lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
5678910 351 - 400 of 483
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 351.
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University.
    Estimating 'gamma' for tail-hedge discount rates when project returns are cointegrated with GDP2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 37, p. 4074-4085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Weitzman has suggested a method for calculating social discount rates for long-term investments when project returns are covariant with consumption or other macroeconomic variables, so-called tail-hedge discounting'. This method relies on a parameter called real project gamma' that measures the proportion of project returns that is covariant with the macroeconomic variable. We compare two approaches for estimation of this gamma when the project returns and the macroeconomic variable are cointegrated. First, we use Weitzman's own approach, and second a simple data transformation that keeps gamma within the zero to one interval. In a Monte-Carlo study, we show that the method of using a standardized series is better and robust under different data-generating processes. Both approaches are examined in a Monte-Carlo experiment and applied to Swedish time-series data from 1950-2011 for annual time-series data for rail freight (a measure of returns from rail investments) and GDP.

  • 352.
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karagrigoriou, A.
    Univ Aegean, Greece.
    Strelec, L.
    Mendel Univ Brno, Czech Republic.
    Jordanova, P.
    Shumen Univ, Bulgaria.
    Hermann, P.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Kiselak, J.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria;PJ Safarik Univ Kosice, Slovakia.
    Hudak, J.
    PJ Safarik Univ Kosice, Slovakia.
    Stehlik, M.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria;Univ Valparaiso, Chile;Univ Iowa, USA.
    On improved volatility modelling by fitting skewness in ARCH models2019In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study ARCH/GARCH effects under possible deviation from normality. Since skewness is the principal cause for deviations from normality in many practical applications, e.g. finance, we study in particular skewness. We propose robust tests for normality both for NoVaS and modified NoVaS transformed and original data. Such an approach is not applicable for EGARCH, but applicable for GARCH-GJR models. A novel test procedure is proposed for the skewness in autoregressive conditional volatility models. The power of the tests is investigated with various underlying models. Applications with financial data show the applicability and the capabilities of the proposed testing procedure.

  • 353.
    Mari, Hagesjö
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sandra, Wildt
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kapitalstruktur i banker, en jämförelse mellan Storbritannien, Sverige och USA2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The importance of banks was clearly shown during the last financial crises, when the crises that started in the banking sector spread to the rest of the world. This is one of the reasons that this thesis is focused on banks in particular, one other reason is that a lot of previous studies has chosen to exclude banks because of the fact that their balance sheet differ from non-financial companies. This thesis is a beginning in filling in the gap that exists in the knowledge of banks capital structure. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to prove that it is possible to explain the capital structure in banks and that differences in the capital structure of the banks in Great Britain, Sweden and the United states of America exists. Method: The fact that our study is partly a replication of two earlier studies made a deductive approach most appropriate. The deductive approach meant that the theory on capital structure led to hypotheses that then were tested. The study was conducted based on a quantitative design with data retrieved from the database Orbis. Conclusions: Based on the tests performed, a conclusion was drawn that the capital structure in banks can be partly explained by the variables used in this study. Differences between countries have been demonstrated with regard to the institutional differences that exist. This thesis has also shown that theories regarding capital structure of non-financial corporations can be applied to banks with some adjustments.

  • 354.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Efficiency, Productivity, and Impact of Policy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five self-contained empirical essays centering on total factor productivity (TFP), efficiency, and impacts of policy.

    Essay I: “TFP Change and Its Components for Swedish Manufacturing Firms During the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis” (co-authored with Jonas Månsson and William H. Greene). A driving force of economic development is growth in total factor productivity (TFP). Manufactured goods are, to a large extent, exports, and represent an important part of the economy for many developed countries. Additionally, a slowdown in labour productivity has been observed in many OECD countries after the financial crisis 2008-2009. This study investigates TFP change and its components for the Swedish manufacturing industry, compared with the private service sector, during the years 1997-2013, centering on the financial crisis. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to disentangle persistent and transient efficiency from firm heterogeneity and random noise, respectively. In addition, technical change (TC), returns to scale (RTS) and a scale change (SC) component are also identified. Along with the empirical analysis, an elaborative discussion regarding TC in SFA is provided. The persistent part for manufacturing (service) is 0.796 (0.754) and the transient part is 0.787 (0.762), indicating improvement potentials. Furthermore, TFP change is substantially lower between the years 2007-2013, compared to 1997-2007, driven by lower technological progress. Policy should, therefore, target interventions that enhance technology. However, care needs to be taken so that policies do not sustain low-productive firms that otherwise would exit the market. 

    Essay II: “A bootstrapped Malmquist index applied to Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Jonas Månsson, Christian Andersson and Fredrik Bonander). This study measures the total factor productivity (TFP) of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) of 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. In contrast to the limited international literature on court productivity, this study uses a fully decomposed MPI. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP. The findings show a 1.7% average decline of TFP, annually. However, a substantial variation between years can be observed in the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The averages of the components show that the negative impact is mainly driven by negative technical change (TC). Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. Two recommendations are: (1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth; and (2) that the back-up labour force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

     

    Essay III: “Potential efficiency effects of merging the Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Claes Tidanå). The Swedish district courts have undergone a substantial restructuring process in which the main reform has been to merge. As a result, the number of district courts has declined from 95 in 2000 to only 48 in 2009. All main arguments that support merging concern enhancements of efficiency. However, it has not yet been explicitly examined whether the mergers have the potential to increase efficiency ex ante. Thus, the expectation concerning higher efficiency was built on a subjective view. This paper investigates whether the mergers can be rationalized from a production economic point of view. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute a production frontier where the conducted mergers are incorporated to identify the potential ex ante gains. Furthermore, the overall potential is decomposed into learning, scale, and harmony to investigate the source of the potential gain, e.g., an effect of adjusting to best practice or a pure merging effect such as scale. The results show diverse potentials, i.e., a number of mergers did not have the potential to gain in efficiency while others could gain substantially. A conclusion based on the analysis is that the potential production economic effects should be investigated before merger decisions are made in the future. This is also likely to be true beyond the Swedish district courts.

