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  • 351.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lankveld, Chiel
    Accsys Group.
    Acoustic properties of acetylated wood under different humid conditions and its relevance for musical instruments2018In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wood Modification 2018, Arnhem, The Netherlands / [ed] Jos Creemers, Thomas Houben, Bôke Tjeerdsma, Holger Militz and Brigitte Junge, The Netherlands: Practicum , 2018, p. 236-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In musical instrument making, less expensive wood species and materials with good characteristics and acoustical properties can provide potentials to find alternatives to the traditional exotic wood species used today. Modified wood could be such a choice if shows similar sound characteristics to wood coming from endangered and expensive tropical species with problematic commercial availability. In musical instruments, the overall functionality depends on the contribution of wood to different material performance indexes like sound radiation coefficient (R), characteristic impedance (z) and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE). In this study, the performance indexes were measured for acetylated beech, maple and radiata pine and compared with these obtained for the reference wood materials maple, mahogany, alder and ash. A non-destructive free-free flexural vibration test method was used at constant temperature (20oC) but in different humid conditions- dry (35% RH), standard (65% RH) and wet (85% RH). Dimensional changes in the different humid conditions were also taken in account. Acetylated wood showed lower EMC with higher dimensional stability at each humidity level as compared with the reference wood materials. These properties are considered important factors for making quality musical instruments. Based on the acoustical properties, acetylated wood materials, especially radiata pine, showed good potential for use for musical instruments where specific characteristics of sound are required. However, the other types of acetylated wood can also be used for specific musical instruments.

  • 352.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lankveld, Chiel
    Accsys Group.
    Acoustic properties of acetylated wood under different humid conditions and its relevance for musical instruments2018In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wood Modification 2018, Arnhem, The Netherlands / [ed] Jos Creemers, Thomas Houben, Bôke Tjeerdsma, Holger Militz, Brigitte Junge and Jos Gootjes, The Netherlands: SHR B.V., Wageningen , 2018, p. 236-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In musical instrument making, less expensive wood species and materials with good characteristics and acoustical properties can provide potentials to find alternatives to the traditional exotic wood species used today. Modified wood could be such a choice if shows similar sound characteristics to wood coming from endangered and expensive tropical species with problematic commercial availability. In musical instruments, the overall functionality depends on the contribution of wood to different material performance indexes like sound radiation coefficient (R), characteristic impedance (z) and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE). In this study, the performance indexes were measured for acetylated beech, maple and radiata pine and compared with these obtained for the reference wood materials maple, mahogany, alder and ash. A non-destructive free-free flexural vibration test method was used at constant temperature (20oC) but in different humid conditions- dry (35% RH), standard (65% RH) and wet (85% RH). Dimensional changes in the different humid conditions were also taken in account. Acetylated wood showed lower EMC with higher dimensional stability at each humidity level as compared with the reference wood materials. These properties are considered important factors for making quality musical instruments. Based on the acoustical properties, acetylated wood materials, especially radiata pine, showed good potential for use for musical instruments where specific characteristics of sound are required. However, the other types of acetylated wood can also be used for specific musical instruments.

  • 353.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany ; Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Bastani, Alireza
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Gascón-Garrido, Patricia
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Militz, Holger
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adhesive bonding of beech wood modified with a phenol formaldehyde compound2012In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 897-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untreated (controls) and phenol–formaldehyde (PF)-modified beech wood (10 and 25 % solid content) were glued with phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). Shear strength of PRF-bonded specimens was higher than that of PVAc-bonded ones under dry and wet conditions irrespective of the pre-treatment. Under dry conditions, only PVAc-bonded specimens exhibited reduction in shear strength due to PF-modification with 25 % PF concentration as compared to the controls. PF treated wood provided inferior bonding under wet conditions with the exception of 25 % PF concentration specimens glued with PRF adhesive. Modification with PF resulted in a decrease of adhesive penetration into the porous network of interconnected cells, especially at 25 % PF concentration.

  • 354.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Birmpilis, D
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly.
    Use and properties of recovered paper raw materials for the production of corrugated board2015In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, Greece, 3-5 September 2015, Global NEST , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difficulty of predicting the properties of paper products produced from heterogeneous sources puts several limitations, which therefore lead to severe economic losses and only a comprehensive characterization will enable their better utilization. The project “RF-CORRUG –Quality control of raw materials from recovered fibres for the production of corrugated board”under the NationalStrategic Reference Framework 2007–2013 ARCHIMEDES IIIdeals with this common technical problem of the corrugated board industry. Specifically, the mainobjective of the project is to supportthe competitiveness of the corrugated board companies (mainly SMEs)by creatinga software tool based on practical models that can predict packaging grade paper properties from fibre data (qualitative, quantitative, morphological) used in their production. This paper presents information on the physical and mechanical properties of recovered packaging papers used in corrugated packaging. A number of different category papers (liners, flutings) used for corrugated board production in Greece were examined. The required paper properties included grammage, porosity, bursting strength, SCT, tensile strength and tearing resistance, and were measured by internationally recognized testersand standards. The data will be used to develop predictive models based on advanced statistical methods for the properties and performance of packagingaccording to information of their recovered raw paper materials.

  • 355.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Chavenetidou, Marina
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Span-to-depth ratio for shear free deformations in static bending of small wood specimens2011In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 429-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disregarding shear effects is a principal defect in predicting the bending strengths of small clear specimens of timber according to standards. The present study proposes a method to determine spans of 2 x 2 cm wood specimens of black locust and chestnut for shear free deformations in static bending. It was found that for both ring-porous species, spans of at least 40 cm in a bending test would ensure a negligible influence of shear on modulus of elasticity.

  • 356.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Chavenetidou, Marina
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Effect of cambium age and ring width on density and fibre length of black locust and chestnut wood2010In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between wood density (WD) and fibre length (FL) with cambium age (CA) and ring width (RW) was studied in two ring-porous species, black locust and coppice-grown chestnut, collected in the Sithonia Peninsula, Chalkidiki, Greece. Using regression analysis methods, models of WD and FL in relation to CA and RW were obtained. It was found that the effect of CA and RW on WD and FL was similar for both species examined. WD of black locust and chestnut was predicted better through a model using CA and RW. A model for FL variations was also obtained with CA and RW and was more accurate than the simple models based on the two factors, CA and RW, separately. The multiple regression models suggested that the use of cambial age of growth rings together with their width might explain better their effects on WD and FL of black locust and chestnut.

  • 357.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Foti, Dafni
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Manufacturing and properties of gypsum-based products with recovered wood and rubber materials2015In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 5573-5585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experimental production of gypsum-based products (cylindrical samples, solid bricks) using different fractions of wood chips and rubber particles was studied. Recovered rubber and wood materials were mixed with gypsum and water in various proportions to fabricate gypsum-wood and gypsum-rubber cylindrical samples and standard solid bricks with six holes using appropriate molds. It was shown that to manufacture gypsum-wood and gypsum-rubber products with good mechanical strength, coarse fractions of wood and rubber should be used, but the proportion of wood or rubber should not exceed 25%. No thermal conductivity differences were found between the wood-and rubber-type of gypsum products, and particle size and material proportion had no effect. Samples with fine wood and rubber particles present at a lower proportion (25%) exhibited similar sound absorption behavior. The solid bricks had slightly higher strength when loaded at the large surface of their lateral upper side than when loaded at the small surface. The bricks provided better thermal insulation than both the extruded and pressed house bricks but lower than that of insulating bricks. The emission of volatile organic compounds out of the bricks was at an acceptable level according to regulations for construction products.

  • 358.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Gellerich, A
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mantanis, G
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Kalaitzi, T
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Militz, H
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Resistance of Pinus leucodermis heartwood and sapwood against the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 242-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the decay resistance of Pinus leucodermis wood to the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Based upon the median weight losses of 30.65% for heartwood and of 34.68% for sapwood obtained in the biological tests, both the heartwood and sapwood material examined was classified as not durable (durability class 5) according to the CEN/TS 15083-1 classification. Total extractives were low, 3.93% in heartwood and 1.00% in sapwood, while lignin content was 22.60% and 25.41% in heartwoodand sapwood, respectively. It is highly recommended to use protective treatments before using P.leucodermis wood in outdoor conditions.

  • 359.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Tensile strength of handsheets prepared with macerated fibres from solid wood modified with cross-linking agents2015In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 959-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to explain the tensile strength loss of wood due to the modification with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Modified and control wood blocks were macerated to deliberate fibres, and handsheets were produced thereof. The nitrogen content of the fibres indicated that maceration removed the major proportions of DMDHEU. The stability of GA in wood during maceration was not assessed. Tensile strength determined at zero span (z-strength) and finite span (f-strength) was equal for the handsheets from DMDHEU-modified fibres and the control handsheets. The microscopic appearance of the tested finite-span paper strips from DMDHEU-modified fibres mainly indicated interfibre failure and did not differ from the fibre fracture mode of the control handsheets. In contrast, the z-strength of the handsheets from GA-modified fibres was lower than that of controls and decreased with increasing content of GA in the initial modified wood. The f-strength behaviour of the handsheets from GA-modified fibres was the opposite: it was higher than that of controls and increased with increasing GA content. The microscopic appearance of the rapture zones of the finite-span testing mainly indicated intrafibre failure for the GA-modified fibres. It was concluded that cross-linking is likely to be the major reason for tensile strength loss of GA- and DMDHEU-modified wood. In terms of DMDHEU-modified wood, the incrustation of the cell wall by the resin and the reduction in pliability could play an additional role.

  • 360.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Karageorgos, Anthony
    Passialis, Costas
    Chavenetidou, Marina
    Mathematical approach for defining juvenile-mature wood transition zone in black locust and chestnut2011In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, no 3, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article defines age of transition from juvenile to mature wood in two ring-porous species, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). A logistic function was proposed using fiber length and ring width data of three black locust trees, aged 35-37 yr, and five chestnut coppice trees, aged 25-27 yr, from Sithonia Peninsula, Chalkidiki, Greece. The approach proved to be practical and objective in delineating maturity zones, and it was based on rate of change of yearly fiber length. The juvenile wood zone spread to the sixth growth ring from the pith in both species, whereas the demarcation of juvenile and mature wood was at age 12 and 14 yr in chestnut and black locust, respectively. Transition zone width comprised rings 7-12 in chestnut and rings 7-14 in black locust.

  • 361.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Karageorgos, Anthony
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Rapti, Elli
    Center for Research and Technology – Hellas (CERTH), Greece .
    Birbilis, Dimitris
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Predicting the Properties of Corrugated Base Papers Using Multiple Linear Regression and  Artificial Neural Networks2016In: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 59, no 198, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difficulty in predicting the properties and behaviour of paper products produced using heterogeneous raw materials with high percentages of recovered fibres poses restrictions on their efficient and effective use as corrugated packaging materials. This work presents predictive models for the mechanical properties of corrugated base papers (liner and fluting-medium) from fibre and physical property data using multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks. The most significant results were obtained for the prediction of the tensile strength of liners in the cross direction from the origin (wood type, pulp method) of the fibres using linear regression, and the prediction of the compressive strength of fluting-medium in the longitudinal (machine) direction, according to the short-span test, using a neural network with one hidden layer with 6 neurons, with coefficients of determination at 95.14% and 99.28%, respectively

  • 362.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Karastergiou, Sotirios
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Foti, Dafni
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Filippou, Vasileios
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    ΑΝΑΚΤΗΣΗ ΞΥΛΟΤΕΜΑΧΙΔΙΩΝ ΑΠΟ ΑΠΟΣΥΡΟΜΕΝΕΣ ΜΟΡΙΟΠΛΑΚΕΣ ΜΕ ΥΔΡΟ-ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΕΣ ΜΕΘΟΔΟΥΣ: [ Chips recovered from waste particleboards by hydro-mechanical methods ]2017In: ΠΡΑȀΤǿȀΑ : 18ου Πανελλήνιου Δασολογικού Συνεδρίου : “Η Ελληνική Δασοπονία μπροστά σε σημαντικές προκλήσεις: αειφορική διαχείριση δασών, δασικοί χάρτες, περιβαλλοντικές τεχνολογίες – δικτύωση και προστασία φυσικού περιβάλλοντος”: & International Workshop : “Information Technology, Sustainable Development, Scientific Network & Nature Protection” : 8-11 Οκτωβρίου 2017, ΕΔΕΣΣΑ ΠΕȁȁΑΣ, Περιοχή Βαρόσι, Hellenic Forestry Society , 2017, p. 349-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was studied the recovery of wood chips from waste particleboards by immersion in water at ambient temperature and by mechanical treatment (agitation and impact, waterblasting). Four different categories of waste particleboards were used, with and without coating, after their reduction in smaller pieces with dimensions of about 7 × 8 cm.  The investigated methods were: (I) immersion for 3 days-impregnation with vacuum and pressure-agitation and impact (II) immersion for 7 days-drying-rewetting for 12 hours-agitation and impact (III) immersion for 3 days-waterblasting. The maximum thickness swelling (about 90%) was achieved by immersing the particleboards in the water for 3 days, and therefore the vacuum and pressure impregnation step can be omitted in practice. Recovery of wood chips was significantly higher (51.54%) in the case of successive wetting and drying cycles compared to simple immersion in water (17.32%). Both these methods I and II, involving agitation and impact for recovering wood chips from waste particleboards, are easily applicable at the industry. Method III with waterblasting resulted in complete recovery of wood chips within a very short time, but its application requires more research

  • 363.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Koch, Gerald
    Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Wood structure and topochemistry of Juniperus excelsa2011In: IAWA Journal, ISSN 0928-1541, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood structure and topochemical distribution of lignin and phenolic extractives in Juniperus excelsa Bieb. were investigated using a mature specimen, aproximately 80 years of age, from the Rhodope mountains, Greece. The wood of J. excelsa was found to possess the same qualitative anatomical features as those reported for other Juniperus species of the Western Hemisphere. Quantitative anatomical characteristics recorded for mature wood (heartwood and sapwood) included earlywood and latewood tracheid length, double wall thickness of earlywood and latewood tracheids, lumen diameter of earlywood tracheids and ray height. Scanning UV microspectrophotometry revealed a pronounced lignification of J. excelsa tracheids with detected absorbance values of the secondary cell wall layers being much higher in comparison to all other softwoods studied using this technique. The cell corners and compound middle lamellae were characterised by relative high UV absorbance values as compared to the S2 layers. The phenolic compounds deposited in the axial and ray parenchyma cells possessed higher absorbance values than cell wall associated lignins and had a different spectral behaviour due to the presence of chromophoric groups. According to the obtained UV absorbance spectra, more condensed phenolic compounds were deposited in the heartwood than in the sapwood.

  • 364.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Mai, C
    From wood fibre modification to paper technology: properties of fibres modified with DMDHEU and glutaraldehyde2011In: 3rd biennial International Fibre Engineering Conference, 24 – 26 May, Barcelona, Spain, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 365.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    AIDIMA, Spain.
    Martinez, E
    AIDIMA, Spain.
    Ramirez, D.
    AIDIMA, Spain.
    Characterization of packaging grade papers from recycled raw materials through the study of fibre morphology and composition2007In: Global NEST. International Journal, ISSN 1108-4006, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restrictions in availability of forest-based raw materials along with favourable environmental policies towards alternative sources of raw materials have forced corrugated packaging industry to shift towards recycled paper and other fibre sources such as non-wood and agro-residues. The variability in raw pulp materials with increasing percentages of recycled fibres is a very common technical problem for the corrugated packaging industry worldwide. Corrugating packaging production is facing the challenge to ensure a satisfactory strength of packages despite the increase of recycled paper as the main fibrous component. Sustainable manufacturing of papers of consistent and acceptable quality requests comprehensive characterization of the fibrous components, which are becoming more heterogeneous. Understanding the influence that heterogeneous recycled raw materials have on packaging grade paper properties offers great potential value to the corrugated board and packaging industry.

    57 linerboards and corrugating medium were selected to represent all the variety of paper grades available on the market at the moment for the production of corrugated board in Spain. The papers were analyzed for their fibre morphology (fibre length, fibre width, lumen diameter, cell wall width and flexibility) and fibre composition (softwood to hardwood and nonwood fibre count and weight) and their strength (compression, bursting and crushing resistance) was evaluated. All the determinations were in accordance with the relevant TAPPI Test Methods. The significant differences found in most of the anatomical characteristics, fibre composition and strength properties among the paper grades reflected the diverse raw materials used for their production as well as their qualitative differences. By means of simple correlation the influence of fibre characteristics and composition on the strength of the papers was determined under two different conditions, at 23 o C and 50% RH and at 20 o C and 90% RH.

    The results demonstrate that besides the physical-mechanical characterization of packaging grade papers, fibre anatomy and composition can be used successfully as a complementary practical test to predict the performance of papers. The application of the predicting correlations is proposed for the evaluation of the fibre supplies for the packaging industry. An enormous potential for cost reduction can be created by the selection of the most appropriate and inexpensive combination of grade papers for a specific packaging use

  • 366. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Mertinez, E
    Ramirez, D
    Characterization of packaging grade papers from recycled raw materials through the study of fibre morphology and composition2005In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology: Rhodes, Rhodes Island, Greece, 1 - 3 September 2005 ; Volume of Abstracts / [ed] University of the Aegean, 2005, Vol. A, p. 18-25Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 367. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Milios, E
    Brutia pine wood properties from young reforestations2007In: / [ed] M. Ispas, 2007, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 368.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Milios, E.
    Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
    Doganos, D.
    Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
    Bistinas, I.
    Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
    Ring width, latewood proportion and dry density in stems of Pinus brutia Ten2009In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 471-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined basic characteristics of stem wood produced in Pinus brutia Ten. reforestations in Northeastern Greece. Sixteen dominant trees growing at good and medium site qualities were felled at 14–22 years. Site quality classification was based on site quality surrogates and confirmed by using site index curves that were created for a neighbouring area. Discs were taken at three stem positions (base, middle, top) to study variations in ring width, latewood proportion and dry density. Generally, at both good and medium sites, ring width was found to increase towards the top of the stems while latewood proportion and dry density showed a negative relationship with stem height. Radial variability trends were similar at all heights, and at both sites, revealing a rapid increase for ring width in the first 3–6 annual rings followed by a decrease towards the bark, a gradual increase for latewood proportion and no specific change for dry density. Comparisons between wood material produced during the same growth period (2005–2001) showed statistically significant differences among sampling heights in all cases except for dry density in medium sites. At the base of the stems, mean ring width and dry density were significantly (P ≤0.05) higher at good sites (3.6 mm and 0.53 g/cm3) than at medium sites (3.0 mm and 0.50 g/cm3). However, the differences between the sites are of small magnitude and therefore have limited practical impact on wood processing. The availability of such data is useful in utilising small-dimension timber of brutia pine.

  • 369.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Karditsa, Greece.
    Oliver, José-Vicente
    AIDIMA, Spain.
    Fiber composition of packaging grade papers as determined by the Graff “C” staining test2006In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 567-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fiber components of 15 representative papers that are used for the production of corrugated board was carried out by the Graff "C" staining test. The method of processing of softwood, hardwood, and nonwood fibers was determined under a light microscope by their color reactions with the stain. All papers, due to the use of recycled pulp raw materials in their manufacturing, were found to incorporate in their furnish fibers that had been produced with a variety of pulping processes: chemical, mechanical, and semi-mechanical. The recycled-based papers (recycled-liner and recycled-medium) were proved to be the most variable comprising 12-15 different fiber components, while in some of the semi-chemicals only up to 7 components were identified. The weight percentages of the fiber components calculated by the application of weight factors showed that in almost all papers the most important fiber component from a quantitative standpoint was hardwood unbleached kraft followed by softwood unbleached kraft. Besides hardwood unbleached semi-chemical pulp and mechanical softwood pulp that were also plentiful in the papers, there was a smaller number of other components which sum, however, accounted for a significant fraction in the total furnish weight. The results taken on the total softwood, hardwood, and nonwood fibers content of the papers demonstrate that Graff "C" staining test is adequate to analyze both the structure and quality of packaging grade papers in practical industrial testing.

  • 370.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
    Oliver, José-Vicente
    AIDIMA, Spain.
    Qualitative and quantitative fibre analysis in recycled raw materials for packaging2006In: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 58-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the influence that heterogeneous recycled raw materials have on packaging-grade paper performance offers great potential value to the corrugated board and packaging industry. Fifty-seven linerboards and corrugating medium were selected to represent all the variety of paper grades available on the Spanish market at the moment for the production of corrugated board. The origin of softwood, hardwood, and nonwood fibers and their percentages by weight were determined with light microscopy and standard fiber analysis techniques.

  • 371. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Passialis, C
    Voulgaridis, E
    Prediction of bending and shear strength properties by using nondestructive parameters in fir and black locust2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 372.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Passialis, C
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, E
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Oliver, JV
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain.
    Grammage and structural density as quality indexes of packaging grade papers manufactured from recycled pulps2014In: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 57, no 191, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrugated packaging production is currently facing the challenge to ensure a satisfactory strength of packaging despite the continuous increase in recycled paper as the main fibrous component. This research addresses a very common technical problem for the corrugated board industry – the difficulty of predicting the properties of paper products produced from heterogeneous sources. Grammage and structural density, being easily available data, were examined as quality parameters of the most common categories of packaging paper in Europe. Grammage, ranging from 100 to 225 g/m2, has been found to be a dominant parameter for estimating the strength properties of paper.

  • 373.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Relationship of the toughness and the modulus of elasticity in static bending of small clear spruce wood specimens2010In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 109-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike static bending, toughness is a mechanical property less commonly measured in clear wood. The paper presents results on the relationship of toughness and modulus of elasticity in static bending based on DIN standard tests on small, clear specimens of spruce, 2×2 cm2 in cross section.

  • 374. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Passialis, Costas
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Fibre characteristics of papers used in European corrugated packaging industry2009In: ATIP. Association Technique de L'Industrie Papetiere, ISSN 0997-7554, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 375. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Passialis, Costas
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Fibre characteristics of papers used in European corrugated packaging industry2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 376.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Ring width, latewood proportion and density relationships in black locust wood of different origins and clones2010In: IAWA Journal, ISSN 0928-1541, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional discs were cut at breast height from 19 black locust trees aged 18–39 years of different clones and origin (Greece, Bulgaria and Hungarian clones J, U and NY). Ring width, latewood proportion and dry density were measured according to standard laboratory techniques in order to examine their relationships. Latewood proportion was found to increase (except for one tree from Bulgaria) with increasing ring width and logarithmic equations were calculated with relatively high correlation coefficients. A positive relation between dry density and latewood proportion was found in black locust of Bulgarian origin and in the Hungarian clone NY while in all other cases no meaningful relationship was observed. In mature wood, improved positive linear correlations were observed between dry density and latewood proportion with the exception of the Hungarian clone U. Regression analysis revealed low correlations between dry density and ring width and only black locust from Bulgaria had a high positive correlation. The positive correlations between dry density and ring width were slightly improved in mature wood with the exception of clone J from Hungary.

  • 377.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Karditsa, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Technological Educational Institute of Karditsa, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Strength properties of juvenile and mature wood in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)2007In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 241-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was undertaken to investigate the strength properties of juvenile and mature wood in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Wood specimens were prepared from various stem heights, up to 9 m, of five naturally-grown black locust trees, 21-37 years old. Mechanical properties tested included moduli of rupture (MOR) and elasticity (MOE), and pure modulus of elasticity (PMOE) in static bending, stress wave modulus of elasticity (SWMOE) in dynamic strength, axial compression, and toughness. Comparisons between juvenile and mature wood specimens of similar densities (0.667-0.894 g/cm3 and 0.682-0.892 g/cm3, respectively) showed that juvenile wood had a statistically significant lower mean MOR (138.78 N/mm2), MOE (13,936 N/mm2), PMOE (18,125 N/mm2), SWMOE (16,813 N/mm2) and toughness strength (155.25 KJ/m2) than the mature wood (148.29 N/mm2, 14,747 N/mm2, 19,498 N/mm2, 17,635 N/mm2 and 181.27 KJ/m2, respectively). On the contrary, no statistically significant differences were found for the mean strength in axial compression among juvenile (63.75 N/mm2) and mature wood (66.65 N/mm2). Fractured surfaces of juvenile and mature wood specimens in static bending and toughness were classified into the "splintering tension" type of failure, while compression failures were of the "shearing type" according to ASTM D 143-83 standards. Lower strength of juvenile wood in most of the properties examined may be attributed to anatomical and chemical properties rather than density of wood specimens. The adverse influence of juvenile wood on strength properties should be considered for effective management (e.g. longer rotation age and other genetic and forest or plantation management measures that reduce juvenile wood content) and utilization of the species.

  • 378.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Moustaizis, Stavros
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Kortsalioudakis, Nathanail
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Petrakis, Panagiotis
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Karastergiou, Sotirios
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Foti, Dafni
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Koutsianitis, Dimitrios
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Voulgaridou, Eleni
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Effect of laser drilling on mechanical properties of fir (Abies borisii regis) and spruce (Picea excelsa) wood2014In: Wood Structure, Properties and Quality – 2014: 5th RCCWS International Symposium, Moscow State University Press, 2014, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fir and spruce wood specimens, 2×2 cm in cross section and 34 cm long, were pre-pared with true radial and tangential surfaces. All lateral surfaces of the wood specimens were drilled by laser beams to a depth of 0,4 cm (1/5 of specimen thickness) with two drilling pat-terns (distance between holes 1 × 1 cm and 1 × 2 cm). After drilling, static bending (MOR, MOE), axial compression strength and toughness were determined and compared with non-drilled control specimens. The effects of the two laser drilling patterns on mechanical proper-ties of fir and spruce wood specimens were measured and assessed. The results showed that the two drilling patterns created by laser beams on all lateral surfaces of fir and spruce wood specimens at 0,4 mm depth did not practically affect the mechanical properties of wood.

  • 379. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Passialis, Costas
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Oliver, JV
    Utilization of recycled fibre materials in the European corrugated packaging industrial sector2008In: 2nd International Conference on Engineering for Waste Valorisation WasteEng08, June 3-5, Patras, Greece, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 380.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sjöberg, Samuel
    Relationship between ultrasonic velocity and spiral grain in standing hybrid aspen trees2016In: Proceedings of the Hardwood Conference, Eco-efficient Resource Wood with Special Focus on Hardwoods, 8-9 September, 2016, Sopron, Sopron: University of West Hungary Press , 2016, p. 22-23Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 381. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Voulgaridis, E
    Impregnation of timber and regulations applied to preservation practice in Greece1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of wood preservation in Greece was started about 80 years ago and refer to creosote-treated timber used in ground contact (i.e. railway sleepers, poles). At present, three creosote impregnation plants and thirteen CCA or CCB units exist in Greece treating about 90.000 m3 of wood per year. Most of the research on wood preservation has been carried out in the last 15-20 years and refer to the application of creosote and water soluble preservatives (CCA, CCB) to native wood species. However, research on a number of specific topics of wood impregnation is lacking. Impregnation of wood is of great importance for Greece, a country with great wood deficit, and, for this reason, the elongation of wood durability is strongly desirable. On the other hand, the environmentally safe impregnation of timber and the use of preservatives in a non-hazardous manner to humans or animals are gaining an increasing importance. There are some national and EU regulations applied to the use of preservatives, while the Greek Organization of Standardization (ELOT) is responsible for approving European standards. The organizations of Greek Telecommunication, Electricity and Railway apply their own standards.

  • 382. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Voulgaridis, E
    Passialis, C
    Morphology and identification of fibre furnish components of papers used in the production of corrugated board2013In: Celuloza Si Harti, ISSN 1220-9848Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 383.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Dimensional changes of extracted and non-extracted small wood specimens of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)2003In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 264-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From straight grained heartwood of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), specimens, 3 cm×3 cm in cross section and 0.5 mm (or 10 mm) in axial direction, were cut and used for the determination of dimensional changes and the rate of tangential swelling. Mean radial, tangential and axial shrinkage was 5.30%, 6.67% and 0.16%, respectively, while the coefficient of anisotropy was 1.26. Half of the specimens for the determination of the rate of tangential swelling were extracted for 48 h with distilled hot water. The tangential dimensional change and the time taken to attain half maximum swelling in air-dry and oven-dry specimens were assessed according to a common technique. Extractive removal resulted in an increase of the total magnitude of tangential swelling in both air-dry and oven-dry specimens. However, no significant differences in time taken to attain half maximum swelling between air-dry and oven-dry specimens were observed after extraction. The rate of tangential swelling was lower in air-dry specimens than in oven-dry specimens after 30 min of immersion in water when were non-extracted and after 5 min of immersion in water when were extracted. Extracted air-dry specimens had a greater rate of tangential swelling than non-extracted air-dry specimens and the same occurred for oven-dry specimens. Extraction resulted in a higher diffusion coefficient for air-dry specimens. The diffusion coefficient calculated for non-extracted air-dry specimens (0.901×10−4 cm2/min) showed that black locust is a difficult species to impregnate.

  • 384.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Effect of hot-water extractives on water sorption and dimensional changes of black locust wood2012In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hygroscopicity and the dimensional changes of black locust heartwood were investigated in relation to the progressive removal of hot-water extractives. Extraction in the original specimen form removed only part of the total 8.434 % hot-water extractives, 3.601 % in first extraction and 4.642 % in second extraction. As a result, the adsorption and desorption behaviour of black locust wood was little affected by the extraction and only a small increase was observed in dimensional changes at every RH from 0 % to 97 %. The mean hysteresis coefficient was also little affected by extraction and increased from 0.75 at the unextracted stage to 0.77 at the second extraction. The initial dimensional change 3.76 % of unextracted black locust wood corresponding to RH changes between 43 % and 80 % increased after the first and second extraction to the respective values of 3.96 % and 3.97 %. Extraction had no effect on the significant, very strong linear relationships between swelling or shrinkage and equilibrium moisture content (EMC).

  • 385.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Aristotelian University, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotelian University, Greece.
    Within-tree variation in growth rate and cell dimensions in the wood of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)2002In: IAWA Journal, ISSN 0928-1541, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is regarded as an important natural resource almost throughout the world but relatively little is known about the within-tree variability of the anatomical characteristics of its wood. Discs 2 cm thick were cut at 2.25 m intervals, from the ground level to the top from ten black locust trees, 18–37-years-old, from the University Forest of Taxiarchi, Chalkidiki, Greece. The discs were used for the determination of growth rate and cell dimensions (fiber length and vessel member length and diameter) and their withintree variability (radial, oblique, vertical). Growth rate increased within the first 5–9 growth rings from the pith and then gradually decreased. Oblique variation of growth rate did not exhibit any clear tendency but a decrease at the top. In the case of vertical variation, growth rate decreased gradually with the year of cambium formation. Radial variability curves were found to be typical for the dimensions of cells (fibers, vessel members) especially for the fiber length. A rapid increase in cell dimensions was observed in the first 7–11 growth rings, the juvenile zone. Oblique and vertical variation of cell dimensions did not exhibit any clear tendencies.

  • 386.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Ποιότητα και μεταβλητότητα της δομής του ξύλουσε σχέση με την αξιοποίησή του: [Quality and variability of wood structure in relation to its utilization]2012In: Το Δάσος: Μια Ολοκληρωμένη Προσέγγιση: [The forest: An integrated approach] / [ed] Aristotélis Papageorgíou, Geórgios Karétsos, Geórgios Katsadorákis, WWF Greece , 2012, p. 213-227Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 387. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Passialis, C.
    Wood quality characteristics of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia  L.)2001In: Forest Research - New Series, Vol. 14, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 388.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    CARACTERISTICILE MATERIALULUI FIBROS ŞI PROPRIETĂŢILEHÂRTIEI RECICLATE FOLOSITE ÎN FABRICAREA CARTONULUIONDULAT: Morphology and identification of fibre furnish components of papers used in the production of corrugated board2013In: 7th International Symposium on Advanced Technologies for the Pulp, Paper and Corrugated Board Industry, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacture of corrugated board containers (boxes, trays, etc.) involves a productionchain integrated by paper manufacturers, semi-elaborates (corrugated board) manufacturers andcontainer manufacturers, the majority of which in Europe are SMEs. Nowadays, corrugated boardcontainers are mostly manufactured with recovered paper. The greatest threat faced by thementioned production chain is related to the lack of quality and availability of recovered paper asraw material. Specifically, one of the most important properties of packaging paper is itsmechanical strength, which depends mostly on the length of the fibres of which paper iscomposed. These fibres are longer in virgin pulps (those coming from papers obtained fromwood, i.e. not yet recycled). However, the high pressure on the demand - as well as the currenteconomic and ecological restrictions in the use of forest based materials - has led to a situation inwhich very little quantity of virgin fibre enters the recycling chain. This means that the strengthquality of recycled fibres - and by extension of the papers - is constantly decreasing with the ongoingrecycling cycles. In addition, recovered paper presents a very high variability, whatconstitutes an obstacle when it comes to manufacturing containers having homogeneousproperties fixed by the customers at fixed costs. The difficulty of predicting the properties ofpaper products produced from heterogeneous sources puts several limitations, which thereforelead to severe economic losses and only a comprehensive characterization will enable their betterutilization. The project “RF-CORRUG – Quality control of raw materials from recovered fibresfor the production of corrugated board” under the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007–2013 ARCHIMEDES III deals with this common technical problem of the corrugated boardindustry. Specifically, the main objective of the project is to support the competitiveness of thecorrugated board companies (mainly SMEs) by creating a software tool based on practical modelsthat can predict packaging grade paper properties from fibre data (qualitative, quantitative, morphological) used in their production. This papers presents information on fibres (qualitativeand quantitative analysis, morphology) and packaging papers (physical and mechanicalproperties) used in corrugated packaging. A number of different category papers (liners, flutings) used for corrugated board production in Greece were examined. The main fibre characterizingtechniques, employed were fibre furnish analysis, morphological analysis of fibre, lightmicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, zero span tensile test was done tomeasure the average fibre strength of fibre. The required paper properties were measured byinternationally recognized testers and standards. The data will be used to develop predictivemodels based on advanced statistical methods for the properties and performance of packagingpapers according to information of their fibres.

  • 389.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Gypsum-based bricks (WoodRub BRICKS) manufactured from recovered wood and rubber2014In: Performance and maintenance of biobased building materials influencing the life cycle and LCA / [ed] Andreja Kutnar, Miha Humar, Michael Burnard, Mojca Žlahtič, Dennis Jones, 2014, p. 33-34Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 390.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Greece.
    Recycled Waste Paper and the Corrugated Packaging Industry in Europe2009In: Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management: Philadelphia, PA USA, March 15-18, 2009, 2009, p. 400-411Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 391.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Variation of certain chemical properties within the stemwood of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)2005In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 327-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the bottom, middle, and top of three mature 35 to 37-year old black locust tree discs were cut and analysed to determine the variation within the stem of certain chemical properties. Hot-water extractive content was greater in heartwood than in sapwood, while the reverse occurred for the dichloromethane extractive content. Vertical stem analysis of hot-water extractives showed that they increased in heartwood but decreasedin sapwood from the bottom to the top of the stems while the reversal occurred for dichloromethane extractive content of sapwood. At the bottom and the middle of the stems, ash content was greater in sapwood than in heartwood, but at the top no difference was found between heartwood and sapwood. Ash content of both heartwood and sapwood was found to increase in the axial direction with respective values of 0.36% (bottom) and 0.76% (top) for heartwood and of 0.65% (bottom) and 0.76% (top) for sapwood. Ash analysis showed that considerable variations were found for the inorganic elements K and P being greater in sapwood than in heartwood. Heartwood was more acid than sapwood except for the top of the stems. Acidity mean values were found to increase from the bottom to the top of the stems in heartwood while they slightly decreased in sapwood. Total buffering capacity of heartwood was greater than that of sapwood and total buffering capacity of sapwood exhibited an inverse relationship to height. Very small acid equivalent values were determined only in sapwood. At the bottom, lignin content in heartwood (25.73%) was greater than in sapwood (18.13%). Lignin content of heartwood decreased from 25.73% at the bottom to 18.33% at the top, while that of sapwood was 18.13% at the bottom, 21.42% at the middle and 19.64% at the top.

  • 392.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Wood recycling in Europe2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, waste wood is a valuable secondary raw material that can cover much of the wood-based panel industry's needs and a major source of renewable energy. The various categories of waste wood are described in European legislation and standards but in practice mostly followed industry practices relating to the purchase, classification and use of recovered wood. The European Panel Federation (EPF) proposes a three category classification system: untreated wood, non-hazardous treated wood, hazardous waste wood. The traditional practice of recycling in industry included mechanical handling of waste wood while new improved methods involve hydrothermal treatments. Of the total approximately 30 million cubic meters of recovered wood in Europe 38% is recycled, 34% is used for energy production and 28% ends up in landfills or composting. In the future recovered wood is expected to play an increasingly important role in the sustainability of wood-based panel industries as well as for the protection of the environment, and therefore new technologies are needed to fully explore this valuable resource.

  • 393.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Edicational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Beaver, Tim
    Composites & Textiles Pera, UK.
    Bouras, Takis
    ELKEDE Technology & Design Centre S.A., Greece.
    Properties of Microwave heat treated oak wood and impregnated with soybean oil2011In: Program & Book of Abstracts: Workshop, “Mechano-Chemical transformations of wood during Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical processing” / [ed] Parviz Navi, Andreas Roth, 2011, p. 145-145Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents selected data on physical and mechanical properties, and gluing behaviour of microwave heat treated wood and impregnated with natural oils.

  • 394.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Education Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Wimmer, Rupert
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Milios, Elias
    Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
    Tracheid length – growth relationships of young Pinus brutia grown on reforestation sites2012In: IAWA Journal, ISSN 0928-1541, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brutia pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) reforestations have been successfully used for decades in restoration of degraded forest ecosystems in Greece. The future purpose of these reforestations might expand to include wood utilisation. This study provides information on tracheid length of juvenile brutia pine aged 14–22 years grown on good and medium sites in Northeastern Greece. In addition, relationships among ring width, latewood proportion, wood density, and tracheid length were evaluated by using Causal Correlation Analysis. Similar mean tracheid length values were found for good and medium sites. Radial variability of tracheid length was similar on the good and medium sites, showing the typical increase in the juvenile phase. On both site types, latewood proportion showed a strong and positive relationship with wood density. Unexpectedly and only on the good sites, a significant positive relationship was found between ring width and wood density. On the medium sites, tracheid length was negatively related to fast growth and positively to high wood density. Tracheid length on the good sites was correlated only with latewood proportion with a weak positive relationship. The overall results may provide opportunities to better understand the quality of small-dimension timber of brutia pine and to better utilise it.

  • 395.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Goettingen, Germany ; Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Xie, Yanjun
    Georg-August-University Goettingen, Germany.
    Militz, Holger
    Georg-August-University Goettingen, Germany.
    Distribution of blue stain in untreated and DMDHEU treated Scots pine sapwood panels after six years of outdoor weathering2011In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 333-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface coating and bulk treatment of wood are two effective measures which can, individually or conjointly, protect exterior wood from deterioration. This paper reports on the blue stain attack in coated wood, untreated and modified with DMDHEU, after six years of natural exposure.

  • 396.
    Adamou, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Ntoka, Lamprini
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    The impact of Digital Technologies on Academic Libraries: a study in Greece2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores both library users’ and librarians’ experiences, benefits, and challenges depending on the implementation of digital technologies in academic libraries. The research has been taken place in two Greek academic libraries; In the Panteion University Library and in the Central Library of T.E.I. of Athens.Approach: Two research questions were developed for this research to be conducted and a sample size of 55 respondents (39 library users and 16 librarians) of the Panteion University Library and Central Library of T.E.I. of Athens, was evaluated.Findings: From the findings of the study, it was concluded that the general perception of both library users and librarians towards digital material and E-resources and services of the Panteion University Library and Central Library of T.E.I. of Athens, is satisfactory. Library users were satisfied with the convenience of digital material, the availability of E-resources provided by both academic libraries such as World Wide Web, WIFI, and online databases. They were not satisfied with library technology (i.e., computers) and library staff. Besides, results showed that services such as e-mail and Open Public Access Catalogue were used more often. Librarians were less satisfied with the digital library system, the limited personnel, and the financial funds for academic libraries in general.Implication: The results of this research have implications in the stakeholders of an academic library including the institutional management, the library administration, the librarians, the library users, the researchers, the community at large, and others.Value: This paper identifies critical issues related to the utilization of digital technologies and digital material; their benefits and challenges faced by librarians and library users as well as their effective operation from academic libraries in this information age.

  • 397.
    Adams, Marc A.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Ding, Ding
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Sallis, James F.
    University of California, USA.
    Bowles, Heather R.
    National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Ainsworth, Barbara E.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bull, Fiona C.
    The University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Carr, Harriette
    Ministry of Health, New Zealand.
    Craig, Cora L.
    School of Public Health, Canada.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Fernando Gomez, Luis
    Hagstromer, Maria
    Klasson-Heggebo, Lena
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Lefevre, Johan
    Macfarlane, Duncan J.
    Matsudo, Sandra
    Matsudo, Victor
    McLean, Grant
    Murase, Norio
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Tomten, Heidi
    Volbekiene, Vida
    Bauman, Adrian
    Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants' response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. Methods: A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5 +/- 12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U. S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10-15 minutes walk of participants' residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants' response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. Results: A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, "Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)", "High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)", "Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)", "Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)", and "Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)". Country representation differed by type (e. g., U. S. disproportionally represented "Safe but Activity Unsupportive"). Compared to the Safe but Activity Unsupportive, two types showed greater odds of meeting PA guideline for walking outcome (High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities, OR=2.26 (95% CI 1.18-4.31); Overall Activity Supportive, OR=1.90 (95% CI 1.13-3.21). Significant but smaller odds ratios were also found for total PA. Conclusions: Meaningful neighborhood patterns generalized across countries and explained practical differences in PA. These observational results support WHO/UN recommendations for programs and policies targeted to improve features of the neighborhood environment for PA.

  • 398.
    Adams, Nathalie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Chyssler, Louise
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Tourism in Mexico: More than Tacos and Tequila?: A Case Study on CSR Strategies of Swedish and Mexican Tour Operators in Mexico 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether tour operators work with CSR within their organizations in Mexico, and describe how they implement it as well as why they work with it. Furthermore, the paper will analyze similarities and differences between the Swedish and Mexican tour operator’s CSR strategies as well as the reasons for this. Lastly, recommendations will be made to the Mexican tour operators on how they can gain knowledge from Swedish tour operators on CSR strategies and the development of these.The theoretical framework contains descriptions of theories on strategy, competitive advantage, the CSR Pyramid, stakeholder theory as well as CSR in the context of developing countries, which are all relevant theories for the issue studied as well as for answering the research questions. The empirical findings that have been collected through interviews with two Swedish, and two Mexican tour operators address the respective tour operator’s work with CSR in Mexico.In the analysis the theoretical framework has been put in relation to the empirical evidence. The analysis consists of how and why CSR activities are implemented in the respective organization. It also addresses the difficulties tour operators from developed countries face when implementing CSR on destinations in developing countries.Lastly, our conclusions show that there are several ways of implementing CSR in developing countries, as well as different views on why taking social responsibility within the tourism industry is important. Moreover, the main reason for this divergence lies in different perspectives, which has also been shown to be a contributing factor to the challenges faced by Swedish tour operators in the context of a developing country.In the end of the thesis recommendations will be made to Mexican firms on how to develop, and implement CSR strategies more successfully as well as recommendations for further research within the field of CSR in developing countries.

  • 399.
    Adamska, Joanna
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Karcz, Kamila
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Liu, Rongzhi
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    How to survive as an expatriate in China2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of foreign direct investment in China has resulted in the presence of a number of Western expatriates working in Sino–foreign joint ventures. These expatriate managers have to make things work in absolutely new settings. Therefore, without cross-cultural trainings, they may have very stressful experience in China. Understanding of the Chinese culture and Chinese society may ultimately save much frustration and money. With our thesis therefore we would like to explore how companies manage training processes before sending expatriates to China, and prepare them for further knowledge transfer to the employees in China. This has lead us to the following research question: “How do the Western companies manage process of sending expatriates to China?”

    The research is based on the experiences of three companies: IKEA, Texol Technical Solutions and NCR and demonstrates possible means that can be engaged by the companies to facilitate adjustment processes of their expatriates in China. The empirical data were gathered from interviews with managers from the mentioned companies. In order to analyze our empirical findings we present literature that was structured as follows: Training in the international context, training in the Chinese context and communication between expatriate and local employees. Both the literature review as well as our empirical data with analysis aspire to provide the reader with an in depth study of the importance of the selection of the right candidates and the provision of trainings, as it can help both to understand the unique Chinese cultural and business characteristics environment as well as effectively and efficiently to operate in China.

    In our conclusions we present our findings regarding the following issues: support for the expatriates; training of the Chinese employees and importance of communication. Based on our analysis we introduce our recommendations for the three companies, including: Selection of the right candidates, presence of action plans, motivation and incentives, trainings, contact with the company and other expatriates during the assignment and importance of repatriation.

  • 400.
    Adamsson, Philip
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Petersson, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Användarens roll vid prestationsmätning för miljö: En fallstudie på Växjö kommun2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The user's role in Environmental Performance Measurement- A case study on Växjö municipality

    Background: Increased awareness of the environment in society, growing public pressure and more regulations have affected public organisation's efforts in the environmental field. The result of this effort is that environmental performance measurements have been implemented from the private sector so that public organisations can demonstrate improvements and make evaluations of their work on environmental issues. However, researchers argue that collecting information about performance is not enough, the information also needs to be used in the organisation. Therefore it became interesting to study how public sector managers use information from Environmental performance measurements and why the information is used.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse how managers at Växjö municipality use information from Environmental Performance Measurements and explain why the information is used. In addition, the study aims at providing improvement proposals that support Växjö municipality's work on Environmental Performance Measurement.

    Methods: This study is a qualitative case study with Växjö municipality as the case. In collecting data, qualitative interviews have been conducted, but data is also collected through internal documents, such as Växjö municipality's Environmental Program

    Results and conclusions: The study's results shows that managers at Växjö municipality mainly use information from Environmental Performance Measurements for internal purposes, although some managers are more likely to use information than others. The study's results also shows that the work on environmental Performance Measurement can be further developed.

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