynthetic parameters and foliar nutrient concentrations from tropical forests in Panama to inform model representation of phosphorus (P) limitation of tropical forest productivity.

    Gas exchange and nutrient content data were collected from 144 observations of upper canopy leaves from at least 65 species at two forest sites in Panama, differing in species composition, rainfall and soil fertility. Photosynthetic parameters were derived from analysis of assimilation rate vs internal CO2 concentration curves (A/Ci), and relationships with foliar nitrogen (N) and P content were developed.

    The relationships between area-based photosynthetic parameters and nutrients were of similar strength for N and P and robust across diverse species and site conditions. The strongest relationship expressed maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) as a multivariate function of both N and P, and this relationship was improved with the inclusion of independent data on wood density.

    Models that estimate photosynthesis from foliar N would be improved only modestly by including additional data on foliar P, but doing so may increase the capability of models to predict future conditions in P-limited tropical forests, especially when combined with data on edaphic conditions and other environmental drivers.

  • 305.
    Nord, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kantzoner utmed äldre och yngre granbestånd i västra Götaland och dess effekt på trädens höjd- och diametertillväxt samt markvegetationens artsammansättning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate edge effects along forest edges between young and old Norway spruce stands in south-western Sweden, and examine its influence on tree growth and field vegetation.

    Comparison between distance from stand edge, exposure (north or south facing) and young forest clearing (cleared or not cleared) showed a reduced growth among young trees near the stand edge, mainly at a distance of 0-2,5 m. This edge effect occurred regardless of exposure or forest clearing history. On the other hand, in contrary to earlier studies, no positive growth effect was found in older stands adjacent to younger stands.

    Regarding edge effects found on field vegetation, blueberries, lingonberries and lichens showed an increased incidence adjacent to stand edges. Berries, lichens and heather showed an increased incidence at south facing edges while grass showed an increased incidence at north facing edges.

  • 306.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Korosuo, Anu
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Havlik, Petr
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Frank, Stefan
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Fricko, Oliver
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Impacts of global climate change mitigation scenarios on forests and harvesting in Sweden2016In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 1427-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under climate change, the importance of biomass resources is likely to increase and new approaches are needed to analyze future material and energy use of biomass globally and locally. Using Sweden as an example, we present an approach that combines global and national land-use and forest models to analyze impacts of climate change mitigation ambitions on forest management and harvesting in a specific country. National forest impact analyses in Sweden have traditionally focused on supply potential with little reference to international market developments. In this study, we use the global greenhouse gas concentration scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change to estimate global biomass demand and assess potential implications on harvesting and biodiversity in Sweden. The results show that the short-term demand for wood is close to the full harvesting potential in Sweden in all scenarios. Under high bioenergy demand, harvest levels are projected to stay high over a longer time and particularly impact the harvest levels of pulpwood. The area of old forest in the managed landscape may decrease. This study highlights the importance of global scenarios when discussing national-level analysis and pinpoints trade-offs that policy making in Sweden may need to tackle in the near future.

  • 307.
    Olofsson, Erika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Vallin Rosell, Monika
    Lyckas skogsägare med ekonomiskt intresse bättre med biologisk mångfald?: En uppföljning av landsbygdsprogrammets ädellövsplanteringar2016In: Västra Sveriges Skogsvårdsförbund, Årskrift 2018, , p. 2p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 308. Olsson, Jan-Ola
    et al.
    Fagerberg, Nils
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    En avståndsberoende tillväxtmodell på trädnivå för gran: en preliminär modell baserad på två skiktade bestånd i Götaland2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes parameterization and testing of a single tree growth model for simulation purposes of uneven-sized Norway spruce stands. The model includes local competition in terms of distance and size of competing trees larger than 6 cm dbh. Response variable is annual basal area growth. Parameter values are based on 101 sample trees from two uneven-sized Spruce dominated stands located in Värnamo and Östra Göinge municipalities, Sweden. The model was tested by first reconstructing stand development five years, based on growth data from sample trees. Coefficient of determination for the complete model was 0,67, compared to 0,55 for the basic model without local competition. Residual analyses revealed no visible trends.

  • 309.
    Olsson, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Jämförelse av ekonomiskt utfall vid klassning av massaved enligt dagens klassningssystem och det nya systemet Prima-Sekunda: – En fallstudie på Mellanskog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In August 2019, Prima-Sekunda is about to be introduced, a new classification system for the classification of pulpwood during surveying to industry. This new classification system should be more time and cost effective and at the same time offer the industries commodity volume with better quality. The purpose of this study was to compare if there was any difference in the economic outcome with the new Prima-Sekunda compared to today's classification system when measuring pulpwood. Based on the 95 piles measured, it appeared that today's classification system gives somewhat better paid than Prima-Sekunda due to the prices for Prima-Sekunda which are initially set slightly lower than today's pulpwood price. The introduction of Prima-Sekunda should be price neutral, which means that the prices for Prima-Sekunda as shown in the current study must be reasonably equal to the current pulpwood price for this goal to be materialized.

  • 310.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Renovation of detached houses in Sweden: Can one-stop-shop provide a solution?2019In: Presented at: International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings SEB-19, 2019, article id seb19s-006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an online survey, this paper analyzes the attitude of house owners in Sweden towards future renovations and one-stop-shop (OSS) services for deep renovation of detached houses. With the aid of a house owners’ decision-making journey for renovation, personal and contextual variables have been analyzed to identify those house owners having renovation plans in the near future, what they are going to renovate, and which needs led them to that decision. Furthermore, we examine if there is an interest in OSS concept. Results suggest that deep renovation is not yet prioritized. The priority for house owners is to change specific components of their dwelling and follow a step-wise approach. Aesthetic renovations are high on the agenda, with some structural and energy-related renovations following them. House owners between 29- 49 years of age could be the customer segment to target for deep renovations. The OSS concept seems interesting to a number of house owners, who can form an early adopters segment that could develop the market. There is a need for a cost-efficient OSS concept for deep renovations, ensuring the quality of work, and the optimization of financial products and tax incentives to accelerate the deep renovation market.