    Essay IV: “Impacts on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Per J. Agrell and Jonas Månsson). Judicial courts form a stringent example of public services using partially sticky inputs and outputs with heterogeneous quality. Notwithstanding, governments internationally are striving to improve the efficiency of and diminish the budget spent on court systems. Frontier methods such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) are sometimes used in investigations of structural changes in the form of mergers. We review the methods used to evaluate the ex post efficiency of horizontal mergers. Identification of impacts is difficult. Therefore, we apply three analytical frameworks: 1) a technical efficiency comparison over time, 2) a metafrontier approach among mergers and non-mergers and 3) a conditional difference-in-differences (cDiD) approach where non-merged twins of the actual mergers are identified by matching. In addition, both time heterogeneity and sources of efficiency change are examined ex post. We apply our method to evaluate the impact on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts from 95 to 48 between 2000 and 2009. Whereas the stated ambition for the mergers was to improve efficiency, no structured ex post analysis has been done. Swedish courts are shown to improve efficiency from merging. In addition to the particular application, our work may inform a more general discussion on public service efficiency measurement under structural changes, and their limits and potential.

    Essay V: “The impact of labour subsidies on total factor productivity and profits per employee.” Subsidizing targeted labour groups is a common intervention to prevent long-term unemployment. Lower expected productivity is the motivation for subsidizing labour, but all research, with one exception, focuses on other effects while some investigates the TFP effects of capital subsidies. This study combines methods that, to the best of my knowledge, have not previously been used together to determine the impacts of labour subsidies on total factor productivity (TFP). Further, the profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables; difference-in-differences (DiD) is then applied to the matched data. It is found that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidizing individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidized should be considered.

  • 355.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on total factor productivity (TFP)2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two self-contained empirical essays. Essay I investigates the impact of labor subsidies on TFP, and profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables. After matching, a difference-in-difference (DID) model is applied. The study shows that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidizing individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidized should be considered.

    Essay II (with Jonas Månsson from Linnaeus University and the Swedish National Audit Office (SNAO), Christian Andersson from SNAO and Fredrik Bonander from SNAO) measures TFP of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the Malmquist productivity index for 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. This study uses a fully decomposed Malmquist index. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP as well as for TFP. The study shows an average annual of TFP by 0.7%. However, a substantial variation between years is observed both with regards to the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The negative impact is mainly driven by pure technical regress. Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. The TFP change is positively correlated with the rate of change in the caseload. Two recommendations are: 1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth and 2) that a back-up force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

  • 356.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of labour subsidies on total factor productivity and profit per employee2019In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 62, p. 325-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidising targeted labour groups is a common intervention to prevent long-term unemployment. Lower expected firm productivity is the motivation for subsidising labour, but all research, with one exception, focuses on other effects while some investigate the total factor productivity (TFP) effects of capital subsidies. This study combines methods that, to the best of my knowledge, have not previously been used together to determine the impacts of labour subsidies on TFP. Further, profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables; difference-in-differences (DiD) is then applied to the matched data. It is found that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidising individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidised should be considered.

  • 357.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. SNAO, Stockholm;Thammasat Univ, Thailand.
    Andersson, Christian
    SNAO, Stockholm.
    Bonander, Fredrik
    SNAO, Stockholm.
    A bootstrapped Malmquist index applied to Swedish district courts2018In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 109-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures the total factor productivity (TFP) of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis to calculate the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) of 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. In contrast to the limited international literature on court productivity, this study uses a fully decomposed MPI. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP. The findings show a 1.7% average decline of TFP, annually. However, a substantial variation between years can be observed in the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The averages of the components show that the negative impact is mainly driven by negative technical change. Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. Two recommendations are: (1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth; and (2) that the back-up labour force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

  • 358.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Greene, William H.
    New York University, USA.
    TFP change and its components for Swedish manufacturing firms during the 2008-2009 financial crisis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving force of economic development is growth in total factor productivity (TFP). Manufactured goods are, to a large extent, exports, and represent an important part of the economy for many developed countries. Additionally, a slowdown in labour productivity has been observed in many OECD countries after the financial crisis 2008-2009. This study investigates TFP change and its components for the Swedish manufacturing industry, compared with the private service sector, during the years 1997-2013, centering on the financial crisis. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to disentangle persistent and transient efficiency from firm heterogeneity and random noise, respectively. In addition, technical change (TC), returns to scale (RTS) and a scale change (SC) component are also identified. Along with the empirical analysis, an elaborative discussion regarding TC in SFA is provided. The persistent part for manufacturing (service) is 0.796 (0.754) and the transient part is 0.787 (0.762), indicating improvement potentials. Furthermore, TFP change is substantially lower between the years 2007-2013, compared to 1997-2007, driven by lower technological progress. Policy should, therefore, target interventions that enhance technology. However, care needs to be taken so that policies do not sustain low-productive firms that otherwise would exit the market.

