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  • 301.
    Olausson, Michaela
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    User control of personal data: A study of personal data management in a GDPR-compliant grahpical user interface2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The following bachelor thesis explores the design of a GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) compliant graphical user interface, for an administrative school system. The work presents the process of developing and evaluating a web-based prototype, a platform chosen because of its availability. The aim is to investigate if the design increases the caregivers perception of being in control over personal data, both their own and data related to children in their care. The methods for investigating this subject are grounded in real world research, using both quantitative and qualitative methods.

     

    The results indicate that the users perceive the prototype to be useful, easy to use, easy to learn and that they are satisfied with it. The results also point towards the users feeling of control of both their own and their child’s personal data when using the prototype. The users agree that a higher sense of control also increases their sense of security.

  • 302.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    An exploration and experiment tool suite for code to architecture mapping techniques2019Ingår i: ECSA '19 Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Software Architecture / [ed] Laurence Duchien, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2019, Vol. 2, s. 26-29Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflexion modeling can be used to validate that source code conforms to an intended architecture. However, it requires a mapping of source code modules (e.g., classes) to (software) architecture elements. We have developed a tool suite that allows for evaluation and exploration of automatic techniques to map source code modules to architecture elements. The suite includes a reusable core component and tools to define the architecture, define and run experiments with mapping strategies, and explore the results of these experiments. The experiments can be executed locally or in a remote high-performance computing environment.

  • 303.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Motivation and Impact of Modeling Erosion using Static Architecture Conformance Checking2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, s. 204-209Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We motivate and describe why erosion modelingfrom a static architecture conformance checking point of view isimportant as well as the impact we think it can have on industry.Our research goal is to get a better understanding of erosionand develop smarter and simpler methods to assess erosion. Wedescribe preliminary results from a retrospective, longitudinalcase study of an open source software. The software system westudy, JabRef, was created in 2003, and refactored to a layeredstructure to “transition from a spaghetti to a more structuredarchitecture” in 2015. We construct a model from this new,layered architecture, and assess 30 versions of JabRef to findarchitectural conformance violations. Our preliminary resultsshow a significant difference in productivity after refactoring andsuggest that there is a connection between our model of erosionand productivity where more erosion gives lower productivity.

  • 304.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Semi-Automatic Mapping of Source Code Using Naive Bayes2019Ingår i: ECSA '19 Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Software Architecture - / [ed] Laurence Duchien, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2019, Vol. 2, s. 209-216Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry has not adopted continuous use of static architecture conformance checking. One hindrance is the needed mapping from source code elements to elements of the architecture. We present a novel approach of generating and combining dependency and semantic information extracted from an initial set of mapped source code files. We use this to train a Naive Bayes classifier that is then used to map the remainder of the source code files. We compare this approach with the HuGMe technique on six open source projects with known mappings. We find that our approach provides an average performance improvement of 0.22 and an average precision and recall F1-score improvement of 0.26 in comparison to HuGMe.

  • 305.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    The relationship of code churn and architectural violations in the open source software JabRef2017Ingår i: ECSA '17 Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2017, s. 152-158Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source application JabRef has existed since 2003. In 2015, the developers decided to make an architectural refactoring as continued development was deemed too demanding. The developers also introduced Static Architecture Conformance Checking (SACC) to prevent violations to the intended architecture. Measurements mined from source code repositories such as code churn and code ownership has been linked to several problems, for example fault proneness, security vulnerabilities, code smells, and degraded maintainability. The root cause of such problems can be architectural. To determine the impact of the refactoring of JabRef, we measure the code churn and code ownership before and after the refactoring and find that large files with violations had a significantly higher code churn than large files without violations before the refactoring. After the refactoring, the files that had violations show a more normal code churn. We find no such effect on code ownership. We conclude that files that contain violations detectable by SACC methods are connected to higher than normal code churn.

  • 306.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Towards Improved Initial Mapping in Semi Automatic Clustering2018Ingår i: ECSA 2018: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE: COMPANION PROCEEDINGS, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important step in Static Architecture Conformance Checking (SACC) is the mapping of source code entities to entities in the intended architecture. This step is currently relying on manual work, which is one hindrance for more widespread adoption of SACC in industry. Semi-automatic clustering is a promising approach to improve this, and the HuGMe clustering algorithm is an example of such a technique for use in SACC. But HuGMe relies on an initial set of clustered source code elements and algorithm parameters. We investigate the automatic mapping performance of HuGMe in two experiments to gain insight into what influence the starting set has in a medium-sized open source system, JabRef, which contain a relatively large number of architectural violations. Our results show that the highest automatic mapping performance can be achieved with a low number of elements within the initial set. However, the variability of the performance is high. We find a benefit in favoring source code elements with a high fan-out in the initial set.

  • 307.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Using Repository Data for Driving Software Architecture2018Ingår i: Proceeding of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings (ICSE), 2018, ACM Publications, 2018, s. 197-198Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We are in the pursuit of establishing a method for continuous data driven software architecture. We describe the problem with current methods for measuring the impact of refactoring long lived systems at the architectural level and architecture compliance checking. We summarize our studies of code churn, productivity and an automatic tool for compliance checking. We conclude that architecture violations seem to play an important role, but current methods are infeasible for industry practice. Finally we propose to use repository data mining to improve current methods for architecture compliance checking.

  • 308.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Evaluation of an architectural conformance checking software service2016Ingår i: ACM Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSA-W), ACM Press, 2016, artikel-id 15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Static architectural conformance checking can be used to find architectural violations, cases where the implementation does not adhere to the architecture, and prevent architectural erosion. We implement a software service for automated conformance checking and investigate the effect this has on the number of architectural violations in software projects. The service is implemented using our heuristic-based approach to static architecture conformance checking of the Model-View-Controller pattern. The service is integrated in the source code management system of each project, so a report is generated every time the source code is modified. The service was evaluated in a field experiment that consisted of eight student projects. We found that the four projects that used the service produced significantly fewer violations compared to those that did not.

  • 309.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a static architectural conformance checking method in a line of computer games2014Ingår i: QoSA '14 Proceedings of the 10th international ACM Sigsoft conference on Quality of software architectures, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, s. 113-118Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an evaluation of a simple method to find architectural problems in a product line of computer games. The method uses dependencies (direct, indirect, or no) to automatically classify types in the implementation to high-level components in the product line architecture. We use a commercially available tool to analyse dependencies in the source code. The automatic classification of types is compared to a manual classification by the developer, and all mismatches are reported. To evaluate the method, we inspect the source code and look for a pre-defined set of architectural problems in all types. We compare the set of types that contained problems to the set of types where the manual and automatic classification disagreed to determine precision and recall. We also investigate what changes are needed to correct the found mismatches by either designing and implementing changes in the source code or refining the automatic classification. Our evaluation shows that the simple method is effective at detecting architectural problems in a product line of four games. The method is lightweight, customisable and easy to implement early in the development cycle.

  • 310.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Evolution and Evaluation of the Model-View-Controller Architecture in Games2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering, USA: IEEE Press, 2015, s. 8-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In game software it is important to separate game play code from rendering code to ease transitions to new technologies or different platforms. The architectural pattern Model-View-Controller (MVC) is commonly used to achieve such separation. We investigate how the MVC architectural pattern is implemented in five game projects from a small development studio. We define a metrics-based quality model to assess software quality goals such as portability and rendering engine independence and perform an architectural analysis. The analysis reveals three different evolutions of the pattern. We also assess the quality and find that 1. The evolutions of the architecture differ in quality and 2. An architectural refactoring to a newer version of the architecture increases the software quality.

  • 311.
    Olsson, Tom
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Adding Information to Complement a Football Broadcast: Exploring the possibilities of improving the viewer experience of a broadcasted football game with the use of additional information through motion tracking2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore the possibilities of improving the viewer experience of a broadcasted football game with the use of additional information, applied to the footage with the use of motion tracking.

    This work was conducted in collaboration with SVT Design. which is the inhouse department of the Swedish television network (SVT) tasked with designing, developing and creating graphical solutions. One of the systems developed by SVT Design is the character generator Caspar CG. Which is an open source CG system used worldwide for broadcasting productions. In the spring of 2018, SVT Design presented the idea of incorporating a motion tracking feature within Caspar CG. This would be a feature which could be used during broadcasted sporting events to provide the viewers with additional information regarding the ongoing event. With the use of motion tracking, the additional information could be presented in a dynamic manner in the sense that the information would follow the motion of the tracked object.

    This thesis aimed to answer the following three research questions; What type of information could be displayed? When and how could this information be displayed? and lastly, how could the addition of information change the viewer’s experience of the football game? The conclusions aimed to provide SVT Design with a set of guidelines and requirements regarding the design and implementation of the additional information in a manner that would promote a positive viewer experience.

    The methodology applied for this thesis was a qualitative methodology utilizing research activities such as semi-structured interviews featuring three staff members of SVTs department of sport productions. The observation of two broadcasted football games. Along with two focus groups in which the participants were presented with a prototype developed in Adobe After Effects. Consisting of footage from the 2010 FIFA world cup along with additional information that was applied with the use of motion tracking.

    Through the analysis of the collected data, several recurring keywords and notions were identified and translated into requirements. The requirements, which was structured around the three research questions. Is for example that the information needs to be player specific and to provide an insight of the potential outcome of the game. Another example of a requirement being that the information is to be displayed when there is a break in action during the game. The result from this thesis indicated that if the specified requirements were met. The additional information applied during the broadcast could provide an improvement of the viewer’s experience of watching the broadcasted football game.

  • 312.
    Otero, Nuno
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Oakley, Ian
    Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.
    External representations and the design of seamless learning systems: Toward a conceptual framework to analyze empirical evidence regarding learning benefits2019Ingår i: Seamless Learning: Perspectives, Challenges and Opportunities / [ed] Chee-Kit LooiLung-Hsiang WongChristian GlahnSu Cai, Springer, 2019, s. 53-72Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in technology-enhanced learning highlight the increasing importance of mobile digital tools in learning scenarios; seamless learning, or learning that spans contexts and activities within and without the classroom, is becoming mainstream. Despite the growing body of the literature in this area, this chapter highlights a general focus on technological issues and perspectives and a lack of theoretically driven discussion. We argue that theoretically/conceptually inspired literature reviews covering pedagogy and cognitive aspects of learning are currently needed to establish a grounded framework for future research in this area. This paper contributes one such analysis—it proposes and reflects on the issues raised when considering seamless learning from the perspective of the established literature on external representations (ERs), a core concept in distributed or embodied accounts of cognition. Core issues we discuss are: (a) what are the challenges facing seamless learning from an ERs perspective? (b) how can knowledge about ERs be applied to seamless learning systems?, and (c) what methodological challenges will emerge if seamless learning systems are studied from the perspective of ERs? This discussion is intended as a bridge between practical and applied work in seamless learning and theoretical or laboratory-based work in ERs—it seeks to drive the field of seamless learning forward by highlighting best practices from an established theoretical perspective. By elaborating on a theoretically grounded lens, we seek to empower researchers to identify promising approaches for the design and evaluation of next-generation high impact seamless learning solutions. © 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

  • 313.
    Pahl, Claus
    et al.
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.
    Jamshidi, Pooyan
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV). Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Cloud architecture continuity: Change models and change rules for sustainable cloud software architectures2017Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 29, nr 2, artikel-id UNSP e1849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud systems provide elastic execution environments of resources that link application and infrastructure/platform components, which are both exposed to uncertainties and change. Change appears in 2 forms: the evolution of architectural components under changing requirements and the adaptation of the infrastructure running applications. Cloud architecture continuity refers to the ability of a cloud system to change its architecture and maintain the validity of the goals that determine the architecture. Goal validity implies the satisfaction of goals in adapting or evolving systems. Architecture continuity aids technical sustainability, that is, the longevity of information, systems, and infrastructure and their adequate evolution with changing conditions. In a cloud setting that requires both steady alignment with technological evolution and availability, architecture continuity directly impacts economic sustainability. We investigate change models and change rules for managing change to support cloud architecture continuity. These models and rules define transformations of architectures to maintain system goals: Evolution is about unanticipated change of structural aspects of architectures, and adaptation is about anticipated change of architecture configurations. Both are driven by quality and cost, and both represent multidimensional decision problems under uncertainty. We have applied the models and rules for adaptation and evolution in research and industry consultancy projects.

  • 314.
    Palma, Francis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Moha, Naouel
    Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Gueheneuc, Yann-Gael
    Polytech Montreal, Canada.
    UniDoSA: The Unified Specification and Detection of Service Antipatterns2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1024-1053Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-based Systems (SBSs) are developed on top of diverse Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) technologies or architectural styles. Like any other complex systems, SBSs face both functional and non-functional changes at the design or implementation-level. Such changes may degrade the design quality and quality of service (QoS) of the services in SBSs by introducing poor solutions-service antipatterns. The presence of service antipatterns in SBSs may hinder the future maintenance and evolution of SBSs. Assessing the quality of design and QoS of SBSs through the detection of service antipatterns may ease their maintenance and evolution. However, the current literature lacks a unified approach for modelling and evaluating the design of SBSs in term of design quality and QoS. To address this lack, this paper presents a meta-model unifying the three main service technologies: REST, SCA, and SOAP. Using the meta-model, it describes a unified approach, UniDoSA (Unified Specification and Detection of Service Antipatterns), supported by a framework, SOFA (Service Oriented Framework for Antipatterns), for modelling and evaluating the design quality and QoS of SBSs. We apply and validate UniDoSA on: (1) 18 RESTful APIs, (2) two SCA systems with more than 150 services, and (3) more than 120 SOAP Web services. With a high precision and recall, the detection results provide evidence of the presence of service antipatterns in SBSs, which calls for future studies of their impact on QoS.

  • 315.
    Palmqvist, Simon
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Validating the Quality of a Big Data Java Corpus2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research within the field of Software Engineering have used GitHub, the largest hub for open source projects with almost 20 million users and 57 million repositories, to mine large amounts of source code to get more trustworthy results when developing machine and deep learning models. Mining GitHub comes with many challenges since the dataset is large and the data does not only contain quality software projects. In this project, we try to mine projects from GitHub based on earlier research by others and try to validate the quality by comparing the projects with a small subset of quality projects with the help of software complexity metrics.

  • 316.
    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra
    et al.
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Kontogiannis, Sotirios
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kokkonis, George
    TEI of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Valsamidis, Stavros
    TEI of East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece.
    Proposed OLEA management system with farming monitoring processes for virgin olive oil production traceability and assessment2019Ingår i: Innovative Approaches and Applications for Sustainable Rural Development: 8th International Conference, HAICTA 2017, Chania, Crete, Greece, September 21-24, 2017, Selected Papers / [ed] Theodoridis, Alexandros, Ragkos, Athanasios, Salampasis, Michail, Springer, 2019, s. 325-353Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a cloud application architecture called OLEA, for monitoring the olive oil production chain. OLEA system deployment follows adivide–and-conquer management logic, which maintains olive tree clusters. On each cluster, NFC technology is used for monitoring plant protection practices and fertilization. Apart from on-site monitoring services, the system is also equipped with virgin oil management services. It uses an OLEA system controller that interconnects with sensors on oil mills, for the procurement of quantitative and qualitative olive oil characteristics, during the industrial extraction process. OLEAsystem services and management algorithms are controlled by a cloud application server, where collected data uploads and notifications are sent to the end users using a mobile phone application. This paper presents the OLEA system technical characteristics as well as the structure of OLEA communication protocols. Furthermore, a case study of the OLEA system data mining capabilities is presented examining the application of such efforts to the improvement of systematic cultivation, branding and product exports.

  • 317.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    SICS, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS, Sweden.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015Ingår i: Software Business: 6th International Conference, ICSOB 2015, Braga, Portugal, June 10-12, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] João M. Fernandes, Ricardo J. Machado, Krzysztof Wnuk, Springer, 2015, s. 81-95Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

  • 318.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Issues and Challenges in Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, ACM Press, 2013, s. 21-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how Systems of Systems (SoS) can be constructed by linking together embedded computers in constituent systems to create complex but more flexible and adaptable systems. The approach of software system development is called Federated Embedded Systems (FES) and their revolved ecosystem of players is presented, aiming to ensure quality in engineering SoS. Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems (EcoFES) comprise a new area of research that scales component-based software development for embedded software into new dimensions. The proposed ecosystem dimension introduces an open, flexible and adaptable SoS architecture for improving the process of FES development. In the paper, we identify some architectural challenges and discuss the implications of scaling from a closed ecosystem to an open one, providing open collaboration and innovation in the context of FES.

  • 319.
    Pappaterra, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A Review of Intelligent Cybersecurity with Bayesian Networks2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC), IEEE, 2019, s. 445-452Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybersecurity threats have surged in the past decades. Experts agree that conventional security measures will soon not be enough to stop the propagation of more sophisticated and harmful cyberattacks. Recently, there has been a growing interest in mastering the complexity of cybersecurity by adopting methods borrowed from Artificial Intelligence (AI) in order to support automation. In this paper, we provide a brief survey and some hints about Bayesian Network applications to intelligent cybersecurity in order to enable quantitative threat assessment for superior risk analysis and situation awareness.

  • 320.
    Pappaterra, Mauro José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Implementing Bayesian Networks for online threat detection2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybersecurity threats have surged in the past decades. Experts agree that conventional security measures will soon not be enough to stop the propagation of more sophisticated and harmful cyberattacks. Recently, there has been a growing interest in mastering the complexity of cybersecurity by adopting methods borrowed from Artificial Intelligence (AI) in order to support automation. Moreover, entire security frameworks, such as DETECT (Decision Triggering Event Composer and Tracker), are designed aimed to the automatic and early detection of threats against systems, by using model analysis and recognising sequences of events and other tropes, inherent to attack patterns.

    In this project, I concentrate on cybersecurity threat assessment by the translation of Attack Trees (AT) into probabilistic detection models based on Bayesian Networks (BN). I also show how these models can be integrated and dynamically updated as a detection engine in the existing DETECT framework for automated threat detection, hence enabling both offline and online threat assessment. Integration in DETECT is important to allow real-time model execution and evaluation for quantitative threat assessment. Finally, I apply my methodology to some real-world case studies, evaluate models with sample data, perform data sensitivity analyses, then present and discuss the results.

  • 321.
    Pargman, Teresa Cerratto
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Taking an instrumental genesis lens: New insights into collaborative mobile learning2018Ingår i: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 219-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that in order to gain a deeper understanding of collaborative mobile learning in schools, it is important to know not only how mobile devices affect collaborative learning but also how collaborative learning emerges and is mediated by these devices. We develop our argument by applying the instrumental genesis theory and the collective instrumented activities and situations model for the analysis of learners' collaborative learning in the tablet-mediated classroom. This analysis is grounded in data collected in four elementary Swedish schools (ie, from fourth to eighth grade). From the data, we considered the learners' conversation in English as a foreign language, inquiry-based learning in the natural sciences classroom and game-based learning in the arithmetic classroom. On the one hand, the scrutiny of these specific activities led us to distinguish the pragmatic, epistemic, and reflexive instrumental mediations that have already been theorized in the instrumental genesis theory. On the other hand, they helped us to identify two additional ones, which we call emotional and spatial. Based on these findings, we claim that collaboration in the tablet-mediated classroom is a complex activity that emerges from a variety of instrumental mediations that configure contemporary collaborative mobile learning.

  • 322.
    Perez, David
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Memeti, Suejb
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A simulation study of a smart living IoT solution for remote elderly care2018Ingår i: 2018 Third International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), Barcelona, Spain: IEEE, 2018, s. 227-232Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a simulation study of a smart living IoT solution for elderly people living in their own houses. Our study was conducted in the context of BoIT project in Sweden that investigates the use of various IoT devices for remote housing and care-giving services. We focus on a carephone device that enables to establish a voice connection via IP with care givers or relatives. We have developed a simulation model to study the IoT solution for elderly care in the Vaxjo municipality in Sweden. The simulation model can be used to address various issues, such as determining the lack or excess of resources or long waiting times, and study the system behavior when the number of alarms is increased. Simulation results indicate that a 15% increase in the arrivals rate would cause unacceptable long waiting times for patients to receive the care.

  • 323.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Merseguer, Jose
    Univ Zaragoza, Spain.
    Requeno, Jose, I
    Univ Zaragoza, Spain.
    Guerriero, M.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Di Nitto, Elisabetta
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Tamburri, D. A.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    A UML Profile for the Design, Quality Assessment and Deployment of Data-intensive Applications2019Ingår i: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 3577-3614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Big Data or Data-Intensive applications (DIAs) seek to mine, manipulate, extract or otherwise exploit the potential intelligence hidden behind Big Data. However, several practitioner surveys remark that DIAs potential is still untapped because of very difficult and costly design, quality assessment and continuous refinement. To address the above shortcoming, we propose the use of a UML domain-specific modeling language or profile specifically tailored to support the design, assessment and continuous deployment of DIAs. This article illustrates our DIA-specific profile and outlines its usage in the context of DIA performance engineering and deployment. For DIA performance engineering, we rely on the Apache Hadoop technology, while for DIA deployment, we leverage the TOSCA language. We conclude that the proposed profile offers a powerful language for data-intensive software and systems modeling, quality evaluation and automated deployment of DIAs on private or public clouds.

  • 324.
    Perkaz, Alain
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Engineering Content-Centric Future Internet Applications2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet as we know it today has sustained continuous evolution since its creation, radically changing means of communication and ways in which commerce is globally operated. From the World Wide Web to the two-way video calls, it has shifted the ways people communicate and societies function. The Internet itself was first conceived as a network that would enable the communication between multiple trusted and known hosts, but as the time passed, it has notably evolved. Due to the significant adoption of Internet-connected devices (phones, personal computers, tablets...), the initial device homogeneity has shifted towards an extremely heterogeneous environment in which many different devices consume and publish resources, also referred as services.

    As the number of connected devices and resources increases, it becomes critical to building systems that enable the autonomic publication, consumption, and retrieval of those resources. As the inherent complexity of systems continues to grow, it is essential to set boundaries to their achievable capabilities. The traditional approaches to network-based computing are not sufficient, and new reference approaches should be presented. In this context the Future Internet (FI) term emerges, a worldwide execution environment connecting large sets of heterogeneous and autonomic devices and resources.

    In such environments, systems leverage service annotations to fulfil emerging goals and dynamically organise resources based on interests. Although research has been conducted in those areas, active research is being carried out in the following areas: extensible machine-readable annotation of services, dynamic service discovery, architectural approaches for decentralised systems, and interest-focused dynamic service organisations. These concepts will be explained in the next section, as they will serve to contextualise the later presented problem statement and research questions.

  • 325.
    Persson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Richardson, Fabian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Förbättringsarbete av Provdon RA 180/480: "Kommunikation mellan gammalt och nytt"2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har genom experiment och tester undersökt förbättringspotentialen för en halvautomatisk grundtillsyn av Ra180. Eftersom att denna grundtillsyn tar lång tid är det högst relevant att försöka korta ner den. Genom noggranna mätningar som har testats har det tagits fram lämpliga lösningar för en påtaglig förbättring. I linje med detta har även en undersökning gjorts av huruvida en helautomatisk grundtillsyn är möjlig. Genom dessa undersökningar har också en hårdvaruprototyp till denna metod tagits fram och implementerats.

  • 326.
    Persson, Samantha
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Improving perceived performance of loading screens through animation2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact that loading animations have on perceived  performance. Two sets of usability tests were conducted to obtain the data for this study. In the first set of usability tests, 15 participants were observed. The second set was performed online with 45 participants who answered a questionnaire after using the prototype. Five different loading animations were tested: Spinner, Loading bar, a detailed animation, an animation with aquote and a skeleton loading screen. The participants were asked at the end of the usability tests to rate which one of the loading screens were the fastest and the slowest. Results suggested the kind of animation used in a loading screen does have an effect on perceived performance. The loading screen with no animation received a generally lower rating compared to the one with animations. Loading animations intended to entertain and distract the user received a higher rate compared to common loading animations such as Spinners and Loading bars.

  • 327.
    Petersson, Ulrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Mätetal för agil programvaruutveckling: Stöd för det agila teamet att kontinuerligt utvärdera och förbättra sin förmåga2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att i agil anda ständigt kunna förbättra sitt arbetssätt behöver ett agilt team som utvecklar programvara kunskap och samsyn om den aktuella prestationsförmågan och hur den förändras över tiden. Teamet behöver därför kontinuerligt kunna mäta och utvärdera sin prestationsförmåga som grund för att förstå vad som behöver förbättras. Problemet som föreliggande studie vill besvara är vilka mätetal som är lämpliga för att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt fånga objektiv information om dels effektiviteten i teamets arbete och dels kvaliteten på produkten, för att kunna balansera de två perspektiven. Problemet är viktigt för alla som utvecklar programvara professionellt eftersom högpresterande team möjliggör effektivare utveckling, lägre kostnader och högre vinstmarginal, och dessutom sannolikt ökad tillfredsställelse i arbetet genom ökad möjlighet att kunna förstå och påverka sin arbetssituation. Angreppssättet för att besvara problemet har varit en kombination av litteraturstudie och fallstudie med ett team som jobbade enligt metoden Scrum. Som resultat har 23 olika mätetal med stöd av litteraturen definierats för fallstudiens kontext. Efter drygt tre utvecklings-sprintar under drygt tre månader har i stort sett samtliga mätetal fungerat för att ge efterfrågad information, samt har befrämjat diskussioner inom teamet. Huvudsakligen visar användningen av mätetalen också på god överensstämmelse med tidigare litteratur. Studien bidrar till vetenskap och industri framför allt genom att noggrant definiera mätetalen och utförligt beskriva implementationen av dem och erfarenheterna från användningen, vilket bör möjliggöra jämförelser med andra studier och praktiska tillämpningar.

  • 328.
    Petrillo, Fabio
    et al.
    Concordia University, Canada.
    Merle, Philippe
    Inria Lille - Nord Europe, France.
    Palma, Francis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Moha, Naouela
    Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël
    Concordia University, Canada.
    A lexical and semantical analysis on REST cloud computing APIs2018Ingår i: Cloud Computing and Service Science. CLOSER 2017: 7th International Conference, CLOSER 2017, Porto, Portugal, April 24–26, 2017, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Donald Ferguson, Víctor Méndez Muñoz, Jorge Cardoso, Markus Helfert, Claus Pahl, Springer, 2018, s. 308-332Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is a popular Internet-based computing paradigm that provides on-demand computational services and resources, generally offered by Cloud providers’ REpresentational State Transfer (REST) APIs. Developers use REST APIs by invoking these APIs by their names and, thus, the lexicons used in the APIs are important to ease the developers’ comprehension. In this paper, we study the lexicons and the linguistic (anti)patterns from 16 providers of REST Cloud Computing APIs. We observe that, although the 16 REST APIs describe the same domain (Cloud computing), contrary to what one might expect, their lexicons do not share a large number of common terms and 90% of the terms (3,561/3,947) are just used by one provider. Thus, the APIs are lexically heterogeneous and there is not a consensus on which terms to use in Cloud computing. Further, we observe that the majority of the URIs, 54%, follow the Contextualised Resource Names pattern, which is considered a good practice in REST API design. However, a majority of the URIs, 62.82%, suffer from the Non-pertinent Documentation antipattern. Thus, we present three main contributions: (1) a tooled approach, called CloudLex, for extracting and analysing REST Cloud computing lexicons; (2) our analysis of the terms used in 16 REST APIs in 59,677 term occurrences; (3) our analysis of the linguistic (anti)patterns in more than 23,000 URIs of the 142 services of the 16 Cloud providers. We also show that CloudLex has an average precision of 84.82%, recall of 63.57%, and F1-measure of 71.03% on one complete API, Docker Engine, which confirms the accuracy of our semantic analyses for the detection of linguistic (anti)patterns. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

  • 329.
    Pettersson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    A Survey of Modeling Approaches for Software Ecosystems2016Ingår i: SOFTWARE BUSINESS, (ICSOB 2016), Springer, 2016, s. 79-93Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software ecosystems is one promising strategy for organizations to find new market segments, new innovative value propositions creating new value streams. However, understanding internal and external actors, resources and relationships that could be leveraged in a SECO is critical for their strategic decisions. The consequence of mistakes may be costly failures that can force an organization to move out of a market. This paper describes a systematic mapping study that targets description of software ecosystems. Our conjecture is that adequate description support leads to modeling, which will improve information and in turn strategic decisions. The survey searches existing literature for description techniques and their application for comprehensive description. The study identifies and maps 63 primary studies out of 937 candidates according to their degree of modeling support and several other important aspects for SECO description. The analysis indicates that no approach fully supports comprehensive SECO descriptions, supporting domain specific and view specific modeling of ecosystem concerns. The analysis is used to highlight areas for a future research agenda.

  • 330.
    Pettersson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Understanding Software Ecosystems for Technology-Enhanced Learning: a Case Study2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computers in Education 2013 / [ed] Lung-Hsiang Wong, Chen-Chung Liu, Tsukasa Hirashima, Pudjo Sumedi, Muhammad Lukman, Indonesia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 2013, s. 457-462Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in schools promises up-to-date, interactive and collaborative learning content, However, this has proved difficult to fulfill as the requirements from students and teachers combined with devices in a variety of contexts are expensive to meet. Software reuse is a proven way to decrease development time, and thus promises a way to decrease these costs of ICT. This paper explores the characteristics of a software ecosystem approach to cater for the new digital school and presents a reference model for ecosystems developed for the domain of technology-enhanced learning (TEL).

  • 331.
    Pllana, Sabri
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Memeti, Suejb
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kołodziej, Joanna
    Cracow University of Technology, Polen.
    Customizing Pareto Simulated Annealing for Multi-objective Optimization of Control Cabinet Layout2019Ingår i: 2019 22nd International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science (CSCS): 28–30 May 2019, Bucharest, Romania, IEEE, 2019, s. 78-85Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the optimal location of control cabinet components requires the exploration of a large configuration space. For real-world control cabinets it is impractical to evaluate all possible cabinet configurations. Therefore, we need to apply methods for intelligent exploration of cabinet configuration space that enable to find a near-optimal configuration without evaluation of all possible configurations.In this paper, we describe an approach for multi-objective optimization of control cabinet layout that is based on Pareto Simulated Annealing. Optimization aims at minimizing the total wire length used for interconnection of components and the heat convection within the cabinet. We simulate heat convection to study the warm air flow within the control cabinet and determine the optimal position of components that generate heat during the operation. We evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach empirically for various control cabinet sizes and usage scenarios.

  • 332.
    Pllana, Sabri
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Beyond Directive-Based Languages for Heterogeneous Computing Systems2013Ingår i: CHIST-ERA Conference, June 13-14, 2013, Brussels (Belgium), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming heterogeneous computing systems so far proved to be prohibitively difficult for mainstream programmers. Commonly research projects have avoided addressing fundamental issues of programming heterogeneous systems and provided similar (directive-based) solutions with the well-known limitations. We argue that it is now the time to rethink the heterogeneous programming and go beyond directive-based languages.

  • 333.
    Pllana, Sabri
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Xhafa, FatosTechnical University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Programming Multicore and Many-core Computing Systems2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The book comprises a selection of twenty two chapters covering: fundamental techniques and algorithms; programming approaches; methodologies and frameworks; scheduling and management; testing and evaluation methodologies; and case studies for programming multi-core and many-core systems.

    Program development for multi-core processors, especially for heterogeneous multi-core processors, is significantly more complex than for single-core processors. However, programmers have been traditionally trained for the development of sequential programs, and only a small percentage of them have experience with parallel programming.  In the past, only a relatively small group of programmers 

    nterested in High Performance Computing (HPC) was concerned with the parallel programming issues, but the situation has changed dramatically with the appearance of multi-core processors on commonly used computing systems. It is expected that with the pervasiveness of multi-core processors, parallel programming will become mainstream.

    The pervasiveness of multi-core processors affects a large spectrum of systems, from embedded and general-purpose, to high-end computing systems. This book assists programmers in mastering the efficient programming of multi-core systems, which is of paramount importance for the software-intensive industry towards a more effective product-development cycle.

    Key features:

    • Lessons, challenges, and roadmaps ahead.
    • Contains real world examples and case studies.
    • Helps programmers in mastering the efficient programming of multi-core and many-core systems.

    The book serves as a reference for a larger audience of practitioners, young researchers and graduate level students. A basic level of programming knowledge is required to use this book.          

  • 334.
    Pohl, Margit
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Human Factors and Multilayer Networks2019Ingår i: Workshop on Visualization of Multilayer Networks (MNLVIS '19) at IEEE VIS '19, October 21, 2019, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysts of specific application domains, such as experts in systems biology or social scientists, are often interested to visually analyze a number of different network structures in conjunction, for example by using various visual structures of so-called multilayer networks. From the perspective of the human analyst, a sufficient perception and, consequently, a good understanding of those visual representations of multilayer networks is a non-trivial and often challenging task. Despite this practical importance and the clearly interesting visualization challenges, only few evaluation studies exist that investigate usability and cognitive issues of complex networks or, more specifically, multilayer networks. In this position paper, we address two main goals. On the one hand, we discuss existing studies from the fields of human-computer interaction and cognitive psychology that could inform the designers of multilayer network visualization in the future. On the other hand, we formulate first tentative recommendations for the design of multilayer networks, identify open issues in this context, and clarify possible future directions of research.

  • 335.
    Qasem, Ziyaad
    et al.
    University of Applied Science Ruhr West, Germany.
    Bons, Julia
    University of Applied Science Ruhr West, Germany.
    Borgmann, Colja
    University of Applied Science Ruhr West, Germany.
    Eimler, Sabrina
    University of Applied Science Ruhr West, Germany.
    Jansen, Marc
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). University of Applied Science Ruhr West, Germany.
    Dynamic, Adaptive, and Mobile System for Context-Based and Intelligent Support of Employees in Heavy Industry2018Ingår i: Proceedings. 2018 Sixth International Conference on Enterprise Systems: ES 2018. 1–2 October 2018 Limassol, Cyprus, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, s. 90-95Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is known as the fourth industrial revolution which refers to the integration of technologies that make the factories interoperable by seamlessly connecting machines, employees and sensors for communication. In Industry 4.0, one of the key features is the use of new technologies to recognize the current context. Thus, the employees are supported with contextual information for speeding up decision-making during various processes related to planning, production, maintenance, etc. As a contribution to this area, the work described here aims to introduce a cyber-physical system (CPS) approach to provide context-based and intelligent support to employees in heavy industries using new technologies, especially in the field of mobile devices. In this work, mobile device sensors and image processing techniques are used to recognize the context which requires specific support. In addition, new scenarios and associated processes are developed to support the employees on the basis of new, flexible, adaptive and mobile technologies.

  • 336.
    Qureshi, Shahnawaz
    et al.
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Iqbal, Syed Muhammad Zeeshan
    BrightWare, Saudi Arabia.
    Javaid, Hamad
    Jinnah International Hospital, Pakistan.
    Lindley, Craig
    CSIRO ICT Centre, Australia.
    Evaluation of Classifiers for Emotion Detection while Performing Physical and Visual Tasks: Tower of Hanoi and IAPS2018Ingår i: Intelligent Systems and Applications. IntelliSys 2018: Proceedings of the 2018 Intelligent Systems Conference (IntelliSys) Volume 1 / [ed] Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor, Rahul Bhatia, Springer, 2018, s. 347-363Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advancement in robot technology, smart human-robot interaction is of increasing importance for allowing the more excellent use of robots integrated into human environments and activities. If a robot can identify emotions and intentions of a human interacting with it, interactions with humans can potentially become more natural and effective. However, mechanisms of perception and empathy used by humans to achieve this understanding may not be suitable or adequate for use within robots. Electroencephalography (EEG) can be used for recording signals revealing emotions and motivations from a human brain. This study aimed to evaluate different machine learning techniques to classify EEG data associated with specific affective/emotional states. For experimental purposes, we used visual (IAPS) and physical (Tower of Hanoi) tasks to record human emotional states in the form of EEG data. The obtained EEG data processed, formatted and evaluated using various machine learning techniques to find out which method can most accurately classify EEG data according to associated affective/emotional states. The experiment confirms the choice of a method for improving the accuracy of results. According to the results, Support Vector Machine was the first, and Regression Tree was the second best method for classifying EEG data associated with specific affective/emotional states with accuracies up to 70.00% and 60.00%, respectively. In both tasks, SVM was better in performance than RT. 

  • 337.
    Rabiser, Rick
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University, Austria.
    Schmid, Klaus
    University of Hildesheim, Germany.
    Becker, Martin
    Fraunhofer IESE, Germany.
    Botterweck, Goetz
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Galster, Matthias
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Groher, Iris
    Johannes Kepler University, Austria.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). KU Leuven, Belgium.
    A study and comparison of industrial vs. Academic software product line research published at SPLC2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 22nd International Systems and Software Product Line Conference - Volume 1, ACM Publications, 2018, s. 14-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper aims to provide evidence for the hypothesis that software product line research has been changing and that the works in industry and academia have diverged over time.We analysed a subset (140) of all (593) papers published at the Software Product Line Conference (SPLC) until 2017. The subset was randomly selected to cover all years as well as types of papers. We assessed the research type of the papers (academic or industry), the kind of evaluation (application example, empirical, etc.), and the application domain. Also, we assessed which product line life-cycle phases, development practices, and topics the papers address. We present an analysis of the topics covered by academic vs. Industry research and discuss the evolution of these topics and their relation over the years. We also discuss implications for researchers and practitioners. We conclude that even though several topics have received more attention than others, academic and industry research on software product lines are actually rather in line with each other. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 338.
    Racette Olsén, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Electrocardiographic deviation detection: Using long short-term memory recurrent neural networks to detect deviations within electrocardiographic records2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial neural networks have been gaining attention in recent years due to theirimpressive ability to map out complex nonlinear relations within data. In this report,an attempt is made to use a Long short-term memory neural network for detectinganomalies within electrocardiographic records. The hypothesis is that if a neuralnetwork is trained on records of normal ECGs to predict future ECG sequences, it isexpected to have trouble predicting abnormalities not previously seen in the trainingdata. Three different LSTM model configurations were trained using records fromthe MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. Afterwards the models were evaluated for theirability to predict previously unseen normal and anomalous sections. This was doneby measuring the mean squared error of each prediction and the uncertainty of over-lapping predictions. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that recurrentneural networks with the use of LSTM units are capable of detecting anomalies.

  • 339.
    Rahimi, Afshin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    Gavagai AB, Sweden.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The StaViCTA Group Report for RepLab 2014: Reputation Dimensions Task2014Ingår i: Working Notes for CLEF 2014 Conference: Sheffield, UK, September 15-18, 2014 / [ed] Linda Cappellato, Nicola Ferro, Martin Halvey, Wessel Kraaij, CEUR-WS.org , 2014, s. 1519-1527Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our experiments on the RepLab 2014 Reputation Dimension task. RepLab is a competitive challenge for Reputation Management Systems. RepLab 2014’s reputation dimensions task focuses on categorization of Twitter messages with regard to standard reputation dimensions (such as performance, leadership, or innovation). Our approach only relies on the textual content of tweets and ignores both metadata and the content of URLs within tweets. We carried out several experiments focusing on different feature sets including bag of n-grams, distributional semantics features, and deep neural network representations. The results show that bag of bigram features with minimum frequency thresholding work quite well in reputation dimension task especially with regards to average F1 measure over all dimensions where two of our four submitted runs achieve highest and second highest scores. Our experiments also show that semi-supervised recursive autoencoders outperform other feature sets used in our experiments with regards to accuracy measure and is a promising subject of future research for improvements. 

  • 340.
    Randák, Richard
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    N-Grams as a Measure of Naturalness and Complexity2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a time where software is used everywhere. It is used even for creating other software by helping developers with writing or generating new code. To do this properly, metrics to measure software quality are being used to evaluate the final code. However, they are sometimes too costly to compute, or simply don't have the expected effect. Therefore, new and better ways of software evaluation are needed. In this research, we are investigating the usage of the statistical approaches used commonly in the natural language processing (NLP) area. In order to introduce and evaluate new metrics, a Java N-gram language model is created from a large Java language code corpus. Naturalness, a method-level metric, is introduced and calculated for chosen projects. The correlation with well-known software complexity metrics are calculated and discussed. The results, however, show that the metric, in the form that we have defined it, is not suitable for software complexity evaluation since it is highly correlated with a well-known metric (token count), which is much easier to compute. Different definition of the metric is suggested, which could be a target of future study and research.

  • 341.
    Reinholdt, Mario
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    On the Combination of Workflow Management and Report Generation Software: by the Example of IT Due Diligence2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's world, companies and scientific institutions must always be careful toremain competitive. Efficient design and automation of important processes to savetime, money and other resources is currently a popular way of staying competitive.To this end, workflow management systems are frequently used to supportprocesses and automate them as much as possible. However, many of suchprocesses still require the creation of reports, which can be very costly. Withoutgreater technical expertise, the process of creating reports can hardly be automatedin its full flexibility. Since this problem affects many organizations in a wide rangeof fields, this project is dedicated to a possible solution to this problem. Therefore,this paper will suggest a way to automate the report generation using a suitablereport generation system in connection with a workflow management system. Thedeveloped solution, in general, can be applied to various processes of differentdomains and reduces the programming effort towards other solutions. The approachis based on the common use of a database as well as on the development of a notso-complex connecting adapter. The execution of this adapter, which is a smallpiece of software that automates the generation of reports, is then triggered by theworkflow management system.

  • 342.
    Remeika, Mantas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Urbanavicius, Jovydas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Microservices in data intensive applications2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The volumes of data which Big Data applications have to process are constantly increasing. This requires for the development of highly scalable systems. Microservices is considered as one of the solutions to deal with the scalability problem. However, the literature on practices for building scalable data-intensive systems is still lacking.

    This thesis aims to investigate and present the benefits and drawbacks of using microservices architecture in big data systems. Moreover, it presents other practices used to increase scalability. It includes containerization, shared-nothing architecture, data sharding, load balancing, clustering, and stateless design. Finally, an experiment comparing the performance of a monolithic application and a microservices-based application was performed.

    The results show that with increasing amount of load microservices perform better than the monolith. However, to cope with the constantly increasing amount of data, additional techniques should be used together with microservices.

  • 343.
    Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Open data exploration in virtual reality: a comparative study of input technology2020Ingår i: Virtual Reality, ISSN 1359-4338, E-ISSN 1434-9957, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we compare three different input technologies (gamepad, vision-based motion controls, room-scale) for an interactive virtual reality (VR) environment. The overall system is able to visualize (open) data from multiple online sources in a unified interface, enabling the user to browse and explore displayed information in an immersive VR setting. We conducted a user interaction study (n=24; n=8 per input technology, between-group design) to investigate experienced workload and perceived flow of interaction. Log files and observations allowed further insights and comparison of each condition. We have identified trends that indicate user preference of a visual (virtual) representation, but no clear trends regarding the application of physical controllers (over vision-based controls), in a scenario that encouraged exploration with no time limitations.

  • 344.
    Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Using an Augmented Reality Cube-like Interface and 3D Gesture-based Interaction to Navigate and Manipulate Data2018Ingår i: VINCI '18 Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, s. 92-96Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe our work-in-progress to create an interface that enables users to browse and select data within an Augmented Reality environment, using a virtual cube object that can be interacted with through 3D gestural input. We present the prototype design (including the graphical elements), describe the interaction possibilities of touching the cube with the hand/finger, and put the prototype into the context of our Augmented Reality for Public Engagement (PEAR) framework. An interactive prototype was implemented and runs on a typical off-the-shelf smart-phone device.

  • 345. Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Collaborative exploration of rich corpus data using immersive virtual reality and non-immersive technologies2019Ingår i: ADDA: Approaches to Digital Discourse Analysis – ADDA 2, Turku, Finland 23-25 May 2019 ; Book of abstracts, Turku: University of Turku , 2019, s. 7-7Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, large textual data sets, comprising many data points and rich metadata, have become a common object of investigation and analysis. Information Visualization and Visual Analytics provide practical tools for visual data analysis, most commonly as interactive two-dimensional (2D) visualizations that are displayed through normal computer monitors. At the same time, display technologies have evolved rapidly over the past decade. In particular, emerging technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), or mixed reality (MR) have become affordable and more user-friendly (LaValle 2016). Under the banner of “Immersive Analytics”, researchers started to explore the novel application of such immersive technologies for the purpose of data analysis (Marriott et al. 2018).

    By using immersive technologies, researchers hope to increase motivation and user engagement for the overall data analysis activity as well as providing different perspectives on the data. This can be particularly helpful in the case of exploratory data analysis, when the researcher attempts to identify interesting points or anomalies in the data without prior knowledge of what exactly they are searching for. Furthermore, the data analysis process often involves the collaborative sharing of information and knowledge between multiple users for the goal of interpreting and making sense of the explored data together (Isenberg et al. 2011). However, immersive technologies such as VR are often rather single user-centric experiences, where one user is wearing a head-mounted display (HMD) device and is thus visually isolated from the real-world surroundings. Consequently, new tools and approaches for co-located, synchronous collaboration in such immersive data analysis scenarios are needed.

    In this software demonstration, we present our developed VR system that enables two users to explore data at the same time, one inside an immersive VR environment, and one outside VR using a non-immersive companion application. The context of this demonstrated data analysis activity is centered around the exploration of the language variability in tweets from the perspectives of multilingualism and sociolinguistics (see, e.g. Coats 2017 and Grieve et al. 2017). Our primary data come from the the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) corpus (Laitinen et al. 2018, Tyrkkö 2018), and the immersive VR application visualizes in three dimensions (3D) the clustered Twitter traffic within the Nordic region as stacked cuboids according to their geospatial position, where each stack represents a color-coded language share (Alissandrakis et al. 2018). Through the utilization of 3D gestural input, the VR user can interact with the data using hand postures and gestures in order to move through the virtual 3D space, select clusters and display more detailed information, and to navigate through time (Reski and Alissandrakis 2019) ( https://vrxar.lnu.se/apps/odxvrxnts-360/ ). A non-immersive companion application, running in a normal web browser, presents an overview map of the Nordic region as well as other supplemental information about the data that are more suitable to be displayed using non-immersive technologies.

    We will present two complementary applications, each with a different objective within the collaborative data analysis framework. The design and implementation of certain connectivity and collaboration features within these applications facilitate the co-located, synchronous exploration and sensemaking. For instance, the VR user’s position and orientation are displayed and updated in real-time within the overview map of the non-immersive application. The other way around, the selected cluster of the non-immersive user is also highlighted for the user in VR. Initial tests with pairs of language students validated the proof-of-concept of the developed collaborative system and encourage the conduction of further future investigations in this direction.

  • 346.
    Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Nordmark, Susanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Exploring New Interaction Mechanisms to Support Information Sharing and Collaboration Using Large Multi-touch Displays in the Context of Digital Storytelling2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies IEEE - ICALT2014, IEEE Press, 2014, s. 176-180Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have been used to support teaching and to enhance the learning process in the last decades. With the latest introduction of large interactive tabletops, multi-touch interaction is taken to the next level since large displays allow and invite not just one but multiple users to interact and collaborate at the same time. The latest presents designers and developers with new challenges in terms of interaction possibilities to promote active collaboration and information sharing. This paper evaluates the use of novel Tangible User Interface (TUI) approaches for the design of an interactive tabletop application conceived to support co-located collaborative learning in the particular context of Digital Storytelling (DS). We present the results of a user interaction study, which considers the users' subjective reaction and acceptance for these User Interface (UI) paradigms, as well as their level of collaboration and communication while working together. The results of the study indicated that the users adapted working in a close collaboration using the provided multi-touch functionalities very quickly. Furthermore, users appreciated the possibility to closely discussing, conversing and exchanging information with their peers through simultaneous interactions on the multi-touch display.

  • 347.
    Rosengren, My
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Riktlinjer för att gynna användarupplevelsen vid presentation av omfattande tekniska dokument i mobila gränssnitt: En studie i gränssnittsdesign för smartphones2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användare vill idag snabbt och enkelt kunna hitta den information de behöver på sina mobiltelefoner. Enheten erbjuder lättillgänglighet och möjlighet till interaktion när de vill, var de vill. Denna studie har undersökt hur ett gränssnitt för smartphones kan utformas som presenterar en större mängd information till användaren i form av teknisk dokumentation, exempelvis manualer.

    Studien är framtagen i uppdrag från Combitech som upplever ett problem i att presentera större mängd data på mindre enheter. Fokus i denna studie har legat i att implementera och utvärdera olika designriktlinjer för mobiltelefoner. En prototyp utvecklades i två iterationer där respektive prototypiteration testades på användare genom uppdrag, bedömningsskala och intervju.

    Studien indikerar på ett resultat där ett antal riktlinjer gynnar användarupplevelsen när det gäller ett mobilt gränssnitt för att söka information. Detta innefattar bland annat att förenkla och prioritera uppgifterna för användaren så gott det går för att minska dess kognitiva belastning. Det presenteras även mer konkreta riktlinjer beträffande klickytor, lokalisering, horisontell scrollning, samt funktionalitet för ändring av textstorlek.

  • 348.
    Rosenkvist, Simon
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Troféer och erfarenhets-mätare: Hur dessa påverkar prestation och engagemang hos ungdomar inom programmering med scratch2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie utfördes på högstadieelever för att mäta hur en implementering av gamification-elementen erfarenhetsmätare och troféer i en scratch-baserad applikation påverkade deras engagemang och prestation.

    De två användartest-grupperna för kontroll- och test-versionen visar på att implementationen av dessa gamification-element har en markant positiv effekt på både engagemang och prestation.

  • 349.
    Roth, Christoffer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    API development to improve integration and resource efficiency.: Decreasing user interactions and automating verification processes of information between applications.2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies today often have a variety of applications used in the daily work. The problem that companies face with these applications is that they often are brought in to deal with a specific task, and they are often brought in at different times by different third-party developers. This results in the applications being independent units and integrates poor with each other, making work and maintenance with the applications inefficient. To improve efficiency the applications need better integration with each other. Better integration can be achieved by either replacing the current applications with a new software or develop a software that helps the applications communicate.

    This project covers the development of the later, an API to improve the efficiency at Volvo Construction Equipment in Braa ̊s. The API is developed with the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) as inspiration. The purpose of the ESB is to act as a middleware for the applications. Due to time limitations for the project integration between the applications wasn’t achieved. Instead, the focus was set on improving one of the moments in the work process at Volvo, that is verifying information between applications. The verification is today done manually which makes it time-consuming and this is the API set out to deal with. The API results in a reduction and improvement regarding the verification. The API still needs a manual input of data from the applications, but the API has automated the verification of the information between the applications resulting in hours of reduced work for the staff at Volvo.

  • 350.
    Ruiz, Gerard
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Distributed Data Management in Internet of Things Networking Environments: IOTA Tangle and Bitcoin Blockchain Distributed Ledger Technologies2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is one of the latest in a long list of digital technologies, which appear to be heading towards a new industrial revolution. DLT has become very popular with the publication of the Bitcoin Blockchain in 2008. However, when we consider its suitability for dynamic networking environments, such as the Internet of Things, issues like transaction fees, scalability, and offline accessibility have not been resolved. The IOTA Foundation has designed the IOTA protocol, which is the data and value transfer layer for the Machine Economy. IOTA protocol uses an alternative blockless Blockchain which claims to solve the previous problems: the Tangle.

    This thesis first inquires into the theoretical concepts of both technologies Tangleand Blockchain, to understand them and identify the reasons to be compatible or not with the Internet of Things networking environments. After the analysis, the thesis focuses on the proposed implementation as a solution to address the connectivity issue suffered by the IOTA network. The answer to the problem is the development of a Neighbor Discovery algorithm, which has been designed to fulfill the requirements demanded by the IOTA application.

    Dealing with IOTA network setup can be very interesting for the community that is looking for new improvements at each release. Testing the solution in a peer-to-peer specific protocol (PeerSim), with different networking scenarios, allowed us to get valuable and more realistic information. Thus, after analyzing the results, we were able to determine the appropriate IOTA network configuration to build a more reliable and long-lasting network.

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