  • 311.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE).
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Tekniska och ekonomiska förutsättningar för oljeersättning i industrin med pyrolysolja2017Other (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Pedersen, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mätprecisionens betydelse för skördarens aptering av timmer enligt sågverkets behov2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is of great importance to investigate the harvester's measuring accuracy as the production of timber increases and sawmills are placing ever more special requirements on the product. Early in the 1800s, the demand for saw-timber for sawmills around Sweden arose.The timber constitutes the largest part of the value from a tree and therefore it is also important for the forest owner that the timber value of the timber is utilized to a large extent. Using quality-assured final harvesting harvester during harvesting is of great importance to Södra.Harvesters and felling are controlled according to the StanForD 2010 standard through instructions on which products are to be placed on an object.The purpose of the study is to investigate how the harvester's measuring accuracy affects how well the harvester can meet the sawmill's wishes for the fir tree.Qualitative data was obtained with the help of semi-structured interviews. The requirement for machine selection was that the harvests were quality assured and carried out felling in the same geographical area. The measurement of timber for Södra Wood in Långasjö was done at the measuring station within the sawmill's area. The study was conducted using quantitative data from Södra in the form of stock note and control measurement files from four quality-assured harvesters. The sdcgpx numbers of the four harvests were collected from Södra Skog to analyze data from files with control measurement of the random strains (hqc files). A stock note with measured volume at industry was retrieved and with the help of all the data the distribution request could be examined and the harvest's hit against the saw's order.More drivers on the machine can influence the measurement precision due to different driving techniques and knowledge of control measurement.4Martina PedersenThe driver believes that it is good to be quality assured since it provides an education on control measurement and how to handle a data clave. The interviewees note that maintenance of the upper twig knives containing donors for measuring diameter is important. The fact that the harvester responds to the saw's order is important in the long term according to the production planner. The harvester with the largest total mean difference and total standard deviation was John Deere 1270 with 0.73 mm and 5.22 mm. (According to the harvested volume, there are no logs produced in the length class -304 and the diameter class – 160).The study assumed that measured volume was correct, but here too there may be uncertainty in measurement, which can contribute with a result that was not accurate.Since the measurement is in the unit, maintenance is extremely important.

  • 313.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Reese, Heather
    University of Gothenburg.
    Tree Species Classification with Multi-Temporal Sentinel-2 Data2018In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sentinel-2 program provides the opportunity to monitor terrestrial ecosystems with a high temporal and spectral resolution. In this study, a multi-temporal Sentinel-2 data set was used to classify common tree species over a mature forest in central Sweden. The tree species to be classified were Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), Hybrid larch (Larix x marschlinsii), Birch (Betula sp.) and Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). Four Sentinel-2 images from spring (7 April and 27 May), summer (9 July) and fall (19 October) of 2017 were used along with the Random Forest (RF) classifier. A variable selection approach was implemented to find fewer and uncorrelated bands resulting in the best model for tree species identification. The final model resulting in the highest overall accuracy (88.2%) came from using all bands from the four image dates. The single image that gave the most accurate classification result (80.5%) was the late spring image (27 May); the 27 May image was always included in subsequent image combinations that gave the highest overall accuracy. The five tree species were classified with a user's accuracy ranging from 70.9% to 95.6%. Thirteen of the 40 bands were selected in a variable selection procedure and resulted in a model with only slightly lower accuracy (86.3%) than that using all bands. Among the highest ranked bands were the red edge bands 2 and 3 as well as the narrow NIR (near-infrared) band 8a, all from the 27 May image, and SWIR (short-wave infrared) bands from all four image dates. This study shows that the red-edge bands and SWIR bands from Sentinel-2 are of importance, and confirms that spring and/or fall images capturing phenological differences between the species are most useful to tree species classification.

  • 314.
    Petersson, Alf
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Åkesson, Gert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Svenska skogsinvesteringar i Baltikum: Omfattning, investeringsmotiv och skogliga skillnader mellanländerna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the extent of Swedish forest investments in Estonia, Latvia and

    Lithuania. The study is also surveying the largest investors, investment motives and

    forestry differences between the countries.

    Since we did not find any previous studies of Swedish forest investments in any of

    the countries, we have based the thesis on official statistics and facts, literature,

    interviews, e-mail correspondence, and information from web pages. We have also

    carried out an in-depth study with selected Swedish forest owners in the Baltic

    countries.

    The chapter "Result and analysis" includes plotting forestry parameters for each

    country, a summary of the in-depth study of forest owners and data on forest land

    prices.

    Based on our estimates, the Swedish forest investments in the Baltic countries

    comprise approximately 300 000 ha, whereof 150 – 200 000 ha in Latvia, about

    100 000 ha in Estonia and 30 000 ha in Lithuania. This corresponds to about 4% of

    the forest land in the Baltic countries.

    Among the forestry companies the largest are Bergvik Skog, Södra, Tornator and

    Skogssällskapet, jointly with 115 000 ha. Amongst forest investment funds SPP &

    Storebrand and Europeiska Skogsfonden are the largest, amongst private/company

    forest owners the largest are Custos, Realfond, Koberg and Gåsevadsholms

    Godsförvaltning and Bockasjö Skogar. More than 1 500 Swedish private individual

    owns forest in Estonia, mainly of family reasons.

    The investment objective is appreciation with a 10 year deadline. Individual forest

    owners in Estonia, may have further reasons.

    The forestry differences between the countries are mainly that Latvia has the largest

    forest area, the largest felling compared to growth, a considerably lower quota of

    softwood in private forests, and an average forest area of 10.3 ha per forest property.

    Estonia has the largest share of privately owned forests, the largest share of nature

    protected forest land, and an average forest property area of 9.1 ha.

    Lithuania has the smallest share of forest land of all land and the largest share of

    arable land, the smallest felling compared to growth, the largest share of state owned

    forests with plans for privatization of 260 000 ha, a minor felling volume for private

    forest owners and an average forest property area of 3.5 ha.

    Latvia accounted 2010 for 39 % of the Swedish import of forest raw material,

    compared to 14 % for Estonia and 5 % for Lithuania.

    The forest legislation in Estonia has relatively the least restrictions, while Lithuania

    has the most. The legislation resembles the corresponding in Sweden, but has a

    stricter and a more detailed control, including notification or licensing for forest

    actions. The minimum rotation age is considerably higher than in Sweden. In Latvia

    and Lithuania foreign investments can only be accomplished by domestic companies,

    while individual foreigners may buy and own forest land in Estonia.

  • 315.
    Petersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Älginventering med värmekamera monterad på drönare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av drönare går snabbt och användningsområdena blir allt fler. En idé som har framkommit handlar om att montera en värmekamera på en drönare och flyga över skogen för att inventera älgar. Tanken är att få fram en inventeringsmetod som är billig, flexibel och som har större noggrannhet än traditionella älginventeringsmetoder.