  • 359.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Greene, William H.
    New York University, USA.
    TFP change and its components for Swedish manufacturing firms during the 2008-2009 financial crisis2019In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving force of economic development is growth in total factor productivity (TFP). Manufactured goods are, to a large extent, exports, and represent an important part of the economy for many developed countries. Additionally, a slowdown in labour productivity has been observed in many OECD countries since the financial crisis of 2008-2009. This study investigates TFP change and its components for the Swedish manufacturing industry, compared with the private service sector, during the years 1997-2013, centering on the financial crisis. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to disentangle persistent and transient efficiency from firm heterogeneity and random noise, respectively. In addition, technical change (TC), returns to scale (RTS) and a scale change (SC) component are also identified. Along with the empirical analysis, an elaborative discussion regarding TC in SFA is provided. The persistent part for manufacturing (service) is 0.796 (0.754) and the transient part is 0.787 (0.762), indicating improvement potentials. Furthermore, TFP change is substantially lower between the years 2007-2013, compared to 1997-2007. This occurs due to a lower technological progress. Policy should, therefore, target interventions that enhance technology. However, care needs to be taken so that policies do not sustain low-productive firms that otherwise would exit the market.

  • 360.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tidanå, Claes
    Financial Department, The Swedish National Court Administration (SNCA), Sweden.
    Potential efficiency effects of merging the Swedish district courts2019In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 67, p. 58-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish district courts have undergone a substantial restructuring process in which the main reform has been to merge. As a result, the number of district courts has declined from 95 in 2000 to only 48 in 2009. All main arguments that support merging concern enhancements of efficiency. However, it has not yet been explicitly examined whether the mergers have the potential to increase efficiency ex ante. Thus, the expectation concerning higher efficiency was built on a subjective view. This paper investigates whether the mergers can be rationalized from a production economic point of view. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute a production frontier where the conducted mergers are incorporated to identify the potential ex ante gains. Furthermore, the overall potential is decomposed into learning, scale, and harmony to investigate the source of the potential gain, e.g., an effect of adjusting to best practice or a pure merging effect such as scale. The results show diverse potentials, i.e., a number of mergers did not have the potential to gain in efficiency while others could gain substantially. A conclusion based on the analysis is that the potential production economic effects should be investigated before merger decisions are made in the future. This is also likely to be true beyond the Swedish district courts.

  • 361.
    Metz, Ejoel
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of modern capital on skill allocation in the European Labour Market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the impact of "modern" capital on skill allocation in the European Union (EU) Labour Market for a period from 1996 to 2016. Applying a First-difference methodology on a panel data at the country level from Eurostat, the study finds out that as "modern" capital increases by 1%, low-skill employment decreases by -0.1%.  However, the introduction of new technologies does not affect middle-skill and high-skill employment. Furthermore, "modern" capital/technology does not exhibit any statistically significant impact on working hours, suggesting that the former may affect employment at the extensive margin. The results are in line with Autor et al. (2003) and we may reject the hypothesis of Job Polarisation.

  • 362.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Self-employment, Happiness and International Trade2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

  • 363.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigrant self-employment and local unemployment in Sweden2020In: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between the local unemployment rate and immigrant self-employment entry decision. The study uses Swedish population register data at the individual level and the annual unemployment rate data at the local labour market level over the time period of 1996-2007. The paper finds that the local unemployment rate is negatively correlated with the probability of entering into self-employment for natives and immigrants who are not from the Middle East. Compared with natives, Middle Eastern immigrants are more likely to enter into self-employment when local unemployment rate increases. Furthermore, the magnitude of the impact of the local unemployment rate on women’s self-employment entry is quantitatively smaller than that of men, indicating the less important role of economic conditions in determining women’s decision to enter self-employment.

  • 364.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigrants’ self-employment over the local business cycle in Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study combines the large Swedish register data at individual level with the unemployment data at region level to investigate to what extent the entry into self-employment, particular among immigrants, are affected by the local business cycle. We show that local unemployment rate negatively affects the entry into self-employment among native men and immigrant men, except immigrants from Middle East. Moreover, such pull effect is weaker among non-European immigrants’ men. Furthermore, the result shows that Middle Eastern immigrants’ men are pushed into self-employment in economic downturns. Similar with men, our results show that the local unemployment rate also negatively affects women’s entry into self-employment except immigrants from Middle East. However, this negative effect is quantitatively much smaller than among men, indicating thebusiness cycle plays a less important role in determining women’s self-employment entry decision.

  • 365.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment and happiness in China2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the self-employment rate is high in many developing countries, the job quality of self employment has been little studied. Instead of using earnings, this paper uses life satisfaction as a proxy for individual total welfare. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies, we study the self-employment effect on life satisfaction. We find the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not significantly different from that of wage-employed women. To address the informality of labour market, our results suggest that there is no sign that the life satisfaction of the self-employed in the informal sector is significantly lower than that of wage-employed in the formal private sector for both men and women.

  • 366.
    Mohsini, Adila
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Salihu, Artina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Women’s self-employment in Europe: What factors affects women’s self-employment in five regions in Europe?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyse women’s self-employment in five regions of Europe, namely

    Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, North-West Europe and Western Europe

    in two years, 2002 and 2016. To assess the factors affecting women’s self-employment in

    Europe we base our analysis on push and pull theory and as far as the quantitative part is

    concerned we estimate a probit model.

    Our research questions are the following: What socio-economic factors influence women to

    enter self-employment in the five regions of Europe? How are these factors related to the push

    and pull theory? Is there a trend of convergence over time in the five European regions studied?

    The main findings are that being women decreases the probability to become self-employed in

    the five European regions, except in the Northern part of Europe. The result suggests that

    women more often than men are pushed into self-employment as they have to balance work

    with family. Being young (18-35) also decreases the probability of being self-employed

    compared to middle age individual (36-50) in the year 2002 and 2016. Individuals with low and

    medium-skill level have a lower probability of being self-employed in comparison to the

    individual with high skill. Regarding the research questions, this study found that variable age

    (18-36), age (51-65), married, children, medium education, high education, low skill and high

    skill are factors that influence women in their decision to become self-employed. Observing the

    change over time of self-employment, we found that the probability increases being selfemployed

    in Southern Europe whereas it decreases in Northern Europe.

