lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
567891011 351 - 400 of 899
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 351.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Odić, Duško
    Sullivan, Matthew B
    Middelboe, Mathias
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Cultivated single-stranded DNA phages that infect marine Bacteroidetes prove difficult to detect with DNA-binding stains.2012In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 892-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first description of cultivated icosahedral single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages isolated on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton and with Bacteroidetes hosts. None of the 8 phages stained well with DNA-binding stains, suggesting that in situ abundances of ssDNA phages are drastically underestimated using conventional methods for enumeration.

  • 352.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Titelman, Josefin
    University of Gothenburg ; University of Oslo.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Virus production and lysate recycling in different sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea.2010In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 572-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Baltic Sea, a large freshwater inflow creates north-southerly gradients in physico-chemical and biological factors across the two sub-basins, the Bothnian Bay (BB) and the Bothnian Sea. In particular, the sub-basins differ in nutrient limitation (nitrogen vs. phosphorus; P). Since viruses are rich in P, and virus production is commonly connected with bacterial abundance and growth, we hypothesized that the role of viral lysis differs between the sub-basins. Thus, we examined virus production and the potential importance of lysate recycling in surface waters along a transect in the Gulf of Bothnia. Surprisingly, virus production and total P were negatively correlated. In the BB, virus production rates were double those elsewhere in the system, although bacterial abundance and production were the lowest. In the BB, virus-mediated cell lysates could account for 70-180% and 100-250% of the bacterial carbon and P demand, respectively, while only 4-15% and 8-21% at the other stations. Low concentrations of dissolved DNA (D-DNA) with a high proportion of encapsulated DNA (viruses) in the BB suggested rapid turnover and high uptake of free DNA. The correlation of D-DNA and total P indicates that D-DNA is a particularly important nutrient source in the P-limited BB. Our study demonstrates large and counterintuitive differences in virus-mediated recycling of carbon and nutrients in two basins of the Gulf of Bothnia, which differ in microbial community composition and nutrient limitation.

  • 353.
    Holmqvist, Stephanie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Comparison of Two Methods for Detecting Intrathecal Synthesis of Borrelia Specific Antibodies2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, Lyme disease is caused by the species Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. The disease is the most common vector-borne infection in Europe and the United States, and the resulting manifestation can involve the skin, nervous system, heart and joints. The symptoms that arise are associated with the Borrelia species causing the infection. The species most associated with neuroborreliosis is B. garinii whilst B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is associated with arthritis and B. afzelii is associated with dermatological symptoms. Lyme disease normally has three phases in untreated patients. The first phase is characterised by erythema migrans, a reddening of the skin around the area of the tick bite. If the disease develops to the second phase the patient will suffer from neuroborreliosis which is characterised by neurological symptoms such as headache and peripheral facial paralysis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is used to diagnose neuroborreliosis. The diagnosis is complicated by variations between the different Borrelia species and that many healthy individuals have antibodies directed against Borrelia. Antibodies in CSF can be found in different diseases. The antibodies can be produced in the central nervous system or come across the blood-brain barrier and thus derive originally from the blood. By measuring the concentration of total albumin in serum and in CSF it can be determined if the antibodies present in the CSF have been produced in the central nervous system or if they originate from the blood. The typical manifestation in the last phase of Lyme disease is severe arthritis. The aim of this examination project was to compare two ELISAs for detection of antibodies directed to Borrelia. Indirect ELISAs from DAKO and Euroimmun were compared for the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in 100 individuals. Borrelia specific antibodies of class IgM or IgG were found in 16 of 100 patients by DAKO’s ELISA and in 20 of the same 100 patients by Euroimmun’s ELISA. The reason that Euroimmun’s method detected more cases of neuroborreliosis is probably that this method detects antibodies directed to all three pathological species of Borrelia while DAKO’s method only detects antibodies directed to B. burgdorferi. In conclusion, this study indicates that Euroimmun’s method to detect antibodies of class IgM and IgG directed to Borrelia is superior to DAKO’s method. The obtained results were confirmed by Western blot analysis which gave results in accordance with those of Euroimmun’s ELISA.

  • 354.
    Hovdegård, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stereoseende i förhållande till åldern: En studie utförd under en resa med Vision for all i Bolivia2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan stereoseendet och åldern hos de människor som kom för synundersökning hos Vision for all i Bolivia.

    Metod: Mätningar gjordes på 147 patienter under en resa med Vision for all till Bolivia under april månad år 2012. Studien utfördes i tre städer och av de som ingick i studien var 87 kvinnor och 60 män och åldrarna på dem varierade mellan 6 och 89 år. Medelåldern var 47 ±15 år. Studien utfördes hos dem med binokulärt avståndsvisus lika med eller bättre än 0,8. En enkel subjektiv refraktion genomfördes binokulärt på avstånd och nära håll. Efter utprovad korrektion för avstånd och nära håll undersöktes patientens stereoseende med hjälp av Titmus fly test på 40 cm. Resultatet journalfördes och jämfördes sedan med patientens ålder. 

    Resultat: Patienterna som deltog i studien delades in i åldersgrupper för att mer detaljerat kunna studera förhållandet mellan ålder och stereoseende. Åldersgrupperna som skapades var 6-19 år, 20-29 år, 30-39 år, 40-49 år, 50-59 år, 60-69 år och 70-89 år. Medelvärdet och standardavvikelsen för stereoseendet hos åldersgruppen 6-19 år var 45 ±7 bågsekunder, hos åldersgruppen 20-29 år var medelvärdet för stereoseendet 72 ±46 bågsekunder, hos gruppen 30-39 år var medelvärdet 58 ±39 bågsekunder, hos åldersgruppen 40-49 år var medelvärdet 54 ±36 bågsekunder, hos gruppen 50-59 år var medelvärdet 64 ±39 bågsekunder, hos åldersgruppen 60-69 år var medelvärdet 92 ±81 bågsekunder och hos åldersgruppen 70-89 år var medelvärdet för stereoseendet 180 ±153 bågsekunder.

    Slutsats: Resultatet av studien visade att det sker en statistisk signifikant försämring av stereoseendet med stigande ålder (p<0,05). Studien gav en bild på hur stereoseendet skiljde sig mellan yngre och äldre personer. Studien visade en försämring i stereoseendet hos åldersgrupperna ≥50 år jämfört med övriga åldersgrupper.

  • 355.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    On drug use, multiple medication and polypharmacy in a national population2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of multiple medications has successively increased during a number of years and has thereby increased the potential risks of adverse drug reactions, interactions and non-adherence to drug therapy. This may result in unnecessary health expenditure, directly due to redundant drug sales, and indirectly due to the increased hospitalization caused by drug-related problems. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the occurrence and development of drug use, multiple medication, and polypharmacy in an entire national population by using individual-based data on dispensed drugs. The studies (I-V) in the thesis are based on data of dispensed prescription drugs for up to 6.2 million individuals obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. The data in the studies cover different periods of time between July 2005-Sept 2008, and the data have been analyzed on the basis of epidemiological measures and statistical methods. The major conclusions of the studies are: the prevalence of dispensed drugs and multiple medications was extensive in all age groups and was higher for females than for males. Multiple medications should be regarded as a risk in terms of potential drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in all age groups (I). Regional differences in the prevalence of polypharmacy were observed and partly explained by the regional age distribution in Sweden. The use of a novel weighted polypharmacy index indicated regional differences in drug therapy for individuals with polypharmacy (II). The number of drugs used by an individual not only increased the potential risks associated with multiple drug use, but also the potential burden of an increased therapeutic intensity, especially for elderly (III). Individuals with ten or more drugs accounted for almost fifty percent of the total acquisition costs of dispensed drugs. Therefore, interventions with a focus on the reduction of the number of prescription drugs for the small group of patients with a large number of different drugs may also result in a substantial reduction in the total drug costs (IV). In spite of national and regional efforts to reduce polypharmacy, the prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy and the mean number of drugs per individual continued to increase in Sweden 2005-2008 (V). The observed year-by-year increase in polypharmacy underlines the importance of monitoring the development of drug use in all ages. Individual-based registers studies of dispensed drugs provide high quality data and could serve as the basis for further research and also in terms of training health care personnel. It can also be used as a base for interventions and the evaluation of drug use. To enable better comparisons on drug use and its consequences, there is a need for standards concerning measurements, classification and criteria which encompass all types of medications. For clinicians, there is a need for information concerning the patient’s actual use of all different types of medications.

  • 356.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hovstadius, Karl
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Increasing polypharmacy: an individual-based study of the Swedish population 2005-2008.2010In: BMC Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 1472-6904, Vol. 10, p. Article ID: 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundAn increase in the use of drugs and polypharmacy have been displayed over time in spite of the fact that polypharmacy represents a well known risk factor as regards patients' health due to the adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and low adherence to drug therapy arising from polypharmacy. For policymakers, as well as for clinicians, it is important to follow the developing trends in drug use and polypharmacy over time. We wanted to study if the prevalence of polypharmacy in an entire national population has changed during a 4-year period.MethodsBy applying individual-based data on dispensed drugs, we have studied all dispensed prescribed drugs for the entire Swedish population during four 3-month periods 2005-2008. Five or more (DP ≥5) and ten or more (DP ≥10) dispensed drugs during the 3-month period was applied as the cut-offs indicating the existence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy respectively.ResultsDuring the period 2005-2008, the prevalence of polypharmacy (DP≥5) increased by 8.2% (from 0.102 to 0.111), and the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy (DP≥10) increased by 15.7% (from 0.021 to 0.024).In terms of age groups, the prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy increased as regards all ages with the exception of the age group 0-9 years. However, the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy displayed a clear age trend, with the largest increase for the groups 70 years and above. Furthermore, the increase in the prevalence of polypharmacy was, generally, approximately twice as high for men as for women. Finally, the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual increased by 3.6% (from 3.3 to 3.4) during the study period.ConclusionsThe prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy, as well as the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual, increased year-by-year in Sweden 2005-2008.

  • 357.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Adherence, therapeutic intensity, and the number of dispensed drugs2011In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 1255-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To estimate non-adherence in relation to the therapeutic intensity (TI) and the number of dispensed drugs per individual and studywhether the TI can be used as an estimator of non-adherence with an increasing number of drugs.

    Methods

    The study comprised an individual-based register of all dispensed outpatient prescriptions in Sweden in 2006, including6.2 million individuals. The applied definition of drug was the chemical entity or substance comprising the fifth level in the World HealthOrganisation’s Anatomic, Therapeutic, Chemical classification. The defined daily dosage per individual during 12 months was applied asan indicator of the TI.

    Results

    We found a positive linear relation between the TI and the increasing number of dispensed drugs per individual, both for men andwomen. We found a slightly diminishing TI with an increasing number of drugs only for the age groups above 70 years, at a level above 13drugs per individual.

    Conclusions

    The linear relationship between the TI and the increasing number of dispensed drugs per individual provides poor support forusing decreasing TI as an estimator of non-adherence. The low rate of cost-related non-adherence in Sweden might contribute to explainingthe linear relationship.

  • 358.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Factors leading to excessive polypharmacy.2012In: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 0749-0690, E-ISSN 1879-8853, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 159-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are numerous risk factors for patients to develop excessive polypharmacy. The most prominent risk factors are associated with sociodemographics and the patients’ conditions. Risk factors associated with patient behavior, such as patient’s self medication with all types of medications, have not been observed to the same extent but might be at the same level of importance for patients developing excessive polypharmacy. Risk factors related to physicians, and the interaction between patient and physician, are studied to a much lesser extent. The few studies conducted regarding the large variation in physicians’ individual prescribing practices, in terms of polypharmacy, add another perspective to the complexity of the area. Interventions aiming to improve communication between GP and hospital specialist, to create support systems for medical reviews that include all patients’ medications, and to improve the knowledge of multiple prescribing might have the largest potential to better manage excessive polypharmacy.

  • 359.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Non-adherence to drug therapy and drug acquisition costs in a national population: a patient-based register study2011In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 11, article id 326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Patients' non-adherence to drug therapy is a major problem for society as it is associated with reduced health outcomes. Generally, approximately only 50% of patients with chronic disease in developed countries adhere to prescribed therapy, and the most common non-adherence refers to chronic under-use, i.e. patients use less medication than prescribed or prematurely stop the therapy. Patients' non-adherence leads to high additional costs for society in terms of poor health. Non-adherence is also related to the unnecessary sale of drugs. The aim of the present study was to estimate the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy in a national population.

    METHODS:

    We constructed a model of the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy based on patient register data of dispensed out-patient prescriptions in the entire Swedish population during a 12-month period. In the model, the total drug acquisition cost was successively adjusted for the assumed different rates of primary non-adherence (prescriptions not being filled by the patient), and secondary non-adherence (medication not being taken as prescribed) according to the patient's age, therapies, and the number of dispensed drugs per patient.

    RESULTS:

    With an assumption of a general primary non-adherence rate of 3%, and a general secondary non-adherence rate of 50%, for all types of drugs, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 11.2 billion (€ 1.2 billion), or 48.5% of total drug acquisition costs in Sweden 2006.With the assumption of varying primary non-adherence rates for different age groups and different secondary non-adherence rates for varying types of drug therapies, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 9.3 billion (€ 1.0 billion), or 40.2% of the total drug acquisition costs.When the assumption of varying primary and secondary non-adherence rates for a different number of dispensed drugs per patient was added to the model, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 9.9 billion (€ 1.1 billion), or 42.6% of the total drug acquisition costs.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our estimate indicates that drug acquisition costs related to non-adherence represent a substantial proportion of the economic resources in the health care sector. A low rate of primary non-adherence, combined with a high rate of secondary non-adherence, contributes to a large degree of unnecessary medical spending. Thus, efforts of different types of interventions are needed to improve secondary adherence.

  • 360.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prevalence and therapeutic intensity of dispensed drug groups for individuals with multiple medications: a register-based study of 2.2 million individuals2010In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, ISSN 1759-8885, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives  To assess the prevalence and the therapeutic intensity of dispensed drug groups for individuals receiving multiple medications.

    Methods  The individual-based data of all dispensed outpatient prescriptions in Sweden in 2006 were analysed. Five or more dispensed drugs (DP ≥ 5) during a 12-month period were applied as an indicator of multiple medications. The drugs were categorized according to the second level of the World Health Organization's Anatomic, Therapeutic, Chemical classification. The defined daily dosage per individual during 12 months was applied as an indicator of the therapeutic intensity.

    Key findings  For the 2.2 million individuals with DP ≥ 5, the drug groups with the highest prevalences were antibacterials (48.2%), analgesics (40.3%), psycholeptics (35.9%), antithrombotic agents (33.4%) and beta-blocking agents (31.7%). As examples, the level of prevalence increased with age for analgesics, psycholeptics, antithrombotic agents and diuretics, and decreased with age for antibacterials, drugs for obstructive airway diseases and antihistamines for systemic use. Substantial differences in the level of prevalence between women and men were observed for several drug groups; for example, thyroid therapy (13.3 vs 3.6%), psychoanaleptics (26.3 vs 18.2%), drugs used in diabetes (9.1 vs 15.7%) and lipid-modifying agents (18.1 vs 30.7%). Generally, the therapeutic intensity increased with the increasing number of dispensed drugs. For a third of the most common drug groups, the therapeutic intensity increased with an increasing age above the 60–69-year age group.

    Conclusion  The number of drugs taken not only increases the potential risks associated with multiple drug use, but also increases the potential burden of an increased therapeutic intensity, especially for older people. The reported findings may enlighten physicians and healthcare stakeholders concerning the complex patterns of multiple drug use in the entire population and the associated expenses. The findings may also be used as a base for interventions aiming to bring about the most appropriate and balanced prescription of medicines to individuals with multiple diseases.

  • 361.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Assessment of regional variation in polypharmacy2010In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 375-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To assess polypharmacy in a population with emphasis on regions. METHODS: We studied the individual-based data of all dispensed prescription drugs (DP) during a 3-month study period in Sweden 2006. As an indicator of polypharmacy, five or more (DP > or = 5) different drugs (substances) dispensed were applied. For analysis, we used comparisons of prevalence, correlation of prevalence of polypharmacy with different socioeconomic variables, and a novel weighted polypharmacy index. RESULTS: The national prevalence of polypharmacy, DP > or = 5, was 10.5% (inter-regional variation 9.1-12.1%). The regional variation in the prevalence of polypharmacy was largest for the age groups > or =90 (45.6-59.1%), 80-89 (46.1-53.4%) and 70-79 years (33.1-38.0%). The national prevalence of excessive polypharmacy, DP > or = 10, was 2.2% (inter-regional variation 1.9-2.6%). The regional variation in prevalence of excessive polypharmacy was largest for the age groups > or =90 (9.8-22.3%), 80-89 (11.4-17.1%) and 70-79 years (7.0-9.4%). We found a fairly strong positive correlation between polypharmacy and the age group > or =70 years (r = 0.84 for men and 0.71 for women). The novel weighted polypharmacy index indicated regional differences in the internal distribution of the prevalence of dispensed drugs for individuals with polypharmacy. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the observed regional differences in the prevalence of polypharmacy partly can be explained by the regional age distribution in Sweden. The use of the novel weighted polypharmacy index indicated regional differences in drug therapy for individuals with polypharmacy.

  • 362.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Ulf
    Institute of Economic Research, School of Economics and Management, University of Lund.
    Acquisition cost of dispensed drugs for individuals with multiple medications – a register-based study2011In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The total drug sales has increased substantially during the last decades. The increase is assumed to be associated with the observed increase in the individual use of several different drugs, the so-called multiple medications.

     

    Objective:

    To analyse the acquisition cost of dispensed prescription drugs for individuals with multiple medications in a national population.

     

    Study design, setting and participants:

    An individual based register study of all dispensed prescription drugs (DP) in Sweden in 2006, including 6.2 million individuals. As an indicator of multiple medications, five or more dispensed prescription drugs (DP≥5) during a 12-month period was applied. For comparison, ten or more (DP≥10) and fifteen and more (DP≥15) dispensed drugs during a 12-month period were used.