    Tillsammans med ett projekt som drivs och finansieras av Skogsstyrelsen har detta kandidatarbete genomförts som ett första steg i utvecklingen av inventeringsmetoden. Målet med kandidatarbetet har varit att undersöka de grundläggande faktorerna flyghöjd och flyghastighet vid inventering med värmekamera på drönare, samt hur djuren påverkas av drönarens närvaro, för att lägga grunden för en fortsatt utvecklig av en fullskalig inventeringsmetod.

    Undersökningen har genomförts i hägn under kontrollerade former för att säkerställa att det har funnits älgar inom ett område som var begränsat. Djurens reaktion på drönarens närvaro observerades i takt med att drönaren flög allt närmare. Flyghöjds- och flyghastighetstestet genomfördes genom att värmekameran spelade in en filmsekvens medan drönaren flög på 60 m, 90 m och 120 m höjd, samt med hastigheten 2,5 m/s och 5 m/s på varje höjd, filmerna analyserades sedan manuellt i efterhand.

    Resultaten visar att vid inventering i gles äldre lövskog är det möjligt att se älgarna med värmekameran vid en flyghöjd på 120 m och med en flyghastighet på 5 m/s. Vid flyghöjder på över 80 m störs inte djuren av drönarens närvaro och vid lägre höjder på ner till 40 m så reagerar djuren men de visar inga tecken på att ta till flykt.

  • 316.
    Petersson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utvärdering av Vida Skogs entreprenörer med inriktning entreprenörsportal och certifiering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vida Skog is supplying the whole Vida Ltd’s mills with wood raw material. This study aims to evaluate Vida Skog’s contractors and the relatively new contractorportal and to identify measures that are important for the contractors’ skills. The purpose with the portal is to facilitate co-operation between contractors and buyers by streamlining the logistics of the whole wood supply process.

    The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire.

    Most of the respondents were positive to the portal. Most important for the portal’s functioning is that purchasers upload the contract directives of the objects in time. Suggested improvements in the portal were digital feedback, simplified interface, more and clear information and better maps.

    The respondents had, in many cases, a long professional experience and in 99 % of cases possessed sufficient forestry education. Most of the respondents were satisfied with the cooperation with their purchasers at Vida Skog and Vida Skog in general.

  • 317.
    Petersson, Lind
    et al.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research CentreSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesAlnarpSweden.
    Löf, Magnus
    Southern Swedish Forest Research CentreSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesAlnarpSweden.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Chastain, Daryl R.
    Delta Research and Extension Center Mississippi State University Stoneville USA.
    Gardiner, Emile
    Sprouts of shoot-clipped oak (Quercus alba and Q. robur) germinants show morphological and photosynthetic acclimation to contrasting light environments2019In: New forests, ISSN 0169-4286, E-ISSN 1573-5095, New ForestsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sprouting by woody plants can increase species resilience to disturbance and foster regeneration during periods with little recruitment from seed. Though sprouting often plays a critical role in oak forest regeneration, there is little information available on sprouting capacity and sprout physiology at the seedling stage, particularly for new germinants. This study compared sprouting capacity and sprout photosynthesis of shoot-clipped germinants of two temperate oaks established in contrasting light environments. We studied the North American Quercus alba and the European Q. robur, both are in the section Quercus and appear to share similar biological and ecological requirements. Sprouting capacity for both species was enhanced under high light availability (29% more sprouts per plant), a response not previously noted for oak germinants. Seedling sprouts acclimated to high light with a 34% decrease in leaf area ratio, a 56% increase in leaf mass per area, and a 49% increase in the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate. Though both species appeared similarly adapted to shoot loss, a greater sprouting capacity (29% more sprouts per plant) and plant-level net photosynthesis (73% higher) was observed for Q. robur, regardless of light environment. As naturally regenerated oak seedlings in forest understories often experience disturbance or stress resulting in shoot loss or die-back, our results highlight the importance of the light environment during early plant development. Our comparison of temperate oaks from different continents should facilitate exchange of successful stand regeneration practices within the range of temperate oak forests.

  • 318.
    Petersson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Biologisk mångfald och skogsproduktion: -en målkonflikt i skogen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work, has been to examine how different actors in the Swedish eco movement and the Swedish forest industry looks at Sweden’s forest policy statement, which claims that environmental goals and production goals should be equal in Swedish forestry. By assembling focusgroups with participants from the Swedish eco movement and the Swedish forest industry, we look at if these participants consider the Swedish forest policy goals equal or not. Conflicts do occur between the two forest policy goals, but also between those and others of Sweden’s environmental goals. Between Sweden’s eco movement and Sweden’s forest industry there are both examples of cooperation and conflicts. Our results does show that it is hard to say if the Swedish environmental goal and production goal is equal in Swedish forestry today. More research is needed two examine this, and to decrease the risk of further conflicts. The results of this inquiry also shows that both the Swedish eco movement and the Swedish forest industry wants more interactions and dialogues. The eco movement and the Swedish forest industry also agrees that the nature conservation in Sweden’s forests would gain on a wider use of a landscape perspective. Furthermore, the eco movement and the Swedish forest industry agrees that Sweden’s voluntarily protected forest areas should be promulgated, to insure their quality and also so that they could be counted into Sweden’s protected forest areas.

  • 319.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    GIS-stöd för tunga rundvirkestransporter på väg2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to use a timber truck with 74 ton gross weight in Swedish traffic, a

    permit from the Swedish transport administration is required. A document

    shows which roads and bridges the vehicle is allowed to traffic and what

    rules applies when driving the vehicle.

    The forest company Sveaskog started a thesis with the aim to create the

    possibility to determine in real time, which roads and bridges that are part of

    the transport permit. This should be done by developing a map support for

    the truck's on-board computer with connection to GPS to visualise the

    permit of the specified road sections and bridges.

    The result of the thesis is a map support using services provided by ArcGIS

    Online to present geographic information to the user. The background map

    consist of a base map from ArcGIS Online. On top of the background map is

    a GIS layer with roads and another layer with bridges. Information about

    whether the vehicle currently is travelling on a road included in the permit or

    not, as well as information about rules that applies to bridges on the road

    section, is presented to the driver in real time. This information is updated at

    each update of the GPS position.

  • 320.
    Pettersson, Klas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsbolags och skogsägares intresse förhyggesfritt skogsbruk: en fallstudie i södra Kronobergs län2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report scrutinizes, on the case study basis, the potential interests of forest companies and private forest owners to apply continuous cover forestry. Four interviews with local forest companies and a smaller opinion poll among forest owners were carried out in the county of Kronoberg, southern Sweden. The report also covers a smaller résumé of three different continuous cover forestry management practices, as well as a description of forest ownership in the county. The management practices in focus were single-tree selection system, Naturkultur and the Lübeck method. The study shows that companies in general are less interested in continuous cover forestry than traditionally methods, whereas forest owners interviewed showed more interest and curiosity. It can be concluded that about a half of the forest owners wished to request more information of various forest management practices based on continuous cover forestry.

  • 321.
    Pettersson, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Tillförlitligheten i den automatiserade gallringsuppföljningen1985Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure that thinning is done properly and correct due to instruction, regularly manual monitoring of the stand is done by the harvester operator after thinning. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability of a newly developed program, that is using harvester data to automaticly calculate stand variables after thinning. A manual forest inventory was carried out in ten differens stands i south west of Sweden, where basal area, stem density, volume and species mix were estimated and compared to the automatically calculated data. The results shows that volume and stem density were estimated with high precision while the systematic deviation for basal area was 10 %, which is a significant differens. 

  • 322.
    Phiri, Darius
    et al.
    Univ Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Ackerman, Pierre
    Univ Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Wessels, Brand
    Univ Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    du Toit, Ben
    Univ Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    Innventia AB, Wood & Fibre Measurement Lab, Stockholm.
    Seifert, Thomas
    Univ Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Biomass equations for selected drought-tolerant eucalypts in South Africa2015In: Southern Forests, a journal of forest science, ISSN 2070-2620, E-ISSN 2070-2639, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the water-scarce environment of South Africa, drought-tolerant eucalypt species have the potential to contribute to the timber and biomass resource. Biomass functions are a necessary prerequisite to predict yield and carbon sequestration. In this study preliminary biomass models for Eucalyptus cladocalyx, E. gomphocephala and E. grandis x E. camaldulensis from the dry West Coast of South Africa were developed. The study was based on 33 trees, which were destructively sampled for biomass components (branchwood, stems, bark and foliage). Simultaneous regression equations based on seemingly unrelated regression were fitted to estimate biomass while ensuring additivity. Models were of the classical allometric form, ln(Y) = a+x(1)ln(dbh)+x(2)ln(h), of which the best models explained between 70% and 98% of the variation of the predicted biomass quantities. A general model for the pooled data of all species showed a good fit as well as robust model behaviour. The average biomass proportions of the stemwood, bark, branches and foliage were 60%, 6%, 29% and 5%, respectively.

  • 323.
    Poggi, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bending properties of commercial wood-based panels by NDT methods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work focuses mainly on the application of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods on wood-based panels (WBP) in order to estimate the bending properties. To prove the accuracy and applicability of these methods on WBP, their results are correlated with results from a standardized static bending test. The behavior in different climate conditions and the application on panels of larger sizes is also questioned to provide an indication about strong points and boundaries of NDT methods applied on WBP.The bending properties are of major importance, especially for materials suited to bear loads. Bending stiffness, represented by the modulus of elasticity (MOE), is an expression of the deflection rate of a material under load. The bending strength, represented by the modulus of rupture (MOR), is an expression of the maximum load withstood by a material before rupture.Before testing, the material is acclimatized in three climate conditions: dry (20°C, 35% RH), standard (20°C, 65% RH) and wet (20°C, 85% RH), to understand the bending properties variation and how the NDT methods are affected by the variation in moisture content.The materials used are seven types of WBP, in particular four types of particleboards (PB), one type of high-density fiberboard (HDF), one type of dual density PB (with high and low density areas along the production direction) and one type of light-weight panel (Board-on-stiles, a composite panel of HDF, PB and paper honeycomb).To test the bending properties the following NDT methods are considered: transversal resonance vibration and longitudinal resonance vibration with the use of the BING system and the time-of-flight with the use of Fakopp Ultrasonic Timer and Silvatest Trio. The resonance vibration methods, transversal and longitudinal, are based on the relation between resonance vibration properties and bending properties of a material. The relation with bending properties also exists for the stress wave velocity (SWV) through a material, calculated with the time-of-flight method. The dynamic MOE resulting from these tests is then correlated with the static MOE and MOR from the static bending test.The NDT methods resulted to be reliable on WBP, with generally high levels of correlation between dynamic MOE and static MOE and MoR. The highest correlation value for MoE is with the transversal resonance vibration while the highest for MOR is with the longitudinal resonance vibration. The results of the dynamic MOE for all the NDT methods are higher than the static MOE, as confirmed also in the literature; the average ratio between the dynamic and the static MOE is, for example, up to 1,6 for WBP in standard climate condition, tested with Fakopp U.T.. These results are extremely higher than values suggested by previous studies. Moreover, the ratio increases with increasing relative humidity of the climate condition. The results from the tests on larger sizes suggest a possible application in this field. The time-of-flight method is suitable for in-plane uniform materials, like the PB and HDF, while the transversal resonance methods give also a good representation of the properties of the dual density PB and the light-weight panel.

  • 324.
    Popovic, Djordje
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Prefabrication of single-family timber houses: problem areas and wastes2017In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC) / [ed] Walsh, K., Sacks, R., Brilakis, I., Heraklion, Greece: International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC) , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 837-844Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization of house building has shifted the activities traditionally done at building site to the off-site assembly. The design, manufacturing processes and on-site assembly in industrialized house building are defined and documented to form a process platform, but these must be evaluated and improved to constantly develop better and more efficient practice. Lean production and philosophy are still not well understood concepts at the shop floor and wasteful activities that decrease production efficiency are often overseen. Current waste categorizations and descriptions seem not to be addressing problem areas and occurrence of waste in prefabrication of single family timber houses. The research aim is to define problem areas that occur during the prefabrication of wall modules, associate them to eight types of waste and identify key problem areas for possible development and improvement. The study was based on secondary data from five case studies that primarily focused on identifying and proposing possibilities for development of productivity. Four problem areas were identified and the future improvement efforts for the prefabrication of single family houses can be placed on developing the processes of the assembly system problem area. The possible future study can aim at quantifying these problem areas.

  • 325.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Forest management scenarios and their effects on ecosystem services: some analytical results from Sweden2016In: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] Erik Grönlund, Anna Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 149-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has just more than 23 million hectares of productive forest, which has been actively managed for more than 100 years. This has led to one of the recognized forest products exporting country. Despite the vital role of forests in providing forest products in sustaining various human needs, there is an increasing demand for the inclusion of ecosystem services in forest planning decision making. Today, methods in conventional assessments on forest growth, yield and harvest are facing changes due to extended interests in the assessments on overall forestry systems effects on ecosystem services including carbon balance of the system. Recently, integrated approaches that have concepts of forest science, wood material science, energy science and cleaner productions have been used in the field of forestry to assess the important role of forestry in reducing carbon emissions. This paper uses a system analysis approach to perform a model based analysis that includes forest management and their effects on different indicators of ecosystem services in Swedish forest landscape.

  • 326.
    Proper, Britt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effekt av markberedning, gödsling och planttyp för granplantors överlevnad och tillväxt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 327.
    Richt, Marcus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sjöberg, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Biologiska, ekologiska och ekonomiska värden vid föryngring med Smålandsmodellen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased social demands for biodiversity and recreation, the proportion of border zones in the forest landscape has increased.

    The purpose of this thesis were to establish growth variables in new stand planted according to the rejuvenation model Smålandsmodellen developed to lower rejuvenation cost by planting fewer seedlings in the right place with the intention of maintaining production targets.

    The result showed that the number of main plants were less per hectare than requirements and that the rejuvenation cost were lower in avarage for planting and scarification in both Smålandsmodellen and outcome of the study, than traditional methods.

    The model as a forest management system has the potential to contribute to a sustainable and functional ecosystem in production stands but does require a certain degree of user knowledge when implementing. 

  • 328.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå University.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Granstrom, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Supplement 2, p. S109-S123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socioecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  • 329.
    Runesson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skötsel av klibbal för produktion av efterfrågad virkeskvalitet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Common alder (Alnus Glutinosa) grows for the most part in the south and middle of Sweden, in clumps smaller than one hectare. The wood is soft, light and easy to work and maintains a smooth surface in humid environment and does not take on heath. The wood is not of interest in pulp as it discolors. The hard wood saw mills have at present a lack of good quality hardwood. With enhanced silviculture-program for common alder with shorter silviculture-interval, 2-, 3 and 4 years, and the use of a site index for common alder it should be possible to get a higher production of good quality hardwood.

    The current silviculture programs should be changed to shorter intervals to fit common alder silviculture.

    When common alder is identified for cutting, it should be taken to the hard wood industry for optimal refining.

  • 330.
    Rydé, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Erfarenheter av uppföljning efter gallring och föryngringsavverkning för att nå kraven i miljöcertifieringssystemen FSC och PEFC2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental certification systems PEFC and FSC require follow-up and auditing to ensure that the requirements are followed and that quality is achieved. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the experience of machine entrepreneurs, forestry managers and timber buyers of work with evaluation of environmental certified forestry. Data was gathered through telephone interviews and was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Evaluation and contract directives have an important role in achieving environmental certification requirements. Dialogue and co-operation between the different groups is important, according to respondents, for environmental certifications to achieve high quality and to create commitment and desire to improve the work.

  • 331.
    Rydé, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utvärdering av effekter hos deltagare i projektet Skogsbruk och vatten inom Landsbygdsprogrammet hos Skogsstyrelsen i Östergötland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the state authority of forestry the purpose of the Swedish Forest Agency is to transfer forest policy into practice. Therefore, it has to obtain knowledge of its efforts and their effects on forestry. A tool to measure such effects is evaluation. Through evaluating these effects the Swedish Forest Agency can develop and improve its future projects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Forestry and Water project run by the Swedish Forest Agency in the district of Östergötland, supported by the Rural Development Program, on participants with respect to increased knowledge, usefulness and experience of the Water seminars.

    The evaluation was made as a quantitative interview study and data was gathered through phone interviews with 50 participants in the Water seminars. The results showed that the information was worthwhile and distributed at an appropriate level. Furthermore, oral presentations and practical advices were the most suitable way of gaining information. The usefulness varied among participants depending on previous knowledge as well as if they had waters on their own forestry properties. Several participants thought that the seminars to some degree had changed their approach and thoughts about future forestry. The general impression of the water seminars was good for a majority of the participants.

  • 332.
    Rylander, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Naturhänsyn vid föryngringsavverkningar: En jämförelse mellan certifierade och o-certifierade hyggen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of Swedish forest owners are choosing to certify their forestry. However, there appears to be a lack of field surveys which describe differences between certified and non-certified forests concerning the degree of completed environmental considerations. In order to know to what extent certified forests contribute towards improved environmental consideration, we need studies on how large the difference is in relation to non-certified forests.

    Differences between certified and non-certified forest clearings were quantified through an inventory of the number of retention trees, dead trees and snags. The result showed that the retained number of the investigated parameters varied greatly between individual clearings, regardless of certification status. However, the results suggested that the certified clearings had an average higher incidence ofthe investigated parameters. In comparison to statistics of southern Sweden's average, the results also suggested that the certified clearings (from the county “Blekinge”) most of the time had a higher incidence of the investigated parameters, while the non-certified clearings most of the time had a lower incidence of the investigated parameters. The environmental considerations on neither the certified nor the non-certified clearings were found to be near the highest amount that could be required by the Swedish forestry act. This observation is interesting, especially since the certified clearings would be expected to maintain a consistently high level in relation to the law requirement.

  • 333.
    Rytter, Lars
    et al.
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Sweden.
    Andreassen, Kjell
    The Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Eko, Per-Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gronholm, Tiia
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Kilpelainen, Antti
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Lazdina, Dagnija
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute, Latvia.
    Muiste, Peeter
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Nord-Larsen, Thomas
    Copenhagen University, Denmark.
    Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries: Land Areas and Biomass Amounts2015In: Baltic Forestry, ISSN 1392-1355, E-ISSN 2029-9230, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 375-390Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review compiles information on the current state of the forests and analyses the potential of forest fuels for energy purposes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia and Latvia. In these countries the forest area is 61 mill. ha, corresponding to 52% of the land areas, which is high in a European perspective where 38% of the land area is forest (EU-27). Although some forest areas are protected, 75-92% of the area can still be used for wood production. Further, substantial agriculture land areas may also be available for production of biomass for energy. Coniferous species dominate the forests in Finland, Norway and Sweden, while a more even distribution of conifers and deciduous species is found in Denmark, Estonia and Latvia. The total growing stock is around 7,400 mill. m(3) and the annual increment is estimated to about 275 mill. m(3) yr(-1) Annual growth currently exceeds annual harvest, leading to the conclusion that some of the difference may be used for energy purposes in the near future. The current potential for forest fuel resources was estimated to 230-410 TWh yr(-1) (830-1,480 PJ yr(-1)) for the countries included and forest fuels will thus be of utmost importance for the future energy supply in the area. A changing climate with larger standing volumes may affect the future growth positively and increase the potential harvest levels. Estimates from Finland, Sweden and Norway show an average growth increase of over 30% by the end of the century and substantially higher for specific regions. Wood is extensively used for energy purposes and the forests hold a large potential for increasing the production of renewable energy. The potential may be further increased in the future with increased fertilization, extended breeding for enhanced biomass production, larger cultivation areas and changes of tree species and management systems.

  • 334.
    Salim, Roaa
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Automation decisions in investment projects: a study in the Swedish wood products industry2018In: Proceedings of the 8th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2018) / [ed] Mauro Onori, Lihui Wang, Xi Vincent Wang & Wei Ji, Elsevier, 2018, p. 255-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study which aspects are considered when automation decisions are being made in the wood products industry. The aspects were identified in several decision areas of manufacturing. The data collection was based on participation in meetings of an ongoing investment project. The findings demonstrate that in the first phases of an investment project, where the project idea is evaluated, the most critical aspect for decision makers is economic benefits. This paper will provide further insights on the underlying reasoning for decisions on automation of manufacturing in investment projects in the wood products industry.

  • 335.
    Salim, Roaa
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The influence of raw material on the wood product manufacturing2016In: 49th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, CIRP-CMS 2016; Commundo Tagungs Hotel Stuttgart, Germany, 25 May 2016 through 27 May 2016 / [ed] Bauernhansl T.,Westkamper E, Stuttgart: Elsevier, 2016, no 57, p. 764-768Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the later part of the wood processing chain in wood industry: the wood product manufacturing. Wood product manufacturers are facing many challenges e.g. due to the high variability of the raw material. Waste and rework are prevalent, resulting in high manufacturing costs. Each processing step in the manufacturing affects material utilization and cost efficiency. The proportion of the material cost and waste in most wood products are high. The challenge for wood product manufacturers is to make profit and remain competitive when on one side they need to execute the processes at the lowest cost and within shortest time and on the other side deal with a highly variable raw material. Therefore, wood product manufacturers need to consider their manufacturing process with emphasizes on the raw material consumed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct –and indirect influences of the material on the wood product manufacturing process in terms of productivity and efficiency. The direct influences aims at examining the impact of consuming raw material with different properties on the manufacturing process, while the indirect influences examine process-related aspects affecting the material's influence on the manufacturing process. This paper is based on a case study at a Swedish interior wood product manufacturer. The first phase of the study compares between two wooden panels with different material properties. Results show that solid, knotty raw material with higher moisture content results in lower efficiency than finger-jointed, knot free material with lower moisture content. The second phase of the study examines the indirect influences and shows that material handling is one of the key process-related aspects that need to be considered.

  • 336.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    State-of-the-art and tendencies in  THM wood processing.2013In: / [ed] Haller, P., Dresden: Technische Universität Dresden , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Haller, Peer
    Institute of Steel and Timber Construction, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Parviz, Navi
    Wood and Civil Engineering, Bern University of Applied Science, Biel, Switzerland.
    Thermo-hydro and thermo-hydro-mechanical wood processing: an opportunity for future environmentally friendly wood products2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 64-88Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This state-of-the art report presents the basic concepts of some of the thermo-hydro (TH) and thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) wood processes that are in use today, i.e. heat treatment, compression of wood in the longitudinal or transverse direction, and wood welding. The reasons for the growing interest in TH and THM techniques are discussed and the development of the different concepts, from first ideas to current status, is briefly presented. The physical and chemical changes that occur in wood during TH and THM processing according to the latest research are also presented. Finally, developments that are close to or already have an industrial application are presented and the challenges for further development of the heat treatment, compression and wood welding processes are discussed.

    The TH processing of wood is based entirely on water and heat, and a THM process incorporates an additional mechanical force. The purpose of wood transformation by a TH or a THM process is to improve the intrinsic wood properties, to acquire a form and functionality desired by engineers without changing its eco-friendly characteristics or hindering its further use in the total material life cycle.

    Only a few of the recently developed techniques, e.g. wood welding and various densification applications, have been industrialized to any great extent. There are many reasons for this relatively low transfer of the research results to a full up-scaled industrial production. Some of them are related to unsolved problems at the laboratory level on small-size samples and others are related to the scaling-up processes in industry. Furthermore, the aging of heated wood leads to deterioration with time, in some cases there is an unpleasant odour, the strength of the wood decreases substantially and the wood becomes more brittle. These are new challenges which need to be resolved by the collaboration of researchers from the different scientific domains of academia, research institutes and industry.

  • 338.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Vasiri, Mojgan
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ohman, Micael
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    The role of the wood mechanical industry in the Swedish forest industry cluster2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 352-359Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest and forest products form one of the most important basis for the transfer to a bio-based economy in Sweden. About 75% of the area covered by forest in Sweden is used industrially to produce raw material for the wood-refining industries. Every year, this cluster uses 75 million m(3) of roundwood and has an export value of (sic)12 billion. This review paper is devoted to the wood mechanical industry, i.e. the industry which turns the forest into sawn timber, packaging, construction wood, furniture and interior fittings. The sawmills consume about half of the volume of softwood which is felled, and about two-thirds of the sawn timber go to export without any further refining within the country. Nevertheless, in spite of the relatively low degree of refinement in the sawmill and the fact that the sawmills in general over time have a very low profitability, they are responsible for 70-80% of the forest owners' profits on the sale of timber. An increased upgrading of the sawn timber within the country is desirable from a national economic viewpoint increased employment opportunities, increased export income, etc. It should then in the first place be for products with a higher added value, such as furniture and fittings. Today, the refinement value is 15-20 times higher for products from joinery and furniture industries compared to that of the sawn timber, and the added value of the wood within the building industry is only about 1.5 times.

  • 339.
    Sandberg, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Volymen i ”Skogliga grunddata” jämfört med inmätt volym: - Modell för volymberäkning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Remote analyses can be a good tool to facilitate silvicultural estimates. They can however contain sources of error, which can affect their accuracy. The purpose of this study was to find out why differences in volume occurred between “forest basic data”, obtained from Swedish forest agency, and measured volume in a certain area in mid-northern Sweden. The study was conducted as a quantitative study, using regression analyzes to compare the volume difference to different parameters, such as tree height, altitude, area, age and species mix. Felling areas was drawn in a GIS-program, that calculated the volume from “Forest basic data”. The volume was then compared to the measured volume obtained from sawmill and pulp companies. The average volume from “Forest basic data” was 95% of measured volume, ranging between 76% at the lowest and 128% at the highest. The study showed that the volume difference was well spread regardless of forest parameter, no specific parameter could explain the differences. A model was created to calculate the volume from “Forest basic data”, and that model improved the volume from “Forest basic data” when compared to measured volume.

  • 340.
    Saur, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skuggad terrängmodell och historiska kartor: Identifiering av forn- och kulturhistoriska lämningar i skogsmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry has major negative effect with damage on cultural heritage in forest land. To avoid this, forestry needs to find new methods to search for and identify remains. In this study it was examined if shaded terrain models and historical maps could be used to identify ancient and cultural heritage in forest land. A field inventory was conducted to compare the cultural heritage objects identified in the digital maps with those found in the forest.

    The result showed that it is possible to identify ancient and cultural heritage using shaded terrain models and historical maps. 8 of the identified objects were also identified in field as real remnants. In historical maps, two remains were interpreted and identified, one of which was also identified in shaded terrain model. The conclusion was that shaded terrain model is an uncertain method to use, but together with other data it can be helpful to find cultural heritage.

    Forestry has major negative effect with damage on cultural heritage in forest land. To avoid this, forestry needs to find new methods to search for and identify remains. In this study it was examined if shaded terrain models and historical maps could be used to identify ancient and cultural heritage in forest land. A field inventory was conducted to compare the cultural heritage objects identified in the digital maps with those found in the forest.

    The result showed that it is possible to identify ancient and cultural heritage using shaded terrain models and historical maps. 8 of the identified objects were also identified in field as real remnants. In historical maps, two remains were interpreted and identified, one of which was also identified in shaded terrain model. The conclusion was that shaded terrain model is an uncertain method to use, but together with other data it can be helpful to find cultural heritage.

  • 341.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    From Customer Values to Production Requirements: Improving the Quality of Wooden Housing2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 780-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industry of wooden single-family houses in Sweden faces several challenges; both with regards to production but also with regards to the market conditions. In order to avoid uncontrolled price increases of wooden single-family houses, an act regulating the cash contribution when purchasing a house has been introduced. This has led to an increased focus of the house price as well as on the individual producers to control its processes and thereby its costs. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing research related to product and production developments related to the industry, identifying research gaps, and suggest research activities. This research has been carried out as a literature study focusing on these concepts. It concludes that existing research is fragmented and that the linkage between the consumer and the product is neglected as well as the holistic approach is missing in development activities. The authors propose that in order to study how the industry could come closer to their consumer markets and the aligned requirements as well as to facilitate product development, the Means-End Chain approach may be of use and that the approach could further be linked to Quality Function Deployment.

  • 342.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wooden multi-family houses in Sweden: issues related to public procurement and quality2014In: Forest Products Society and World Conference on Timber Engineering joint proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Critical success factors determining economic health of firms producing wooden single-family houses2017In: Arkitektur N, ISSN 1504-7628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms in the Swedish industry for wooden single-family houses operate on a highly competitive market. Products are relatively homogenous, easily substitutional and firms mainly compete by prices. Since 2005, the accumulated market share for the five largest firms decreased from 53 % to 39 %, whilst the number of firms in the industry increased by almost 60 %. In addition to these internal issues on industry structure, construction firms are generally sensitive to external impacts, like the current changes in bank loan policy for the customer. Nonetheless, the number of produced single-family houses in Sweden increased by almost 130 % since 2012. Contributing to reducing the existing housing shortage in Sweden, wooden single-family house producers play an important role.

    However, earlier studies show that around 40 % of these firms are economically distressed, or in a situation, where they need to take appropriate strategic action to avoid economic distress in the near future. Yet, what actions are appropriate?

    This study is aiming at identifying current critical success factors determining economic health of Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses. By means of these factors, conclusions about appropriate strategic actions might be drawn to avoid economic distress. Data from the 2015 annual reports of 50 relevant firms were collected and processed by means of the Altman’s Z´-score model and regression analysis.

    The results show that two factors accumulate to 99 % explanatory power (adj. R2) of financial health: (1) the manufacturing capacity of the firms’ assets and (2) the firms’ equity ratio. These are the current critical success factors for economic health of Swedish firms producing single-family houses. (1) matches todays’ debate about automated prefabrication and (2) can be seen as the way of financing such assets. Thus, these issues should guide the strategic agenda of firms in the industry.

  • 344.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    ATEA Logistics.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The Development of Equity Ratios for Firms in the Swedish Industry for Wooden Single-Family Houses2016In: The 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the Swedish market for single-family houses, wood traditionally dominates with around 90 % market share. Due to the economic crisis, the number of prefabricated wooden single-family houses decreased from about 12 100 units in 2007 to 4 800 units in 2012. Firms in the industry struggled with a 60 % decrease of order intake. These firms compete with relatively low margins, and many faced economic losses. Such losses negatively affect the firms’ equity ratio, describing the share of assets that are financed by own capital. This negative effect defines the firms’ long-term ability to pay its depths. The longer such an effect lasts, the more it threatens the firms’ future, potentially leading to bankruptcy.

    This study is aiming at describing the development of the equity ratio from 2010 to 2014 for 52 Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses. This will be done by collecting and analyzing those firms’ annual reports and the required financial numbers.

    The results show on the one hand how an average equity ratio for the whole industry developed within the chosen five-year period. On the other hand, the development of each firm’s equity ratio within that period is mapped, indicating, which firms potentially might face problems if no appropriate actions will be taken.

  • 345.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Industry structure and risk positions for wooden single-family house firms in Sweden: evaluating their potential to enter the multi-family house segment2014In: Forest Products Society and World Conference on Timber Engineering joint proceedings, Forest Products Society, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    et al.
    RISE .
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mätning av ytspänningar i torkat gran med NIR2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sawmilling, a lot of timber properties are measured online in the sorting and grading of dried timber. This may include moisture content, shape, and a host of other parameters. An important wood property that cannot be measured online is drying stresses, although it is an important parameter for many customers. Since the destructive test methods for stress determination are time consuming, no high frequency routine measurement of the internal stresses is done. In literature, there are a few examples of near infrareds (NIR) capability to detect surface stresses along the fiber direction. There is also an example of stress measurements across the grain on a Japanese wood specie during drying, however, these measurements were always done on a tangential surface. It is unknown whether NIR prediction models can predict surface tension and stress measurements across the grain of dried Norway spruce with varying characteristics, i.e. material from different logs, heart- or sapwood, different year ring orientations, etc. If the technique cannot handle the variation in material properties, such as occurs in a sawmill environment, this means that a simple NIR measurement would not be sufficient to predict the surface tension in industry. This study investigated whether surface stresses in mechanically loaded as well as dried spruce samples with varying material properties can be predicted by NIR models. The measurement data from some mechanically loaded samples showed a correlation between the predicted and actual stress values, but many other samples showed no correlation. Moreover, the data for a single sample could show a good correlation, but the prediction could be at an incorrect stress level. As for the dried samples, NIR models were good at separating the conditioned and nonconditioned samples, but had no predictive power concerning the stress level. The models used to predict the stress level in mechanically loaded samples, were also used to predict the stress in the dried samples, but there was no correlation between the measured strain and the predicted stress level. Therefore, it is concluded that there are no clear indication that NIR measurements can be used in an industrial application for predicting the surface stress level of dried Norway spruce boards.

  • 347.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wiberg, Pär
    Alent Dynamic.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    A method to estimate wood surface moisture content during drying2017In: MADERAS: Ciencia y Tecnología, ISSN 0717-3644, E-ISSN 0718-221X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to estimate the surface moisture content below the fibre saturation point that is a function of the surface temperature, wet- and dry bulb temperatures, equilibrium moisture content, and fibre saturation point was evaluated. The method is based on the premise that the surface temperature is solely influenced by the surface moisture content and the climate that the surface is exposed to. The prediction model contends that the surface moisture content is equal to the fibre saturation point when the surface temperature is equal to the wet bulb temperature, and equal to the equilibrium moisture content when the surface temperature is equal to the dry bulb temperature, with a linear interpolation between those two points. The model thus predicts that the average moisture content of a thin piece of veneer can be predicted with fairly good accuracy. Also, when drying boards in a fast changing climate, e.g. fan reversals in industrial kilns, the surface temperature and surface moisture content should change as abruptly as the climate does. Additionally, the surface moisture content should correlate to the known drying phases, with a consistently high surface moisture content during the capillary phase when the wet line is close to the surface, and a quickly decreasing surface moisture content when the wet line moves into the wood during the transition to the diffusion phase. The prediction model was tested in these three scenarios and the results suggest that the basic premise is reasonable, and that the method is useful for surface moisture content estimation.

  • 348.
    Schyman, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Photosynthesis response to temperatures – A study of fertilized and unfertilized Picea abies : Fotosyntes i respons till temperatur – En studie av gödslad och ogödslad Picea abies 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effect climate change has on forest trees is a large scaled topic. It is to believe that one of the largest threat to the environment today is global warming (IPPC, 2007). The use of fossil fuels seems to be the big threat with its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and therefore forest is of interest. Forest contributes in several ways. Forest trees work as a renewable source of numerus materials and as it takes up CO

    2 from the greenhouse gasses it gives us oxygen (O2). The important process of photosynthesis, to able production of more trees and creation of more forests, tells us the vitality of understanding the tree physiology to the fullest. The response of photosynthesis to temperature is a central facet of trees’ response to climate change. With its photosynthesis plants play a large role in the carbon cycle as they store the hazardous carbon dioxide helping us humans to deal with problems directly linked to climatic change and in the same time they build up biomass that can be used as a renewable source. To understand, and to find the key, how plants can achieve optimum potential of photosynthesis several observations were made using plant material from fertilized and unfertilized Picea abies. Well acknowledged leaf gas exchange measurements were used to see the limitations of photosynthesis, observing the net CO2 uptake rate (Anet), the maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of electron transport for regeneration of RuBP (Jmax) and their unique response to temperatures. For three days observations were conducted at the Slu Asa field research station in Lammhult, Sweden. In addition to gas exchange measurements, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and chlorophyll content was measured in needles of the fertilized and unfertilized P. abies to see if the content somehow made an impact on photosynthetic parameters and the influence nutrients might have on the specific leaf area (SLA). Results from the observations showed that optimum temperature for photosynthesis varies to be by fertilized 22°C and unfertilized 19°C. The net photosynthetic rate responded to the influence by added fertilizers to almost a double, 9.10 μmol m−2 sec−1 than of the unfertilized, 5.36 μmol m−2 sec−1. These results indicate that a fertilized P. abies has a greater potency to capture carbon than of an unfertilized P. abies. The result also reveals the future prospect of adding fertilizer to a P. abies as a potential of growth in biomass as well as a carbon sink when atmospheric CO2 levels rise. There were no great differences in the behaviour between Vcmax and Jmax to the added or non-added fertilized P. abies. Perhaps the fact that given fertilizer contained both nitrogen and phosphorous could have in their combinations influenced the sensitivity of the relationship between them two and therefore also the result. The presence of N and P in the fertilized P. abies affected the concentration of chlorophyll positively, paving the way for photosynthesis, accumulated biomass and possibly for trees defence against abiotic stress factors.

  • 349.
    Shuchan, Pu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Evaluation of non-destructive test methods for predicting the static bending stiffness and strength properties of thermally modified timber2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Non-destructive technologies have been applied on predicting the stiffness and strength properties of timber for decades. However, these technologies have rarely been investigated on predicting the properties of thermally modified timber. This study was performed to investigate the non-destructive technologies on estimating of the strength and stiffness properties of thermally modified timber. The material that was utilized for study is full-size structural Norway spruce. Twenty-five thermally modified boards were investigated by applying both non-destructive technologies and static bending test; 25 unmodified boards were used as a control group. Timber grader MTG and Sylvatest Trio are two non-destructive tools that were used for the determining the modulus of elasticity (MOE): MTG is an application of resonance frequency technology and Sylvatest Trio is an application of time-of-flight technology (TOF). The results show that both non-destructive technologies provide good results (??2=0.70 from MTG and??2=0.58 from Sylvatest Trio) on estimating the stiffness properties while poor resultson predicting the strength properties of thermally modified boards.The result shows anoverestimation of modulus of elasticity (MOE) from time-of-flight test compared withthe MOEs gathered from static bending test and resonance frequency test for both thermally modified boards and unmodified ones. The stiffness properties of boards after thermal modification reduced slightly (6.5%) compared with unmodified timbers; while strength properties of thermally modified boards decreased (37.5%) significantlycompared with control group.This study is a part of a bigger study performed at Linneaus University by Joran vanBlokland.

  • 350.
    Sjöberg, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Förhållandet mellan ultraljudshastigheten och fibervinkeln på stående hybridasp2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood anisotropic- and orthotropic properties and structure, entails a certain limitation regarding its final use. Its properties have there an important role, depending on what it will be used. In order to not decompose the material for the full quality determination, necessary alternative methods that can do the job without decomposition. One such method is the acoustic investigation by ultrasonic techniques. The method has been used in a variety of areas, the last few decades, so even in the wood industry. One question asked was whether the method can be used to examine the slope of grain angle under bark of the hybrid aspen. A comparison of an acoustic ultrasonic measurements and a manual measurement with a fiber angle measuring device with respect to the fiber angle, were made. The result was that some connection existed between fiber angle and the ultrasonic velocity. 

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