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  • 301.
    Kastrat, Merima
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Tas, Dilan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Does immigration affect native's labor market outcomes in Germany?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Germany is one of the several countries in Europe that have opened its borders to immigrants for many years. The admission of immigrants into Germany has contributed to the country being the second largest immigration destination in the world, and this has resulted in both negative and positive outcomes for the natives. In this essay, the effect of immigration on natives’ hourly wages and employment was examined, by using microdata for Germany. Native workers’ educational level attainments and 16 different regions in Germany were taken into account to obtain regional variation. Cross-sectional data was used for the years 2005, 2009 and 2015 in order to measure the effect of the share of immigrants on natives’ hourly wages and employment. The findings showed that the share of immigrants, had a positive effect on natives’ wages and employment in 2005 and 2009. In 2015, however, a negative relationship was found, with the share of immigrants impacting negatively on natives’ wages but not on employment. Thus, the study highlights the importance of immigrants on natives’ hourly wages and employment.

  • 302.
    Khalaf, G
    et al.
    King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A Tobit Ridge Regression Estimator2014Inngår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 131-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the effects of multicollienarity on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for the Tobit regression model. Furthermore, a ridge regression (RR) estimator is proposed since the mean squared error (MSE) of ML becomes inflated when the regressors are collinear. To investigate the performance of the traditional ML and the RR approaches we use Monte Carlo simulations where the MSE is used as performance criteria. The simulated results indicate that the RR approach should always be preferred to the ML estimation method.

  • 303. Khalaf, Ghadban
    et al.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Modified Ridge Regression Estimators2013Inngår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 42, nr 8, s. 1476-1487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ridge Regression is a variant of ordinary multiple linear regression whose goal is to circumvent the problem of predictors collinearity. It gives-up the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimator as a method for estimating the parameters of the multiple linear regression model . Different methods of specifying the ridge parameter k were proposed and evaluated in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) by simulation techniques. Comparison is made with other ridge-type estimators evaluated elsewhere. The new estimators of the ridge parameters are shown to have very good MSE properties compared with the other estimators of the ridge parameter and the OLS estimator. Based on our results from the simulation study we may recommend the new ridge parameters to practitioners.

  • 304.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    et al.
    Florida International University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    A simulation study of some biasing parameters for the ridge type estimation of Poisson regression2015Inngår i: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 943-957Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes several estimators for estimating the ridge parameter k based for Poisson ridge regression (RR) model. These estimators have been evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. As performance criteria, we have calculated the mean squared error (MSE), the mean value and the standard deviation of k. The first criterion is commonly used, while the other two have never been used when analyzing Poisson RR. However, these performance criterion are very informative because, if several estimators have an equal estimated MSE then those with low average value and standard deviation of k should be preferred. Based on the simulated results we may recommend some biasing parameters which may be useful for the practitioners in the field of health, social and physical sciences.

  • 305. Kibria, B. M. Golam
    et al.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Some Ridge Regression estimator for the zero-inflated Poisson model2013Inngår i: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 721-735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The zero inflated Poisson regression model is very common when analysing economic data that comes in the form of non-negative integers since it accounts for excess zeros and overdispersion of the dependent variable. However, a problem often encountered when analyzing economic data that has not been addressed for this model is multicollinearity. This paper proposes ridge regression estimators and some methods of estimating the ridge parameter k for the non-negative model. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the performance of the estimators. Both mean squared error (MSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are considered as performance criterion. The simulation study shows that some estimators are better than the commonly used maximum likelihood estimator and some other ridge regression estimators. Based on the simulation study and an empirical application, some useful estimators are recommended for the practitioners.

  • 306.
    Kilic, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Bengtsson, Filip
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Oil price shocks on Swedish economy: Case study on the oil's effect on a small country.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the macroeconomic performance in terms of inflation and GDP growth of Sweden in relations to oil price shocks, focusing on the differences across two periods, pre and post 2008. By using a Vector Error Correction model and linear hypothesis testing we can see short term and long term correlations between the nominal oil price and three dependent variables, GDP, CPI and GDP deflator. Our hypothesis is that the effects of oil price shocks are indifferent across our estimation period and this would be in line with previous literature.  We find that the macroeconomic factors of GDP and inflation responds differently post 2008 and by using impulse response functions (IRFs) we can see how the dependent variables responds to an oil price shock. They show that oil shocks have permanent effects in GDP and GDP deflator but transitory effects in CPI, we found short run causality for GDP and CPI but not for GDP deflator.  

  • 307.
    Kularatne, Thamarasi
    et al.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Wilson, Clevo
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Thammasat Univ, Thailand.
    Hoang, Vincent
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Lee, Boon
    Queensland Univ Technol, Australia.
    Do environmentally sustainable practices make hotels more efficient?: A study of major hotels in Sri Lanka2019Inngår i: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 71, s. 213-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As environmentally sustainable practices are becoming popular in the hotel industry, their impact on efficiency is an important issue. To investigate the performance of hotels in this context, we use data envelopment analysis (DEA) double bootstrap approach to firstly assess the technical efficiency and its determinants of a sample of medium and large scale hotels in Sri Lanka for the period 2010-2014. Secondly, we evaluate the impact of a number of explanatory variables in determining hotel efficiency. The results reveal that the average technical efficiency is 61% with the maximum being 71.5% and the minimum 46.8%. The results conclude that being environmentally responsible enhances the efficiency of hotels, specifically in terms of improving energy efficiency and waste management. Water consumption is shown to have a contradictory result in relation of improving efficiency. Finally, we estimate the bootstrapped Malmquist productivity index to examine the level of productivity in the Sri Lankan hotel industry. The results of this study provide hotel operators and government with insights into the nature of competitive advantage which can assist them with strategic decision making to improve the technical and environmental management of hotels.

  • 308.
    Kuralic, Alen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Propensity and motive behind the choice of Self-Employment: in rural and urban Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and many other countries of the European Union throughout the entire twentieth century the self-employment has been important and essential for sustainable growth and welfare. The dynamics of self-employment have had an variance between areas that are characterized and distinguished by different labour market conditions, entrepreneurial traditions and other structural factors. In general, the agricultural importance in Swedish rural regions has declined over time, hence other small and medium industries have grown and gained more significance in these type of regions. A good example of the decline in industrialised importance for Swedish rural region is Bergslagen. Where the majority of the jobs in the traditional sectors of iron-ore mining were lost without any renewal.

    This study highlights the self-employment option out of the two-folded perspective. The first and foremost is to investigate the spatial i.e. rural-urban differences with the relation to individual motives as their choice for self-employment. Also, a second and as a side goal of the research, the propensity for self-employment is considered in order to get wider insight of the regional start-up activity in urban and rural regions. By using the rich survey dataset on ex-post motives and the register-based longitudinal data from Swedish Statistics (SCB). The regional differences in determinants for self-employment are examined by applying the binary probit and multinomial logit regressions. Additionally, in order to get a coherent unity within the multidimensional motives a factor analysis is used for grouping the motive variables into the four groups. Simultaneously for easier association to labour market the motives are also divided into typology of pull-push categories. The results regarding propensity for self-employment show small or no differences in the tendency for starting the own venture in rural side or urban regions. On the other hand, results concerning spatial aspects and motive behind the choice of occupation shows that a mutually pull and push reasons are more linked to the urban region than to the rural. Comparable results are observed on the subject of single ex-post motive “non-monetary” in respective area i.e. rural and urban.   

  • 309.
    Kuralic, Alen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Svensson, Beata
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Labor Mobility and Local Labor Markets: Case of Sweden 2005-20112013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of an aging population and high, stubborn unemployment in Sweden, led us into this research area. This paper presents a quantitative study, analyzing if municipal policies are effective in attracting native- and international labor migration. Further we observe if the labor mobility has any stabilizing impact on the local labor market. By using data from 2005 - 2011, the two way fixed effect regression shows that all of our three policies, social benefits, tax rate and childcare costs have significant, but modest negative effect on native location choices. When we run the same test for foreign migration, we did not find such effect at all. The same happens when we investigating if the in- and outmigration have stabilizing effect on the unemployment/vacancy ratio which measure the local labor market, we could not obtain any significance in the tests. 

  • 310.
    Kurdi, Heba
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The impact of minimum wages on the incentives of education for the youth2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the incentives regarding the education decisions, resulting from a minimum wage over the period 2005-2014. The question is investigated by comparing the changes in the wage dispersion and upper secondary graduation rate in 17 OECD countries. And then, by comparing the changes in the bites of the minimum wage and educational attainment for upper secondary students in 11 OECD countries, where minimum wages are regulated by law. The majority of previous research seem to point out a negative educational effect of minimum wages. However, this paper finds no evidence that increasing the minimum wage can decrease the high school graduation rate. A possible explanation is that the correlation between the higher employment prospect and educational attainment can create incentives for young individuals to undergo education. This study seems to be the first to investigate the educational effects of minimum wages using internationally comparative data.

  • 311.
    Kurdi, Heba
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Dumoulin, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    How does a decrease of the number of hours worked per week impact productivity and consequently employment?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to study the effect of the 35 hours week in France on productivity and employment.  France has  implemented  3  successive laws  to  promote  the 35  hours  week through financial incentives in order to improve work sharing.  None of the previous studies agree on the possible impact of such a policy. In this paper, we conduct a Granger Causality test in order to analyse the consequences of the decrease of working hours on productivity and then  employment.  The  results  show  no  causality from  the  number  of  working  hours  to employment. Our main explanation is that the law has never been fully applied and the period was not long enough to observe an important effect of the unemployment rate.  Besides, the level of wage compensation might not have been well calibrated. As a result of our study, we suggest that introducing such a policy, such as reducing working hours to increase employment, in countries where working hours are already short (40 or less) must be well examined before implementation and different characteristics of labour market must be taken into account.

  • 312.
    Lagerlöf, Caisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Intergenerational transmission of education in Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden: How much of the parents´ education does the children inherit?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the intergenerational transmission of education in four European countries, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Ordinal variables are used to distinguish between low, middle and high education for both the respondent and the respondent´s parents. The main findings are that Portugal has the highest intergenerational transmission of education from parents to children. Spain is on a second place, Norway on a third and on a last place, Sweden. Another finding is that the respondent´s that are 50-60 years old have a significantly higher risk of being low educated and a lower chance of being highly educated in comparison to the respondent´s that are 30-40 years old. Having a highly educated parent increases the chance of being highly educated and decreases the risk of being low educated in comparison to having a low educated parent. Having a low educated parent decreases the chance of being highly educated and increases the risk of being low educated in comparison to having a highly educated parent.

  • 313.
    Lagerlöf, Caisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Matchningseffektiviteten för Sverige, Norrköping och Linköping: Kan beveridgekurvan förklara en del av skillnaden i arbetslöshet mellan Norrköping och Linköping och hur ser deras matchningseffektivitet ut i relation till Sveriges?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I slutet av år 2016 hade Norrköping dubbelt så hög arbetslöshet än Linköping, trots att kommunerna har många likheter och att det endast skiljer 4 mil mellan städerna. För att analysera huruvida matchningseffektiviteten skiljer sig åt mellan landet som helhet och kommunerna Norrköping och Linköping har nationella beveridgekurvor för Sverige, samt lokala beveridgekurvor för Norrköping och Linköping skapats. Minsta kvadratmetoden med fixa effekter och robusta standardfel används med näst intill alla Sveriges kommuner för att skatta den långsiktiga jämviktsrelationen mellan arbetslöshet och vakansgrad med arbetskraftens rörlighet, invandring och månatliga säsongsvariationer som kontrollvariabler.

    Beveridgekurvorna som skapats för Sverige, Norrköping och Linköping visar ett liknande mönster under merparten av åren från 1995. Matchningseffektiviteten har gått från en sämre matchning till en bättre, men efter den finansiella krisen 2009 återhämtade sig Linköping till en bättre matchning när Norrköping samt Sverige stagnerade på en hög arbetslöshet samt en hög vakansgrad. Regressionen skattar en jämviktsrelation mellan arbetslöshet och vakansgrad och visar ett negativt samband mellan de två. Ett högt utbyte av arbetskraft, genom in- och utpendling, samt invandring har en tilltagande effekt på arbetslösheten.

  • 314.
    Li, Yushu
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Testing for unit roots in panel data using a wavelet ratio method2013Inngår i: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 59-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For testing unit root in single time series, most of the tests concentrate in the time domain. Recently, Fan and Gracay (2010) proposed a wavelet ratio test which took advantage of the information from frequency domain by using wavelet spectrum decompose methodology. This test shows a better power over many time domain based unit root test including the Dickey-Fuller (1979) type of test in the univariate time series case. On the other hand, various unit root tests in multivariate time series appear since the pioneering work of Levin and Lin (1993). Among them, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) (1997) test is widely used for its straightforward implementation and robustness to heterogeneity. The IPS test is a group mean test which uses the average of the test statistics for each single series. As the test statistics in each series can be flexible, this paper will apply the wavelet ratio statistic to give a comparison with the test by using Dickey-Fuller  statistic in the single series. Simulation result shows a gain in power by employing the wavelet ratio test instead of the Dickey-Fuller  statistic in the panel data case. As the IPS test is sensitive to the cross sectional dependence, we further compare the robustness of both test statistics to the cross sectional. Finally we apply a residual based wavestrapping methodology to reduce the over biased size problem brought up by the cross correlation for both test statistics. 

  • 315.
    Lif, Kim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Migration to the European Union: A study on the effect of social expenditure on immigration2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Migration to the European Union has increased the last ten years with asylum immigrants being a large part. There is an ongoing debate about the cost of migration and whether or not immigrants tend to cluster in countries with high social benefits. Theoretical framework in the field of migration economics show a connection between level of immigration and the welfare system.This thesis will use macro-data on migration flows, social expenditure, wages, employment and immigrant population from OECD which will be combined with micro-data of individual views on politics and welfare. This will hopefully shed light on if the level of social expenditure and individual opinion with regards to willingness to help others may affect immigration.The question for this thesis is : Does a generous welfare system or high level of government social expenditure in a certain country within the European Union attract a high inflow of immigrants?Results show, as other research conducted in similar fashion, both a positive and negative impact by social expenditure depending on the type of regression made. A conlusion about whether the effect of social expenditure is positive or negative could not be done at this point in time for this research.

  • 316.
    Locking, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Performance of Some Ridge Parameters for Probit Regression: With Application to Swedish Job Search Data2013Inngår i: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 698-710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In ridge regression the estimation of the ridge parameter is an important issue. This paper generalizes some methods for estimating the ridge parameter for probit ridge regression (PRR) model based on the work of Kibria et al. (2011). The performance of these new estimators are judged by calculating the mean square error (MSE) usingMonte Carlo simulations.  In the design of the experiment we chose to vary the sample size and the number of regressors. Furthermore, we generate explanatory variables that are linear combinations of other regressors, which is a common situation in economics. In an empirical application regarding Swedish job search data we also illustrate the benefits of the new method.

  • 317.
    Locking, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Jönköping University.
    Ridge estimators for probit regression: with an application to labour market data2014Inngår i: Bulletin of Economic Research, ISSN 0307-3378, E-ISSN 1467-8586, Vol. 66, nr S1, s. S92-S103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose ridge regression estimators for probit models since the commonly applied maximum likelihood (ML) method is sensitive to multicollinearity. An extensive Monte Carlo study is conducted where the performance of the ML method and the probit ridge regression (PRR) is investigated when the data is collinear. In the simulation study we evaluate a number of methods of estimating the ridge parameter k that have recently been developed for use in linear regression analysis. The results from the simulation study show that there is at least one group of the estimators of k that regularly has a lower MSE than the ML method for all different situations that has been evaluated. Finally, we show the benefit of the new method using the classical Dehejia and Wahba (1999) dataset which is based on a labor market experiment.

     

  • 318.
    Lundberg, Evelina
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Uppsala University.
    Birth order and child health2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are however still largely unknown. In this paper we examine birth order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantage is reversed in early age and later-born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for injuries and avoidable conditions, which could be related to less parental attention. In adolescence and as young adults younger siblings are more likely to bein poor mental health and to be admitted to hospital for alcohol induced health conditions. We also critically test for reverse causality by estimating fertility responses to health of existing children. We conclude that the effects on health are not severely biased, however the large negative birth order effects on infant mortality are partly due to endogenous fertility responses.

  • 319.
    Lundborg, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm.
    Employer attitudes towards refugee immigrants: Findings from a Swedish survey2016Inngår i: International labour review (Print), ISSN 0020-7780, E-ISSN 1564-913X, Vol. 155, nr 2, s. 315-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a large-scale survey of Swedish firms, the authors identify significant heterogeneity in their attitudes towards refugee hiring, job performance, wage setting and discrimination, though experience of employing refugees reduces negative attitudes. Firms' reasons for discontinuing their employment of refugees are not related to discrimination by staff or customers, but rather to refugees' suboptimal job performance. While the majority of firms do not regard the collectively agreed minimum wages as an important obstacle to the hiring of refugees, firms with a large share of refugees on the payroll report that reducing those wage rates would enhance employment substantially.

  • 320.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund Univ ; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Lund university ; IZA, Bonn, Germany ; UCL, CReAM, London, England.
    Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes2014Inngår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 37, s. 25-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 321.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates but they remain substantial.

  • 322.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Lunds universitet.
    Parental Education and Offspring Outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish Compulsory School Reform2014Inngår i: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, E-ISSN 1945-7790, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 253-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the Swedish compulsory school reform to estimate the causal effect of parental education on sons' outcomes. To this end, we use data from the Swedish military enlistment register on the entire population of males and consider outcomes, such as cognitive skills, noncognitive skills, and various dimensions of health at the age of 18. We find positive effects of maternal education on sons' skills and health status but no effects of paternal education. One reason behind this result may be that the fathers affected by the reform did not face any labor market returns to their increased schooling.

  • 323.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Parental education and offspring outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish compulsory schooling reform2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we exploit the Swedish compulsory schooling reform in order to estimate the causal effect of parental education on son's outcomes. We use data from the Swedish enlistment register on the entire population of males and focus on outcomes such as cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, and various dimensions of health at the age of 18. We find significant and positive effects of maternal education on sons' skills and health status. Although the reform had equally strong effects on father’s education as on mother’s education, we find little evidence that paternal education improves son’s outcomes.

  • 324.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden;Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Stockholm University, Sweden;Institute for the Study of Labor, Germany.
    The health-schooling relationship: evidence from Swedish twins2016Inngår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1191-1215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health and education are known to be highly correlated, but the mechanisms behind the relationship are not well understood. In particular, there is sparse evidence on whether adolescent health may influence educational attainment. Using a large registry dataset of twins, including comprehensive information on health status at the age of 18 and later educational attainment, we investigate whether health predicts final education within monozygotic (identical) twin pairs. We find no evidence of this and conclude that health in adolescence may not have an influence on the level of schooling. Instead, raw correlations between adolescent health and schooling appear to be driven by genes and twin-pair-specific environmental factors.

  • 325.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Lund University, Sweden.
    Body Size, Skills, and Income: Evidence From 150,000 Teenage Siblings2014Inngår i: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 1573-1596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we provide the first evidence of a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight or obese as a teenager. Second, we replicate this result using data from the United States and the United Kingdom. Third, we note a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size and cognitive skills/noncognitive skills. Fourth, a large part of the estimated body-size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. Taken together, these results reinforce the importance of policy combating early-life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life.

  • 326.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Body size, skills, and income: Evidence from 150,000 teenage siblings2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the widely described consequences of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity the economics literature to date has almost exclusively focused on the relationship between body size and earnings among adults. We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we show for the first time that there is a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight and obese as a teenager. Second, we show that this result can be replicated using data from the USA and the UK. Third, we show a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size, on the one hand, and cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills, on the other hand. Fourth, we show that a large part of the estimated body size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. All of these results hint at the importance of policy combating early life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life.

  • 327.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Height and Earnings: The Role of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills2014Inngår i: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 141-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use large-scale register data on 450,000 Swedish males who underwent mandatory military enlistment at age 18, and a subsample of 150,000 siblings, to examine why tall people earn more. We show the importance of both cognitive and noncognitive skills, as well as family background and muscular strength for the height-earnings relationship. In addition, we show that a substantial height premium remains after these factors have been accounted for, which originates from very short people having low earnings. This is mostly explained by the sorting of short people into low-paid occupations, which may indicate discrimination by stature.

  • 328.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ralsmark, Hilda
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    When a Little Dirt Doesn’t Hurt: The Effect of Family Size on Child Health Outcomes2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    : This paper studies the causal effect of family size on children’s health. We formulate a model of child health production where family size has a negative effect on child health due to resource dilution but a positive effect due to a positive effect on the development of the immune system, as proposed by the hygiene hypothesis. We use a large dataset on the entire Swedish male birth cohorts between 1965 and 1978 to evaluate which effect that dominates. We use the occurrence of twin births as exogenous shifts in family size. Overall, our results suggest that family size has a positive effect on general health outcomes. This suggests that the mechanism proposed in the hygiene hypothesis dominates the mechanism proposed in the quantity-quality model.

  • 329.
    Lundgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Swedish National Audit Office.
    Andersson, Christian
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Bonander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Boije, Robert
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Lindström, Jörgen
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Tingsrätters effektivitet och produktivitet2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens reformering av tingsrätterna har inte gett förväntad effekt. Trots förändrade arbetssätt och en sammanslagning av tingsrätter från 96 till 48 når många tingsrätter inte regeringens verksamhetsmål.

    Riksrevisionens granskning av den långsiktiga tekniska effektiviteten åren 2012– 2015 visar att effektiviteten är hög men att det finns en utvecklingspotential. Den varierar dock mellan de olika tingsrätterna. Vidare visar granskningen att produktiviteten har minskat över åren för en majoritet av tingsrätterna. Det framkommer också att tingsrätternas storlek har en koppling till nivån på ineffektiviteten.

    Granskningen bygger på DEA-metoden som mäter effektiviteten genom en inbördes jämförelse av tingsrätterna.

    För att höja effektiviteten och produktiviteten hos tingsrätterna rekommenderar Riksrevisionen Domstolsverket och tingsrätterna med att påbörja ett arbete för att identifiera interna och externa faktorer som påverkar både effektivitet och produktivitet. Riksrevisionen rekommenderar även Domstolsverket att ta hänsyn till att ineffektiviteten inte är jämt fördelad om effektiviseringsarbete ska genomföras. Enligt den modell som Riskrevisionen använt bedöms ett antal tingsrätter vara effektiva varför generella metoder för effektivisering riktade på samma sätt till samtliga tingsrätter inte nödvändigtvis är lämpliga.

  • 330.
    Lundgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Swedish National Audit Office.
    Andersson, Christian
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Gartell, Marie
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Wigren, Emma
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Richardson, Katarina
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Arbetsförmedlingens arbetsmarknadsutbildning: små regionala skillnader i effekter2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsförmedlingens Arbetsmarknadsutbildning (AUB) syftar till att ge arbetssökande bättre möjligheter att få ett arbete och samtidigt ge arbetsgivare bättre förutsättningar att få arbetssökande med lämplig kompetens. Riksrevisionen har granskat hur väl Arbetsförmedlingen lyckats med att skapa likvärdiga effekter i olika regioner för den arbetsmarknadspolitiska insatsen AUB.

    Granskningen visar att skillnaderna i effektstorlek mellan olika marknadsområden är relativt liten. Variationen i effekten av AUB tycks inte heller ha ökat nämnvärt efter att upphandlingen av AUB centraliserades då Arbetsförmedlingen bildades 2008.

    För hela landet visar resultaten att det är fler individer som två år efter avslutad AUB har en inkomst som överstiger ett prisbasbelopp, drygt 40 000 kronor, än för jämförbara arbetslösa som inte tagit del av AUB. För hela den studerade tidsperioden var andelen med en inkomst över ett prisbasbelopp cirka åtta procentenheter högre för deltagarna i AUB än för personerna i jämförelsegruppen.

    För att uppnå likvärdiga effekter i olika regioner rekommenderar Riksrevisionen Arbetsförmedlingen att vid effektutvärderingar av arbetsmarknadspolitiska program inkludera ett regionalt perspektiv.

  • 331.
    Lundh, Nils
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Åtgärder till varslade: en effektutvärdering av extrainsatta utbildningsinsatser till varslade vid Volvo Cars och dess underleverantörer 2008/20092015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka effekter ger särskilda insatser till personer som är uppsagda till följd av varsel? Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka effekterna på återgång till arbete av extra-insatta utbildningar som syftade till omställning vilka fanns tillgängliga för de som varslades vid Volvo Cars och dess underleverantörer 2008/2009. Effektutvärderingen utgår ifrån överlevnadsanalys där projektgruppen matchas mot en kontrollgrupp bestående av samtliga övriga varslade i Sverige. Resultaten visar att gruppen som tog del av utbildningsinsatserna hade signifikant långsammare återgång till arbete jämfört med en matchad kontrollgrupp.

  • 332.
    Löf, Calle
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Income convergence between natives and immigrants at different education levels in Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the European Social Survey the main objective of this essay is to assess whether there are differences in income convergence between immigrants and natives depending on whether one has a university education or not. This approach contrasts that of most other studies on income assimilation, as they typically only use education as a control variable. The results indicate that immigrants with lower education experience a larger negative income gap at arrival, but that their convergence rates are faster than those with higher education. Furthermore, the results imply that studying income convergence is very sensitive to having the proper kind of data. Using cross-sectional data, the study appears to suffer from various sources of bias.

  • 333.
    Löf, Calle
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Selection into self-employment: gender differences in Chile2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines gender differences in the choice to become self-employed in Chile,focusing especially on the influence of the predicted earnings differential between selfemploymentand wage-employment. By estimating selectivity adjusted incomeequations, earnings in both sectors are predicted for each individual and the difference isused as an explanatory variable in a probit model where the dependent variable measuresself-employment status. The results show that men respond positively to the earningsdifferential whereas women respond negatively, indicating that the female choice ismostly influenced by push factors. It is also found that having small children has animportant effect on women in particular. Lastly, a comparison between employers andown-account workers shows that employers are more uniform across genders than ownaccountworkers. Due to a possibly inadequate identification strategy, these results shouldhowever be viewed with caution.

  • 334.
    Lövqvist, Erika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Börjesson, Therése
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    How does mid-age individual’s investment in tertiary education affect the probability to remain in the labor market after 65?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines whether an investment in tertiary education in mid-age increase the probability to remain in the labor market after age 65 in Sweden. In addition, we analyze whether there is any difference in the probability to continue work after 65 if individuals choose to invest in tertiary education in mid-age or in any other age. This study utilizes already existing data that is a combination of a questionnaire survey and Swedish register data. In the sample there are 5235 individuals who are retired and 881 who are still in the labor market, born between 1938 and 1949. The implemented method is a linear probability model to obtain mean marginal effect. The results indicate that individuals who invested in tertiary education in mid-age have a higher probability to remain in the labor market after 65 than individuals with no tertiary education. There is, however, no statistically significant difference in probability depending on when they decide to invest in tertiary education.

  • 335.
    Lövqvist, Erika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Börjesson, Therése
    How does mid-age individual’s investment in tertiary education affect the probability to remain in the labor market after 65?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines whether an investment in tertiary education in mid-age increase the probability to remain in the labor market after age 65 in Sweden. In addition, we analyze whether there is any difference in the probability to continue work after 65 if individuals choose to invest in tertiary education in mid-age or in any other age. This study utilizes already existing data that is a combination of a questionnaire survey and Swedish register data. In the sample there are 5235 individuals who are retired and 881 who are still in the labor market, born between 1938 and 1949. The implemented method is a linear probability model to obtain mean marginal effect. The results indicate that individuals who invested in tertiary education in mid-age have a higher probability to remain in the labor market after 65 than individuals with no tertiary education. There is, however, no statistically significant difference in probability depending on when they decide to invest in tertiary education.

  • 336.
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Robust critical values for unit root tests for series with conditional heteroscedasticity errors: an application of the simple NoVaS transformation2017Inngår i: Cogent Economics & Finance, E-ISSN 2332-2039, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 23artikkel-id 1274282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a set of critical values for unit root tests that are robust in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity errors using the normalizing and variance-stabilizing transformation (NoVaS) in Politis (2007) and examine their properties using Monte Carlo methods. In terms of the size of the test, our analysis reveals that unit root tests with NoVaS-modified critical values have actual sizes close to the nominal size. For the power of the test, we find that unit root tests with NoVaS-modified critical values either have the same power as, or slightly better than, tests using conventional Dickey–Fuller critical values across the sample range considered.

  • 337.
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University.
    Estimating 'gamma' for tail-hedge discount rates when project returns are cointegrated with GDP2018Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, nr 37, s. 4074-4085Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Weitzman has suggested a method for calculating social discount rates for long-term investments when project returns are covariant with consumption or other macroeconomic variables, so-called tail-hedge discounting'. This method relies on a parameter called real project gamma' that measures the proportion of project returns that is covariant with the macroeconomic variable. We compare two approaches for estimation of this gamma when the project returns and the macroeconomic variable are cointegrated. First, we use Weitzman's own approach, and second a simple data transformation that keeps gamma within the zero to one interval. In a Monte-Carlo study, we show that the method of using a standardized series is better and robust under different data-generating processes. Both approaches are examined in a Monte-Carlo experiment and applied to Swedish time-series data from 1950-2011 for annual time-series data for rail freight (a measure of returns from rail investments) and GDP.

  • 338.
    Mari, Hagesjö
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sandra, Wildt
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Kapitalstruktur i banker, en jämförelse mellan Storbritannien, Sverige och USA2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The importance of banks was clearly shown during the last financial crises, when the crises that started in the banking sector spread to the rest of the world. This is one of the reasons that this thesis is focused on banks in particular, one other reason is that a lot of previous studies has chosen to exclude banks because of the fact that their balance sheet differ from non-financial companies. This thesis is a beginning in filling in the gap that exists in the knowledge of banks capital structure. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to prove that it is possible to explain the capital structure in banks and that differences in the capital structure of the banks in Great Britain, Sweden and the United states of America exists. Method: The fact that our study is partly a replication of two earlier studies made a deductive approach most appropriate. The deductive approach meant that the theory on capital structure led to hypotheses that then were tested. The study was conducted based on a quantitative design with data retrieved from the database Orbis. Conclusions: Based on the tests performed, a conclusion was drawn that the capital structure in banks can be partly explained by the variables used in this study. Differences between countries have been demonstrated with regard to the institutional differences that exist. This thesis has also shown that theories regarding capital structure of non-financial corporations can be applied to banks with some adjustments.

  • 339.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Essays on Efficiency, Productivity, and Impact of Policy2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five self-contained empirical essays centering on total factor productivity (TFP), efficiency, and impacts of policy.

    Essay I: “TFP Change and Its Components for Swedish Manufacturing Firms During the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis” (co-authored with Jonas Månsson and William H. Greene). A driving force of economic development is growth in total factor productivity (TFP). Manufactured goods are, to a large extent, exports, and represent an important part of the economy for many developed countries. Additionally, a slowdown in labour productivity has been observed in many OECD countries after the financial crisis 2008-2009. This study investigates TFP change and its components for the Swedish manufacturing industry, compared with the private service sector, during the years 1997-2013, centering on the financial crisis. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to disentangle persistent and transient efficiency from firm heterogeneity and random noise, respectively. In addition, technical change (TC), returns to scale (RTS) and a scale change (SC) component are also identified. Along with the empirical analysis, an elaborative discussion regarding TC in SFA is provided. The persistent part for manufacturing (service) is 0.796 (0.754) and the transient part is 0.787 (0.762), indicating improvement potentials. Furthermore, TFP change is substantially lower between the years 2007-2013, compared to 1997-2007, driven by lower technological progress. Policy should, therefore, target interventions that enhance technology. However, care needs to be taken so that policies do not sustain low-productive firms that otherwise would exit the market. 

    Essay II: “A bootstrapped Malmquist index applied to Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Jonas Månsson, Christian Andersson and Fredrik Bonander). This study measures the total factor productivity (TFP) of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) of 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. In contrast to the limited international literature on court productivity, this study uses a fully decomposed MPI. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP. The findings show a 1.7% average decline of TFP, annually. However, a substantial variation between years can be observed in the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The averages of the components show that the negative impact is mainly driven by negative technical change (TC). Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. Two recommendations are: (1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth; and (2) that the back-up labour force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

     

    Essay III: “Potential efficiency effects of merging the Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Claes Tidanå). The Swedish district courts have undergone a substantial restructuring process in which the main reform has been to merge. As a result, the number of district courts has declined from 95 in 2000 to only 48 in 2009. All main arguments that support merging concern enhancements of efficiency. However, it has not yet been explicitly examined whether the mergers have the potential to increase efficiency ex ante. Thus, the expectation concerning higher efficiency was built on a subjective view. This paper investigates whether the mergers can be rationalized from a production economic point of view. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute a production frontier where the conducted mergers are incorporated to identify the potential ex ante gains. Furthermore, the overall potential is decomposed into learning, scale, and harmony to investigate the source of the potential gain, e.g., an effect of adjusting to best practice or a pure merging effect such as scale. The results show diverse potentials, i.e., a number of mergers did not have the potential to gain in efficiency while others could gain substantially. A conclusion based on the analysis is that the potential production economic effects should be investigated before merger decisions are made in the future. This is also likely to be true beyond the Swedish district courts.

    Essay IV: “Impacts on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Per J. Agrell and Jonas Månsson). Judicial courts form a stringent example of public services using partially sticky inputs and outputs with heterogeneous quality. Notwithstanding, governments internationally are striving to improve the efficiency of and diminish the budget spent on court systems. Frontier methods such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) are sometimes used in investigations of structural changes in the form of mergers. We review the methods used to evaluate the ex post efficiency of horizontal mergers. Identification of impacts is difficult. Therefore, we apply three analytical frameworks: 1) a technical efficiency comparison over time, 2) a metafrontier approach among mergers and non-mergers and 3) a conditional difference-in-differences (cDiD) approach where non-merged twins of the actual mergers are identified by matching. In addition, both time heterogeneity and sources of efficiency change are examined ex post. We apply our method to evaluate the impact on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts from 95 to 48 between 2000 and 2009. Whereas the stated ambition for the mergers was to improve efficiency, no structured ex post analysis has been done. Swedish courts are shown to improve efficiency from merging. In addition to the particular application, our work may inform a more general discussion on public service efficiency measurement under structural changes, and their limits and potential.

    Essay V: “The impact of labour subsidies on total factor productivity and profits per employee.” Subsidizing targeted labour groups is a common intervention to prevent long-term unemployment. Lower expected productivity is the motivation for subsidizing labour, but all research, with one exception, focuses on other effects while some investigates the TFP effects of capital subsidies. This study combines methods that, to the best of my knowledge, have not previously been used together to determine the impacts of labour subsidies on total factor productivity (TFP). Further, the profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables; difference-in-differences (DiD) is then applied to the matched data. It is found that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidizing individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidized should be considered.

  • 340.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Essays on total factor productivity (TFP)2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two self-contained empirical essays. Essay I investigates the impact of labor subsidies on TFP, and profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables. After matching, a difference-in-difference (DID) model is applied. The study shows that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidizing individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidized should be considered.

    Essay II (with Jonas Månsson from Linnaeus University and the Swedish National Audit Office (SNAO), Christian Andersson from SNAO and Fredrik Bonander from SNAO) measures TFP of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the Malmquist productivity index for 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. This study uses a fully decomposed Malmquist index. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP as well as for TFP. The study shows an average annual of TFP by 0.7%. However, a substantial variation between years is observed both with regards to the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The negative impact is mainly driven by pure technical regress. Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. The TFP change is positively correlated with the rate of change in the caseload. Two recommendations are: 1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth and 2) that a back-up force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

  • 341.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The impact of labour subsidies on total factor productivity and profit per employee2019Inngår i: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 62, s. 325-341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidising targeted labour groups is a common intervention to prevent long-term unemployment. Lower expected firm productivity is the motivation for subsidising labour, but all research, with one exception, focuses on other effects while some investigate the total factor productivity (TFP) effects of capital subsidies. This study combines methods that, to the best of my knowledge, have not previously been used together to determine the impacts of labour subsidies on TFP. Further, profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables; difference-in-differences (DiD) is then applied to the matched data. It is found that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidising individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidised should be considered.

  • 342.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). SNAO, Stockholm;Thammasat Univ, Thailand.
    Andersson, Christian
    SNAO, Stockholm.
    Bonander, Fredrik
    SNAO, Stockholm.
    A bootstrapped Malmquist index applied to Swedish district courts2018Inngår i: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 109-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures the total factor productivity (TFP) of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis to calculate the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) of 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. In contrast to the limited international literature on court productivity, this study uses a fully decomposed MPI. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP. The findings show a 1.7% average decline of TFP, annually. However, a substantial variation between years can be observed in the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The averages of the components show that the negative impact is mainly driven by negative technical change. Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. Two recommendations are: (1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth; and (2) that the back-up labour force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

  • 343.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Greene, William H.
    New York University, USA.
    TFP change and its components for Swedish manufacturing firms during the 2008-2009 financial crisis2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving force of economic development is growth in total factor productivity (TFP). Manufactured goods are, to a large extent, exports, and represent an important part of the economy for many developed countries. Additionally, a slowdown in labour productivity has been observed in many OECD countries after the financial crisis 2008-2009. This study investigates TFP change and its components for the Swedish manufacturing industry, compared with the private service sector, during the years 1997-2013, centering on the financial crisis. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to disentangle persistent and transient efficiency from firm heterogeneity and random noise, respectively. In addition, technical change (TC), returns to scale (RTS) and a scale change (SC) component are also identified. Along with the empirical analysis, an elaborative discussion regarding TC in SFA is provided. The persistent part for manufacturing (service) is 0.796 (0.754) and the transient part is 0.787 (0.762), indicating improvement potentials. Furthermore, TFP change is substantially lower between the years 2007-2013, compared to 1997-2007, driven by lower technological progress. Policy should, therefore, target interventions that enhance technology. However, care needs to be taken so that policies do not sustain low-productive firms that otherwise would exit the market.

  • 344.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Tidanå, Claes
    Financial Department, The Swedish National Court Administration (SNCA), Sweden.
    Potential efficiency effects of merging the Swedish district courts2019Inngår i: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 67, s. 58-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish district courts have undergone a substantial restructuring process in which the main reform has been to merge. As a result, the number of district courts has declined from 95 in 2000 to only 48 in 2009. All main arguments that support merging concern enhancements of efficiency. However, it has not yet been explicitly examined whether the mergers have the potential to increase efficiency ex ante. Thus, the expectation concerning higher efficiency was built on a subjective view. This paper investigates whether the mergers can be rationalized from a production economic point of view. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute a production frontier where the conducted mergers are incorporated to identify the potential ex ante gains. Furthermore, the overall potential is decomposed into learning, scale, and harmony to investigate the source of the potential gain, e.g., an effect of adjusting to best practice or a pure merging effect such as scale. The results show diverse potentials, i.e., a number of mergers did not have the potential to gain in efficiency while others could gain substantially. A conclusion based on the analysis is that the potential production economic effects should be investigated before merger decisions are made in the future. This is also likely to be true beyond the Swedish district courts.

  • 345.
    Metz, Ejoel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The impact of modern capital on skill allocation in the European Labour Market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the impact of "modern" capital on skill allocation in the European Union (EU) Labour Market for a period from 1996 to 2016. Applying a First-difference methodology on a panel data at the country level from Eurostat, the study finds out that as "modern" capital increases by 1%, low-skill employment decreases by -0.1%.  However, the introduction of new technologies does not affect middle-skill and high-skill employment. Furthermore, "modern" capital/technology does not exhibit any statistically significant impact on working hours, suggesting that the former may affect employment at the extensive margin. The results are in line with Autor et al. (2003) and we may reject the hypothesis of Job Polarisation.

  • 346.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Essays on Self-employment, Happiness and International Trade2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

  • 347.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Immigrants’ self-employment over the local business cycle in Sweden2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study combines the large Swedish register data at individual level with the unemployment data at region level to investigate to what extent the entry into self-employment, particular among immigrants, are affected by the local business cycle. We show that local unemployment rate negatively affects the entry into self-employment among native men and immigrant men, except immigrants from Middle East. Moreover, such pull effect is weaker among non-European immigrants’ men. Furthermore, the result shows that Middle Eastern immigrants’ men are pushed into self-employment in economic downturns. Similar with men, our results show that the local unemployment rate also negatively affects women’s entry into self-employment except immigrants from Middle East. However, this negative effect is quantitatively much smaller than among men, indicating thebusiness cycle plays a less important role in determining women’s self-employment entry decision.

  • 348.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Self-employment and happiness in China2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the self-employment rate is high in many developing countries, the job quality of self employment has been little studied. Instead of using earnings, this paper uses life satisfaction as a proxy for individual total welfare. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies, we study the self-employment effect on life satisfaction. We find the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not significantly different from that of wage-employed women. To address the informality of labour market, our results suggest that there is no sign that the life satisfaction of the self-employed in the informal sector is significantly lower than that of wage-employed in the formal private sector for both men and women.

  • 349.
    Mohsini, Adila
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Salihu, Artina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Women’s self-employment in Europe: What factors affects women’s self-employment in five regions in Europe?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyse women’s self-employment in five regions of Europe, namely

    Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, North-West Europe and Western Europe

    in two years, 2002 and 2016. To assess the factors affecting women’s self-employment in

    Europe we base our analysis on push and pull theory and as far as the quantitative part is

    concerned we estimate a probit model.

    Our research questions are the following: What socio-economic factors influence women to

    enter self-employment in the five regions of Europe? How are these factors related to the push

    and pull theory? Is there a trend of convergence over time in the five European regions studied?

    The main findings are that being women decreases the probability to become self-employed in

    the five European regions, except in the Northern part of Europe. The result suggests that

    women more often than men are pushed into self-employment as they have to balance work

    with family. Being young (18-35) also decreases the probability of being self-employed

    compared to middle age individual (36-50) in the year 2002 and 2016. Individuals with low and

    medium-skill level have a lower probability of being self-employed in comparison to the

    individual with high skill. Regarding the research questions, this study found that variable age

    (18-36), age (51-65), married, children, medium education, high education, low skill and high

    skill are factors that influence women in their decision to become self-employed. Observing the

    change over time of self-employment, we found that the probability increases being selfemployed

    in Southern Europe whereas it decreases in Northern Europe.

  • 350.
    Montanié, Paul-Alban
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). ESCE Paris department of supply chain.
    Importance of Green Service Offerings for French and Swedish Retailers in their Selection of Transport Operators: A study of French and Swedish companies operating in the retail industry.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The selection of transport operators has become a complex decision making

    process with multi-criteria aspects. Deciding on which transport operator to use depends on

    various service offerings that can be different for each company. Retailers such as those from

    France and Sweden look to improve logistical performance in areas such as lead time,

    flexibility and reliability, and improve customer relations. In the past the main critical aspects

    of retailers were cost and service optimisation. An additional factor could play a role in their

    selection of transport operators and this is green service offerings.

    Research question: Which service offerings are important for French and Swedish retailers

    in their selection of transport operators?

    Sub question: Are the retailers willing to use green service offerings and why?

    Sub question2: Which of the green service offerings are important for French and

    Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators?

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out what the most important service offerings

    are for French and Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators. It also aims to

    determine if French and Swedish retailers are willing to use green service offerings and

    explain why. Finally, it will attempt to identify which of the green service offerings are

    important to French and Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators.

    Method: This thesis was conducted by applying the deductive approach and is based on a

    quantitative research method. The sampling method used for this thesis is non-probability

    sampling. Data was collected through questionnaires with French and Swedish retailers.

    French and Swedish retailers have been selected for the sample population in order to find

    out how important green service offerings might be for them when they are purchasing the

    services of a transport operator. French and Swedish retailers from different sectors were

    chosen in order to achieve an objective overview of the retail industry from each country

    when selecting transport operators.

    Conclusion: Traditional service offerings are more important than green service offerings for

    the French and Swedish retailers that participated in this research paper. However, when

    looking at the results of the data, some green service offerings were perceived to be

    important. The author therefore believes that when French and Swedish retailers are selecting

    transport operators their first focus is on the traditional service offerings that are very

    important to them. However, if a French or Swedish retailer is encouraged by the following

    motivators: customer expectations, measurable improvement or economic incentives. They

    might pursue the green service offerings that are important for their business activities.

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