     

    Results:

    The total acquisition cost of dispensed drugs in Sweden in 2006 was SEK 23.2 billion, (corresponding to EUR 2.5 billion 2006). Individuals with DP≥5 (24.5% of total population) accounted for 78.8% of the total drug cost, and individuals with DP≥10 (8.6% of population) and DP≥15 (3.0% of population) accounted for 46.3% and 23.2% respectively.

     

    Individuals with DP>5 younger than 70 years of age (corresponding to 64.9% all individuals with DP>5) accounted for 64.7% of the total acquisition cost for all with DP>5.The highest total drug cost for individuals with DP>5 was displayed in the age group 60-69 followed by 70-79 and 50-59 years, 21.5%, 19.8%, and 17.4%, respectively.

     

    The average acquisition cost per daily defined dosage (DDD) generally decreased with increasing age. For individuals with DP≥5, the average cost per DDD decreased from SEK 8.04 to SEK 2.27 (-72%) for the age group 10-19 to 90 years and above. The highest average cost per DDD was observed for individuals with DP≥10.

     

    The drug cost for women with DP≥5 (corresponding to 60.9% all individuals with DP>5) represented 56.0% of the total cost. Men with DP≥5 (corresponding to 39.1% all individuals with DP>5) represented 44.0% of the total cost.

     

    For individuals with DP≥5, the average cost per DDD was SEK 4.31 (corresponding to EUR 0.46 2006), for women 4.08, and for men 4.62.

     

    Conclusion:

    Individuals with ten or more drugs accounted for almost half of the acquisition costs of dispensed drugs. In order to reduce the risks for adverse drug reactions, interactions and inappropriate drug us, interventions with focus on reduction of the number of prescription drugs for the small group of patients with many different drugs, may therefore also give a substantial reduction of the total drug costs.

  • 363.
    Hristova, Atidge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kan D-vitamintillskott minska depressiva symtom?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden is a country where vitamin D deficiency seems to be common, partly because of its geographical position, which reduces the availability of UVB radiation, but also that people avoid sunlight due to increased skin cancer risk. Research shows that vitamin D plays an important role in the prevention of many diseases such as cancer as well as autoimmune and neuropsychiatric diseases.Vitamin D is a fat soluble pre-hormone and a collective name for closely related compounds which act as hormones after undergoing a transformation in the body.Humans can utilize vitamin D through diet and produce it in the body by exposing the skin to the sun. Previous observational studies and epidemiological studies have established a hypothesis that there seems to be an association between vitamin D supplementation and reduction of depressive symptoms.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if vitamin D supplements may decrease depressive symptoms.

    Methods: This work is organized as a literature review and article search is made in the database PubMed in January 2012. Keywords used were “vitamin D and depression” and inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials, be conducted on humans, written in English. The studies have been reviewed and assessed using Jadads scoring system.

    Results: Six studies were selected for the work. Three of the studies show that supplementation with vitamin D can decrease mood/depressive symptoms, and two of the studies cannot prove the same result. The doses given in these studies varies from 400 to 500 000 IU. The final article studies how the levels of calcitriol in the blood increases after light exposure, and whether this has an effect on patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) compared to controls. The result of this study are that levels of 1,25(OH)2 D was not affected by phototherapy of SAD patients and controls.Conclusion: The six studies examined in this work haven’t given any convincing results partly because lack of good quality in the studies and they have failed to show convincing correlation. More large randomized controlled trials are required to know whether vitamin D supplements have an effect on depressive symptoms.

  • 364.
    Huang, Shan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Elmlund, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Regulation of complement in whole blood by heparin molecularly imprinted polymer particles2012In: Immunobiology, ISSN 0171-2985, E-ISSN 1878-3279, Vol. 217, no 11, p. 1199-1199Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 365.
    Hultin, Kim A. H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Krejci, Radovan
    Stockholm University.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mårtensson, E. Monica
    Stockholm University.
    Hagström, Åke
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, E. Douglas
    Stockholm University.
    Aerosol and bacterial emissions from Baltic Seawater2011In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors influencing the production of primary marine aerosol are of great importance to better understand the marine aerosols' impact on our climate. Bubble-bursting from whitecaps is considered the most effective mechanism for sea spray production, and a way of sea-air transfer for some bacterial species. Two coastal sites in the Baltic Sea were used to investigate aerosol and bacterial emissions from the bubble-bursting process by letting a jet of water hit a water surface within an experimental tank, mimicking the actions of breaking waves. The aerosol size distribution spectra from the two sites were similar and conservative in shape where the modes were centered at about 200 nm dry diameter. We found a distinct decrease in bubbled aerosol production with increasing water temperature. A clear diurnal cycle in bubbled aerosol production was observed, anticorrelated with both water temperature and dissolved oxygen, which to our knowledge has never been shown before. A link between decreasing aerosol production in daytime and phytoplankton activity is likely to be an important factor. Colony-forming bacteria were transferred to the atmosphere via the bubble-bursting process, with a linear relationship to their seawater concentration.

  • 366.
    Hultqvist, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förändringen av lipidskiktets tjocklek i tårfilmen mellan förmiddag och eftermiddag2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Symptom vid torra ögon kan vara en känsla av torrhet, irritation, okomfort, främmande kropps känsla och ökad produktion av tårar. Torrhetskänslan varierar under dagen men är mest påtaglig framåt kvällen. 3 av 4 som upplever symptom för torra ögon har ett tunnare lipidskikt. Diagnostisering av normala, måttligt torra och torra ögon kan dels göras med hjälp av en symtomenkät t.ex. TERTC-DEQ.

    Syfte: Att undersöka om lipidskiktet förändras i tjocklek från förmiddag jämfört med eftermiddag under samma dag.

    Metod: I studien deltog 6 män och 21 kvinnor med en medelålder på 23.3 ± 2.1 år. Mätning av lipidskiktet utfördes en gång på förmiddagen och en gång på eftermiddagen under samma dag. Gradering av lipidskiktet utfördes med hjälp av instrumentet Tearscope-plus. Försökspersonerna fick även svara på enkäten TERTC-DEQ.

    Resultat: På förmiddagen hade 55% av försökspersonerna lipidskikt wave pattern typ (3). Medelvärdet av typ på förmiddagen, var 2.7. På eftermiddagen låg lipidskiktet jämnt fördelat över wave pattern typ (3) med 40.7% och closed meshwork typ (2) med 40.7%. Medelvärdet av typ på eftermiddagen, var 2.4. Medelvärdet hade förändrats 0.3 mellan förmiddag och eftermiddag, från ett tjockare till ett tunnare skikt. Vid sammanställning TERTC-DEQ upplevde 74.1% normala ögon och 25.9% måttligt torra ögon.

    Slutsats: Resultatet av studien visar att det sker en förändring av lipidskikts tjockleken från förmiddag jämfört med eftermiddag. Lipidskiktet är tjockare på förmiddagen jämfört med eftermiddagen. Att lipidskiktet förändras kan ha resulterat i att torrhetskänslan i ögonen kan blir mer påtaglig framåt kvällen.

  • 367.
    Hussain, Javed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rational Design and Assessment of Oseltamivir Imprinted Polymers: Correlation of Experimental and Computational Studies2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 368.
    Hydén, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tvätt av trombocytkoncentrat: Hur påverkar olika förvaringsmedier kvalitén på trombocyter efter tvätt?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 369.
    Höckergård, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Freeze-Thaw Stability of Mayonnaise and the Effect of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride ModifiedStarch as Emulsifier2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mayonnaise is a very popular food emulsion, traditionally made out of water, oil, hen egg yolk and vinegar, throughout the world. However, the quality is often reduced by separation when exposed to environmental stress, such as freeze-thawing which is an issue during transportation through regions of varying climates. The egg yolk proteins in the mayonnaise fail to keep the emulsion stable, thus limiting the freeze-thaw stability for longer time periods. Starches which are hydrophobically modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-starch) could generate a more freeze-thaw stable emulsion due to their higher molecular weight which generates a thicker layer on the oil droplets if adsorbed. The purpose of this master thesis was to investigate how freeze-thaw stability in mayonnaise could be increased and whether OSA-starch could provide a stabilizing effect in this context. The different parameters investigated included the size of the tubes in which the emulsions were frozen, pH at the time of emulsification, the amount and type of oil, preprocessing and amount of OSA-starch as well as the amount and type of egg yolk powder. Emulsions were prepared according to a standardized method, freeze-thawed and analyzed visually and in a microscope. The surface load of OSA-starch and egg yolk proteins at the interface of emulsions was determined according to the method of Aman (1994) and with BCA protein assay. Large variations were observed, thus limiting the possibility to draw conclusions from these results.Mayonnaise with rapeseed oil showed lower freeze-thaw stability than sunflower oil, most likely because of its tendency to form large ƒÀ-crystals in combination with having a higher degree of solid fat at -25‹C. Decreased oil content in mayonnaise generated higher freeze-thaw stability, probably because of lower collision frequency of the oil droplets. The size of the tubes used in this study did not appear to affect the freeze-thaw stability. An emulsion prepared at pH 3.5 showed a higher surface load of OSA-starch and egg yolk proteins but no increased freeze-thaw stability. This could potentially be explained with the surface layer being too thin or that OSA-starch just does not increase the freeze-thaw stability. An emulsion prepared with OSA-starch as the sole emulsifier demonstrated an increased surface load of OSA-starch at both pH 6.5 and 3.5 and maintained freeze-thaw stable after 7 days in the freezer. One possible explanation to these results is the lack of competitive adsorption from egg yolk proteins and the fact that the system is less complex with fewer components. In conclusion, a 56 % emulsion with OSA-starch as the sole emulsifier resulted in a very stable emulsion. It is without doubt that o/w emulsions stabilized with egg yolk is a very complex system. More research concerning egg yolk and its behavior during emulsifying and freeze-thawing of o/w emulsions is of great interest as it could generate new solutions and innovations in the production of food emulsions.

  • 370.
    Ianora, Adrianna
    et al.
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Bentley, Matthew G
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Caldwell, Gary S
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Casotti, Rafaella
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Cembella, Allan D
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, Germany.
    Engström Öst, Jonna
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland ; Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Halsband, Claudia
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK.
    Sonnenschein, Eva
    International Max Planck Research School of Marine Microbiology, Germany.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Llewellyn, Carole
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK.
    Paldaviciene, Aiste
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Pilkaityte, Renata
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Pohnert, Georg
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Razinkovas, Arthur
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Romano, Giovanna
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Tillmann, Urban
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, Germany.
    Vaiciute, Diana
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    The Relevance of Marine Chemical Ecology to Plankton and Ecosystem Function: An Emerging Field2011In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1625-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine chemical ecology comprises the study of the production and interaction of bioactive molecules affecting organism behavior and function. Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates. Planktonic bioactive metabolites are structurally and functionally diverse and some may have multiple simultaneous functions including roles in chemical defense (antipredator, allelopathic and antibacterial compounds), and/or cell-to-cell signaling (e.g., polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) of diatoms). Among inducible chemical defenses in response to grazing, there is high species-specific variability in the effects on grazers, ranging from severe physical incapacitation and/or death to no apparent physiological response, depending on predator susceptibility and detoxification capability. Most bioactive compounds are present in very low concentrations, in both the producing organism and the surrounding aqueous medium. Furthermore, bioactivity may be subject to synergistic interactions with other natural and anthropogenic environmental toxicants. Most, if not all phycotoxins are classic secondary metabolites, but many other bioactive metabolites are simple molecules derived from primary metabolism (e.g., PUAs in diatoms, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in prymnesiophytes). Producing cells do not seem to suffer physiological impact due to their synthesis. Functional genome sequence data and gene expression analysis will provide insights into regulatory and metabolic pathways in producer organisms, as well as identification of mechanisms of action in target organisms. Understanding chemical ecological responses to environmental triggers and chemically-mediated species interactions will help define crucial chemical and molecular processes that help maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functionality.

  • 371.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Elmberg, Elizabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    SP, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fires due to selfignition in (MSWS) municipal solid waste storages2010In: Proceedings Linnaeus Eco-Tech' 10 :: international conference on natural sciences and technologies for waste and wastewater treatment remediation emissions related to climate environmental and economic effects, Kalmar: Linnaeus University, School of Natural Sciences , 2010, p. 734-744Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 372.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Elmberg, Elizabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    SP, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Sweden.
    Namari, D. R.
    Storage Techniques for Municipal Solid Waste, Frequency of Fires, and Their Related Emissions2010In: Proceedings of Venice 2010 - The Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, 8-11 November, 2010, Venice, Italy: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Center , 2010, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to gather the missing information regarding storage techniques (i.e., loose compact, hard compact, cylindrical bales, rectangular bales) and self-ignition in storage sites for organic recyclable and solid-waste fuels from a life-cycle perspective. There is a need to compile and analyze information regarding self-ignition events because there is a lack of such studies. Its importance is evident from the fact that millions of euros are lost every year in Sweden because of spontaneous fires. These fires cause loss of valuable material and injuries to people, and they are also associated with intense environmental pollution, in particular in the form of smoke and water pollution. This study is based on a questionnaire survey among the members of the Swedish waste management association (Avfall Sverige), whose members service 95% of the Swedish population. The response to the survey was 60%. A total of 96 major surface fires have been reported in the past 10 years at storage sites. 74% of these 96 fire incidents were due to self-ignition, 11% were due to known causes other than self-ignition and 15% were due to unknown reasons. In reference to the type of storage, 50% of these 96 fire incidents took place at sites that store both household and industrial waste, 20% at sites that store only industrial waste, and 30% at sites that store household, industrial, and agricultural waste. Regarding the most frequent cause of fire at any storage site, 33% of respondents relate the fire incidents with extreme hot weather conditions, 8% of respondents report that fire incidents at their storage site are mostly an aftereffect of rainfall, 13% relate the fire incidents with cold weather in December, and 46% of respondents experienced the fire incidents throughout the whole year. Furthermore, detailed statistics were collected regarding different storage techniques followed for municipal solid waste (MSW) in relation to contents and final destination processing plant. It was found that loose compact storage is the most popular way of storing MSW, followed by cylindrical bales. Based on data covering the last 10 years, the average annual amount of emissions of dioxins is (upper/lower bound) TCDD 0.03/0.12 g, PAH 0.98/3.7 tons, PCB 1.66/6.31 g, Hg 16.51/62.59 g, and VOC 18/68 tons from MSW storage fires in Sweden. Estimated emissions of dioxins from fires in waste storage sites correspond to emissions from the incineration of about 0.017 million tons of waste (Avfall Sverige data for 2008). In total, Sweden incinerated 0.35 million tons per annum during the period studied.

  • 373.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Treatment of Epistemic Uncertainty in Environmental Fate Models –Consequences on Chemical Safety Regulatory Strategies2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The practical impact of treatment of epistemic uncertainty on decision making wasillustrated on two kinds of decisions from chemical regulation. First, regulatory strategies derivedfrom a simplified decision model based on toxicity and persistence showed that regulated level ofexposure is more conservative (safe) when uncertainty has been given a non-probabilistictreatment. Persistence and its uncertainty had been assessed by a Level II fugacity model forwhich input parameters had been quantified either by Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy numbers(non-probabilistic), or combinations of these (probability boxes). These findings are restricted tohow we let decision makers respond to uncertainty in model predictions by the chosen set ofdecision rules. Further, the use of either treatment depends on the quality and quantity ofbackground knowledge and the required level of detail on the assessment. In the absence ofexperimentally tested physicochemical endpoints, European chemical regulation REACH allowsthe use of non-testing strategies such as Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) topredict the required information. The second decision problem was to select which chemicalsubstances to prioritize for experimental testing in order to strengthen the background knowledgefor chemical regulation with respect to the uncertainty in QSPR predictions. We found that thevalue of reducing uncertainty, given by the expected gain in net benefit for society, was affectedby its treatment and there were no consistent order of testing of the three compounds. However,value of information is a Bayesian probabilistic approach that, unless developed further, loose itsinterpretability under other treatments of uncertainty. The framework of a predictive model, riskmodel, decision model and value of information analysis provides a computational template forfurther evaluation of the effect of treatment of uncertainty on decision making.

  • 374.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Golsteijn, Laura
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Papa, Ester
    Kovarich, Simona
    Huijbregts, Mark A. J.
    The influence of uncertainty in quantitative structure-property relationships on persistence and long-range transport potential: the case of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 375.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Uncertainty in fugacity-based multimedia modeling: probabilistic and non-probabilistic methods2011In: Posterpresentation vid SETAC Europe 21st Annual Meeting i Milano, 17-19 maj, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 376.
    Israelsson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tissue tropism and oncolytic potential of enteroviruses2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 377.
    Israelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ekström, Jens-Ola
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Göransson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindberg, A Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Significance of an authentic 5´ genomic end for activation of viral replication using in vitro transcripts of echovirus 5 and its implication for the efficacy of oncolytic infectious nucleic acidManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 378.
    Israelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gullberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Roivainen, Merja
    Edman, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Studies of Echovirus 5 interactions with the cell surface: Heparan sulfate mediates attachment to the host cell.2010In: Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702, E-ISSN 1872-7492, Vol. 151, no 2, p. 170-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infections caused by Echovirus 5 (E5), an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family, have been associated with fever, rashes and sporadic cases of aseptic meningitis. To elucidate the receptor usage of this virus, the significance of a previously proposed integrin binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif found in the VP3 capsid protein was investigated, as well as the capacity of E5 to interact with heparan sulfate on the cell surface. Using the prototype strain E5 Noyce (E5N), an E5N mutant where the aspartic acid of the RGD motif has been substituted to a glutamic acid and clinical E5 isolates, the RGD motif of VP3 was found to be non-essential and hence not involved in integrin receptor binding. However, E5N and clinical E5 isolates interact with heparan sulfate at the cell surface, as demonstrated by virus replication inhibition assays using heparin and heparinase III, and studies of E5 interactions at the cell surface measured by real-time PCR analysis. In conclusion, E5 utilizes heparan sulfate as a cellular receptor, but the RGD motif of VP3 is not essential for E5 infectivity.

  • 379.
    Israelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gullberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Cytolytic replication of echoviruses in colon cancer cell lines2011In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, E-ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 8, article id e473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, killing nearly 50% of patients afflicted. Though progress is being made within surgery and other complementary treatments, there is still need for new and more effective treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy, meaning that a cancer is cured by viral infection, is a promising field for finding new and improved treatments. We have investigated the oncolytic potential of several low-pathogenic echoviruses with rare clinical occurrence. Echoviruses are members of the enterovirus genus within the family Picornaviridae.

    METHODS: Six colon cancer cell lines (CaCo-2, HT29, LoVo, SW480, SW620 and T84) were infected by the human enterovirus B species echovirus 12, 15, 17, 26 and 29, and cytopathic effects as well as viral replication efficacy were investigated. Infectivity was also tested in spheroids grown from HT29 cells.

    RESULTS: Echovirus 12, 17, 26 and 29 replicated efficiently in almost all cell lines and were considered highly cytolytic. The infectivity of these four viruses was further evaluated in artificial tumors (spheroids), where it was found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 easily infected the spheroids.

    CONCLUSIONS: We have found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 have potential as oncolytic agents against colon cancer, by comparing the cytolytic capacity of five low-pathogenic echoviruses in six colon cancer cell lines and in artificial tumors.

  • 380.
    Iwarson, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vad vet man? Vad gör man?: Kartläggning över tid av koronarpatienters livsstilskunskap och beteende efter en hjärtinfarkt2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetskapen om att hjärtinfarkt till stor del kan förebyggas genom en hjärtskyddande livsstil gör området mycket intressant.

    Syfte: Att göra en undersökning över tid angående livsstilskunskap och beteende hos patienter som haft hjärtinfarkt med fokus på fysisk aktivitet, stresspåverkan, intag av frukt och grönsaker, samt rökning.

    Metod: Enkätutskick gjordes till två patientgrupper, som haft hjärtinfarkt för 2-4 månader sen (grupp 1, n = 35) respektive för ca 2 år sedan (grupp 2, n = 32). Svarsfrekvensen uppgick till 83 %. 

    Resultat: Kunskapsmässigt framgick det att båda grupperna hade överlägset bäst kunskaper gällande rökning och stress. Störst osäkerhet rådde inom området frukt/grönsaker. Efter två år såg man att samtliga områden hade minskat i sin betydelse, dock marginellt inom fysisk aktivitet. Ett relativt gott hjärtskyddande beteende kan konstateras i patientgrupperna inom samtliga områden förutom stresshantering, vilket skilde sig markant från de övriga. En förändring till något sämre beteende över tid såg man inom rökning och marginellt rörande fysisk aktivitet. Gällande intag av frukt och grönt hade förändring skett både till det sämre och till det bättre. En förändring till ett bättre beteende sågs dock beträffande stresshanteringen. Beträffande hur kunskap stämde överens med beteende ses samma mönster för båda grupperna, d v s att det inom rökningen är bäst överensstämmelse, följt av fysisk aktivitet, intag av frukt och grönt, samt sist området stress. En minskning angående överensstämmande kan konstateras i grupp 2 i följande ordning, frukt/grönsaker, fysisk aktivitet och sist rökning. Inom stressområdet ökade istället överensstämmandet mellan kunskap och beteende över tid.

    Slutsats: Denna kartläggning antyder att koronarpatienters kunskaper och beteende är relativt tillfredsställande på kort och lång sikt, men kunskapsmässigt är det främst inom området frukt/grönsaker det finns utrymme för ytterligare förbättringar och beteendemässigt inom stresshantering, vilket bör främjas genom större vårdinsatser inom respektive område. 

  • 381. Jacobsen, M
    et al.
    Kracht, SS
    Esteso, G
    Cirera, S
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Archibald, AL
    Bendixen, C
    Anderson, L
    Fredholm, M
    Jorgensen, CB
    Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs.2010In: Animal Genetics, ISSN 0268-9146, E-ISSN 1365-2052, Vol. 41, p. 21-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility/resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markers. By a targeted approach, the candidate region was subjected to screening for polymorphisms, mainly focusing on intronic sequences. A total of 18 genes were partially sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in GP5, CENTB2, APOD, PCYT1A, OSTalpha, ZDHHC19, TFRC, ACK1, MUC4, MUC20, KIAA0226, LRCH3 and MUC13. Overall, 227 polymorphisms were discovered in the founder generation. The analysis revealed a large haplotype block, spanning at least 1.5 Mb around MUC4, to be associated with F4ab/ac susceptibility.

  • 382.
    Jacobsen, Mette
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cirera, Susanna
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Joller, David
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Esteso, Gloria
    Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
    Kracht, Steffen S.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bendixen, Christian
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Archibald, Alan L.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Vogeli, Peter
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Neuenscwander, Stefan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bertschinger, Hans U.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rampoldi, Antonio
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University.
    Fredholm, Merete
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Claus B.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, article id 225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab and F4ac fimbriae is a major contributor to diarrhoea outbreaks in the pig breeding industry, infecting both newborn and weaned piglets. Some pigs are resistant to this infection, and susceptibility is inherited as a simple dominant Mendelian trait. Indentifying the genetics behind this trait will greatly benefit pig welfare as well as the pig breeding industry by providing an opportunity to select against genetically susceptible animals, thereby reducing the number of diarrhoea outbreaks. The trait has recently been mapped by haplotype sharing to a 2.5 Mb region on pig chromosome 13, a region containing 18 annotated genes.

    Findings

    The coding regions of five candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection (TFRC, ACK1, MUC20, MUC4 and KIAA0226), all located in the 2.5 Mb region, were investigated for the presence of possible causative mutations. A total of 34 polymorphisms were identified in either coding regions or their flanking introns. The genotyping data for two of those were found to perfectly match the genotypes at the ETEC F4ab/ac locus, a G to C polymorphism in intron 11 of TFRC and a C to T silent polymorphism in exon 22 of KIAA0226. Transcriptional profiles of the five genes were investigated in a porcine tissue panel including various intestinal tissues. All five genes were expressed in intestinal tissues at different levels but none of the genes were found differentially expressed between ETEC F4ab/ac resistant and ETEC F4ab/ac susceptible animals in any of the tested tissues.

    Conclusions

    None of the identified polymorphisms are obvious causative mutations for ETEC F4ab/ac susceptibility, as they have no impact on the level of the overall mRNA expression nor predicted to influence the composition of the amino acids composition. However, we cannot exclude that the five tested genes are bona fide candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection since the identified polymorphism might affect the translational apparatus, alternative splice forms may exist and post translational mechanisms might contribute to disease susceptibility.

  • 383.
    Jaki Borg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av kontrollprogram för det förorenade markområdet Grimstorp Lillesjön2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En utvärdering av befintlig data från referensfasen av kontrollprogrammet för Grimstorp Lillesjön har utförts. De studerade parametrarna i rapporten är ytvatten- och grundvattenhalter (grundvattenrör och brunnar) av arsenik och tre utvalda PAH (acenaften, fluoren och naftalen) ämnen samt fysikaliska-kemiska stödparametrar. För att bidra med information till kontrollprogrammet har i denna rapport statistiska parametrar beräknats i form av kontrollmål för årsmedelvärde och stickprov för de studerade parametrarna. Det har även i förväg angetts den förändring från kontrollmålet som kan påvisas enligt planerad provtagning. Arsenikhalterna har 1-5 ggr mindre relativa standard avvikelsen (CV) än för de tre valda PAH ämnena, där CV i många fall är över ett. Det största bidraget till variationen i data kommer från säsongsvariationer, där temperaturen har den största inverkan till variationen. För ytvatten- samt brunnsdata för de undersökta parametrarna kan halvårsvisa säsongsmässiga indelningar ses och genom att dela in data enligt säsongsvariationen kan variationskoefficienten minskas.

    Från jämförelse med andra genomförda impregneringprojekt vid före detta impregneringsanläggningar kan konstateras att i entreprenadfasen sker ett läckage av arsenik. I uppföljningsfasen påverkas visa grundvattenrör nedströms det före detta impregneringsområdet med högre halter av arsenik och PAH. Dessa haltökningar kan påvisas tre år efter utförd sanering.

    Sammantaget är bättre att köra kontrollprogrammet för Grimstorp Lillesjön mindre intensivt men under en längre tidsperiod och då ta prover under samma säsong, vilket ger jämförbara resultat. Detta medför att totalt sett kan färre prov tas jämfört med planerad provtagning eller en mindre förändring av halter kan detekteras i entreprenad och uppföljningsfasen.

  • 384.
    Jamah, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hur effektivt är fingolimod vid behandling av multipel skleros?2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that affects the nerves within the central nervous system (CNS). The disease is autoimmune where the body's own immune system attacks nerve tissue, especially myelin, causing an inflammatory reaction. The nerves of the central nervous system serve many different functions and since the myelin surrounding the nerve fibers becomes inflamed at different places, both in the brain and the spinal cord, a variety of symptoms result. Symptoms of MS can differ greatly from one individual to another, as well as from relapse to relapse. If the McDonald criteria, which are based on at least two separate CNS lesions separated in space and at least one month apart demonstrated without a clear reason, are fulfilled a diagnosis of MS is set.

    Individuals with MS produce autoreactive T cells involved in the formation of inflammatory lesions along the myelin sheath, but CNS cells, glial cells and astrocytes, also participate in the inflammatory process. Tissue type HLA-DR2 is associated with increased risk of developing MS. The most common and mild form of MS, relapsing-remitting MS, can be slowed down with immunomodulatory drugs such as interferon beta, fingolimod, etc.

    The aim of this literature study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of fingolimod, the first oral therapy for MS, on the possible damage that occurs due to MS. The studies examined in this work were taken from Pubmed. The results demonstrate that fingolimod has clinical efficacy in MS, but more studies are needed to investigate the safety profile in more detail. In a study over two years the annualized relapse rate was reduced from 0.4 to less than half of this. In another two-year study in which fingolimod was compared with interferon-beta 1a, there was a significantly greater reduction in the annualized relapse rate in the fingolimod group (annualized relapse rate <0.20) than in interferon group (annualized relapse rate 0.33). The majority of patients (>70 %) remained relapse-free with fingolimod treatment in both studies. There were no studies that combined fingolimod with other MS treatments, which would be interesting to see in the future.

  • 385.
    Jansdotter, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stämmer Hofstetters formler för ackommodations-amplituden hos unga vuxna?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att jämföra ackommodations-amplituden med Hofstetters formler genom att upprepa Sterners et al. mätningar.

    Metod: Mätningarna skedde på 35 personer. Krav för att kunna vara med i studien var att inte ha tropi, amblyopi eller anisometropi. Det var två personer som uteslöts, den ena klarade inte stereotestet och den andra på grund av amblyopi. Först gjordes en variant av modifierad Humphriss och cyclodami, det öga som inte undersöktes dimmades med 1,5 dioptri (D). Stereoseendet testades med Wirts ring test. Ackommodations-amplituden mättes med push-up-metoden med en RAF-stav.

    Resultat: Medelåldern för de 33 försökspersonerna var 22,26 år. Vid jämförelse med Hofstetters formel för medelvärden var de monokulära värdena statistiskt signifikanta (p<0,05) men inte de binokulära värdena (p>0,05). För höger öga var 78,8 % lägre och för vänster var 69,7 % än de förväntade värdena. Vid en jämförelse med Hofstetters minimumvärden hade 30,3 % för höger öga och 36,4 % för vänster öga en lägre ackommodations-amplitud. Korrelationen mellan ålder och ackommodations-amplitud var -0,38 för vänster och höger öga. Binokulärt var korrelationen -0,37.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna undersökning är de monokulära mätvärdena lägre än Hofstetters förväntade värden. Dock är undersökningen för liten för att kunna påstå att Hofstetters värden är för högt satta. För att kunna fastställa ett sådant påstående skulle det behövas vidare studier med större populationer och åldersgrupper.

  • 386.
    Janse, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svenska optikers kännedom om samsynstester och hantering av samsynsproblem2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Samsyn är den koordination och integration i vilken bilden från vartdera ögat sammansmälter till ett synintryck. Det finns flera tester som utvärderar de olika komponenter vilka bidrar till att samarbetet mellan ögonen fungerar som det ska och inte ger upphov till symtom. Har en person samsynsproblem kan dessa avhjälpas med behandling som exempelvis synträning eller prismakorrektion. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att ta reda på om svenska optiker genomför de tester och har den kunskap som krävs för att upptäcka och hantera samsynsproblem.

    Metod: Alla medlemmar (undantaget studentmedlemmar) i svenska Optikerförbundet fick förfrågan att delta i en enkätundersökning (n ≈ 1500). Respondenterna (n = 85) fick besvara frågor om vilka samsynstester de utför, normalvärden för några samsynstester, hur de behandlar samsynproblem och en fallbeskrivning. Enkäten publicerades med ett webbaserat program, Google docs, via en länk som sändes ut till Optikerförbundets medlemmars e-post.

    Resultat: Åttiofem optiker besvarade enkäten och de representerade alla Sveriges landsting förutom Jämtlands läns landsting. Enkätstudien visade att drygt 84 % av optikerna utförde covertest och 60 % genomförde motilitetstest på reguljär basis. Färre än hälften utförde fusionsvergensmätning även då anamnes och refraktion indikerar behov av ytterligare mätningar. Resultatet från enkäten visade också att 68 % respondenter hade modifierat sfäriska styrkan med hänsyn tagen till patientens forier, 67 % hade någon gång ordinerat synträning och ungefär hälften hade ordinerat prismakorrektion.

    Slutsats: Studien visade att det råder stor variation mellan vilka tester de svenska optikerna utförde. En stor andel genomförde preliminära tester som Cover test, KNP och motilitetstest men färre genomförde andra mer utredande funktionella samsynstester. Dessutom var det få som kände till förväntade normalvärden för de funktionella testerna. Vad gäller behandling av samsynsproblem uppvisades stor svarsvariation i val av lämplig hanteringsåtgärd.

  • 387.
    Jansson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mätning av tårosmolaritet för diagnos av ögontorrhet: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Denna studie fokuserar på att åskådliggöra för- och nackdelar med osmolaritetsmätning som diagnostiseringsmetod samt den roll tårfilmens osmolaritet har för ögontorrhet.

    Metod: En litteraturbaserad studie genomfördes där kunskap inom området sammanställdes till en mer lättöverskådlig text. Ett antal vetenskapliga artiklar valdes även ut för granskning och analys.

    Resultat: Arbetet visar att merparten av de studier som är gjorda inom området osmolaritetsmätning framhåller metoden som en av de bästa diagnostiseringsmetoder som finns när det kommer till fastställande och gradering av ögontorrhet. De färskaste studierna i detta arbete pekar dock på vissa brister med metoden så som fluktuerande mätresultat och rekommenderar att flera mätningar bör utföras vid varje mättillfälle och att ett snittvärde av mätningarna bör användas för att ge ett pålitligt resultat.

    Slutsats: Fler och större studier skulle behövas för att säkrare fastställa effektiviteten och tillförlitligheten hos osmolaritetsmätaren TearLab

  • 388.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. University of Rochester, USA.
    Hsu, Yu-Chiao
    University of Rochester, USA.
    Kuzin, Igor I.
    University of Rochester, USA.
    Campbell, Andrew
    University of Rochester, USA.
    Mullen, Craig A.
    University of Rochester, USA.
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that survive combination chemotherapy in vivo remain sensitive to allogeneic immune effects2011In: Leukemia research: a Forum for Studies on Leukemia and Normal Hemopoiesis, ISSN 0145-2126, E-ISSN 1873-5835, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 800-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is often performed for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) whose disease has relapsed after chemotherapy treatment. However, graft versus leukemia (GVL) effects in ALL are generally weak and the mechanisms of this weakness are unknown. These studies tested the hypothesis that ALL cells that have survived conventional chemotherapy in vivo acquire relative resistance to the allogeneic GVL effect. C57BL/6 mice were injected with murine pre-B ALL lines driven by human mutations and then were treated with combination chemotherapy. ALL cells surviving therapy were analysed in vitro and in vivo for acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy, radiation, cytolytic T cells, NK cells, LAK cells and cytokines. In vivo drug treatment did lead to leukemia population with more rapid proliferation and also decreased sensitivity to vincristine, doxorubicin and radiation. However, drug treatment did not produce ALL populations that were less sensitive to GVL effects in vitro or in vivo.

  • 389.
    Jansson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ametropiers påverkan på valet av gymnasieutbildning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan ametropi och val av gymnasieutbildning.

    Metod: Mätningarna utfördes på två gymnasieskolor i Linköping. Utbildningarna grupperades i två grupper, en studieförberedande och en yrkesförberedande. Försöks-personerna blev retinoskoperade och fick fylla i en enkät om sitt gymnasieval. De urvalskriterier som fanns var att försökspersonerna skulle vara 18 år eller äldre samt att de skulle gå ett yrkesförberedande eller studieförberedande program i årskurs 3.

    Resultat: 100 personer deltog i studien, 50 från studieförberedande program och 50 från yrkesförberedande program, i åldrarna 18-20 år. Det var 35 kvinnor och 65 män som deltog i studien. Statistiskt fanns det inget samband mellan valet av gymnasie-utbildning och ametropier (p>0,05). Det fanns dock en skillnad mellan ametropier hos grupperna där den teoretiska gruppens medelvärde var -0,83 DS och den praktiska gruppens medelvärde var -0,39 DS, dock gick det inte att säkerställa statistiskt. Studien visade en skillnad mellan föräldrarnas högsta avslutade utbildning mellan grupperna, där den teoretiska gruppen hos båda föräldrarna hade högskola/universitet som den vanligaste högsta avslutade utbildningen medan den praktiska gruppens föräldrar hade gymnasial utbildning som högsta avslutade utbildning. Sambandet mellan föräldrarnas högsta avslutade utbildning och val av gymnasium var dock inget som studien statistiskt kunde säkerställa.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna undersökning finns det inget samband mellan ametropier och gymnasieutbildning. En större studie bör genomföras för att kanske kunna se ett samband mellan gymnasieutbildning och ametropi.

  • 390.
    Jansson, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olika sol- och filterglasögons påverkan på färgsinnet och kontrastseendet med och utan bländning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att testa lågkontrastvisus med och utan bländning, färgsinnespåverkan samt komfort med fem sol- och filtersolglasögon från Multilens, för att se hur var och en av glasen påverkar detta och för att jämföra skillnader mellan solglasen och filtersolglasen i bestämda par.

    Metod: 28 personer testade de olika solglasen; Pol B, pol G, och pol G15 och de båda filterglasen: C1 pol 3 och 511 pol 3. Resultaten jämfördes var för sig och i sol- och filterglaspar mellan pol B – 511 pol 3 och C1 pol 3 – pol G15. Pol G var neutral i sol- och filterglasjämförelsen. Varje glas testades ovanpå deltagarens habituella korrektion för lågkontrastvisus med en logMAR 10% kontrasttavla med och utan Brightness Acuity Tester. Färgsinnet testades med ett förkortat Ishiharatest och komforten graderades subjektivt i en skala från 1-5.

    Resultat: Statistisk signifikant skillnad visades under lågkontrasttestet för samtliga glas i förhållande till utgångsläget, men inte i jämförelse mellan sol- och filtersolglas. Under bländningstestet visades signifikant skillnad i jämförelsen mellan C1 pol 3 - pol G15 samt för pol B, C1 pol 3, 511 pol 3 och pol G15 jämfört med utgångsläget.

    Slutsats: Pol G visade bäst resultat i lågkontrast med och utan bländning. Filterglas C1 pol 3 är att föredra gentemot solglas pol G15 under bländningsförhållanden. Filterglasen ger bättre komfort än solglasen. Ishiharatestet kunde inte visa några färgskillnader mellan sol- och filterglasögon.

  • 391.
    Javed, Muhammad Tayyeb
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Irfan, Naseem
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Combustion Kinetics Modelling2010In: Handbook of Combustion: Volume 1 / [ed] Lackner,M., Winter,F., Agarwal, AK, John Wiley & Sons, 2010, p. 153-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion is a complex phenomenon characterized by the interaction and competition of various physical and chemical processes. The correct description of chemical changes requires the application of reaction mechanisms that consist of several hundreds or thousands of elementary reactions. This creates an opportunity for kinetic modeling to play important role in understanding the combustion phenomenon. This chapter provides an overview of combustion modeling, the main aim being to present a comprehensive knowledge base for combustion kinetic modeling. The coupling of fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics using commercial software such as CHEMKIN and FLUENT is also discussed. Moreover, an exemplary approach for reducing complex chemical reaction mechanisms is illustrated with reference to an H2 + O2 mixture in an adiabatic system. This approach involves the identification of redundant species via rate sensitivity analysis, and of redundant reactions, by principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix. An eigenvalue–eigenvector analysis is used to extract meaningful kinetic information from linear sensitivity coefficients computed for all species of chemical mechanism at several time points. The main advantage of this method lies in its ability to reveal those parts of the mechanism, which consist of strongly interacting reactions, and to indicate their importance within the mechanism. By using the above procedures, reduced reaction mechanisms could be developed at different chosen conditions and employed in CFD codes in place of detailed mechanisms, giving due consideration to flow fields.

  • 392.
    Johansson, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Allmän antibiotikaresistens hos Escherichia coli (E. coli) och förekomsten av Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) hos enterobakterier samt Vancomycinresistenta enterokocker (VRE) i fekalprover från måsfåglar på Irland2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten av Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) och Vancomycinresistenta enterokocker (VRE) har ökat hos gramnegativa bakterier under de senaste åren. Måsfåglar kan användas som biologiska indikatorer för att se prevalensen av antibiotikaresistens i naturen, vilken sedan kan jämföras med den hos humana populationer.

    Syftet var att med odling av fekalprover på selekterande och differentierande agarplattor analysera det allmänna resistensläget hos Escherichia coli samt analysera förekomst av Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases hos enterobakterier och Vancomycinresistenta enterokocker i 300 prover från måsar på Irland. För att artbestämma bakterierna utfördes även biokemiska analyser.

    Den allmänna resistensen analyserades med diskdiffusionstest på Muller-Hintonagarplattor. E. coli användes som indikatorart. För analys av ESBL-isolat och VRE odlades fekalproverna i selekterande anrikningsbuljong och på selekterande och differentierande agarplattor. Isolaten fenotypades med hjälp av biokemiska tester. För verifiering av ESBL-isolat utfördes synergitest med klavulansyra.

    Låg allmänresistens erhölls för E. coli. Två isolat var resistenta mot båda β-laktamantibiotika ampicillin och cefadroxil. Tjugo stycken ESBL-producerande isolat erhölls. E. coli var den vanligaste förekommande ESBL-producerande bakteriearten i analyserade prover. Fem enterokockisolat med resistens mot Vancomycin och Aztreonam erhölls. Slutsatsen är att analysen av dessa 300 prover visar att det allmänna antibiotikaresistensläget är lågt samt att ESBL och eventuellt VRE förekommer hos måsfåglar på Irland. 

  • 393.
    Johansson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fusionsvergensernas skillnad mellan morgon och kväll på avstånd samt dess repeterbarhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att se om fusionsvergenserna på avstånd skiljer sig något mellan morgon och kväll. Samt att se hur bra dess repeterbarhet vid mätning i foropter var.

    Metoder: I studien deltog 20 personer. Fusionsvergenserna och heteroforin mättes upp i foropter en gång på morgonen och en gång på kvällen, för att sedan kunna jämföras om det blev någon skillnad mellan de båda mättillfällena. Efter mätningen på morgonen skulle det ha gått 7-10 h till nästa mätning på kvällen. Samma mätningar gjordes ytterligare en morgon 24 h till 10 dagar efter den sista mätningen. Detta för att kunna undersöka repeterbarheten vid mätning av fusionsvergenser. 

    Resultat: Resultatet av mätningarna mellan morgon och kväll visar ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan de båda mättillfällena för NFV (negativa fusionsvergenser) och PFV (positiva fusionsvergenser) dimpunkt, brytpunkt och återgångspunkt på avstånd. Vid undersökning av repeterbarhet räknades ICC (intraclass correlation) och konfidensintervallet ut. Båda beräkningsmetoderna kom i stort sätt fram till samma resultat. För både ICC och beräkning av konfidensintervallet visar NFV återgångspunkt (0,91; ±0,8) bäst repeterbarhet. Sämst repeterbarhet enligt ICC hade PFV dim- och återgångspunkt (0,63). Vid beräkning av konfidensintervallet hade PFV återgångspunkt (±6,3) sämst repeterbarhet.  

    Slutsats:Vid mätning av fusionsvergenserna på avstånd spelar det ingen större roll om mätningen utförs på morgonen eller kvällen då det inte fanns någon statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan de båda tillfällena. Vid jämförelse mellan två olika mättillfällen som utfördes vid samma tid på morgonen visar NFV bättre repeterbarhet mellan de båda mättillfällena än vad PFV gör.

  • 394.
    Johansson, Gabriella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is an effect of cataractsurgery with phacoemulsification on IOP after one week of surgery. To investigate whether there is a correlation between Axial length (AL), Anterior chamber depth ACD, K-readings with preoperative (preop) and postoperative (postop) IOP.

    Methods: The subjects for this study were extracted from the records at the Eye department in Kalmar Hospital, Sweden. From an existing data file 72 eyes out of 72 subjects were then analysed. The subjects were divided into 4 groups based on the axial length of the eyes, forstatistical analysis in Microsoft Excel and Statistica 6.0. Preoperative and postoperative IOP was evaluated to look for statistical significance. IOP was compared to AL, ACD and Kreadingsto look for any correlations.

    Results: Preoperative IOP and postoperative IOP did not show any statistically significant difference after phacoemsulification, p > 0.05. There was no statistical significance orcorrelation for the axial length, ACD and K-readings compared to pre and post IOP,p > 0.05.Conclusion: There was no change in IOP before and after surgery. This study did not show any significance between the preoperative and postoperative mean IOP after cataract surgery. Axial length was not a factor to the intraocular pressure. There was neither any statistical significance nor correlation between the anterior chamber depth and K-readings in relation to IOP.

  • 395.
    Johansson, Helene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Extraction and Characterization of Hydrophobin from Trichoderma reesei2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrophobins are a class of small proteins (7-15kDa) found in filamentous fungi and are among the most surface active proteins known today. Because of this they have received attention for different applications, e.g. for the food industry as an alternative in emulsions. The goal of this project was to culture and extract hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei and characterize it. This was done from a freeze-dried culture of Trichoderma reesei, which was cultured on PDA-plates and in liquid medium with glucose as carbon source. Extraction was made by breaking the cells, mechanically and by sonication, and then by shaking a seperating funnel to create foam from the surface-active proteins. The foam was washed and freeze-dried and the total protein concentration of the freeze-dried substance was determined with Bradford assay and the hydrophpbin was characterized with SDS-PAGE. The culturing of the fungi was successful. The amount of foam created was, however, less than expected. The Bradford assay gave a total protein concentration of 7.5% in the freeze-dried substance, but the SDS-PAGE didn't give any results. The reason for this probably depends on the culturing and the extraction of the hydrophobin. T. reesei hydrophobin HFBI, expressed in glucose containing media, is bound to the mycelium of the fungi and the breaking of the mycelium might not have been enough to release all the protein, which also would explain the small amounts of foam. One way to improve this could be to grow the fungi on lactose instead. This will result in that T. reesei produces HFBII instead, which is mainly released to the surrounding. The conclusion of the project is that the method for culturing and extraction needs to be improved to obtain hydrophobin from T. reesei.

  • 396.
    Johansson, Ing-Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kan en utökning av befintlig antikroppspanel underlätta för att skilja Klassiskt Hodgkinlymfom från svårklassificerade varianter av Diffust storcelligt B-cellslymfom?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På sjukhusens avdelningar för klinisk patologi har man ibland problem med att skilja Klassiskt Hodgkinlymfom från Diffust storcelligt B-cells lymfom. I Klassiskt Hodgkinlymfom finns speciella tumörceller, Reed-Sternbergceller. Problemet är att de kan förväxlas med de stora B-lymfocyter som finns i Diffust storcelligt B-cells lymfom. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om en utökning av befintlig antikroppspanel med antikropparna riktade mot BCL-6, BOB-1, CD 15 och Fascin kan göra det lättare att skilja Klassiskt Hodgkinlymfom från svårklassificerade varianter av Diffust storcelligt B-cells lymfom. I studien användes sparad vävnad från tio kända lymfomfall; fem Klassiska Hodgkinlymfom och fem Diffusa storcelliga B-cells lymfom. Immunopanelen bestod av fem tidigare använda antikroppar riktade mot CD 3, CD 20, CD 30, CD 45 och CD 79 α och fyra nya antikroppar riktade emot BCL-6, BOB-1, CD 15 och Fascin. Vävnadscellerna färgades i ett instrument för immunohistokemiska färgningar från Ventana, Roche. Alla Klassiska Hodgkinlymfom var negativa för CD 45, CD 3 och BOB-1. Ett fall var positivt för BCL-6. CD 79 α var svagt positivt i två av fem fall. CD 20 var positiv i tre fall av fem. CD 15, CD 30 och Fascin var samtliga positiva. Alla Diffusa storcelliga B-cellslymfom var negativa för CD 3 och CD 15 och samtliga fall var positiva för CD 20, CD 45, CD 79 α, och BCL-6. CD 30, Fascin och BOB-1 uppvisade positivitet i två fall. Slutsatsen blir att Fascin och BCL-6 kommer att införas i rutinpanel. BOB-1 och CD 15 måste optimeras innan de kan införas i rutinen.

  • 397.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Drivers of polymorphism dynamics in pygmy grasshoppers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I used colour polymorphism in pygmy grasshoppers as a model system to study the influence of selection, developmental plasticity, mating behaviour and gene flow on patterns of phenotypic and genetic diversity within and among populations in changing environments.

    Data for more than 5,000 individuals collected from natural populations showed that the incidence of black (melanic) pygmy grasshoppers was higher in burnt than in non-burnt areas, and rapidly declined over time within populations in post-fire environments. A common garden experiment confirmed that differences among populations were genetically determined. A split brood experiment further uncovered no developmental plasticity in response to rearing substrate, but a high resemblance between mothers and their offspring thus indicating that colour morphs are under strong genetic control.

    To investigate the role of polyandry, I experimentally mated virgin females to multiple males; genotyped families using microsatellite markers developed for this purpose, and demonstrated that polyandrous females can produce offspring sired by different males. Analysis of families produced by females collected from a natural population confirmed that multiple paternities can increase colour morph diversity among half-siblings in the wild. Analysis of 130 AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers in individuals from 5 localities uncovered two distinct gene clusters, as well as high genetic diversity within and significant divergence among populations within each cluster.

    My studies of colour polymorphism dynamics demonstrate an important role of population differentiation and rapid adaptive evolution in response to selection in heterogeneous environments, indicate limited effects of plasticity and gene flow, and implicate multiple mating as promoting diversity within populations in this pygmy grasshopper system.

  • 398.
    Johansson, Linn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Trace Element Levels in Scalp Hair from Adolescents in Río Negro, Argentina: Link to Environmental and Dietary Factors2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an insight into a provincial region of a developing country, namely Río Negro, Argentina and possible links between diet, environmental factors (especially water quality) and human health. Measuring levels of trace elements in scalp hair is a known method for assessing nutritional status. Levels of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, As, Cr, Co, Cu, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, V, Zn, Al, Cd, Pb, Rb and Hg in scalp hair from adolescents of the age 14 to 18 years in a rural and an urban population of Río Negro were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The hypothesis is that levels of trace elements reflect lifestyle factors such as smoking, beverage and food selection and consumption patterns and are directly linked to dehydration and could be associated with future health problems. Furthermore, environmental factors, such as (i) indecent water systems and governmental subsidised food in the rural/urban population, and (ii) ingestion or inhalation of arsenic (from naturally high sources of water, dust and foodstuffs) may also be linked to present and future health problems. The relationship between environmental and dietary factors could be implicated with the onset of diseases such as diabetes type II, obesity or hypothyroidism. The results show that both study populations in the region are exposed to several trace elements in exceedingly high amounts such as As and Mn through tap water which may induce cancers. Also, regular soft drink consumption is associated with low Cr level in this population. Evidence was not obtained for assessing potential dehydration. In terms of understanding the relationship between these factors, methods for assessing dehydration and dietary consumption need to be perfected, and other demographic issues and methods for quantifying obesity and health status will require further research.

  • 399.
    Johansson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Närsalter och bottenlevande organismer i Mönsteråsviken2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study was to examine the nutrients and benthic organisms of the bay “Mönsteråsviken”, which is influenced by eutrophication. The purpose was also to look at an interesting gradient forming in the bay, namely the distance from the river outflow of Lillån. At 18 sampling sites in the bay samples of water, sediments and benthic organisms were collected in late April of 2011. The water was analyzed for nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll. The sediments were analyzed for nitrogen, phosphorus, water and organic level and the benthic organisms were determined to species when possible. The levels of nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll were correlated with each other but also with the distance from the river outflow. This indicates that the river Lillån influences nutrients in the bay in the water this time of year. Spring nitrate levels in the water have decreased during 1995-2010 while phosphate levels remained constant. There has been no significant change in nutrient levels or organic matter in the sediments compared to an earlier study of the bay from the year 1993. However it is important to remember that it can take a long time before one can see measurable differences in the sediments. More studies of this kind are required to measure the effects of actions taken to reduce the inflow of nutrients to the bay.

  • 400.
    Johansson, Mathilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kommunikation inom ett vindkraftsprojekt: Hur säkerställs att information om skydd av biologiska värden överförs från tillstånd till byggfas?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid vindkraftsbyggnation tas mark i anspråk vilket kan påverka lokala biologiska värden negativt om inte placeringen av vindkraftverken sker med försiktighet och stor hänsyn till miljön tas under tiden för byggnation. För att säkerställa detta utförs vid planer på varje större vindkraftsetablering ett omfattande bakgrundsarbete, med syfte att identifiera vilka värden som finns i området och hur dessa kan skyddas. Denna information överlämnas, efter att tillståndsgivande myndighet godkänt nyetablering, till byggentreprenörer. I detta led kan kommunikationen brista som ett resultat av omfattande och svårtolkat material vilket kan leda till att biologiska värden skadas. Arbetet syftar till att undersöka hur informationen bör vara utformad för att säkerställa att den är tydlig och användbar för mottagaren så att biologiska värden kan skyddas. För att svara på frågeställningen användes såväl publicerad litteratur som fallstudier i fält och intervjuer på ett konsultföretag samt ett byggföretag inriktade på vindkraft.

    Det ligger i människans intresse att bevara den biologiska mångfalden då vi utnyttjar många av dess tjänster. För att skydda ett så stort antal arter som möjligt identifieras habitattyper som är mycket artrika, på så sätt bevaras hela naturtypens artsammansättning och förekomst. Fallstudier visar exempel på hur identifierade biologiska värden kan se ut och även hur dessa kan skyddas vid verksamhet i området. För att vid verksamhet skydda naturen krävs att det finns information om hur detta bäst görs och att den når fram till mottagaren. Ofta bildas en klyfta mellan sändare och mottagare av skillnader i expertis och kan ytterligare breddas av att materialet är i fel format. Kommunikation mellan sändare och mottagare under informationsframställningen underlättar då mottagaren kan engageras och själv föreslå hur informationen bör se ut och vilka kommunikationskanaler som bör användas. Personlig kontakt minskar missförstånd och rutiner för hur kunskapsöverföringen ska gå till bör finnas för att säkerställa att allt överförs och på önskat sätt. Arbetets slutsats är att; för att säkerställa att biologiska värden skyddas vid byggnation krävs tydligt skriftligt material, tillsammans med visuella hjälpmedel, kombinerat med upprepad personlig kontakt mellan sändare och mottagare. Ur slutsatserna konstruerades ett förslag på ett arbetsverktyg som underlättar framställningen av tydlig information. Inom ämnet naturskydd och kommunikation krävs vidare studier med jämförelser av olika kommunikationssätt och vilken påverkan dessa har på biologiska värden i ett planeringsområde.

567891011 351 - 400 of 899
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf