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  • 301.
    Eriksson, Frida
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Salinity impact on cyanobacteria toxicity in Nodularia spumigena KAC11 and KAC662013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a global problem causing modifications in the ecosystems at all scales, including the Baltic Sea. Increase in temperature and precipitations together with low evaporation result in less saline waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria are a common event during the summer months in the Baltic Sea; these blooms are dominated by Nodularia spumigena, species that produce and secrete the hepatotoxin nodularin. Nodularin exposure is a threat to both human and animal health. N. spumigena have their optimal growth in salinity 7 PSU and at 25°C, but what happens with this organism when the predicted scenarios from climate change is fulfilled? Nodularin is encoded by the nda cluster, in which the last gene ndaF encodes for the enzyme catalysing the last step in the of nodularin biosynthesis. This study focuses on the effect of salinity change on the (relative) gene expression of ndaF in two N. spumigena strains, KAC11 and KAC66. In the scenarios of lower salinities both strains constitutively expressed the ndaF gene and no significant difference between the two strains were found, KAC11 had a poorer ability to adapt to lower salinities according to overall data view. In the future we may see a strain specific distribution of N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea, not limited by the salinity gradient. More transcriptional studies, due to the diversity of strains of N. spumigena, are needed in the relation to climate change.

  • 302.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Identification and expression pattern of dehydrins and PIN proteins in root buds of Sonchus arvensis going through a seasonal dormancy cycle2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In temperate regions the deep-rooted perennial sow-thistle Sonchus arvensis L. is a common agricultural weed due to its effective reproductive system and is regarded a threat to the growth of crops, particularly in organic farming. To manage harsh environmental conditions during the season, plant life history traits have evolved, known as dormancy. Previous studies have proposed that both dehydrins (DHN) and PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are important parts of this adaptation by preventing structural damage, maintaining essential enzyme activity during cold and affecting basipetal polar auxin transport, respectively. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the expression pattern of dehydrins and PIN proteins in root buds of S. arvensis going through a seasonal dormancy cycle and see how they correlated to known dormancy phases in S. arvensis. In this study, phenology, root morphology and protein patterns, as well as of PIN2, PIN3 and DHNs accumulation pattern as detected with immunoblotting, all indicated that clear changes occur between the early and later stages of the buds. High levels of PIN3 in rootbuds from plant collected in August decreased later in season, which support the hypothesis of its involvement in auxin transport and thereby regulating paradormancy of adventitious buds. In October, another dramatic change in protein pattern that took place when buds entered dormancy and prepared for chilling temperature. Results from this study show that DHNs level increased in October. This support the hypothesis that DHNs are involved in the adaptation protecting the buds from winter conditions.

  • 303.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The Hymenopteran subfamily Adeliinae (Braconidae): A morphological and ecological study of specimens collected in Sweden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most numerous and species rich group of animals on Earth. One of the four mega diverse orders within the class Insecta is Hymenoptera which include ants, bees and parasitic wasps. One of the many Hymenopteran subfamilies is Adeliinae, a group of tiny wasps that parasitize leaf mining Lepidoptera larvae. Only one described species of Adeliinae is hitherto known to occur in Sweden. However, this known species exhibits a wide range of polymorphism. In fact, the hypotheses if Adeliinae constitute a subfamily with just a few, but very variable species or if it is composed by a rich number of very similar species have never been tested before. The results in this study confirm the variation, but cannot state which of the hypotheses that is the most correct. Furthermore, the processed information from the traps in which the wasps were caught show that the Adeliinae are spread throughout Sweden and appear in a wide variety of habitats.

  • 304.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala University.
    Engholm, Ebbe
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Blixt, Ola
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Munster, Vincent
    NIAID, USA.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    INRA, France.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University.
    Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 12215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains in their new hosts. Viral adaptions to mammalian hosts include altered receptor preference of host epithelial sialylated oligosaccharides from terminal alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) towards alpha 2,6-linked SA. However, alpha 2,3-linked SA has been found in human respiratory tract epithelium, and human infections by avian IAVs (AIVs) have been reported. To further explore the attachment properties of AIVs, four AIVs of different subtypes were investigated on human and pig tissues using virus histochemistry. Additionally, glycan array analysis was performed for further characterization of IAVs' receptor structure tropism. Generally, AIV attachment was more abundant to human tissues than to pig tissues. The attachment pattern was very strong to human conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract, but variable to the lower respiratory tract. AIVs mainly attached to alpha 2,3-linked SA, but also to combinations of alpha 2,3-and alpha 2,6-linked SA. The low attachment of these AIV isolates to pig tissues, but high attachment to human tissues, addresses the question whether AIVs in general require passage through pigs to obtain adaptions towards mammalian receptor structures.

  • 305.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lorente-Leal, Victor
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    INRA, France.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Attachment Patterns of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses to Trachea and Colon of 26 Bird Species - Support for the Community Concept2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) have a broad host range, but are most intimately associated with waterfowl (Anseriformes) and, in the case of the H13 and H16 subtypes, gulls (Charadriiformes). Host associations are multifactorial, but a key factor is the ability of the virus to bind host cell receptors and thereby initiate infection. The current study aims at investigating the tissue attachment pattern of a panel of AIVs, comprising H3N2, H6N1, H12N5, and H16N3, to avian trachea and colon tissue samples obtained from host species of different orders. Virus attachment was not restricted to the bird species or order from which the virus was isolated. Instead, extensive virus attachment was observed to several distantly related avian species. In general, more virus attachment and receptor expression were observed in trachea than in colon samples. Additionally, a human seasonal H3N2 virus was studied. Unlike the studied AIVs, this virus mainly attached to tracheae from Charadriiformes and a very limited set of avian cola. In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed.

  • 306.
    Eriksson, Ramona
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Parasite against fish: A matter of life and death2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Parasites with several intermediate hosts may face the risk of being transferred to predators other than the "right" one. Enhancing predation is a way for parasites to increase the chance of being transferred at the right time, and to the next host. In this study the behavior of the three spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) was investigated to see if Schistocephalus solidus infection affected the sticklebacks anti-predator behavior. Two simulated predators were used, one overhead stimuli to simulate a predatory bird (a suitable host) and one side-ways stimuli, simulating a predatory fish (an unsuitable host). Infected fish showed a reduced response to both stimuli by searching for cover later than uninfected fish. The infected fish also returned sooner to relaxed swimming behavior after the simulated attack. These results suggest enhancement of predation by the parasite which is consistent with other studies of anti-predator behavior in sticklebacks. However, the effect of infection on stickleback behavior was similar for both types of attack. This suggests a general reduction in anti-predator behavior which may make the stickleback more susceptible to predation from all predators, including non-hosts. 

  • 307.
    Erlandsson, Anton
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kan främre korsbandsskador hos unga idrottande kvinnor förutspås med hjälp av biomekanisk screening? En litteraturstudie.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: De senaste åren har intresset för att skapa enkla, validerade, kliniskt orienterade screeningverktyg som mäter biomekaniska parametrar i rörelsemönster växt fram. Bland annat har inriktningen av dessa verktyg varit att förutspå risken att drabbas av skada i det främre korsbandet (ACL) som sitter i knäleden. Det har visat sig att unga kvinnor i idrotter som medför hopp och riktningsförändringar är en högriskgrupp för denna skadetyp och därför har ACL-skadeincidensen ökat sedan allt fler kvinnor engagerar sig i utövning av idrott. Syfte: Att undersöka evidensen för att dessa kliniskt orienterade screeningverktyg förutspår utfallet av främre korsbandsskada hos unga kvinnliga idrottare och se om de kan rekommenderas. Metod: Litteraturstudie med kvalitetsbedömning och grad av evidens i vetenskapliga artiklar enligt validerad checklista och Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Resultat: Alla evaluerade artiklar fick den högsta evidensgraden som var möjligt för kohortstudier, 2++. Kliniskt orienterade screeningverktyg som mäter biomekaniska parametrar i rörelsemönster fick dock det lägsta rekommendationsvärdet ’D’ då motstridiga resultat visades. Detta innebar att ingen specifik rekommendation gick att göra. Diskussion: Utfallet av en ACL-skada påverkas av många faktorer utöver riskfulla rörelsemönster och därför finns flera viktiga confounders att ta hänsyn till för att hitta de avgörande faktorerna. För att kunna påvisa screeningverktygens förutspående värde och hitta överensstämmande resultat kan det krävas större studier än befintligt gjorda. Slutsats: De biomekaniska screeningverktygen som undersöktes i denna studie visade otillräckliga resultat för att kunna göra ett rekommendationsutlåtande för klinisk användning

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 308.
    Erlandsson, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ingestion and fitness parameters in Acartia sp. grazing on different salinity adapted Nodularia spumigena2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 309.
    Esparza, Mario
    et al.
    Univ Antofagasta, Chile.
    Jedlicki, Eugenia
    Fdn Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Holmes, David S.
    Fdn Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Univ Andres Bello, Chile.
    Expression and activity of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle transcriptional regulator CbbR from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in Ralstonia eutropha2015Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, E-ISSN 1574-6968, Vol. 362, nr 15, artikkel-id UNSP fnv108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autotrophic fixation of carbon dioxide into cellular carbon occurs via several pathways but quantitatively, the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle is the most important. CbbR regulates the expression of the cbb genes involved in CO2 fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle in a number of autotrophic bacteria. A gene potentially encoding CbbR (cbbR(AF)) has been predicted in the genome of the chemolithoautotrophic, extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, this microorganism is recalcitrant to genetic manipulation impeding the experimental validation of bioinformatic predictions. Two novel functional assays were devised to advance our understanding of cbbR(AF) function using the mutated facultative autotroph Ralstonia eutropha H14 Delta cbbR as a surrogate host to test gene function: (i) cbbR(AF) was expressed in R. eutropha and was able to complement Delta cbbR; and (ii) CbbR(AF) was able to regulate the in vivo activity of four A. ferrooxidans cbb operon promoters in R. eutropha. These results open up the use of R. eutropha as a surrogate host to explore cbbR(AF) activity.

  • 310.
    Esparza, Mario
    et al.
    Univ Antofagasta, Chile.
    Jedlicki, Eugenia
    Fdn Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    González, Carolina
    Fdn Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Holmes, David
    Fdn Ciencia & Vida, Chile;Univ Mayor, Chile.
    Effect of CO2 Concentration on Uptake and Assimilation of Inorganic Carbon in the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, s. 1-15, artikkel-id 603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was motivated by surprising gaps in the current knowledge of microbial inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake and assimilation at acidic pH values (pH < 3). Particularly striking is the limited understanding of the differences between Ci uptake mechanisms in acidic versus circumneutral environments where the Ci predominantly occurs either as a dissolved gas (CO2) or as bicarbonate (HCO3-), respectively. In order to gain initial traction on the problem, the relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in Ci uptake and assimilation was studied in the autotrophic, polyextreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans whose optimum pH for growth is 2.5 using ferrous iron as an energy source, although they are able to grow at pH 5 when using sulfur as an energy source. The relative abundance of transcripts of five operons (cbb1 -5) and one gene cluster (can-sulP) was monitored by RT-qPCR and, in selected cases, at the protein level by Western blotting, when cells were grown under different regimens of CO2 concentration in elemental sulfur. Of particular note was the absence of a classical bicarbonate uptake system in A. ferrooxidans. However, bioinformatic approaches predict that sulP, previously annotated as a sulfate transporter, is a novel type of bicarbonate transporter. A conceptual model of CO2 fixation was constructed from combined bioinformatic and experimental approaches that suggests strategies for providing ecological flexibility under changing concentrations of CO2 and provides a portal to elucidating Ci uptake and regulation in acidic conditions. The results could advance the understanding of industrial bioleaching processes to recover metals such as copper at acidic pH. In addition, they may also shed light on how chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles influence the nutrient and energy balance in naturally occurring low pH environments.

  • 311.
    Fadeenko, V. B.
    et al.
    Peter Great St Petersburg Polytech Univ, Russia.
    Rud', V. Yu.
    Peter Great St Petersburg Polytech Univ, Russia;All Russian Res Inst Phytopathol, Russia.
    Rud', Yu. V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Glinushkin, A. P.
    All Russian Res Inst Phytopathol, Russia.
    Shpunt, V. Ch.
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Photoluminescence spectroscopy features in the study of green leaves drying process2018Inngår i: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PHYSICA.SPB/2017 / [ed] Averkiev, NS Poniaev, SA Sokolovskii, GS, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, s. 1-5, artikkel-id UNSP 012030Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented work demonstrates new results of studying the photoluminescence kinetics of green leaves of Brassica rapa L. that were separated from the parent plant and in fact is the logical development of our studies. We found that the time dependence of its intensity includes 2 stages characterized by the fact that in the first one there is an increase in intensity, reaching a maximum and then decrease, but with long drying times in conditions of constant room temperature, it does not fall below its characteristic value for a living plant.

  • 312.
    Fahlgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Zabori, Julia
    Stockholm University.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Krejci, Radovan
    Stockholm University.
    Mårtensson, E. Monica
    Stockholm University;Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Douglas
    Stockholm University.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Seawater mesocosm experiments in the Arctic uncover differential transfer of marine bacteria to aerosols2015Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 460-470Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogenic aerosols critically control atmospheric processes. However, although bacteria constitute major portions of living matter in seawater, bacterial aerosolization from oceanic surface layers remains poorly understood. We analysed bacterial diversity in seawater and experimentally generated aerosols from three Kongsfjorden sites, Svalbard. Construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from paired seawater and aerosol samples resulted in 1294 sequences clustering into 149 bacterial and 34 phytoplankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial communities in aerosols differed greatly from correspondingseawater communities in three out of four experiments. Dominant populations of both seawater and aerosols were Flavobacteriia, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Across the entire dataset, most OTUs from seawater could also be found in aerosols; in each experiment, however, several OTUs were either selectively enriched in aerosols or little aerosolized. Notably, a SAR11 clade OTU was consistently abundant in the seawater, but was recorded insignificantly lower proportions in aerosols. A strikingly high proportion of colony-forming bacteria were pigmented in aerosols compared with seawater, suggesting that selection during aerosolization contributes to explaining elevated proportions of pigmented bacteria frequently observed in atmospheric samples. Our findings imply that atmospheric processes could be considerably influenced by spatiotemporal variations in the aerosolization efficiency of different marine bacteria.

  • 313.
    Fakhri Fouad, Ghayda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vindkraftens påverkan på sin omgivning: En fallstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this thesis is to study the impact of wind turbines on their surroundings. It also aims to analyze how the communication looks between the authorities, the planner and local residents prior to the establishment of wind turbines in Lännäs/Odensbacken in Örebro, where three wind turbines set up in a group.

    The results of this survey show that the participants experience themselves not as especially disturbed of the turbines in the form of large noise, shadows, and sleep disturbance indoors and outdoors. Participants felt that no change had taken place on the natural environment (52%) since the turbines became operational. It was 49% of participants had got no information about the establishment of Örebro Municipality, Örebro County Administrative Board or Wind Power Company. Scientists/­experts had the highest confidence of 86%, politicians and the media/journalists had least confidence. In the case of knowledge that people have about wind power's impact in their environment, the responses were "quite positive" under the effect of cleaner air (81%), on Odensbacken (79%), on housing value (44%), on outdoor recreation (38%) and on the property value (38%).

    According to this study, the three plants were well located, the works do not entail any major interventions in the landscape, impact and disruption on the local environment was limited and the area can be assessed as a rugged landscape of new elements. Local people in the area need more knowledge about impact of wind turbines on humans, plants, birds, animals and landscapes. The communication described in our case less participant friendly because there is no transparency. Confidence in the wind as renewable energy, for government agencies or for wind developer can damage players and officials do not choose the right methods for good communication. A lack of communication can thus increase the resistance and can even stop the wind developments in the region in the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 314.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Dehkordi, Molood
    van Weeren, Rene
    Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources2019Inngår i: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 315.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action2020Inngår i: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 78-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of regulatory activities in historical commons offering a unique picture of their long-term institutional dynamics. The analysis took into account almost 3,800 regulatory activities in eighteen European commons in two countries across seven centuries. Despite differences in time and space, we found a shared pattern where an initial, highly-dynamic institutional-definition phase was followed by a relatively long period of stability and a final burst of activities, possibly in an attempt to respond to new challenges. In addition, most of the initial regulatory activities focused on resource use, while towards the end other activities prevailed. Our approach allows for a better understanding of institutional dynamics and our findings also provide important insights about how to regulate the use of current natural resources.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 316.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Distribution and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in marine and estuarine waters2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In aquatic environments the availability of nitrogen (N) generally limits primary production. N2-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) can convert N2 gas into ammonium and provide significant input of N into the oceans. Cyanobacteria are thought to be the main N2-fixers but diazotrophs also include a wide range of heterotrophic bacteria. However, their activity and regulation in the water column is largely unknown.

    In this thesis the distribution, diversity, abundance, and activity of marine and estuarine heterotrophic diazotrophs was investigated. With molecular methods targeting the nifH gene, encoding the nitrogenase enzyme for N2 fixation, it was shown that diverse nifH genes affiliating with heterotrophic bacteria were ubiquitous in surface waters from ten marine locations world-wide and the estuarine Baltic Sea. Through enrichment cultures of Baltic Sea surface water in anaerobic N-free medium, heterotrophic N2 fixation was induced showing that there was a functional N2-fixing community present and isolates of heterotrophic diazotrophs were obtained. In Sargasso Sea surface waters, transcripts of nifH related to heterotrophic bacteria were detected indicating heterotrophic N2-fixing activity.

    Nitrogenase expression is thought to be highly regulated by the availability of inorganic N and the presence of oxygen. Low oxygen zones within the water column can be found in association with plankton. The presence of diazotrophs as symbionts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates was investigated and nifH genes related to heterotrophic diazotrophs rather than the cyanobacterial symbionts were found, suggesting that a symbiotic co-existence prevailed. Oxic-anoxic interfaces could also be potential sites for heterotrophic N2 fixation. The Baltic Sea contains large areas of anoxic bottom water. At the chemocline and in anoxic deep water heterotrophic diazotrophs were diverse, abundant and active. These findings extend the currently known regime of N2 fixation to also include ammonium-rich anaerobic waters.

    The results of this thesis suggest that heterotrophic diazotrophs are diverse and widely distributed in marine and estuarine waters and that they can also be active. However, limits in the knowledge on their physiology and factors which regulate their N2 fixation activity currently prevent an evaluation of their importance in the global marine N budget.

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  • 317.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Jost, Guenter
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Juergens, Klaus
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea2013Inngår i: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 1413-1423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N-2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N-2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N-2 fixation was measured at the surface (5 m) and in anoxic water (200 m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and <10 mu m size fractions were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2011 at the Gotland Deep and in 2011 in the Bornholm Basin. Both of these stations are characterized by permanently anoxic bottom water. The 454-pyrosequencing nifH analysis revealed a diverse assemblage of nifH genes related to alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria (nifH cluster I) and anaerobic bacteria (nifH cluster III) at and below the chemocline. Abundances of genes and transcripts of seven diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealing abundances of heterotrophic nifH phylotypes of up to 2.1 x 10(7) nifH copies l(-1). Abundant nifH transcripts (up to 3.2 x 10(4) transcripts l(-1)) within nifH cluster III and co-occurring N-2 fixation (0.44 +/- 0.26 nmol l(-1) day(-1)) in deep water suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs are fixing N2 in anoxic ammonium-rich waters. Our results reveal that N-2 fixation in the Baltic Sea is not limited to illuminated N-deplete surface waters and suggest that N-2 fixation could also be of importance in other suboxic regions of the world's oceans.

  • 318.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Harder, Jens
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Dept Microbiol, Bremen, Germany.
    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Isolation of heterotrophic diazotrophic bacteria from estuarine surface waters2014Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 3072-3082Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide distribution of diverse nitrogenase (nifH) genes affiliated with those of heterotrophic bacteria in marine and estuarine waters indicates ubiquity and an ecologically relevant role for heterotrophic N-2-fixers (diazotrophs) in aquatic nitrogen (N) cycling. However, the lack of cultivated representatives currently precludes an evaluation of their N-2-fixing capacity. In this study, microoxic or anoxic N-free media were inoculated with estuarine Baltic Sea surface water to select for N-2-fixers. After visible growth and isolation of single colonies on oxic plates or in anoxic agar tubes, nifH gene amplicons were obtained from 64 strains and nitrogenase activity, applying the acetylene reduction assay, was confirmed for 40 strains. Two strains, one Gammaproteobacterium affiliated with Pseudomonas and one Alphaproteobacterium affiliated with Rhodopseudomonas were shown to represent established members of the indigenous diazotrophic community in the Baltic Sea, with abundances of up to 7.9x10(4) and 4.7x10(4)nifH copies l(-1) respectively. This study reports media for successful isolation of heterotrophic diazotrophs. The applied methodology and the obtained strains will facilitate future identification of factors controlling heterotrophic diazotrophic activity in aquatic environments, which is a prerequisite for understanding and evaluating their ecology and contribution to N cycling at local and regional scales.

  • 319.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). University of California at Santa Cruz, USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.
    University of California at Santa Cruz, USA.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    University of California at Santa Cruz, USA.
    Identification of Associations between Bacterioplankton and Photosynthetic Picoeukaryotes in Coastal Waters2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes are significant contributors to marine primary productivity. Associations between marine bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes frequently occur and can have large biogeochemical impacts. We used flow cytometry to sort cells from seawater to identify non-eukaryotic phylotypes that are associated with photosynthetic picoeukaryotes. Samples were collected at the Santa Cruz wharf on Monterey Bay, CA, USA during summer and fall, 2014. The phylogeny of associated microbes was assessed through 16S rRNA gene amplicon clone and Illumina MiSeq libraries. The most frequently detected bacterioplankton phyla within the photosynthetic picoeukaryote sorts were Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and Bacteroidetes. Intriguingly, the presence of free-living bacterial genera in the photosynthetic picoeukaryote sorts could suggest that some of the photosynthetic picoeukaryotes were mixotrophs. However, the occurrence of bacterial sequences, which were not prevalent in the corresponding bulk seawater samples, indicates that there was also a selection for specific OTUs in association with photosynthetic picoeukaryotes suggesting specific functional associations. The results show that diverse bacterial phylotypes are found in association with photosynthetic picoeukaryotes. Taxonomic identification of these associations is a prerequisite for further characterizing and to elucidate their metabolic pathways and ecological functions.

  • 320.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Ocean Sci Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    del Carmen Munoz-Marin, Maria
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA ; Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    New insights into the ecology of the globally significant uncultured nitrogen-fixing symbiont UCYN-A2016Inngår i: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 77, nr 3, s. 125-138Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial nitrogen-fixers (diazotrophs) play a key role in biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean. In recent years, the unusual symbiotic diazotrophic cyanobacterium Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) has been recognized as one of the major diazotrophs in the tropical and subtropical oceans. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the geographic distribution of UCYN-A, as well as the environmental factors that govern its distribution. In addition, by compiling UCYN-A nifH sequences from the GenBank no. database as well as those from nifH gene amplicon next generation sequencing studies, we present an in-depth analysis of the distribution of defined UCYN-A sublineages (UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2 and UCYN-A3) and identify a novel sublineage, UCYN-A4, which may be significant in some environments. Each UCYN-A sublineage exhibited a remarkable global distribution pattern and several UCYN-A sublineages frequently co-occurred within the same sample, suggesting that if they represent different ecotypes they have overlapping niches. Recently, single cell visualization techniques using specific probes targeting UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 and their respective associated eukaryotic partner cells showed that the size of the consortia and the number of UCYN-A cells differed between these 2 sublineages. Combined, the results highlight that UCYN-A sublineages likely have different physiological requirements, which need to be accounted for in future studies. Furthermore, based on our increasing knowledge of the diversity of the UCYN-A lineage, we discuss some of the limitations of currently used cultivation-independent molecular techniques for the identification and quantification of UCYN-A.

  • 321.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Ploug, Helle
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ossolinski, Justin E.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, USA.
    Collins, James R.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, USA;Univ Washington, USA.
    van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, USA.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Diverse diazotrophs are present on sinking particles in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre2019Inngår i: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 170-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sinking particles transport carbon and nutrients from the surface ocean into the deep sea and are considered hot spots for bacterial diversity and activity. In the oligotrophic oceans, nitrogen (N-2)-fixing organisms (diazotrophs) are an important source of new N but the extent to which these organisms are present and exported on sinking particles is not well known. Sinking particles were collected every 6 h over a 2-day period using net traps deployed at 150 m in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The bacterial community and composition of diazotrophs associated with individual and bulk sinking particles was assessed using 16S rRNA and nifH gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial community composition in bulk particles remained remarkably consistent throughout time and space while large variations of individually picked particles were observed. This difference suggests that unique biogeochemical conditions within individual particles may offer distinct ecological niches for specialized bacterial taxa. Compared to surrounding seawater, particle samples were enriched in different size classes of globally significant N-2-fixing cyanobacteria including Trichodesmium, symbionts of diatoms, and the unicellular cyanobacteria Crocosphaera and UCYN-A. The particles also contained nifH gene sequences of diverse non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs suggesting that particles could be loci for N-2 fixation by heterotrophic bacteria. The results demonstrate that diverse diazotrophs were present on particles and that new N may thereby be directly exported from surface waters on sinking particles.

  • 322.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden2015Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, s. 445-451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36 d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 323.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Speciation of metals in contaminated sediments from Oskarshamn Harbor, Oskarshamn, Sweden2014Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 2455-2464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments in coastal regions have been considered the ultimate sink for a number of contaminants, e. g., toxic metals. In this current study, speciation of metals in contaminated sediments of Oskarshamn harbor in the southeast of Sweden was performed in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility and bioavailability. Sediment speciation was carried out by the sequential extraction BCR procedure for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (R) fractions were determined. The results have shown that Zn and Cd were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (F1) with 42-58 % and 43-46 %, respectively, of their total concentrations in the mobile phase. The assessment of sediment contamination on the basis of quality guidelines established by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Italian Ministry of Environment (Venice protocol for dredged sediments) has shown that sediments from Oskarshamn harbor are highly contaminated with toxic metals, especially Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, and Zn posing potential ecological risks. Therefore, it is of crucial importance the implementation of adequate strategies to tackle contaminated sediments in coastal regions all over the world.

  • 324. Fernandez-Gomez, Beatriz
    et al.
    Richter, Michael
    Schueler, Margarete
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Acinas, Silvia G.
    Gonzalez, Jose M.
    Pedros-Alio, Carlos
    Ecology of marine Bacteroidetes: a comparative genomics approach2013Inngår i: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 1026-1037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteroidetes are commonly assumed to be specialized in degrading high molecular weight (HMW) compounds and to have a preference for growth attached to particles, surfaces or algal cells. The first sequenced genomes of marine Bacteroidetes seemed to confirm this assumption. Many more genomes have been sequenced recently. Here, a comparative analysis of marine Bacteroidetes genomes revealed a life strategy different from those of other important phyla of marine bacterioplankton such as Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacteroidetes have many adaptations to grow attached to particles, have the capacity to degrade polymers, including a large number of peptidases, glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyl transferases, adhesion proteins, as well as the genes for gliding motility. Several of the polymer degradation genes are located in close association with genes for TonB-dependent receptors and transducers, suggesting an integrated regulation of adhesion and degradation of polymers. This confirmed the role of this abundant group of marine bacteria as degraders of particulate matter. Marine Bacteroidetes had a significantly larger number of proteases than GHs, while non-marine Bacteroidetes had equal numbers of both. Proteorhodopsin containing Bacteroidetes shared two characteristics: small genome size and a higher number of genes involved in CO2 fixation per Mb. The latter may be important in order to survive when floating freely in the illuminated, but nutrient-poor, ocean surface. The ISME Journal (2013) 7, 1026-1037; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.169; published online 10 January 2013

  • 325.
    Fernando, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). The Manta Trust, UK ; Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Perera, Nishan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Ebert, David A.
    Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, USA.
    First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, (Chondrichthyes : Lamniformes : Megachasmidae) from Sri Lanka, northern Indian Ocean2015Inngår i: Marine Biodiversity Records, ISSN 1755-2672, E-ISSN 1755-2672, Vol. 8, s. 1-3, artikkel-id e75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is a rare and poorly studied shark. In this paper, the first record of the megamouth shark is reported for Sri Lanka. The shark, a juvenile estimated at 180 cm in total length, was caught in a gillnet in close proximity (<92 km) to the Negombo fisheries harbour (7°12′11.67″N 79°49′44.35″E).

  • 326.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). United Nations University, Germany.
    Avellán, Tamara
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Müller, Andrea
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Dornack, Christina
    Dresden University of Technology, Germany.
    Caucci, Serena
    United Nations University, Germany.
    Selecting sustainable sewage sludge reuse options through a systematic assessment framework: Methodology and case study in Latin America2020Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 242, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 118389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge is a by-product of wastewater treatment and has a complex composition including organic matter and nutrients. The recovery of the useful components can partially buffer the continuous depletion of natural resources. However, due to a range of many complex variables, such as concerns on safe-use practices and lack of technical capacities, sludge recovery is classified as a wicked problem. To facilitate the decision-making process, this study intends to provide a decision support framework (DSF) to guide decision making towards selecting sustainable options to handle sewage sludge in Latin America. The framework was tested and refined through a case study in Panajachel, Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. Sludge disposal solutions are missing in the municipality and the pathogen content highly exceeds national and international standards. The framework was used to evaluate possible recovery scenarios. The results show that the most sustainable ways to use sewage sludge in Panajachel are through agricultural use and soil conditioning. Composting is suggested as a conversion process to eliminate pathogens and obtain stable fertilisers.

  • 327.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gao, Ling
    Beihua University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Characterization of dredged sediments: a first guide to define potentially valuable compounds - the case of Malmfjärden Bay, Sweden2019Inngår i: Advances in Geosciences, ISSN 1680-7340, E-ISSN 1680-7359, Vol. 49, s. 137-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tons of bottom sediments are dredged annually all over the world. Ports and bays need to extract the sediments to guarantee the navigation levels or remediate the aquatic ecosystem. The removed material is commonly disposed of in open oceans or landfills. These disposal methods are not in line with circular-economy goals and additionally are unsuitable due to their legal and environmental compatibility. Recovery of valuables represents a way to eliminate dumping and contributes towards the sustainable extraction of secondary raw materials. Nevertheless, the recovery varies on a case-by-case basis and depends on the sediment components. Therefore, the first step is to analyse and identify the sediment composition and properties. Malmfjärden is a shallow semi-enclosed bay located in Kalmar, Sweden. Dredging of sediments is required to recuperate the water level. This study focuses on characterizing the sediments, pore water and surface water from the bay to uncover possible sediment recovery paths and define the baseline of contamination in the water body. The results showed that the bay had high amounts of nitrogen (170–450 µg L−1 ), leading to eutrophication problems. The sediments mainly comprised small size particle material (silt, clay and sand proportions of 62 %–79 %, 14 %–20 %, 7 %–17 %, respectively) and had a medium–high level of nitrogen (7400–11 000 mg kg−1 ). Additionally, the sediments had little presence of organic pollutants and low–medium concentration of metals or metalloids. The characterization of the sediments displays a potential use in less sensitive lands such as in industrial and commercial areas where the sediments can be employed as construction material or as plant-growing substrate (for ornamental gardens or vegetation beside roads).

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  • 328.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Testing of heavy metals recovery from dredged sediments2019Inngår i: Sediment as a dynamic natural resource from catchment to open sea / [ed] Marjan Euser, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 329.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University ; Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Rowe, O. F.
    Umeå University ; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University ; Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Allochthonous Carbon-a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea2016Inngår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 789-801Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60 % of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2 %. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60 %. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  • 330.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fagergren, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Perception of uncertainties and quality in risk assessments by people working with risk assessments2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, s. Abstract Number : 3978-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 80,000 possible contaminated sites have been identified in Sweden. Assessing the risk posed by these sites and, if necessary, remediating the soil is associated with high costs. It is thus important that these assessments are reliable. A problem with current methods is that uncertainty and variability are often not accounted for. Different individuals have different physiology and behaviour and soil composition differs at various sites which can be considered in probabilistic methods. This requires tools that are user-friendly and cost and time-efficient. Information about the perception of risk assessments, uncertainty and tools wanted by people working with risk assessments is therefore needed.

    Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether people working with risk assessments in practice find that these assessments are of sufficient quality, whether it is important to consider uncertainty and variability and which tools they may need to be able to consider these questions.

    Methods A questionnaire was sent to people working with the risk assessment of contaminated sites at government authorities and consultancies in Sweden. Results The data collected suggest that the majority of respondents find that risk assessment quality in general would need to be improved. Important factors to achieve this include a greater knowledge of the individuals involved in risk assessments, more financial resources, greater knowledge in form of new research and more time. The respondents also find it very important to characterize both uncertainty and variability, and to do this several respondents want more tools such as literature and databases with information about critical exposure factors and manuals.

    Conclusions

    According to personnel involved in the risk assessment of contaminated sites, the quality of the assessment should be enhanced and different tools would be useful to facilitate the characterization of uncertainty and variability.

  • 331.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consumption of vegetables and risk perception at contaminated glass works sites in Sweden2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, s. Abstract Number: 3980-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Glass has been produced since the 18th century in Kalmar and Kronoberg counties in an area called the Kingdom of Crystal. The production of glass has been associated with high levels of heavy metals in the soil. The most critical exposure pathways for metals are oral intake of soil, consumption of water and home-produced vegetables. The consumption of home-produced vegetables in particular is a highly site-specific exposure pathway and is therefore of interest to investigate in this geographic area.

    Aims The study aims to investigate to what extent home-produced vegetables are consumed by people living near glass work industries as well as their perception of environmental and health risks and the authorities’ risk communication.

    Methods A questionnaire including questions about personal factors, consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the perception of risks and risk communication was sent to 300 randomly selected individuals living in areas close to glass works. Results A majority of those questioned, 87%, consume vegetables or fruit from their own garden sometime during the year and more than half of the respondents eat these food items on a regular basis or several times a year. Just over 40% are concerned about that the fruit or vegetables from their own garden may be contaminated with pollutants from the glass works, but an even greater number are concerned that pollution from glass works will affect their health or the environment in general. More than half of the respondents would like to have more information about environmental and health risks.

    Conclusions

    Home-produced vegetables are frequently consumed in areas around glass work industries. Many residents are at the same time concerned and request more information about possible risks. Site-specific studies including quantities and types of vegetables ingested as well as contamination levels are needed to investigate if the exposure is actually of concern.

  • 332.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Public Perception of Risks Associated with Contaminated Glassworks sites in South-Eastern Sweden2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 333.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fagerberg, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Parents’ risk perception of toxic chemicals in children’s products at daycare centers2015Inngår i: Presented at: Sociology of Risk and Uncertainty Research Networks (ESA) mid-term conference, Risk, Uncertainty and Transition. 8-10 April 2015, Stuttgart, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 334.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Alexandra
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consumption of home-produced foods in south eastern Sweden: new data for use in exposure assessments2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 335.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ljunggren, Lill
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gender differences in risk management of contaminated land at a Swedish authority2014Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 353-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Any risk analysis process leading to the remediation of contaminated land will be affected by individual judgements. Many contaminated land risk assessments in Sweden are reviewed by the County Administrative Board (CAB), a regional government authority. The cost for risk assessments and eventually remediation is funded by whichever operator is legally responsible; however, when the responsible party is unknown, the cost can be met by government grants. A questionnaire was sent to all employees working with contaminated land at each of Sweden’s CABs to investigate whether gender, age and work experience, as well as funding source, affect the reviewing of risk assessments, and the employees’ perception of knowledge gained from the Sustainable Remediation (Hållbar Sanering) research programme. It was found that gender was the most significant factor, but also age and experience of the employees influenced the respondent’s answers. The reviews of risk assessments also varied depending on funding source.

  • 336.
    Finkelman, Robert B.
    et al.
    University of Texas at Dallas, USA.
    Orem, William H.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Applications of geochemistry to medical geology2018Inngår i: Environmental geochemistry: site characterization, data analysis and case histories / [ed] Benedetto De Vivo, Harvey E. Belkin & Annamaria Lima, Elsevier, 2018, 2nd ed., s. 435-465Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of geochemistry provides insights into how the natural environment impacts animal and human health and is the basis for the important subdiscipline of medical geochemistry. Among the more important contributions of medical geochemistry are the maps illustrating the distribution, on various scales, of potentially toxic trace elements. Chemical analyses of surface water and groundwater, stream sediments, and soil horizons have been published by numerous countries covering large geographic regions. Among the most comprehensive compilations is the Geochemical Atlas of Europe containing analytical data on more than 50 elements from stream water, stream sediment, and three soil horizons in 26 countries. Geochemical processes play a variety of important roles in controlling how humans are exposed to potential toxicants in a wide range of geogenic or anthropogenic materials. Once taken up by the body, geogenic materials such as dusts, soils, and water and their contained toxicants can react chemically with the body's fluids, and these chemical interactions can play key roles in toxicity. In addition to the harmful effects of some geogenic materials, certain clays have demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial properties when applied to open wounds with bacterial infections. Numerous case studies illustrate the potential human health impacts of organic compounds from geogenic sources, and especially those from fossil energy deposits. This is a challenging area of study since disease(s) resulting from exposures may be chronic rather than acute, and involve complex mixtures of substances. Medical geochemistry can play a key role in helping to protect the safety of drinking water by identifying the sources, concentrations, and forms of potentially harmful elements such as arsenic, mercury, and fluorine in natural waters. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of coals has helped to identify the sources of health problems afflicting millions of people worldwide.

  • 337.
    Finn, K. T.
    et al.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa;Kalahari Res Ctr, South Africa.
    Parker, D. M.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa;Univ Mpumalanga, South Africa.
    Bennett, N. C.
    Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Zöttl, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Kalahari Res Ctr, South Africa;Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Contrasts in body size and growth suggest that high population density results in faster pace of life in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis)2018Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 96, nr 8, s. 920-927Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the correlates of population density and body size, growth rates, litter size, and group size in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis (Ogilby, 1838)) at two study sites with contrasting population densities. Group size, litter size, and the probability of recapture were independent of study site. However, body size differed between the two study sites, suggesting that population density may affect life-history traits in social mole-rats. At the low-density site (0.13 groups/ha), individuals were significantly larger and subordinate males showed higher growth rates than at the high-density site (0.41 groups/ha), which may indicate that high population density in subterranean rodents enhances pace of life. The larger size of nonreproductive individuals at the low-density site could adapt individuals at lower population densities to larger dispersal distances.

  • 338.
    Flink, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consequences of eye-fluke infection on anti-predator behaviours in invasive round gobies in Kalmar sound2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Larvae of the eye-fluke, Diplostomum, emerge from snails and infect fish by penetrating skin or gills. Inside, it moves to the lens where it may impair the vision of the fish. For the fluke to reproduce, a bird must eat the infected fish, and it has been suggested that they actively manipulate the fish's behaviour to increase the risk of predation. I found parasite prevalence’s of 90-100 % in invasive round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) from the Kalmar Sound, Baltic Sea. I investigated if the intensity of parasite-induced cataract was related to behavioural alterations in round gobies. My results suggest that round gobies with intense cataracts had a reduced response to simulated avian attack. However, other anti-predator behaviours, i.e. light intensity preference, shelter use and boldness were not impaired. My results are in accordance to the idea that parasites change host behaviour to their own advantage, and may have implications for the success of invasive round goby populations.

  • 339.
    Flink, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Is the boldness of invasive gobies a predictor of individual ability to outcompete native species?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Personalities seem to be present in most animal taxa and affect many aspects of an individual’s behaviour. Accordingly, animal personality research can provide new knowledge to important ecological questions, such as in the field of invasion biology. Behavioural traits such as boldness and aggression do often correlate within individuals and are thought to be important during the colonisation of invasive species. Further, aggression in invasive species may facilitate the displacement of native species. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that the outcome of interspecific competition between an invasive and a native species can be predicted by the invaders boldness. Round gobies, that are invasive to the Baltic Sea, were assayed for consistency in boldness and then matched against native sand gobies in one-on-one contests over a single shelter. Boldness was consistent within individual round gobies over time. However, boldness had no effect on the outcome of resource competition and there was no correlation between boldness and aggression within individual round gobies. In addition to the main hypothesis, I compared differences in aggression between species and analysed the outcome of contests. My results show that juvenile round gobies and adult male sand gobies compete over hard substrates in lab, that round gobies generally are more aggressive and that the size difference between contestants is the major predictor of contest outcome. These results suggest that sand goby reproduction in the Baltic Sea may be diminished by the invasion and urge for additional field studies. 

  • 340.
    Flink, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nest size preferences and aggression in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In animal competition, resource holding potential (RHP) and resource value are two important factors determining the level of aggression and the outcome of conflicts. A valuable resource among nest-brooding animals, that is often under extensive competition, is a suitable nest substrate. The sand goby male (Pomatoschistus minutus) varies regionally in their nest size preferences; studies have shown that sand gobies in a marine habitat with egg predators have a size-assortative nest choice while they in a brackish habitat without these predators prefer larger nests independent of own body size. The aim of this study was to investigate if sand gobies from the Kalmar Sound show nest size preferences consistent with earlier conclusions (i.e. a generic preference for large nests, due to an absence of egg predators). A second aim was to test if resource value and RHP affects aggression in nest defending males. First, male sand gobies in individual aquaria were given a choice between a small and a large substrate to use as a nest site. Males in this study showed a distinct preference (23 of 25) for large nests irrespectively of own size as expected from earlier studies in a similar habitat. Second, male sand gobies were offered either a small or a large nest substrate and after a nest had been built they were challenged by an intruder male. The time until the resident male initiated aggressive display against the intruder was measured as a proxy of aggression. Resource value (a preferred large nest vs. unpreferred small nest) had no effect on aggression. However RHP (total length of the resident male) had a significant effect. Larger males were more aggressive than smaller ones, suggesting that aggressive displays are honest signals of own RHP in sand gobies. 

  • 341.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Behrens, Jane W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consequences of eye fluke infection on anti-predator behaviours in invasive round gobies in Kalmar Sound2017Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 6, s. 1653-1663Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Larvae of the eye fluke, Diplostomum, emerge from snails and infect fish by penetrating skin or gills, then move to the lens where they may impair the vision of the fish. For the fluke to reproduce, a bird must eat the infected fish, and it has been suggested that they therefore actively manipulate the fish's behaviour to increase the risk of predation. We found that round gobies Neogobius melanostomus, a species that was recently introduced to the Kalmar Sound of the Baltic Sea, had an eye fluke prevalence of 90-100%. We investigated how the infection related to behavioural variation in round gobies. Our results showed that the more intense the parasite-induced cataract, the weaker the host's response was to simulated avian attack. The eye flukes did not impair other potentially important anti-predator behaviours, such as shelter use, boldness and the preference for shade. Our results are in accordance with the suggestion that parasites induce changes in host behaviour that will facilitate transfer to their final host.

  • 342.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nest size preferences and aggression in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus)2015Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 69, nr 9, s. 1519-1525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In animal competition, resource holding potential (RHP) and resource value are two important factors determining the level of aggression and the outcome of contests. One valuable resource among nest-brooding animals that is subject to intense competition is a suitable nest substrate. Sand goby males (Pomatoschistus minutus) rely on finding good nest substrates, but the strategies vary between regions. We first investigated the nest size preferences in sand gobies from Kalmar Sound, a brackish area of the Baltic Sea with a shortage of suitable shells for nest construction and few invertebrate nest predators. Males expressed clear preference for larger nest substrates regardless of the male’s own size. To manipulate resource value, we provided males with large or small nests and tested if this and/or RHP affected aggression during nest defence. Resource value (a preferred large nest vs an unpreferred small nest) had no effect on aggression. However, RHP (total length of the resident male) had a significant effect. Larger males were more aggressive than smaller ones when matched against an opponent of the same size, suggesting that resident males acted according to own RHP.

  • 343.
    Florén, Kajsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Miljökrav inom leverantörskedjan: En studie med utgångspunkt i värmeljuskoppar på Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ställa miljökrav inom leverantörskedjorna har blivit allt vanligare i takt med ökat miljöarbete. Det är dock bristfälligt dokumenterat hur väl eventuella miljökrav uppfylls kedjan igenom. För att organisera miljöarbetet har strategier uppkommit vilka tar hänsyn till kedjans miljöpåverkan, såsom Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). Genom en fallstudie kartlades vilka miljökrav som ställdes, om kraven var konsekventa längs leverantörskedjan och hur kraven kunde relateras till företagens övriga miljöarbete. Fallstudien hade sin utgångspunkt i Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks AB med fokus på värmeljuskoppens leverantörskedja. Genom en semistrukturerad intervju har företagen inom kedjan svarat på frågor kring bl.a. miljökrav. Dessutom har en LCA gjorts på värmeljuskoppen för att se huruvida miljökraven var adekvata med tanke på produktens miljöpåverkan. Resultatet visade att företagen ställde miljörelaterade krav. Dessa krav berörde främst leverantörens allmänna miljöarbete snarare än själva produkten. Typen av ställda krav var ej konsekvent med företagens miljöarbete. LCAn visade på att produktens största miljöpåverkan härrör från aluminiumet. Miljökraven borde således inriktas på större andel återvunnet material.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 344.
    Flynn, Kevin J
    et al.
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Stoecker, Diane K
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Mitra, Aditee
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Raven, John A.
    University Of Dundee, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK.
    Glibert, Patricia M.
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Hansen, Per Juel
    University Of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Burkholder, Joann M.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Misuse of the phytoplankton-zooplankton dichotomy: the need to assign organisms as mixotrophs within plankton functional types2013Inngår i: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 3-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic portrayal of plankton is dominated by phytoplanktonic primary producersand zooplanktonic secondary producers. In reality, many if not most planktontraditionally labelled as phytoplankton or microzooplankton should be identifiedas mixotrophs, contributing to both primary and secondary production. Mixotrophicprotists (i.e. single-celled eukaryotes that perform photosynthesis and grazeon particles) do not represent a minor component of the plankton, as some formof inferior representatives of the past evolution of protists; they represent a majorcomponent of the extant protist plankton, and one which could become moredominant with climate change. The implications for this mistaken identification, ofthe incorrect labelling of mixotrophs as “phytoplankton” or “microzooplankton”,are great. It extends from the (mis)use of photopigments as indicators of primaryproduction performed by strict photoautotrophs rather than also (co)locating mixotrophicactivity, through to the inadequacy of plankton functional type descriptionsin models (noting that mixotrophic production in the individual organism is not asimple sum of phototrophy and heterotrophy). We propose that mixotrophy shouldbe recognized as a major contributor to plankton dynamics, with due effortexpended in field and laboratory studies, and should no longer be side-lined inconceptual food webs or in mathematical models.

  • 345.
    Foghagen, Christer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mitigating water shortage impacts: water consump­tion and sectoral adaptations among tourism and farming enterprises in Öland, South East Sweden2018Inngår i: Tourism implications and dilemmas, 24-26 September 2018: book of abstract, 2018, s. 126-126Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism development has, for many areas, become an important means to mitigate impacts from rural restructuring and out migration. At the same time, tourism is an additional stress factor on local infrastructures, environments and water resources. The peak season for both farming and coastal tourism often coincide with the dry summer season. As a result, since both farming and tourism have a high demand for freshwater consumption, water scarcity and related issues has become an increasingly pressing matter (Gössling 2001; Gössling Et al, 2012; Cole 2014). This is especially evident for many coastal and island destinations where freshwater demand and water consumption accelerate. The increasing demand is in part a result of increasing volumes of incoming tourists, cattle livestock changes as well as the 20th century wetland reductions to feed the need of larger areas of farmland. The capacity to cope with low amounts of precipitation for periods of continuous years becomes increasingly challenging. This paper examines the awareness of water scarcity among tourism and farming businesses in Öland and Gotland, as well as measures taken to mitigate of impacts and freshwater use. Focus group interviews as well as surveys have been conducted among tourism and farming businesses and stakeholders in Öland and Gotland. The results show significant differences between tourism- and farming stakeholders regarding perception of causes and effects of water scarcity. Variation in responses is also seen in water management issues as well as matters of responsibility and solutions. There is also a difference between tourism- and farming businesses regarding mitigation and the actions and measures taken to secure freshwater their access or reduce freshwater abstraction.

  • 346.
    Forslund Hultman, Natalie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hur mycket bekämpningsmedel får vi i oss via grönsaker?: En studie av 12 olika hushåll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har som syfte att få fram ett exempel på hur mycket av de vanligaste bekämpningsmedlen vi människor i praktiken får i oss via grönsaker beroende på vad vi äter.

    En kvittoundersökning har genomförts där 27 försökspersoner från 12 olika hushåll har samlat ihop kvitton under en sexveckorsperiod. 52 % (n=14) var kvinnor, 41 % (n=11) var män och 7 % (n=2) var barn. En enkätundersökning kompletterade kvittometoden med sådana frågor som påverkar hur mycket grönsaker man äter. För att bedöma mängden bekämpningsmedel som försökspersonerna kan förväntas ha fått i sig användes mätdata från livsmedelsverkets undersökning av bekämpningsmedelshalter i frukt och grönt 2008 vilken är den senaste undersökningen där halterna publicerats.

    Resultatet i denna undersökning visade att bekämpningsmedelsbelastningen på försökspersonerna inte var över gränsen för det acceptabla dagliga intaget för enskilda substanser. Resultatet visade också att vi människor nästintill inte får i oss några bekämpningsmedel vid konsumtion av ekologiska grönsaker och att det kan vara en risk att äta konventionellt odlade grönsaker.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 347.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion and infection biology.2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, nr 1, s. 302-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines.

  • 348.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?2016Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, nr 12, s. 2693-2698Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollinsand Griffith (2015) entitled ‘The danger within: the roleof genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in populationpersistence of colour polymorphic species’ that wasrecently published as an Opinion under the NEWS ANDVIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphismmay reduce population fitness and increaseextinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictionsput forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008,34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87,2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphswith co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait valuesmay increase the ecological and evolutionary successof polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that thereis no clear evidence from studies of ‘true polymorphicspecies’ that polymorphism promotes population persistence.In response, I (i) challenge their classifications ofpolymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizingthe dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii)review empirical studies that have examined whetherand how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk,(iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colourpattern and other phenotypic dimensions for populationfitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanismsthat influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphismsare different from the consequences of thepolymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspectsof ecological success and long-term persistence of populationsand species.

  • 349.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    On the role of sex differences for evolution in heterogeneous and changing fitness landscapes: insights from pygmy grasshoppers2018Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, nr 1757, artikkel-id 20170429Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to study evolution of local adaptations by natural selection, and to explore the roles of neutral processes and developmental plasticity for patterns of diversity among individuals, populations and species. Some aspects, such as evolution of adaptive variation in phenotypic traits in stable environments, and the role of plasticity in predictable changing environments, are well understood. Other aspects, such as the role of sex differences for evolution in spatially heterogeneous and temporally changing environments and dynamic fitness landscapes, remain elusive. An increased understanding of evolution requires that sex differences in development, physiology, morphology, life-history and behaviours are more broadly considered. Studies of selection should take into consideration that the relationships linking phenotypes to fitness may vary not only according to environmental conditions but also differ between males and females. Such opposing selection, sex-by-environment interaction effects of selection and sex-specific developmental plasticity can have consequences for population differentiation, local adaptations and for the dynamics of polymorphisms. Integrating sex differences in analytical frameworks and population comparisons can therefore illuminate neglected evolutionary drivers and reconcile unexpected patterns. Here, I illustrate these issues using empirical examples from over 20 years of research on colour polymorphic Tetrix subulata and Tetrix undulata pygmy grasshoppers, and summarize findings from observational field studies, manipulation experiments, common garden breeding experiments and population genetics studies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking local adaptation with the evolution of sex differences'.

  • 350.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rethinking phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for individuals, populations and species.2015Inngår i: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 115, nr 4, s. 276-284Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to identify the conditions under which selection favours flexible individuals or genotypes that are able to modify their growth, development and behaviour in response to environmental cues, to unravel the mechanisms of plasticity, and to explore its influence on patterns of diversity among individuals, populations, and species. The consequences of developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility for the performance and ecological success of populations and species have attracted a comparatively limited but currently growing interest. Here, I re-emphasize that an increased understanding of the roles of plasticity in these contexts requires a ‘whole organism’ (rather than ‘single trait’) approach, taking into consideration that organisms are integrated complex phenotypes. I further argue that plasticity and genetic polymorphism should be analysed and discussed within a common framework. I summarize predictions from theory on how phenotypic variation stemming from developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility may affect different aspects of population-level performance. I argue that it is important to distinguish between effects associated with greater inter-individual phenotypic variation resulting from plasticity, and effects mediated by variation among individuals in the capacity to express plasticity and flexibility as such. Finally, I claim that rigorous testing of predictions requires methods that allow for quantifying and comparing whole organism plasticity, as well as the ability to experimentally manipulate the level of and capacity for developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility independent of genetic variation.

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