  • 367.
    Montanié, Paul-Alban
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. ESCE Paris department of supply chain.
    Importance of Green Service Offerings for French and Swedish Retailers in their Selection of Transport Operators: A study of French and Swedish companies operating in the retail industry.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The selection of transport operators has become a complex decision making

    process with multi-criteria aspects. Deciding on which transport operator to use depends on

    various service offerings that can be different for each company. Retailers such as those from

    France and Sweden look to improve logistical performance in areas such as lead time,

    flexibility and reliability, and improve customer relations. In the past the main critical aspects

    of retailers were cost and service optimisation. An additional factor could play a role in their

    selection of transport operators and this is green service offerings.

    Research question: Which service offerings are important for French and Swedish retailers

    in their selection of transport operators?

    Sub question: Are the retailers willing to use green service offerings and why?

    Sub question2: Which of the green service offerings are important for French and

    Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators?

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out what the most important service offerings

    are for French and Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators. It also aims to

    determine if French and Swedish retailers are willing to use green service offerings and

    explain why. Finally, it will attempt to identify which of the green service offerings are

    important to French and Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators.

    Method: This thesis was conducted by applying the deductive approach and is based on a

    quantitative research method. The sampling method used for this thesis is non-probability

    sampling. Data was collected through questionnaires with French and Swedish retailers.

    French and Swedish retailers have been selected for the sample population in order to find

    out how important green service offerings might be for them when they are purchasing the

    services of a transport operator. French and Swedish retailers from different sectors were

    chosen in order to achieve an objective overview of the retail industry from each country

    when selecting transport operators.

    Conclusion: Traditional service offerings are more important than green service offerings for

    the French and Swedish retailers that participated in this research paper. However, when

    looking at the results of the data, some green service offerings were perceived to be

    important. The author therefore believes that when French and Swedish retailers are selecting

    transport operators their first focus is on the traditional service offerings that are very

    important to them. However, if a French or Swedish retailer is encouraged by the following

    motivators: customer expectations, measurable improvement or economic incentives. They

    might pursue the green service offerings that are important for their business activities.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-01 11:46
  • 368.
    Mulumba, Zungu Mathias
    et al.
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Nalubanga, Lindah
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Nankanja, Christine L.
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Manasseh, Kwihangana
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. The Swedish National Audit Office.
    Hollén, Jimmy
    The Swedish National Audit Office.
    Technical efficiency decomposed: the case of Ugandan referral hospitals2017In: The Central European Review of Economics and Management, ISSN 2543-9472, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 117-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In an audit report provided to the Ugandan Parliament by the Office of the Audit General, Uganda, technical efficiency in Ugandan referral hospitals was measured and analysed. The audit report pointed out that there was a relatively low level of technical inefficiency, at least in comparison with other African countries. The purpose of this study is to look further into the issue of why there is inefficiency.

    Design / Research methods: We use a Data Envelopment Analysis framework and decompose long-run technical efficiency into short-term technical efficiency, scale efficiency and congestion.

    Conclusions / findings: Our results reveal that the source of the long-run inefficiency varies over the years. For 2012, more than 50% of the observed inefficiency relates to scale factors. However, in 2013 and 2014 the major contributor to the long-run inefficiency was input congestion.

    Originality / value of the article: Even though there are a substantial amount of research on efficiency in African hospitals, no other study have investigated existence of congestion. In that respect our research contributes to the existing research.

    Implications of the research: We recommend that inefficient hospitals should use efficient hospitals as benchmarks for improving their own efficiency. Further, since a large part of the technical inefficiency relates to congestion we recommend further investigation to identify factors in the production, or organisation that could be related to congestion.

  • 369.
    Muratovic, Alan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Azadan, Poyan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Automation and job protection: Does automation slow down when employment protection is strong?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how speed of automation is affected by different employment

    protection regimes - one with lenient and one with stringent regulation. To

    assess we examine how occupations shares in the UK, US, Germany and

    Spain has changed from 1991-2013. According to our estimates, we find that

    the speed, of which high-risk occupations shrink over time, slows down in

    countries with a stringent EPL, Germany and Spain, regime relative to

    lenient EPL levels, the UK and US.

  • 370.
    Mångs, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment in Sweden: A Gender Perspective2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [nb]

    This thesis analyses self-employment from a gender perspective. The data used combines survey data with register data. The survey covers various dimensions such as motivation, job satisfaction and time allocations. These are aspects that typically cannot be assessed by register data. A detailed description of the survey is given in the introductory chapter.

    The literature on self-employment is large and varied. Among other things, studies have evaluated whether the decision to opt for self-employment was related to pull or push motives by assessing the predicted earnings differential between self-employed workers and wage earners. But few attempts have been made to determine systematically, using large-scale data, the relationship   between reported motivation for choosing self-employment and personal characteristics. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the correlation between motives and economic performance. We examine these issues in more detail in Chapter 1. The results indicate that women and men report similar motivations for self-employment. But women put more emphasis on work-family related factors, while men consider higher income as more important. We find some evidence that the economic performance among push entrepreneurs is lower than pull entrepreneurs.

    Another well-documented fact is that self-employed workers report higher levels of job satisfaction than wage earners. Relatively little empirical work has been done to examine the causes for this differential, however. This is investigated in the second chapter. Similar to previous studies we find that self-employed are on average more satisfied with their jobs than wage earners. The results show that the observed job satisfaction differential can be ascribed to the fact that self-employed workers have higher control and autonomy over their working days.

    Self-employed workers typically work longer hours than wage earners, but relatively little is known about how the self-employed allocate their time across different social activities. This issue is addressed in Chapter 3. The empirical analysis indicates that self-employed work significantly longer hours, exhibit a larger dispersion of working time, as well as a higher tendency to work atypical hours compared to wage earners. In addition, female self-employed typically devote less time to housework than female wage earners.

     

  • 371.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Grundläggande Matematik för Samhällsvetenskap och Ekonomi2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 372.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mentoring as a way of integrating refugees on the labour market: evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring of immigrants and refugees is a policy measure widely used across the world andhas been so for some years. However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence. This study investigates the impact of a mentoring programme on the labour market status of newly arrived refugees. The programme was conducted in Sweden between 2010 and 2012. The key finding of the study is that male participants after participating have moved closer to the core labour market and that there is little that relates to the content of the mentoring programme that affect the outcome.

  • 373.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mentoring as a way of integrating refugees on the labour market: evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring of immigrants and refugees is a policy measure widely used across the world and has been so for some years. However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence. This study investigates the impact of a mentoring programme on the labour market status of newly arrived refugees. The programme was conducted in Sweden between 2010 and 2012. The key finding of the study is that male participants after participating have moved closer to the core labour market and that there is little that relates to the content of the mentoring programme that affect the outcome.

  • 374.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mentoring as a way of integrating refugees on the labour market: evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme2017In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 56, no December, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that mentoring is used as a mean to increase the speed of labour market integration for immigrants around the world there is little evidence of the impacts of this type of programme. This study investigates the impact of a Swedish mentoring programme on the labour market status of newly arrived refugees. The key finding is that mentoring as a universal ‘quick fix’ does not attract a great deal of support. However, mentoring does show promise for males for whom a positive and significant impact when the outcome is defined as a yearly income exceeding one basic amount (appx. 4200 euro). For females, no short-term effect is found, although it is suggested the absence of an impact may be due to lock-in effects in other labour market programmes.

  • 375.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ulmestig, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundbom-Ressaissi, Maria
    Myndigheten för ungdoms - och civilsamhällesfrågor .
    En följeslagare på vägen: Slutrapport om betydelsen av yrkesmentorer för nyanlända flyktingars etablering2015Report (Other academic)
  • 376.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Elg, Ulf
    Lunds universitet.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Gender-based career differences among young auditors in Sweden2013In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not gender-related differences affect the likelihood of promotion. Design/methodology/approach - The research is done on a unique dataset on the Swedish audit industry, an industry with a well-defined and well-known career ladder. We apply an ordered probit model to take all steps in the career ladder into consideration simultaneously. Findings - Females are on average less likely to be promoted. Separate regressions for males and females identified that the estimated promotion probability increases for males as an effect of having a child, but decreases more for males than females if males are highly involve in the care of these children. Thus, females who are involved in childcare are penalised by lower probability of promotion; however, males who are highly involved in childcare have much more to lose in terms of promotion than females do. For a family, this becomes a question of how to lose the least. Originality/value - Having access to unique data, from a policy perspective our study gives some new insight into the uneven distribution between genders of career interruptions related to childcare.

  • 377.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lundin, Christofer
    Swedish National Agency for Education.
    When outcome definition determines the result in impact evaluations: an illustration using the Swedish work-practice programme2017In: Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, ISSN 1744-2648, E-ISSN 1744-2656, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the effect of difference in outcome definitions on the result of impact evaluations. The Swedish workplace practice programme is evaluated, using matching methods. The key findings are that changing how the outcome is defined has a considerable influence on the results of the impact assessment. From the results of this study, it is clear that differences in evaluation results can arise from differences in how the outcome is defined. The lesson learned is that definition of successful outcomes of labour market policy has to be harmonised to make meaningful comparisons and learn from previous research.

  • 378.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Quoreshi, A. M. M. Shahiduzzaman
    Swedish Agcy Growth Policy Anal, Sweden ; Blekinge Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Evaluating regional cuts in the payroll tax from a firm perspective2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 323-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions, reduced payroll taxes are analysed with regard to employment and wage effects. Our study extends the impacts to cover several possible firm outcomes using a multilevel modelling approach. Between 20 and 55 % in the variation, the outcomes can be explained by municipality differences. On firm level, the result follows a clear business logic. In the short run, profits and turnover increased which later on transforms into increased wages. After 7 years, we find the indication of impacts on investments. Thus, the support has some short-term impacts that are reduced with time and the long-term effects are questionable.

  • 379.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Improved ridge regression estimators for binary choice models: an empirical study2014In: International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, ISSN 1929-6029, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests some new estimators of the ridge parameter for binary choice models that may be applied in the presence of a multicollinearity problem. These new ridge parameters are functions of other estimators of the ridge parameter that have shown to work well in the previous research. Using a simulation study we investigate the mean square error (MSE) properties of these new ridge parameters and compare them with the best performing estimators from the previous research. The results indicate that we may improve the MSE properties of the ridge regression estimator by applying the proposed estimators in this paper, especially when there is a high multicollinearity between the explanatory variables and when many explanatory variables are included in the regression model. The benefit of this paper is then shown by a health related data where the effect of some risk factors on the probability of receiving diabetes is investigated.

  • 380.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida Int Univ, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Performance of Some Weighted Liu Estimators for Logit Regression Model: An Application to Swedish Accident Data2015In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 363-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose some new estimators for the shrinkage parameter d of the weighted Liu estimator along with the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for the logit regression model. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the performance of the proposed estimators. The mean squared error is considered as a performance criteria. The average value and standard deviation of the shrinkage parameter d are investigated. In an application, we analyze the effect of usage of cars, motorcycles, and trucks on the probability that pedestrians are getting killed in different counties in Sweden. In the example, the benefits of using the weighted Liu estimator are shown. Both results from the simulation study and the empirical application show that all proposed shrinkage estimators outperform the ML estimator. The proposed D9 estimator performed best and it is recommended for practitioners.

