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  • 31801.
    Östenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Spector, T.D.
    Hart, D
    Sanfridsson, J
    Lindberg, H
    Åkeson, P
    Roos, H
    The prevalence of hip and knee osteoarthritis in female former soccer playersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31802. Österberg, Eva
    et al.
    Lennartsson, Malin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Næss, Hans Eyvind
    Social control outside or combined with the secular judicial arena2000In: People meet the law: control and conflict-handling in the courts : the Nordic countries in the post-reformation and pre-industrial period / [ed] Eva Österberg, Sølvi Sogner, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2000, p. 237-266Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31803. Österholm, P
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Quantification of current and future leaching of sulphur and metals from Boreal acid sulphate soils, W. Finland2004In: Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 42, p. 547-551Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31804. Österholm, P
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Spatial trends and losses of major and trace elements in agricultural acid sulphate soils distributed in the artificially drained Rintala area, W. Finland2002In: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 17, p. 1209-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31805. Österholm, P
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sundström, R
    Assessment of aquatic pollution, remedial measures and juridical obligations of an acid sulphate soil area in western Finland2005In: Agricultural and food science, Vol. 14 (1), p. 44-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31806. Österholm, Peter
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Meteorological impacts on the water quality in the Pajuluoma acid sulphate soil area, W. Finland.2008In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 23, p. 1594-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31807.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Analysis of pure methods using garbage collection2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Memory Systems Performance and Correctness, ACM Press, 2012, p. 48-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallelization and other optimizations often depend on static dependence analysis. This approach requires methods to be independent regardless of the input data, which is not always the case.

    Our contribution is a dynamic analysis "guessing" if methods are pure, i. e., if they do not change state. The analysis is piggybacking on a garbage collector, more specifically, a concurrent, replicating garbage collector. It guesses whether objects are immutable by looking at actual mutations observed by the garbage collector. The analysis is essentially for free. In fact, our concurrent garbage collector including analysis outperforms Boehm's stop-the-world collector (without any analysis), as we show in experiments. Moreover, false guesses can be rolled back efficiently.

    The results can be used for just-in-time parallelization allowing an automatic parallelization of methods that are pure over certain periods of time. Hence, compared to parallelization based on static dependence analysis, more programs potentially benefit from parallelization.

  • 31808.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Block-free concurrent GC: Stack scanning and copying2016In: ISMM 2016: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGPLAN International Symposium on Memory Management, ACM Press, 2016, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-the-fly Garbage Collectors (GCs) are the state-of-the-art concurrent GC algorithms today. Everything is done concurrently, but phases are separated by blocking handshakes. Hence, progress relies on the scheduler to let application threads (mutators) run into GC checkpoints to reply to the handshakes. For a non-blocking GC, these blocking handshakes need to be addressed. Therefore, we propose a new non-blocking handshake to replace previous blocking handshakes. It guarantees schedulingindependent operation level progress without blocking. It is scheduling independent but requires some other OS support. It allows bounded waiting for threads that are currently running on a processor, regardless of threads that are not running on a processor. We discuss this non-blocking handshake in two GC algorithms for stack scanning and copying objects. They pave way for a future completely non-blocking GC by solving hard open theory problems when OS support is permitted. The GC algorithms were integrated to the G1 GC of OpenJDK for Java. GC pause times were reduced to 12.5% compared to the original G1 on average in DaCapo. For a memory intense benchmark, latencies were reduced from 174 ms to 0.67 ms for the 99.99% percentile. The improved latency comes at a cost of 15% lower throughput.

  • 31809.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Concurrent Compaction using a Field Pinning Protocol2015In: ISMM 2015 Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGPLAN International Symposium on Memory Management, ACM Press, 2015, Vol. 50(11), p. 56-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compaction of memory in long running systems has always been important. The latency of compaction increases in today’s systems with high memory demands and large heaps. To deal with this problem, we present a lock-free protocol allowing for copying concurrent with the application running, which reduces the latencies of compaction radically. It pro- vides theoretical progress guarantees for copying and appli- cation threads without making it practically infeasible, with performance overheads of 20% on average. The algorithm paves way for a future lock-free Garbage Collector. 

  • 31810.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Concurrent transformation components using contention context sensors2014In: Proceedings of the 29th ACM/IEEE international conference on Automated software engineering, ACM Press, 2014, p. 223-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sometimes components are conservatively implemented as thread-safe, while during the actual execution they are only accessed from one thread. In these scenarios, overly conservative assumptions lead to suboptimal performance.

    The contribution of this paper is a component architecture that combines the benefits of different synchronization mechanisms to implement thread-safe concurrent components. Based on the thread contention monitored at runtime, context-aware composition and optimization select the appropriate mechanism. On changing contention, it revises this decision automatically and transforms the components accordingly. We implemented this architecture for concurrent queues, sets, and ordered sets. In all three cases, experimental evaluation shows close to optimal performance regardless of the actual contention.

    As a consequence, programmers can focus on the semantics of their systems and, e.g., conservatively use thread-safe components to assure consistency of their data, while deferring implementation and optimization decisions to contention-context-aware composition at runtime.

  • 31811.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Dynamically transforming data structures2013In: 2013 IEEE/ACM 28th International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE): Proceedings / [ed] Ewewn Denney, Tevfik Bultan, Andreas Zeller, IEEE, 2013, p. 410-420Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-tuning which data structure implementation to use for a given problem is sometimes tedious work since the optimum solution depends on the context, i.e., on the operation sequences, actual parameters as well as on the hardware available at run time. Sometimes a data structure with higher asymptotic time complexity performs better in certain contexts because of lower constants. The optimal solution may not even be possible to determine at compile time.We introduce transformation data structures that dynamically change their internal representation variant based on a possibly changing context. The most suitable variant is selected at run time rather than at compile time.We demonstrate the effect on performance with a transformation ArrayList data structure using an array variant and a linked hash bag variant as alternative internal representations. Using our transformation ArrayList, the standard DaCapo benchmark suite shows a performance gain of 5.19% in average.

  • 31812.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Field Pinning GC2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of this study is a Field Pinning garbage collector (GC) without handshakes in the compaction phase. It is one step towards guaranteeing wait-free GC. It compacts memory concurrently and guarantees that fragmentation is bounded. Mutator heap accesses and computations are wait-free. The compaction algorithm does not need handshakes, but may use them for increased performance. The solution is evaluated experimentally in a prototype VM for Java. The GC progress is not wait-free, but impeded only by stack scanning and marking which was outside the scope of this study. The compaction algorithm does not impair global GC progress. 

  • 31813.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Oracle.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Self-adaptive concurrent components2018In: Automated Software Engineering: An International Journal, ISSN 0928-8910, E-ISSN 1573-7535, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 47-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the optimum component implementation variant is sometimes difficult since it depends on the component's usage context at runtime, e.g., on the concurrency level of the application using the component, call sequences to the component, actual parameters, the hardware available etc. A conservative selection of implementation variants leads to suboptimal performance, e.g., if a component is conservatively implemented as thread-safe while during the actual execution it is only accessed from a single thread. In general, an optimal component implementation variant cannot be determined before runtime and a single optimal variant might not even exist since the usage contexts can change significantly over the runtime. We introduce self-adaptive concurrent components that automatically and dynamically change not only their internal representation and operation implementation variants but also their synchronization mechanism based on a possibly changing usage context. The most suitable variant is selected at runtime rather than at compile time. The decision is revised if the usage context changes, e.g., if a single-threaded context changes to a highly contended concurrent context. As a consequence, programmers can focus on the semantics of their systems and, e.g., conservatively use thread-safe components to ensure consistency of their data, while deferring implementation and optimization decisions to context-aware runtime optimizations. We demonstrate the effect on performance with self-adaptive concurrent queues, sets, and ordered sets. In all three cases, experimental evaluation shows close to optimal performance regardless of actual contention.

  • 31814.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Beyond the ethic case: a value proposition of proactive human factors management2013In: AMET Maritime Journal, ISSN 2347-274X, no 1, p. 14-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on the work presented in Österman, C. (2012), ‘Developing a value proposition of maritime ergonomics’, PhD thesis, Department of Shipping and Marinetechnology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    There is a large body of knowledge available on the role of human factors for successful (andunsuccessful) systems. Domain specific handbooks, guidelines and standards can be found alsofor the maritime industry. Yet, the deteriorating figure of maritime casualties and the highincidence of occupational accidents suggest this knowledge is not utilised to its full potential.

    The purpose of this paper is to present a value proposition of maritime human factors,positioning the potential core values that can be delivered to stakeholders within and outside themaritime transport system.

    The paper adopts an exploratory research approach, investigating thelink between human factors and operational performance from several different angles. Methods for data collection include literature studies, individual and focus group interviews, and a casestudy involving a shipping company.

    The synthesis of the results is presented in terms of a value proposition that describes the valuefor the employee in terms of improved health and well-being, learning, skill discretion andindependence in life. Values for the company include increased operational performance and flexibility, advantages in recruiting and retaining personnel. Values for the sector includecompetitive strength, attractiveness of work and increased learning across the industry. Values for the society include reduced costs for health care and social security, reduced environmentalimpact, and a sustainable working life.These results are a first step to make visible the effects of human factors management on overallsystems performance in the maritime domain.

  • 31815.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Granskning av ritningar ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv: En handbok för att undersöka arbetsmiljön på fartyg vid ny- och ombyggnad2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handbok är ett resultat av ett forskningsprojekt som syftar till att förenkla granskningen av fartygsritningar ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv. Forskningsprojektet genomfördes på Chalmers tekniska högskolas institution för produkt- och produktionsutveckling, avdelningDesign & Human Factors, och finansierades av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus. Projektledare vid Chalmers har varit Anna-Lisa Osvalder.

    För att minska risken för olyckor och ohälsa och är det viktigt att ta hänsyn till arbetsmiljön redan när man planerar att bygga ett nytt fartyg eller bygga om delar av ett fartyg. Det är i planeringsskedet som det är lättast att påverka hur arbetsmiljön kommer att bli. När fartyget väl är byggt kan det vara både svårt och dyrt att göra ändringar. Metoden för granskning som denna handbok beskriver har till stordel utvecklats med hjälp av sjömän och deltagare vid SEKO Sjöfolks skyddsombudsutbildningar.

  • 31816.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Knowledge ergonomics: linking islands of knowledge to promote sustainable shipping2013In: Proceedings NES2012. Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann - Beth Antonsson , Göran M Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Division of Ergonomics , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31817.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Performance influencing factors in maritime operations2012In: Human Element in Container Shipping / [ed] Burkhard Lemper, Thomas Pawlik, Susanne Neumann, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is run by people and for people. Thus, the main element in shipping is the «human element» – the mariners at all levels. Since the human element aboard vessels – being in and coping with a very special environment – is the crucial point of every transport chain, it is important to take a closer look at maritime human resource management issues which are scarcely tackled in scientific literature. This book deals with topics such as the criminalization of seafarers, piracy as part of shipping companies’ risk management, corporate social responsibility and human error in shipping.

  • 31818.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Involving users in a ship bridge re-design process using scenarios and mock-up models2016In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 53, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context for this study is the maritime domain and the design of shipboard workspaces. Due to the globalized nature of shipping, the traditional approach to a participative ergonomics process can be a logistical challenge since stakeholders like designers, manufacturers and operators are often scattered both geographically and organizationally.

    The participative design study presented in this paper addresses this challenge by exploring the ability of three types of simple three-dimensional (3D) models to act as mediating objects for representative users in order to elicit design feedback in a use scenario workshop format. The study found that all three types of 3D models, when coupled with a scenario description, elicited several types of useful design feedback that served not only as direct input to changing proposed design parameters, but also as an unprompted long-term learning opportunity for the design team to gain insight into the lives and challenges of their users, who both work and live on board.

    Relevance to industry: The paper presents a procedure for a participatory design process in the maritime domain where the involved stakeholders are geographically and organizationally dispersed. Mock-up models coupled with use scenario descriptions elicited useful design feedback and an unprompted long-term learning opportunity for the design team.

  • 31819.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Administrative burdens and over-exertion in Swedish short sea shipping2016In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant changes in work tasks performed on board, towards more sedentary monitoring and administrative work, the incidence of occupational injuries and disorders remains high among seafarers. In order to improve safety standards, industry stakeholders increasingly require written documentation of numerous routines, procedures and tasks performed on board. These increased demands have however added to the administrative burden. Some say, to the extent that administrative work has become a safety risk in itself. This paper presents the result of a survey investigating how Swedish seafarers perceive their own level of fatigue, stress and over-exertion related to work. The material consists of 1309 respondents originating from a random selection procedure, of which 651 reported to be employed in short sea shipping. Multiple regression analysis (OLS regression), allowing adjusted effects, were applied in several steps of the analysis. The highest levels of exertion were reported by employees in the catering department, positions not generally associated with high administrative burden. Perceived high levels of administrative work do increase the level of exertion, but cannot explain the observed pattern. Future ship and trade-specific studies on physical and mental well-being and complementary studies on the catering department’s working conditions and work environment are necessary.

  • 31820.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Sjukt kul jobb.: Servicepersonalens arbetsmiljö, sjukskrivningar och arbetstillfredsställelse på passagerarfartyg2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stundtals tufft men ändå givande. Så skulle arbetssituationen kunna sammanfattas för de som jobbar inom intendenturen med service och försäljning till gäster på passagerarfartyg. Många arbetsmoment innebär hög fysisk och mental arbetsbelastning med liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sina arbetsförhållanden. Men trots att servicepersonalen är överrepresenterade bland de långa sjukskrivningarna är det en motiverad arbetsgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. I den här rapporten sammanställer vi några av de viktigaste resultaten från forskningsprojektet Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö som genomfördes vid Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet under åren 2015–2017. Både projektet och den här rapporten har finansierats av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus.

  • 31821.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd..
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd..
    Personal exposure of seafarers to air pollutants and perceived indoor air quality on a passenger ferry2016In: Proceedings of Indoor Air 2016, International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate - ISIAQ , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine crew members’ personal exposure and perceived air quality on board a Swedish passenger ferry before and after a change of fuel type. Personal exposure was measured in the breathing zone of 20 crew members and quantified in terms of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) with focus on benzene. Measured concentrations are compared with international indoor air quality guidelines and occupational exposure limit values. The perceived indoor air quality was assessed through a self-reporting questionnaire. The results show that the measured personal exposure was largely below Swedish occupational exposure limit values and international guideline values. Elevated levels were found especially in the engine crew samples. The subjective assessment of the air quality showed the air to be perceived as just acceptable with a slight odour, and a sense of the air being dry and stuffy.

  • 31822.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Magnusson, Mathias
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    A systemic review of shipboard SCR installations in practice2013In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing customer demands and more stringent regulations to reduce harmful air emissions from ships have resulted in an increased interest for the installation of shipboard abatement technologies. Specifically, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was early adopted by several Swedish shipping companies. The potential NOx reduction efficiency of the SCR is well established, but the practical experiences of shipboard installations have been less documented. This paper reviews from a systems perspective the practical experiences of marine SCR installations in Swedish shipping. The aim is to identify important not only technical but also human and organizational conditions necessary for safe, efficient, and sustainable SCR operations at sea. Further, to investigate to what extent the capabilities and limitations of human operators and maintainers are taken into account in the design and installation phase of the systems. Two focus group interviews (n010) and five individual interviews were held with relevant stakeholders in the industry, following a semi-structured schedule on the themes installation, operation, maintenance, and training. The results show that deficiencies in the overall system design—with a combination of technical issues, maintenance access problems, and untrained operators with inadequate understanding of the SCR process—have led to inefficient, costly, and unsafe operations. It is concluded that installations and operations of marine SCR systems, and possibly other forthcoming abatement technologies, would benefit from the use of traditional ergonomic principles and methods. This would in turn contribute towards increased sustainability and a reduced environmental impact from shipping.

  • 31823.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Magnusson, Mathias
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    A systems perspective on practical experiences of marine SCR installations2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Research Conference on Short Sea Shipping / [ed] Dr Ana Casaca, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31824.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Human element in maritime logistics2012In: Maritime Logistics: A complete guide to effective shipping and port management / [ed] Dong-Wook Song, Photis M. Panayides, London: Kogan page, 2012, 1, p. 59-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31825.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Human elements in maritime logistics2015In: Maritime Logistics: A Guide to Contemporary Shipping and Port Management / [ed] Dong-Wook Song & Photis M Panayides, London: Kogan page, 2015, 2, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31826.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Frohm, Jörgen
    Trafikverket.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hägg, Göran M.
    ErgoMusic.
    Janzon, Olle
    SSAB Europe.
    Pettersson, Per Johan
    MeridentOptergo AB.
    Stavervik, Mathias
    SHL Group AB.
    Ahlin, Jane
    Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS).
    Conceptual and Practical Strategy Work to Promote Ergonomics/Human Factors in Sweden2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 4, p. 320-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the results of the conceptual and practical strategy work performed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) today. The rationale of EHSS is to strengthen the quality of ergonomics/human factors knowledge and practice in Sweden and form a multidisciplinary platform across disciplines and professions for collaboration and for knowledge sharing. EHSS gathers about 350 members, representing different occupations in industry, academia and the public sector. Together,EHSS members hold knowledge and experience in physical, cognitive andorganizational ergonomics and its application in working life and society. The overall aim of this paper is to inspire related societies and stakeholders to initiate discussions about strategies and future projects that allow for collaborationa nd knowledge sharing. Proposedly follow the EHSS model where we have formed a multidisciplinary platform for collaboration across disciplinesand professions. The activities initiated and supported by EHSS are one steptowards broadening the knowledge and application of HFE in Sweden, and to comprise new arenas of specialization. By participating in the key areas in society such as teaching, standardization, product development and occupationalsafety and health, the work of EHSS is one piece of the puzzle to improvehuman activities in the future. The vision is that together, we can improve safety, efficiency and well-being for all.

  • 31827.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Work environment challenges and participatory workplace interventions on passenger ships2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Nordic Ergonomics Society (NES) Conference Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund University , 2017, p. 452-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project investigating working conditions for employees in the service department on board passenger ships. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and this paper focuses on the findings related to the physical work environment. The main findings show the physical factors to be largely related to high physical load and time pressure. The design of workplaces and equipment is a cornerstone for a sustainable work environment. Participatory design practices open the opportunity to foster employee engagement in workplace design, contributing towards increased employee health and well-being.

  • 31828.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing financial impact of maritime ergonomics on company level: a case study2015In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 555-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a case study examining a conceptual framework for assessing financial impact of occupational maritime ergonomics in a Swedish shipping company. Specifically, the aim was to study the availability and applicability of suggested determinants for operational performance; routines for estimating the effects of ergonomics; and the customer’s (sea transport buyer’s) demands for ergonomics management on the case company.

    The results show that the determinants and sub-categories for operational performance in terms of productivity, efficiency and quality are present and applicable, albeit not measured to any large extent. No routines or specific methods for measuring or estimating cost and effects of ergonomics investments, accidents and operational disturbances were found. Further, the results show that the sea transport buyers increasingly express interest for and place demands related to maritime ergonomics, for instance through compliance of specific standards and guiding principles linked to maritime ergonomics. It is concluded that in order to support and enable managers’ ability to make well informed decisions and prioritizations, between investments, ergonomic or other, increased knowledge is needed of the financial effects of ergonomics on company core value processes. There is also a need to develop and implement usable tools to simplify these measuring procedures.

  • 31829.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Exploring Maritime Ergonomics from a Bottom Line Perspective2010In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a study composed of three research activities exploring theeconomics of ergonomics in a shipping context. First, a literature study aimed to reviewprevious studies on the economics of ergonomics in general and within the maritimedomain in particular; and moreover, to ascertain the key ergonomic factors addressedin contemporary maritime ergonomic research. Second, the concept of ergonomics wasprobed from a stakeholder perspective through nine semi-structured qualitative interviews.Third, structured interviews were held with representatives of ten Swedish shippingcompanies to investigate if the shipowners are aware of and calculate the economiceffects of ergonomics.The results show that severalmodels and methods have been developed to estimate costsand benefits of ergonomics in other industries, but no studies were found from the shippingindustry.Whether these methods can be readily adapted to the shipping industry hasto be investigated further. While contemporary maritime ergonomic literature showed afocus on physical ergonomic and health and safety issues, the results of the stakeholderinterviews indicated a focus on organizational ergonomics. The Swedish shipownerscalculate the costs of sick-leave, but do not estimate the economic effects of ergonomicson a regular basis.

  • 31830.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sanne, Johan M
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Preventing workplace violence and threats among professional cleaners: how not to be in the ‘wrong place at the wrong time’2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, "Joy at work": Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund: Lund Universitet , 2017, p. 460-467Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional cleaners work in a complex work environment, subjected to various physical and mental loads. This paper focuses on work related violence and threats and practical suggestions for its prevention and mitigation. By organizing and designing cleaning work in time and space it is possible to reduce the risk of cleaners being in the 'wrong place at the wrong time’. Cleaners need to have sufficient knowledge of how their work can be carried out as safely as possible; how to act when threatening or precarious situations occur, and feel confident in managerial support if they need to interrupt work in a threatening situation.

  • 31831.
    Österström, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Holm, Lena
    Lilja, Clas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Calcium mobilization from the avian eggshell during embryonic development2013In: Animal Biology, ISSN 1570-7555, E-ISSN 1570-7563, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian eggshell acts as the major source of calcium for embryogenesis in bird. Using scanning electron microscopy, the inner eggshell surface was analysed before and after embryonic development and its accompanying calcium removal. This was done in eggs from two bird species with different growth rates and modes of development, the precocial Japanese quail Coturnix japonica and the altricial starling Sturnus vulgaris. Next, enzyme histochemistry was used to localize carbonic anhydrase in the extra-embryonic chorioallantoic membrane to provide support for the hypothesis that calcium may be released from the eggshell by means of acidification through the action of carbonic anhydrase. However, neither in the precocial quail nor in the altricial starling could any staining for carbonic anhydrase be detected. These results lead us to the conclusion that the role of carbonic anhydrase in embryonic calcium mobilization from the avian eggshell remains unclear.

  • 31832.
    Österström, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lilja, Clas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Carbonic anhydrase and calcium mobilization from the avian eggshell during embryonic development2010In: 25th International Ornithological Congress 22 to 28 August 2010 ISBN 978-85-911618-0-5 Campos do Jordão, SP, BRAZIL: Abstracts of the 25 International Ornithological Congress, 2010, p. 683-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian eggshell contributes to successful embryogenesis by acting as the major source of calcium. It has been suggested, moreover, that birds have evolved eggshells with different structures adapted to cope with different calcium requirements imposed by different growth rates and modes of development. Yet the mechanism of calcium removal from the avian eggshell by the embryo remains unknown. Using enzyme histochemistry, we here test an old hypothesis stating that calcium is released from the eggshell by means of acidification by the action of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the extra-embryonic chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). This enzyme catalyses the reversible reaction CO2+H2O <-> H+HCO3 and is known to take significant part in acid-base regulation in the body. We examined CAMs from two bird species, Coturnix japonica and Sturnus vulgaris, with very different growth rates and modes of development. The CAMs were examined for CA activity at the later stages of embryonic development. However, in all CAMs examined, staining for CA was absent, leading us to the conclusion that existing hypothesis about a link between CA and embryonic calcium mobilization from the avian eggshell is at present premature.

  • 31833.
    Österström, Ola
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lilja, Clas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Changes in eggshell structure and function during avian evolution2007In: Journal of Morphology 246 (12), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31834.
    Österström, Ola
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lilja, Clas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eggshell structure, mode of development and growth rate in birds.2008In: Zoology (Jena), ISSN 0944-2006, E-ISSN 1873-2720, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 494-502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31835.
    Österström, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lilja, Clas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Evolution of avian eggshell structure.2012In: Journal of morphology (1931. Print), ISSN 0362-2525, E-ISSN 1097-4687, Vol. 273, no 3, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data are presented suggesting that birds have evolved eggs with shells containing different structures (numbers of mammillae per unit of inner eggshell surface area, i.e., mammillary densities) to cope up with different calcium requirements imposed by different growth rates and modes of development. Precocial bird species grow slowly, but have high mammillary density, while altricial bird species grow rapidly, but have low mammillary density. These results suggest an adaptation associated with growth rate and mode of development and show, moreover, that the mammillary layer is indicative of the breeding biology of the bird.

  • 31836.
    Österström, Ola
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lilja, Clas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Is the shell of an egg adapted to support different rates of calcium removal by developing embryos2006In: Journal of Ornithology 147 (5), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31837.
    Östlund, Louise
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Doctoral Dissertation Series No. 2007:05. ISBN 978-91-7295-110-5..
    Information in use: in- and outsourcing aspects of digital services2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 31838.
    Östlund, Louise
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Brandt, Patrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Systems science - a theoretical approach2002Report (Other academic)
  • 31839.
    Östlund, Louise
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Brandt, Patrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Säkerhet vid trådlös kommunikation - experimentell studie av standarden IEEE 802.11b vid övergång från trådat LAN till trådlöst LAN2002Report (Other academic)
  • 31840.
    Östlund, Louise
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Brandt, Patrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    The first symposium on systems analyzis2002Report (Other academic)
  • 31841.
    Östlund, Louise
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Brandt, Patrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Révay, Peter
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    The importance of analysing communication channels from an information security perspective – a case study2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31842.
    Östlund, Martin
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    AssistancePlus – The Use of Shared Virtual 3D-Objects for Advice-giving on Complex Pharmaceutical Products2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31843.
    Östlund, Martin
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Det gamla användargränssnittet, det nya användargränssnittet2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31844.
    Östlund, Martin
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Det VR-tuella Apoteket2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31845.
    Östlund, Martin
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    The Importance of People – a Study of the Human Factor in the Systems Development Methodologies of Börje Langefors and Peter Checkland2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31846.
    Östlund, Martin
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    The VR-tual Pharmacy – a Web-based Service for 3D-mediated Consultation on Pharmaceutical Products2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31847.
    Östlund, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Lagerlund, Magnus
    Widell, Ingela
    Wilde Björling, Camilla
    Using computer tablets to empower breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundEfficient information dispersal and effective communication are key issues in increasing quality of care for patients undergoing radiation therapy. Radiation therapy consists of daily treatment sessions every weekday for 4-6 weeks. Although this means that patients are in daily contact with nursing staff, there is little time at these quick in-and-out sessions to address any substantive issues beyond the mechanics of the actual treatment procedure. Our aim is to explore the potential usefulness of computer tablets as an enabling device for making patient-staff information interchange more accessible and efficient. We are especially interested in investigating the empowerment effects that we believe will follow when making it easier for patients to influence the course of their treatment.

    MethodsFrom april to june 2012 all breast cancer patients scheduled for adjuvant radiation therapy treatment at the county hospital in Kalmar (Sweden) will be offered the opportunity to borrow a tablet computer during the course of their treatment. The tablet offers secure access to a web site containing illness-, treatment- and clinic-specific information, including a number of videos demonstrating the treatment procedure; a secure discussion forum in which patients can ask questions to staff; and a set of automatically processed surveys that provide staff with instant feedback from patients. Post-treatment interviews will be conducted with participating patients as well as with the staff on their respective experience of using the tablets. Patients will also fill out a survey and user logs from the web site will be analyzed to determine usage patterns.

    ResultsAt the time of writing we have started off the first couple of patients. Initial reactions are positive from both patients and staff. At the the time of the conference we will have evaluated the first set of patients and be able to present the results of this. We expect to see patients that are more confident and less anxious by being better prepared for their treatment both factually and emotionally. For the medical staff, we expect to see that the instant feedback provided by patients, via the questions they ask and the survey answers they submit, will allow staff to react more swiftly and more accurately to meet the patients’ needs and wants, and in so doing provide both better medical care and better emotional support.

    ConclusionsComputer tablets offer an efficient and accessible way for patients to inform themselves and to communicate with staff. The instant feedback from patients provides staff with the input they need to provide the best possible care, both medically and in providing emotional support. The sense of control, and actual control, over the course of their treatment that this will bring to patients, we believe will lead to a sense of empowerment that will help them better deal with the emotionally taxing experience it is to undergo treatment for a life-threatening condition.

  • 31848.
    Östlund, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    3D visualisation as a communicative aid in pharmaceutical advice-giving over distance2011In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Medication misuse results in considerable problems for both patient and society. It is a complex problem with many contributing factors, including timely access to product information.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To investigate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) visualization paired with video conferencing as a tool for pharmaceutical advice over distance in terms of accessibility and ease of use for the advice seeker.

    METHODS:

    We created a Web-based communication service called AssistancePlus that allows an advisor to demonstrate the physical handling of a complex pharmaceutical product to an advice seeker with the aid of 3D visualization and audio/video conferencing. AssistancePlus was tested in 2 separate user studies performed in a usability lab, under realistic settings and emulating a real usage situation. In the first study, 10 pharmacy students were assisted by 2 advisors from the Swedish National Co-operation of Pharmacies' call centre on the use of an asthma inhaler. The student-advisor interview sessions were filmed on video to qualitatively explore their experience of giving and receiving advice with the aid of 3D visualization. In the second study, 3 advisors from the same call centre instructed 23 participants recruited from the general public on the use of 2 products: (1) an insulin injection pen, and (2) a growth hormone injection syringe. First, participants received advice on one product in an audio-recorded telephone call and for the other product in a video-recorded AssistancePlus session (product order balanced). In conjunction with the AssistancePlus session, participants answered a questionnaire regarding accessibility, perceived expressiveness, and general usefulness of 3D visualization for advice-giving over distance compared with the telephone and were given a short interview focusing on their experience of the 3D features.

    RESULTS:

    In both studies, participants found the AssistancePlus service helpful in providing clear and exact instructions. In the second study, directly comparing AssistancePlus and the telephone, AssistancePlus was judged positively for ease of communication (P = .001), personal contact (P = .001), explanatory power (P < .001), and efficiency (P < .001). Participants in both studies said that they would welcome this type of service as an alternative to the telephone and to face-to-face interaction when a physical meeting is not possible or not convenient. However, although AssistancePlus was considered as easy to use as the telephone, they would choose AssistancePlus over the telephone only when the complexity of the question demanded the higher level of expressiveness it offers. For simpler questions, a simpler service was preferred.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    3D visualization paired with video conferencing can be useful for advice-giving over distance, specifically for issues that require a higher level of communicative expressiveness than the telephone can offer. 3D-supported advice-giving can increase the range of issues that can be handled over distance and thus improve access to product information.

  • 31849.
    Östlund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Révay, Peter
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    The VR-tual Pharmacy - communicationg Pharmaceutical information in a shared Virtual space (Miskolc)2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31850.
    Östlund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Révay, Péter
    Systems Thinking in the Virtual Realm – Bringing Focus to the Human Activity System with VR Technology2004Conference paper (Refereed)
634635636637638639640 31801 - 31850 of 32005
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