  • 381.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    On the Estimation of the CO2 Emission, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption Nexus Using Dynamic OLS in the Presence of Multicollinearity2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces shrinkage estimators (Ridge DOLS) for the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) cointegration estimator, which extends the model for use in the presence of multicollinearity between the explanatory variables in the cointegration vector. Both analytically and by using simulation techniques, we conclude that our new Ridge DOLS approach exhibits lower mean square errors (MSE) than the traditional DOLS method. Therefore, based on the MSE performance criteria, our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that our new method outperforms the DOLS under empirically relevant magnitudes of multicollinearity. Moreover, we show the advantages of this new method by more accurately estimating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), where the income and squared income are related to carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, we also illustrate the practical use of the method when augmenting the EKC curve with energy consumption. In summary, regardless of whether we use analytical, simulation-based, or empirical approaches, we can consistently conclude that it is possible to estimate these types of relationships in a considerably more accurate manner using our newly suggested method.

  • 382.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B.M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    A restricted Liu estimator for binary regression models and its application to an applied demand system2016In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1119-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose a restricted Liu regression estimator (RLRE) for estimating the parameter vector, β, in the presence of multicollinearity, when the dependent variable is binary and it is suspected that β may belong to a linear subspace defined by =r. First, we investigate the mean squared error (MSE) properties of the new estimator and compare them with those of the restricted maximum likelihood estimator (RMLE). Then we suggest some estimators of the shrinkage parameter, and a simulation study is conducted to compare the performance of the different estimators. Finally, we show the benefit of using RLRE instead of RMLE when estimating how changes in price affect consumer demand for a specific product.

  • 383.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Kibria, B.M. Golam
    Jönköping university.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping university.
    Some Liu Type Estimators for the dynamic OLS estimator: With an application to the carbon dioxide Kuznets curve for Turkey2017In: Communications in Statistics: Case studies, Data Analysis and Applications, E-ISSN 2373-7484, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests some Liu type shrinkage estimators for the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimator that may be used to combat the multicollinearity problem. DOLS is an estimator suggested to solve the finite sample bias of OLS caused by endogeneity issue when estimating regression models based on cointegrated variables. In this paper using simulation techniques it is shown that multicollinearity and non-normality of the error term is a problem in finite samples for the DOLS model. The merit of proposed Liu type estimator are shown by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study and using an empirical application.

  • 384.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Performance of Some Ridge Regression Estimators for the Multinomial Logit Model2018In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 2795-2804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers several estimators for estimating the ridge parameter  for multinomial logit model based on the work of Khalaf and Shukur (2005), Alkhamisi, Khalaf and Shukur (2006) and  Muniz, Kibria and Shukur (2012). The mean square error (MSE) is considered as the performance criterion. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the performance of the estimators.  Based on the simulation study we found that, increasing the correlation between the independent variables and the number of regressors has negative effect on the MSE. However, when the sample size increases the MSE decreases even when the correlation between the independent variables is large. Based on the minimum MSE criterion some useful estimators for estimating the ridge parameter k are recommended for the practitioners.

  • 385.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A New Asymmetric Interaction Ridge (AIR) Regression Method2014In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 616-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite that interaction terms are standard tools of regression analysis, the side effects of the inclusion of these terms in models estimated by ordinary least squares (OLS) are yet not fully penetrated. The inclusion of interaction effects induces multicollinearity problems since all non-zero values are equal between the interaction term and the regressor. In this article we propose a procedure to remedy this problem by the use of new ridge regression (RR) shrinkage parameters – which we call the asymmetric interaction ridge (AIR) regression method. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate both OLS and AIR using the mean square error (MSE) performance criterion. The result from the simulation study confirms our hypothesis that AIR always should be preferred to OLS since it has a lower estimated MSE. Moreover, the advantages of our new method are demonstrated in an empirical application where positive asymmetric price transmission effects are exposed for the mortgage interest rates of Handelsbanken Stadshypotek. It is observed that the mortgage interest rates increase more fully and rapidly to an increase in the bank’s borrowing costs than to a decrease. This asymmetry is defined as positive asymmetric price transmission (APT).

  • 386.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    A New Ridge Regression Causality Test in the Presence of Multicollinearity2014In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 235-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VAR lag structure applied for the traditional Granger causality (GC) test is always severely affected by multicollinearity due to autocorrelation among the lags. Therefore, as a remedy to this problem we introduce a new Ridge Regression Granger Causality (RRGC) test, which is compared to the GC test by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the simulation study we conclude that the traditional OLS version of the GC test over-rejects the true null hypothesis when there are relatively high (but empirically normal) levels of multicollinearity, while the new RRGC test will remedy or substantially decrease this problem.

  • 387. Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Testing for panel unit roots in the presence of spatial dependency2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 29, p. 4152-4159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the size and power properties of the Common-factor Im, Pesaran and Shin (CIPS), Wald (W), Likelihood Ratio (LR) and Lagrange Multiplier (LM) tests are investigated when the error term follows a spatial error model. In this study, the results from the Monte Carlo simulations, first, show that the CIPS test over-estimates the nominal size. Second, the simulation results show that the empirical size of the W test approaches the nominal size quickly, while the LR and LM tests underestimate the null hypothesis in both small and moderate sample sizes. Finally, the results also show that even though the LM and LR tests under-reject the true-null hypothesis they have higher power than the W test.

  • 388.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping university.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping university.
    Market concentration and market power of the swedish mortgage sector: a wavelet panel efficiency analysis2018In: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, ISSN 1081-1826, E-ISSN 1558-3708, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 20160021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a panel wavelet efficiency analysis, we conclude that there is a systematic pattern of positive asymmetric price transmission inefficiencies in the interest rates of the largest Swedish mortgage lenders. Thus, there seems to be a higher propensity for mortgage lenders to swiftly increase their customers’ mortgage interest rates subsequent to an increase in its borrowing costs, than to decrease their customers’ mortgage rates subsequent to a corresponding decrease in the cost of borrowing. A unique contribution is our proposed wavelet method which enables a robust detection of positive asymmetric price transmission effects at various time-frequency scales, while simultaneously controlling for non-stationary trends, autocorrelation, and structural breaks. Since traditional time-series analysis methods essentially implies that several wavelet time scales are aggregated into one single time series, the blunt traditional error correction analysis totally failed to discover APT effects for this data set. In summary, using the wavelet method we show that even though the customers in the end finally will benefit from decreases in the mortgage lenders’ financing costs, the lenders wait disproportionally long before the customers’ mortgage rates are decreased.

  • 389.
    Naslin, Nathalie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    CHAUFAUX, Gwénaëlle
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Gender Earnings Gap among Immigrants in Sweden: How does the immigrants’ gender earnings gap vary relative to the natives’ gender earnings gap in Sweden?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from 1999 on immigrants in Sweden, we find that the gender earnings gap among immigrant is lower than natives’ gender earnings gap and negatively related to their source country gender earnings gap. We also show that immigrants’ earnings are lower and more concentrated than the natives’ ones which leads to a lower gender earnings gap for immigrants. Then, regarding the gender earnings gap along the earnings distribution and linking it with earnings distribution of immigrants and natives, we are able to conclude that immigrants are not strongly affected by the glass ceiling effect since they are not present in the upper tail of the distribution. We reach the conclusion that such gender earnings gap differences between natives and immigrants may be explained by selection in the labour force participation, occupational segregation of immigrants, source country culture and discrimination.

  • 390.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Culture, assimilation, and gender gaps in labour market outcomes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of social norms and attitudes about gender, i.e. culture, for labour market behaviour and cultural assimilation of immigrants in Sweden. Using source country gender gaps as cultural proxies we find that the labour force participation of immigrants in Sweden is related to culture, in the sense that immigrants originating from countries with high gender gaps in labour force participation rates (LFPR) also have high gender gaps in LFPR within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. On the contrary, high source country gender gaps in earnings are, if anything, associated with lower gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, we find that gender gaps in LFPR among immigrants in Sweden assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time in Sweden increases. These results suggest that culture is one explanation for the existence of gender gaps in LFPR and that cultural assimilation takes place as time since exposure to the source country culture increases.

  • 391.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Ethnic Segregation and Economic Outcomes2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: This paper studies tipping behaviour in the residential mobility of the native population inSweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that thegrowth in native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once aneighbourhood’s immigrant share exceeds the identified tipping point. In the 1990s the dropcan be attributed both to increased out-migration of natives (native flight) and to thedecreased in-migration of natives (native avoidance) while native flight appears to be drivingthe segregation pattern between the years 2000 and 2007. Further, we find native migrationfrom neighbourhoods that have tipped is selective, in the sense that natives with a high levelof educational attainment are the most likely to move from such neighbourhood. We concludethat the native residential mobility has contributed to increased ethnic segregation but it alsoappears to have increased socio-economic segregation in Sweden between 1990 and 2007.

    Essay 2: This paper focuses on second-generation immigrants and analyses the short- and long-termeffects of immigrant and ethnic group concentration in childhood neighbourhood on earnings,unemployment, reliance on income support and educational attainment. The results show thata high immigrant concentration in a childhood neighbourhood is negatively associated witheconomic outcomes of both second-generation immigrants and natives. Ethnic groupconcentration seems to work in the opposite direction, improving economic outcomes forsecond-generation immigrants. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of includingtime dynamics in any analysis of the effect of childhood neighbourhood ethnic compositionon economic outcomes.

  • 392.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Segregation, Gender Economics, and Self-employment2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four empirical essays on the topics of ethnic segregation, gender economics, and self-employment.

       Essay I investigates how the residential mobility of Sweden's native population contributes to ethnic segregation, by applying regression discontinuity methods. The results show that the growth in the native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops as the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the tipping point. Tipping is driven by the departure of natives and their avoidance of tipped neighbourhoods. Tipping behaviour is selective in the sense that highly educated and high earning natives are more likely to leave neighbourhoods that have tipped.

       Essay II studies the relationship between the childhood neighbourhood's ethnic composition and economic outcomes in adulthood for second-generation immigrant sand natives. The results reveal that a high concentration of immigrants in aneighbourhood is associated with a lower probability of second-generation immigrants continuing to higher education. Natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Among non-Nordic second-generation immigrants, reliance on social assistance and unemployment are negatively correlated with the share of co-ethnics and positively associated with the proportion of other ethnic groups.

       Essay III explores the role of social norms and attitudes about gender for labour market outcomes of immigrant men and women in Sweden. The results show that immigrants originating from countries with large gender disparities in labour force participation also have large gender gaps in labour force participation within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. In contrast, source country gender differences in earnings are not correlated with gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, gender gaps in labour force participation among immigrants assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time inSweden increases.

       Essay IV empirically tests the Jack-of-all-trades theory, which states that individuals who are more balanced in their abilities are more suitable for self-employment. Using Swedish Military Enlistment data, a measure of balance in endowed abilities is constructed and this balance measure is, in relation to previous research, less likely tobe endogenous. The results support the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that propensity for being or becoming self-employed is greater for individuals with abalanced set of abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a balanced set of skills.

  • 393.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants2016In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between childhood neighbourhood ethnic composition and short- and long-run economic outcomes of second-generation immigrants and natives in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use Swedish longitudinal register data and apply regression analysis methods to investigate the correlation between three ethnic neighbourhood variables(share of immigrants, share of immigrants with the same ethnic background and share of immigrants with other descent) in childhood with short- and long-run economic outcomes (earnings, unemployment, reliance on social assistance and educational attainment).

    Findings

    The results show that second-generation immigrants raised in immigrant-dense neighbourhoods have a lower probability to continue to higher education, whereas, their earnings, unemployment and social assistance tendencies are unaffected. On the contrary, natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Moreover, the social assistance and unemployment of non-Nordic second-generation immigrants appears to be negatively correlated with the neighbourhood share of co-ethnics and positively correlated with the neighbourhood proportion of other ethnic groups. Overall, we find that the results are very similar in the short- and long-run.

    Originality/value

    This paper expands the literature on children and ethnic segregation and in contrast to earlier research in this context, it focuses on second-generation immigrants and their performance in comparison to natives. This study contributes to this research area by investigating a large variety of outcomes, looking at both immigrant, own-ethnic group and other-ethnic group concentration and including both short- and long-run correlations.

  • 394.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant and native owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. In particular, we use an individual-fixed effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with years in self-employment. The results show that native men have higher earnings and profit level from selfemployment activities than immigrant men. Immigrant men converge towards the earnings and profit levels of native men as self-employment experience increase, but do not reach parity. On the contrary, immigrant women catch up with the earnings and profit levels of native women after between 3 to 5 years in business. Turnover is highest for men, and in firms owned by non-European immigrants, independently of length of business experience. Immigrant firms, and in particular those owned by non-European immigrants, contribute more to job creation than firms owned by natives. As length of business experience increases immigrants’ hire additional persons to their firms to a higher extent than natives.

  • 395.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual-level panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant- and native-owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. We use an individual fixed-effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with self-employment experience. The advantage of our approach is that it enables estimations of the returns to self-employment experience while controlling for unobservable time-constant individual factors. The results show that profits increase with self-employment experience and at a faster rate among immigrant men and women than for their native counterparts. Turnover and the likelihood of having employees both increase with experience and in a similar magnitude for immigrants and natives.

  • 396.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Source country culture and labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden: evidence from longitudinal data2018In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 585-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the role of source country culture on gender roles for labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden. Sweden ranks as one of the world's most gender-equal countries and at the same time a recipient of many immigrants from countries with more traditional views on gender roles and gender equality. I find that the labor force participation of immigrant women in Sweden is related to their source country culture, in the sense that women from countries where women's labor market participation is low (high) also have low (high) participation in the Swedish labor market. However, all immigrant women assimilate towards, but do not reach parity with, the participation rate of native women, and the difference between women from high- and low-participation countries diminishes with length of residence in Sweden. This indicates that source country culture on gender roles does not have a persistent effect on immigrant women's labor market participation in Sweden. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of taking into account unobservable time-constant individual and source country factors when estimating the relationship between source country culture and immigrants' labor market outcomes. Neglecting to control for these factors could lead researchers to misrepresent the rate of assimilation and overstate the effect of source country culture.

  • 397.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of ethnic concentration on native and second-generation immigrant children's economic outcomes2013Report (Other academic)
  • 398.
    Nordin, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CReAM;IZA.
    Ability heterogeneity in intergenerational mobility2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A rich data set gives a unique opportunity to study heterogeneity in intergenerational mobility. Here, we explore whether the intergenerational association in education and income is the same for children with different results in a cognitive ability test (the Swedish Military Enlistment test). Despite an endogenous test score, the argument is that this is the policy relevant case to analyze, i.e. whether children of a certain cognitive ability level are influences by their parents’ socioeconomic status and not whether they are influenced by some random parent.The intergenerational associations vary a great deal with the results in the cognitive ability test. The intergenerational association is highest for the middle ability groups and lower for both the higher ability and (particularly) the lower ability groups. The overall conclusion is that adding the cognitive ability dimension to studies of intergenerational mobility contributes new and important insights. For example, since the average child (cognitively speaking) seems to be most receptive to parental influence, intergenerational mobility is primarily increased by targeting the average child.

  • 399.
    Nordin, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund University, Sweden; CReAM;IZA, Germany.
    Increasing returns to schooling by ability?: a comparison between the US and Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses US survey data (NLSY) and Swedish register data to estimate the relationship between returns to schooling and ability for each country separately. A significant and positive relationship is found for Sweden but not for the US. The purpose is to propose an explanation for why such differences might occur. While many studies have focused on whether credit constraints result in inefficiencies in the schooling market, this study answers the opposite question: whether weak credit constraints lead to inefficiencies, in other words in an overuse of the schooling system. It is argued argue that the US schooling system more effectively sorts out education investments with a low rate of return to schooling than the Swedish schooling system. Therefore, an imperfect allocation of individuals going to higher education in Sweden makes a relationship between returns to schooling and ability observable in Sweden but not in the US. Since the relationship between returns to schooling and ability is the same when the schooling systems of the two countries is similar, that is at lower levels of education, it is indicative of the fact that this explanation may be correct. Of course, the empirical findings in this study are not convincing evidence on their own, but the findings suggest and agree with such an explanation.

  • 400.
    Nordin, Martin
    et al.
    Lund Univ.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Increasing returns to schooling by ability?: a comparison between the USA and Sweden2014In: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957, Vol. 82, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses US survey data and Swedish register data to estimate and compare the relationship between returns to schooling and ability. A significant and positive relationship is found for Sweden, but not for the USA. Based on the predictions of the optimal schooling model it is argues that measured differences in the relationship between returns to schooling and ability could depend upon on differences in the schooling systems between the countries. The findings suggest that a low price of higher education in Sweden makes a relationship between returns to schooling and ability observable in Sweden but not in the USA.

5678910 351 - 400 of 483
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf