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  • 351.
    Montanié, Paul-Alban
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. ESCE Paris department of supply chain.
    Importance of Green Service Offerings for French and Swedish Retailers in their Selection of Transport Operators: A study of French and Swedish companies operating in the retail industry.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The selection of transport operators has become a complex decision making

    process with multi-criteria aspects. Deciding on which transport operator to use depends on

    various service offerings that can be different for each company. Retailers such as those from

    France and Sweden look to improve logistical performance in areas such as lead time,

    flexibility and reliability, and improve customer relations. In the past the main critical aspects

    of retailers were cost and service optimisation. An additional factor could play a role in their

    selection of transport operators and this is green service offerings.

    Research question: Which service offerings are important for French and Swedish retailers

    in their selection of transport operators?

    Sub question: Are the retailers willing to use green service offerings and why?

    Sub question2: Which of the green service offerings are important for French and

    Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators?

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out what the most important service offerings

    are for French and Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators. It also aims to

    determine if French and Swedish retailers are willing to use green service offerings and

    explain why. Finally, it will attempt to identify which of the green service offerings are

    important to French and Swedish retailers in their selection of transport operators.

    Method: This thesis was conducted by applying the deductive approach and is based on a

    quantitative research method. The sampling method used for this thesis is non-probability

    sampling. Data was collected through questionnaires with French and Swedish retailers.

    French and Swedish retailers have been selected for the sample population in order to find

    out how important green service offerings might be for them when they are purchasing the

    services of a transport operator. French and Swedish retailers from different sectors were

    chosen in order to achieve an objective overview of the retail industry from each country

    when selecting transport operators.

    Conclusion: Traditional service offerings are more important than green service offerings for

    the French and Swedish retailers that participated in this research paper. However, when

    looking at the results of the data, some green service offerings were perceived to be

    important. The author therefore believes that when French and Swedish retailers are selecting

    transport operators their first focus is on the traditional service offerings that are very

    important to them. However, if a French or Swedish retailer is encouraged by the following

    motivators: customer expectations, measurable improvement or economic incentives. They

    might pursue the green service offerings that are important for their business activities.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-01 11:46
  • 352.
    Mulumba, Zungu Mathias
    et al.
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Nalubanga, Lindah
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Nankanja, Christine L.
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Manasseh, Kwihangana
    Office of the Audit General, Uganda.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. The Swedish National Audit Office.
    Hollén, Jimmy
    The Swedish National Audit Office.
    Technical efficiency decomposed: the case of Ugandan referral hospitals2017In: The Central European Review of Economics and Management, ISSN 2543-9472, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 117-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In an audit report provided to the Ugandan Parliament by the Office of the Audit General, Uganda, technical efficiency in Ugandan referral hospitals was measured and analysed. The audit report pointed out that there was a relatively low level of technical inefficiency, at least in comparison with other African countries. The purpose of this study is to look further into the issue of why there is inefficiency.

    Design / Research methods: We use a Data Envelopment Analysis framework and decompose long-run technical efficiency into short-term technical efficiency, scale efficiency and congestion.

    Conclusions / findings: Our results reveal that the source of the long-run inefficiency varies over the years. For 2012, more than 50% of the observed inefficiency relates to scale factors. However, in 2013 and 2014 the major contributor to the long-run inefficiency was input congestion.

    Originality / value of the article: Even though there are a substantial amount of research on efficiency in African hospitals, no other study have investigated existence of congestion. In that respect our research contributes to the existing research.

    Implications of the research: We recommend that inefficient hospitals should use efficient hospitals as benchmarks for improving their own efficiency. Further, since a large part of the technical inefficiency relates to congestion we recommend further investigation to identify factors in the production, or organisation that could be related to congestion.

  • 353.
    Muratovic, Alan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Azadan, Poyan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Automation and job protection: Does automation slow down when employment protection is strong?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how speed of automation is affected by different employment

    protection regimes - one with lenient and one with stringent regulation. To

    assess we examine how occupations shares in the UK, US, Germany and

    Spain has changed from 1991-2013. According to our estimates, we find that

    the speed, of which high-risk occupations shrink over time, slows down in

    countries with a stringent EPL, Germany and Spain, regime relative to

    lenient EPL levels, the UK and US.

  • 354.
    Mångs, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment in Sweden: A Gender Perspective2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [nb]

    This thesis analyses self-employment from a gender perspective. The data used combines survey data with register data. The survey covers various dimensions such as motivation, job satisfaction and time allocations. These are aspects that typically cannot be assessed by register data. A detailed description of the survey is given in the introductory chapter.

    The literature on self-employment is large and varied. Among other things, studies have evaluated whether the decision to opt for self-employment was related to pull or push motives by assessing the predicted earnings differential between self-employed workers and wage earners. But few attempts have been made to determine systematically, using large-scale data, the relationship   between reported motivation for choosing self-employment and personal characteristics. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the correlation between motives and economic performance. We examine these issues in more detail in Chapter 1. The results indicate that women and men report similar motivations for self-employment. But women put more emphasis on work-family related factors, while men consider higher income as more important. We find some evidence that the economic performance among push entrepreneurs is lower than pull entrepreneurs.

    Another well-documented fact is that self-employed workers report higher levels of job satisfaction than wage earners. Relatively little empirical work has been done to examine the causes for this differential, however. This is investigated in the second chapter. Similar to previous studies we find that self-employed are on average more satisfied with their jobs than wage earners. The results show that the observed job satisfaction differential can be ascribed to the fact that self-employed workers have higher control and autonomy over their working days.

    Self-employed workers typically work longer hours than wage earners, but relatively little is known about how the self-employed allocate their time across different social activities. This issue is addressed in Chapter 3. The empirical analysis indicates that self-employed work significantly longer hours, exhibit a larger dispersion of working time, as well as a higher tendency to work atypical hours compared to wage earners. In addition, female self-employed typically devote less time to housework than female wage earners.

     

  • 355.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Grundläggande Matematik för Samhällsvetenskap och Ekonomi2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 356.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mentoring as a way of integrating refugees on the labour market: evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring of immigrants and refugees is a policy measure widely used across the world andhas been so for some years. However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence. This study investigates the impact of a mentoring programme on the labour market status of newly arrived refugees. The programme was conducted in Sweden between 2010 and 2012. The key finding of the study is that male participants after participating have moved closer to the core labour market and that there is little that relates to the content of the mentoring programme that affect the outcome.

  • 357.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mentoring as a way of integrating refugees on the labour market: evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring of immigrants and refugees is a policy measure widely used across the world and has been so for some years. However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence. This study investigates the impact of a mentoring programme on the labour market status of newly arrived refugees. The programme was conducted in Sweden between 2010 and 2012. The key finding of the study is that male participants after participating have moved closer to the core labour market and that there is little that relates to the content of the mentoring programme that affect the outcome.

  • 358.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mentoring as a way of integrating refugees on the labour market: evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme2017In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 56, no December, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that mentoring is used as a mean to increase the speed of labour market integration for immigrants around the world there is little evidence of the impacts of this type of programme. This study investigates the impact of a Swedish mentoring programme on the labour market status of newly arrived refugees. The key finding is that mentoring as a universal ‘quick fix’ does not attract a great deal of support. However, mentoring does show promise for males for whom a positive and significant impact when the outcome is defined as a yearly income exceeding one basic amount (appx. 4200 euro). For females, no short-term effect is found, although it is suggested the absence of an impact may be due to lock-in effects in other labour market programmes.

  • 359.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ulmestig, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundbom-Ressaissi, Maria
    Myndigheten för ungdoms - och civilsamhällesfrågor .
    En följeslagare på vägen: Slutrapport om betydelsen av yrkesmentorer för nyanlända flyktingars etablering2015Report (Other academic)
  • 360.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Elg, Ulf
    Lunds universitet.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Gender-based career differences among young auditors in Sweden2013In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not gender-related differences affect the likelihood of promotion. Design/methodology/approach - The research is done on a unique dataset on the Swedish audit industry, an industry with a well-defined and well-known career ladder. We apply an ordered probit model to take all steps in the career ladder into consideration simultaneously. Findings - Females are on average less likely to be promoted. Separate regressions for males and females identified that the estimated promotion probability increases for males as an effect of having a child, but decreases more for males than females if males are highly involve in the care of these children. Thus, females who are involved in childcare are penalised by lower probability of promotion; however, males who are highly involved in childcare have much more to lose in terms of promotion than females do. For a family, this becomes a question of how to lose the least. Originality/value - Having access to unique data, from a policy perspective our study gives some new insight into the uneven distribution between genders of career interruptions related to childcare.

  • 361.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lundin, Christofer
    Swedish National Agency for Education.
    When outcome definition determines the result in impact evaluations: an illustration using the Swedish work-practice programme2017In: Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, ISSN 1744-2648, E-ISSN 1744-2656, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the effect of difference in outcome definitions on the result of impact evaluations. The Swedish workplace practice programme is evaluated, using matching methods. The key findings are that changing how the outcome is defined has a considerable influence on the results of the impact assessment. From the results of this study, it is clear that differences in evaluation results can arise from differences in how the outcome is defined. The lesson learned is that definition of successful outcomes of labour market policy has to be harmonised to make meaningful comparisons and learn from previous research.

  • 362.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Quoreshi, A. M. M. Shahiduzzaman
    Swedish Agcy Growth Policy Anal, Sweden ; Blekinge Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Evaluating regional cuts in the payroll tax from a firm perspective2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 323-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions, reduced payroll taxes are analysed with regard to employment and wage effects. Our study extends the impacts to cover several possible firm outcomes using a multilevel modelling approach. Between 20 and 55 % in the variation, the outcomes can be explained by municipality differences. On firm level, the result follows a clear business logic. In the short run, profits and turnover increased which later on transforms into increased wages. After 7 years, we find the indication of impacts on investments. Thus, the support has some short-term impacts that are reduced with time and the long-term effects are questionable.

  • 363.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Improved ridge regression estimators for binary choice models: an empirical study2014In: International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, ISSN 1929-6029, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests some new estimators of the ridge parameter for binary choice models that may be applied in the presence of a multicollinearity problem. These new ridge parameters are functions of other estimators of the ridge parameter that have shown to work well in the previous research. Using a simulation study we investigate the mean square error (MSE) properties of these new ridge parameters and compare them with the best performing estimators from the previous research. The results indicate that we may improve the MSE properties of the ridge regression estimator by applying the proposed estimators in this paper, especially when there is a high multicollinearity between the explanatory variables and when many explanatory variables are included in the regression model. The benefit of this paper is then shown by a health related data where the effect of some risk factors on the probability of receiving diabetes is investigated.

  • 364.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida Int Univ, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Performance of Some Weighted Liu Estimators for Logit Regression Model: An Application to Swedish Accident Data2015In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 363-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose some new estimators for the shrinkage parameter d of the weighted Liu estimator along with the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for the logit regression model. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the performance of the proposed estimators. The mean squared error is considered as a performance criteria. The average value and standard deviation of the shrinkage parameter d are investigated. In an application, we analyze the effect of usage of cars, motorcycles, and trucks on the probability that pedestrians are getting killed in different counties in Sweden. In the example, the benefits of using the weighted Liu estimator are shown. Both results from the simulation study and the empirical application show that all proposed shrinkage estimators outperform the ML estimator. The proposed D9 estimator performed best and it is recommended for practitioners.

  • 365.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    On the Estimation of the CO2 Emission, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption Nexus Using Dynamic OLS in the Presence of Multicollinearity2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces shrinkage estimators (Ridge DOLS) for the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) cointegration estimator, which extends the model for use in the presence of multicollinearity between the explanatory variables in the cointegration vector. Both analytically and by using simulation techniques, we conclude that our new Ridge DOLS approach exhibits lower mean square errors (MSE) than the traditional DOLS method. Therefore, based on the MSE performance criteria, our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that our new method outperforms the DOLS under empirically relevant magnitudes of multicollinearity. Moreover, we show the advantages of this new method by more accurately estimating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), where the income and squared income are related to carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, we also illustrate the practical use of the method when augmenting the EKC curve with energy consumption. In summary, regardless of whether we use analytical, simulation-based, or empirical approaches, we can consistently conclude that it is possible to estimate these types of relationships in a considerably more accurate manner using our newly suggested method.

  • 366.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B.M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    A restricted Liu estimator for binary regression models and its application to an applied demand system2016In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1119-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose a restricted Liu regression estimator (RLRE) for estimating the parameter vector, β, in the presence of multicollinearity, when the dependent variable is binary and it is suspected that β may belong to a linear subspace defined by =r. First, we investigate the mean squared error (MSE) properties of the new estimator and compare them with those of the restricted maximum likelihood estimator (RMLE). Then we suggest some estimators of the shrinkage parameter, and a simulation study is conducted to compare the performance of the different estimators. Finally, we show the benefit of using RLRE instead of RMLE when estimating how changes in price affect consumer demand for a specific product.

  • 367.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Kibria, B.M. Golam
    Jönköping university.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping university.
    Some Liu Type Estimators for the dynamic OLS estimator: With an application to the carbon dioxide Kuznets curve for Turkey2017In: Communications in Statistics: Case studies, Data Analysis and Applications, E-ISSN 2373-7484, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests some Liu type shrinkage estimators for the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimator that may be used to combat the multicollinearity problem. DOLS is an estimator suggested to solve the finite sample bias of OLS caused by endogeneity issue when estimating regression models based on cointegrated variables. In this paper using simulation techniques it is shown that multicollinearity and non-normality of the error term is a problem in finite samples for the DOLS model. The merit of proposed Liu type estimator are shown by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study and using an empirical application.

  • 368.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Performance of Some Ridge Regression Estimators for the Multinomial Logit Model2018In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 2795-2804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers several estimators for estimating the ridge parameter  for multinomial logit model based on the work of Khalaf and Shukur (2005), Alkhamisi, Khalaf and Shukur (2006) and  Muniz, Kibria and Shukur (2012). The mean square error (MSE) is considered as the performance criterion. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the performance of the estimators.  Based on the simulation study we found that, increasing the correlation between the independent variables and the number of regressors has negative effect on the MSE. However, when the sample size increases the MSE decreases even when the correlation between the independent variables is large. Based on the minimum MSE criterion some useful estimators for estimating the ridge parameter k are recommended for the practitioners.

  • 369.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A New Asymmetric Interaction Ridge (AIR) Regression Method2014In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 616-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite that interaction terms are standard tools of regression analysis, the side effects of the inclusion of these terms in models estimated by ordinary least squares (OLS) are yet not fully penetrated. The inclusion of interaction effects induces multicollinearity problems since all non-zero values are equal between the interaction term and the regressor. In this article we propose a procedure to remedy this problem by the use of new ridge regression (RR) shrinkage parameters – which we call the asymmetric interaction ridge (AIR) regression method. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate both OLS and AIR using the mean square error (MSE) performance criterion. The result from the simulation study confirms our hypothesis that AIR always should be preferred to OLS since it has a lower estimated MSE. Moreover, the advantages of our new method are demonstrated in an empirical application where positive asymmetric price transmission effects are exposed for the mortgage interest rates of Handelsbanken Stadshypotek. It is observed that the mortgage interest rates increase more fully and rapidly to an increase in the bank’s borrowing costs than to a decrease. This asymmetry is defined as positive asymmetric price transmission (APT).

  • 370.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    A New Ridge Regression Causality Test in the Presence of Multicollinearity2014In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 235-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VAR lag structure applied for the traditional Granger causality (GC) test is always severely affected by multicollinearity due to autocorrelation among the lags. Therefore, as a remedy to this problem we introduce a new Ridge Regression Granger Causality (RRGC) test, which is compared to the GC test by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the simulation study we conclude that the traditional OLS version of the GC test over-rejects the true null hypothesis when there are relatively high (but empirically normal) levels of multicollinearity, while the new RRGC test will remedy or substantially decrease this problem.

  • 371. Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Testing for panel unit roots in the presence of spatial dependency2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 29, p. 4152-4159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the size and power properties of the Common-factor Im, Pesaran and Shin (CIPS), Wald (W), Likelihood Ratio (LR) and Lagrange Multiplier (LM) tests are investigated when the error term follows a spatial error model. In this study, the results from the Monte Carlo simulations, first, show that the CIPS test over-estimates the nominal size. Second, the simulation results show that the empirical size of the W test approaches the nominal size quickly, while the LR and LM tests underestimate the null hypothesis in both small and moderate sample sizes. Finally, the results also show that even though the LM and LR tests under-reject the true-null hypothesis they have higher power than the W test.

  • 372.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping university.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping university.
    Market concentration and market power of the swedish mortgage sector: a wavelet panel efficiency analysis2018In: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, ISSN 1081-1826, E-ISSN 1558-3708, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 20160021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a panel wavelet efficiency analysis, we conclude that there is a systematic pattern of positive asymmetric price transmission inefficiencies in the interest rates of the largest Swedish mortgage lenders. Thus, there seems to be a higher propensity for mortgage lenders to swiftly increase their customers’ mortgage interest rates subsequent to an increase in its borrowing costs, than to decrease their customers’ mortgage rates subsequent to a corresponding decrease in the cost of borrowing. A unique contribution is our proposed wavelet method which enables a robust detection of positive asymmetric price transmission effects at various time-frequency scales, while simultaneously controlling for non-stationary trends, autocorrelation, and structural breaks. Since traditional time-series analysis methods essentially implies that several wavelet time scales are aggregated into one single time series, the blunt traditional error correction analysis totally failed to discover APT effects for this data set. In summary, using the wavelet method we show that even though the customers in the end finally will benefit from decreases in the mortgage lenders’ financing costs, the lenders wait disproportionally long before the customers’ mortgage rates are decreased.

  • 373.
    Naslin, Nathalie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    CHAUFAUX, Gwénaëlle
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Gender Earnings Gap among Immigrants in Sweden: How does the immigrants’ gender earnings gap vary relative to the natives’ gender earnings gap in Sweden?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from 1999 on immigrants in Sweden, we find that the gender earnings gap among immigrant is lower than natives’ gender earnings gap and negatively related to their source country gender earnings gap. We also show that immigrants’ earnings are lower and more concentrated than the natives’ ones which leads to a lower gender earnings gap for immigrants. Then, regarding the gender earnings gap along the earnings distribution and linking it with earnings distribution of immigrants and natives, we are able to conclude that immigrants are not strongly affected by the glass ceiling effect since they are not present in the upper tail of the distribution. We reach the conclusion that such gender earnings gap differences between natives and immigrants may be explained by selection in the labour force participation, occupational segregation of immigrants, source country culture and discrimination.

  • 374.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Culture, assimilation, and gender gaps in labour market outcomes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of social norms and attitudes about gender, i.e. culture, for labour market behaviour and cultural assimilation of immigrants in Sweden. Using source country gender gaps as cultural proxies we find that the labour force participation of immigrants in Sweden is related to culture, in the sense that immigrants originating from countries with high gender gaps in labour force participation rates (LFPR) also have high gender gaps in LFPR within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. On the contrary, high source country gender gaps in earnings are, if anything, associated with lower gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, we find that gender gaps in LFPR among immigrants in Sweden assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time in Sweden increases. These results suggest that culture is one explanation for the existence of gender gaps in LFPR and that cultural assimilation takes place as time since exposure to the source country culture increases.

  • 375.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Ethnic Segregation and Economic Outcomes2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: This paper studies tipping behaviour in the residential mobility of the native population inSweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that thegrowth in native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once aneighbourhood’s immigrant share exceeds the identified tipping point. In the 1990s the dropcan be attributed both to increased out-migration of natives (native flight) and to thedecreased in-migration of natives (native avoidance) while native flight appears to be drivingthe segregation pattern between the years 2000 and 2007. Further, we find native migrationfrom neighbourhoods that have tipped is selective, in the sense that natives with a high levelof educational attainment are the most likely to move from such neighbourhood. We concludethat the native residential mobility has contributed to increased ethnic segregation but it alsoappears to have increased socio-economic segregation in Sweden between 1990 and 2007.

    Essay 2: This paper focuses on second-generation immigrants and analyses the short- and long-termeffects of immigrant and ethnic group concentration in childhood neighbourhood on earnings,unemployment, reliance on income support and educational attainment. The results show thata high immigrant concentration in a childhood neighbourhood is negatively associated witheconomic outcomes of both second-generation immigrants and natives. Ethnic groupconcentration seems to work in the opposite direction, improving economic outcomes forsecond-generation immigrants. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of includingtime dynamics in any analysis of the effect of childhood neighbourhood ethnic compositionon economic outcomes.

  • 376.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Segregation, Gender Economics, and Self-employment2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four empirical essays on the topics of ethnic segregation, gender economics, and self-employment.

       Essay I investigates how the residential mobility of Sweden's native population contributes to ethnic segregation, by applying regression discontinuity methods. The results show that the growth in the native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops as the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the tipping point. Tipping is driven by the departure of natives and their avoidance of tipped neighbourhoods. Tipping behaviour is selective in the sense that highly educated and high earning natives are more likely to leave neighbourhoods that have tipped.

       Essay II studies the relationship between the childhood neighbourhood's ethnic composition and economic outcomes in adulthood for second-generation immigrant sand natives. The results reveal that a high concentration of immigrants in aneighbourhood is associated with a lower probability of second-generation immigrants continuing to higher education. Natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Among non-Nordic second-generation immigrants, reliance on social assistance and unemployment are negatively correlated with the share of co-ethnics and positively associated with the proportion of other ethnic groups.

       Essay III explores the role of social norms and attitudes about gender for labour market outcomes of immigrant men and women in Sweden. The results show that immigrants originating from countries with large gender disparities in labour force participation also have large gender gaps in labour force participation within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. In contrast, source country gender differences in earnings are not correlated with gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, gender gaps in labour force participation among immigrants assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time inSweden increases.

       Essay IV empirically tests the Jack-of-all-trades theory, which states that individuals who are more balanced in their abilities are more suitable for self-employment. Using Swedish Military Enlistment data, a measure of balance in endowed abilities is constructed and this balance measure is, in relation to previous research, less likely tobe endogenous. The results support the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that propensity for being or becoming self-employed is greater for individuals with abalanced set of abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a balanced set of skills.

  • 377.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants2016In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between childhood neighbourhood ethnic composition and short- and long-run economic outcomes of second-generation immigrants and natives in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use Swedish longitudinal register data and apply regression analysis methods to investigate the correlation between three ethnic neighbourhood variables(share of immigrants, share of immigrants with the same ethnic background and share of immigrants with other descent) in childhood with short- and long-run economic outcomes (earnings, unemployment, reliance on social assistance and educational attainment).

    Findings

    The results show that second-generation immigrants raised in immigrant-dense neighbourhoods have a lower probability to continue to higher education, whereas, their earnings, unemployment and social assistance tendencies are unaffected. On the contrary, natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Moreover, the social assistance and unemployment of non-Nordic second-generation immigrants appears to be negatively correlated with the neighbourhood share of co-ethnics and positively correlated with the neighbourhood proportion of other ethnic groups. Overall, we find that the results are very similar in the short- and long-run.

    Originality/value

    This paper expands the literature on children and ethnic segregation and in contrast to earlier research in this context, it focuses on second-generation immigrants and their performance in comparison to natives. This study contributes to this research area by investigating a large variety of outcomes, looking at both immigrant, own-ethnic group and other-ethnic group concentration and including both short- and long-run correlations.

  • 378.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant and native owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. In particular, we use an individual-fixed effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with years in self-employment. The results show that native men have higher earnings and profit level from selfemployment activities than immigrant men. Immigrant men converge towards the earnings and profit levels of native men as self-employment experience increase, but do not reach parity. On the contrary, immigrant women catch up with the earnings and profit levels of native women after between 3 to 5 years in business. Turnover is highest for men, and in firms owned by non-European immigrants, independently of length of business experience. Immigrant firms, and in particular those owned by non-European immigrants, contribute more to job creation than firms owned by natives. As length of business experience increases immigrants’ hire additional persons to their firms to a higher extent than natives.

  • 379.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual-level panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant- and native-owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. We use an individual fixed-effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with self-employment experience. The advantage of our approach is that it enables estimations of the returns to self-employment experience while controlling for unobservable time-constant individual factors. The results show that profits increase with self-employment experience and at a faster rate among immigrant men and women than for their native counterparts. Turnover and the likelihood of having employees both increase with experience and in a similar magnitude for immigrants and natives.

  • 380.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Source country culture and labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden: evidence from longitudinal data2018In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 585-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the role of source country culture on gender roles for labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden. Sweden ranks as one of the world's most gender-equal countries and at the same time a recipient of many immigrants from countries with more traditional views on gender roles and gender equality. I find that the labor force participation of immigrant women in Sweden is related to their source country culture, in the sense that women from countries where women's labor market participation is low (high) also have low (high) participation in the Swedish labor market. However, all immigrant women assimilate towards, but do not reach parity with, the participation rate of native women, and the difference between women from high- and low-participation countries diminishes with length of residence in Sweden. This indicates that source country culture on gender roles does not have a persistent effect on immigrant women's labor market participation in Sweden. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of taking into account unobservable time-constant individual and source country factors when estimating the relationship between source country culture and immigrants' labor market outcomes. Neglecting to control for these factors could lead researchers to misrepresent the rate of assimilation and overstate the effect of source country culture.

  • 381.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of ethnic concentration on native and second-generation immigrant children's economic outcomes2013Report (Other academic)
  • 382.
    Nordin, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CReAM;IZA.
    Ability heterogeneity in intergenerational mobility2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A rich data set gives a unique opportunity to study heterogeneity in intergenerational mobility. Here, we explore whether the intergenerational association in education and income is the same for children with different results in a cognitive ability test (the Swedish Military Enlistment test). Despite an endogenous test score, the argument is that this is the policy relevant case to analyze, i.e. whether children of a certain cognitive ability level are influences by their parents’ socioeconomic status and not whether they are influenced by some random parent.The intergenerational associations vary a great deal with the results in the cognitive ability test. The intergenerational association is highest for the middle ability groups and lower for both the higher ability and (particularly) the lower ability groups. The overall conclusion is that adding the cognitive ability dimension to studies of intergenerational mobility contributes new and important insights. For example, since the average child (cognitively speaking) seems to be most receptive to parental influence, intergenerational mobility is primarily increased by targeting the average child.

  • 383.
    Nordin, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund University, Sweden; CReAM;IZA, Germany.
    Increasing returns to schooling by ability?: a comparison between the US and Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses US survey data (NLSY) and Swedish register data to estimate the relationship between returns to schooling and ability for each country separately. A significant and positive relationship is found for Sweden but not for the US. The purpose is to propose an explanation for why such differences might occur. While many studies have focused on whether credit constraints result in inefficiencies in the schooling market, this study answers the opposite question: whether weak credit constraints lead to inefficiencies, in other words in an overuse of the schooling system. It is argued argue that the US schooling system more effectively sorts out education investments with a low rate of return to schooling than the Swedish schooling system. Therefore, an imperfect allocation of individuals going to higher education in Sweden makes a relationship between returns to schooling and ability observable in Sweden but not in the US. Since the relationship between returns to schooling and ability is the same when the schooling systems of the two countries is similar, that is at lower levels of education, it is indicative of the fact that this explanation may be correct. Of course, the empirical findings in this study are not convincing evidence on their own, but the findings suggest and agree with such an explanation.

  • 384.
    Nordin, Martin
    et al.
    Lund Univ.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Increasing returns to schooling by ability?: a comparison between the USA and Sweden2014In: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957, Vol. 82, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses US survey data and Swedish register data to estimate and compare the relationship between returns to schooling and ability. A significant and positive relationship is found for Sweden, but not for the USA. Based on the predictions of the optimal schooling model it is argues that measured differences in the relationship between returns to schooling and ability could depend upon on differences in the schooling systems between the countries. The findings suggest that a low price of higher education in Sweden makes a relationship between returns to schooling and ability observable in Sweden but not in the USA.

  • 385.
    Nyström, Fredric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Does the spouse influence the individual’s retirement decision?: A quantitative study among older people Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of our essay is to analyze the influence of the spouse on

    the partner’s retirement decision. Drawing on a large sample of older citizens

    and a combination of a postal survey and register data, we use standard

    econometric techniques to identify the impact of the spouse’s characteristics on

    the partner’s decision to retire. The results of our estimations show that

    cohabiting/married males’ decision to retire was negatively affected by their

    partners’ health condition. On the other hand, cohabiting/married women were

    more likely to retire if their partner had already retired.

  • 386.
    Nüß, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    An empirical analysis of the Phillips Curve: A time series exploration of Germany2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between inflation and unemployment in Germany during the period from 1970 to 2012. Through the methods of cointegration, dynamic OLS and an error correction model, this paper highlights that there is no short run negative relationship between inflation and unemployment, and consequently the short run Phillips curve is an unsuitable instrument for making political decisions. Furthermore, there is a long run relationship between inflation and unemployment, which can be explained with asymmetric nominal wage rigidities and resulting frictional growth. Resulting policy implications reflect the advantage of a permanent higher inflation target for Germany. Since the beginning of the European Monetary Union, Germany has been on average 0.5% under the permanent inflation target of the central bank. Therefore, by using fiscal policy, Germany can reduce permanent unemployment without missing the inflation target of the central bank. Finally, despite of variety of intensive changes in the macroeconomic situation and particularly through the establishment of the European Monetary Union, the CUSUM and CUSUMsq test reveal that the estimate holds validity over the entire observation period and has not changed since the beginning of the European Monetary Union.

  • 387.
    Omer, Mirza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Svensson, Mathias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Human and Ethnic capital: The labor market performance of first-, second-, and third generation male immigrants in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the earnings, human and ethnic capital of immigrants in Sweden and how its transmitted across generations. it focuses on the first-, second-, and third-generation immigrants, were the results indicates that there are differences regarding earnings relative to natives between the generations and how the ethnic-, and human-capital is transmitted across generations. First-generation immigrants had an earning advantage relative to natives, meanwhile the second-, and third-generation faced a disadvantage. One conclusion is that the ethnic capital from the first-generation has a negative impact on the earnings of second-, and third-generation immigrants in Sweden. When measuring the ethnic capital from the second-generation immigrants, the results shows a positive influence on the earnings of the third-generation.

  • 388.
    Ottou, Estelle
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    German labour market outcomes of cohorts of immigrants over time: A forecast of the employment of recent cohorts based on earlier newcomers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been noticed that throughout the years, immigrant’s skills, knowledge, and experience have declined. In fact, researchers have noticed the presence of cohort effects, where there are differences in quality and skills across the immigrants. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and through an out-of-sample forecast of the employment of recent cohorts based on how earlier newcomers performed, I can confirm that, over time, immigrants see their probability of being employed decrease. For instance, employment decreased from 99% for immigrants that arrived in Germany in 2010 to 92% for those that came in 2015. The linear probability model also highlights that not only human capital influences directly employment levels of immigrants. Undeniably, the region of origin and the immigrants’ duration of residence in Germany also impact the likelihood of finding a paid job. Therefore, cohort effects cannot only be justified by the fact that newly arrived immigrants are very different from those who arrived some years ago.

  • 389.
    Peco, Amina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Misskötta studielån: Hur mycket förväntas de kosta?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När propositionen för ett reformerat studiestödssystem lades 1999 poängterades det att studiestödssystemet skulle bära sina egna kostnader. Trots det skrivs stora belopp av. Både Riksrevisionen och Riksgälden har visat att CSN inte använder vedertagna metoder vid beräkningen av det som förväntas gå förlorat på grund av misskötta betalningar.

    Uppsatsens syfte har varit att skatta vad misskötta betalningar väntas kosta staten i form av framtida avskrivningar samt beräkna vad det skulle innebära för individen att istället bära kostnaden. Som en del i det arbetet har även faktorer som påverkar sannolikheten för misskötta betalningar av studielån identifierats.

    Resultaten av denna uppsats har bland annat visat att sannolikheten för misskötta betalningar är lägre för individer med eftergymnasial utbildning, hög skuld och låg ålder. Statens kreditförluster på studielån för till exempel individer som blev återbetalningsskyldiga under 2012 förväntas bli mellan 100 och 338 miljoner kronor. Om denna kostnad istället skulle bäras av årskullen innebär det en kostnadsökning på 2,2-7,8 procent för en individ med genomsnittlig skuld.

  • 390.
    Persson, johan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Is your taxi driver actually an engineer?: Mismatch in the Swedish Labour Market: Overeducation? Does it differ across different birth regions?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this essay is to explain if there exist a mismatch on the Swedish labour market, with a main emphasis on overeducation. We frame our empirical work according to mismatch theories the human capital theory, technological change theory and the education-occupation mismatch theory. Using panel data from the European Social Survey covering the period 2002 and 2016 were we able to define overeducation at different levels to observe which is the most suitable for the topic of this essay. Our main result will be focusing on the 20 percent level, which means: “I and 20% other workers acquire a higher education than the other 80%”. Our result indicated that immigrants experienced a higher likelihood of being overeducated in comparison to natives. When we looked at the different birth regions did we found that individuals from the Central/South American countries were the ones who experienced the highest likelihood of being overeducated. Our result indicates that the further away your home country is from Sweden the higher is the probability of being overeducated, which goes hand in hand with the theories presented.

  • 391.
    Pielaszkiewicz, Jolanta Maria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    R-transform associated with asymptotic negative spectral moments of Jacobi ensemble2018In: Afrika Statistika, ISSN 2316-090X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1531-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive an explicit formula for the R–transform of inverse Jacobi matrix I + W^−1 W2, where W1, W2 ∼ Wp(I, ni), i = 1, 2 are independent and I is p×p dimensional identity matrix using property of asymptotic freeness of Wishart and deterministic matrices. Procedure can be extended to other sets of the asymptotically free independent matrices. Calculations are illustrated with some simulations on fixed size matrices.

  • 392.
    Pielaszkiewicz, Jolanta Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Linköping University.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    Linköping University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Singull, Martin
    Linköping University.
    Testing independence via spectral moments2017In: Applied and Computational Matrix Analysis: MAT-TRIAD 2015 / [ed] Bebiano Natalia, Springer, 2017, Vol. 192, p. 263-274Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 393.
    Pölder, Robert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    An Investigation of the Swedish Consumption Function: An Error-Correction Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the Swedish aggregate consumption function using the concept of cointegration, and explores whether consumption, income, financial wealth, and housing wealth share a long-run trend. The goal of the study was to determine the strength of this cointegrating relationship, the relative roles of housing wealth and financial wealth in the consumption function, and a suitable method for forecasting consumption. The strength of the cointegrating relationship, incorporated in a vector error-correction model (VECM), is evaluated by that model’s forecasts. Its forecasting performance is assessed via accuracy tests and comparisons to alternative models. The study also examines the effect of allowing for intercept correction in the VECM’s forecasts. The preferred VECM demonstrates that consumption is the variable that error corrects to restore the long-run relationship after a disequilibrium, with a correction time of less than three quarters. The results indicate the vital role of financial wealth in the consumption function, while revealing that housing wealth has no significant effect on consumption in either the long run or in the short run. When it comes to forecasting, the alternative, data-driven Bayesian vector autoregressive model generated relatively accurate short-run forecasts, while the theory-driven VECM generated relatively accurate long-run predictions. Moreover, the results further indicated the existence of the cointegrating relationship as the VECM outperformed the vector autoregressive model at both long horizon and short horizon forecasts. Additionally, intercept correction slightly improved short-run, but not long-run, forecasts, giving no indication of a misspecified VECM, or a significant structural shift during the forecast period, 2010-2015.  

  • 394.
    Pölder, Robert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Wage Dispersion and Employment for People With Low Skill: Sweden Compared to Six European Countries2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates in what way employment for low-skilled workers is connected to the wage dispersion in a country by comparing Sweden to six European countries. Previous research on this topic used cross-section analysis, but this essay takes another approach by comparing the changes in the wage dispersion and employment and by breaking down the change in the wage dispersion into parts and studying the change in the wage for different percentiles. The paper finds that wages in Sweden have not converged, which likely contributed to the increase in the employment gap between people with high and low skills. Two countries with different development were Germany and Norway. In line with recent research, in Germany, wage inequality increased and the employment gap between people with high and low skills decreased. In comparison, the case of Norway has not received much attention among researchers. Wages converged more in Norway than in Germany, yet employment increased more in Germany. The paper suggests a potential explanation: wages for the bottom percentiles of the earnings distribution fell in Germany, which it did not in Norway.

  • 395.
    Ragipi Rushid, Ajsuna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A cross-country analysis of the association between educational mobility and income inequality2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between intergenerational educational mobility and income inequality. Previous research suggests that this relationship is expected to be positive, i.e. high income inequality is associated with low intergenerational educational mobility. To estimate the association between the two specified variables data on educational mobility is taken from a previous study and data on the income inequality measure, the Gini coefficient is taken from the World Bank. A weighted least square regression shows that 0.10 increase in the Gini coefficient leads to a 0.135 increase in the measure of educational mobility. Moreover, one underlying mechanism for this certain linkage is inspected. Pearson correlation between public spending on education as a percent of GDP and educational mobility show a rather strong negative association suggesting that higher spending on education is related to higher educational mobility. 

  • 396.
    Ragipi Rushid, Ajsuna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Technical efficiency of Swedish district courts: - a stochastic distance function analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to measure Swedish district courts’ technical efficiency for the period between 2000 and 2016 by applying the stochastic distance function approach. Although a very important issue from a policy perspective, a few studies have measured the efficiency of the courts. The narrow literature is also limited to using nonparametric methods, such as the DEA. The stochastic distance function has not been used for this purpose before and hence this is the first study to do so. The estimated mean score of technical efficiency is 93%. However, this study observes that efficiency levels increase throughout the studied period. Large variations between efficiency levels of different courts are also observed. Policy recommendations are to learn from courts with higher efficiency levels.  

  • 397.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do parents in Ethiopia invest more in the early health of sons?: a study of breastfeeding, vaccination and the role of unintended births2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent World Bank (2011) study has documented a rise in the mortality risk of girls relative to boys in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates whether this disadvantage for girls in child mortality is a result of son bias in parents’ health investments in child nutrition (breastfeeding) and preventive medicine (vaccination) in a Sub-Saharan African country, Ethiopia. We also examine potential heterogeneity in son bias by distinguishing intended from unintended births. The latter implies that the mother had more children than she wanted, which may be a result of a lack of effective contraception or her husband’s desire for more sons. Using data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, we find no gender bias in breastfeeding and vaccination of sons and daughters. A further examination of the results reveals that the treatment of boys and girls depends on whether the birth was intended. We find that intended boys and girls receive similar treatment in breastfeeding and vaccination. However, among unintended children, we find that girls receive significantly less breastfeeding and vaccinations than boys. Our finding implies that government policies designed to improve access to effective contraception and women’s bargaining power in the household are important to reducing unintended births and its consequences for girls’ well-being.

  • 398.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The gender gap in early career wage growth: the role of children, job and occupational mobility2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first ten years in the labor market, male university graduates experience a faster wage growth than their female counterparts in the Swedish labor market. This paper investigates the role of job mobility and upward occupational mobility in explaining the gender gap in early career wage growth. The analysis reveals that, although job and occupational mobility significantly contributes to the early career wage growth of both males and females, the size of the wage growth effect of both types of mobility are significantly lower for females. This female mobility penalty persists even after accounting for gender differences in observable individual and job characteristics as well as unobserved individual specific heterogeneity. We further investigate to what extent this mobility penalty of women is explained by parental status. We find that women’s penalty in returns to upward occupational mobility is largely linked to the timing of childbirth and child care, which suggests the presence of a trade-off between work and family. But women’s penalty in returns to “voluntary” job mobility does not seem to be mainly associated with parental status, in which a sizable gender gap in return to “voluntary” job mobility is found among the childless as well as parents.

  • 399.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Gender Gap in Early Career Wage Growth: The Role of Children, Job Mobility, and Occupational Mobility2019In: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 278-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first 10 years in the Swedish labor market, male university graduates experience a faster wage growth than females. We investigate the role job and upward occupational mobility have for the creation of gender difference in early career wage growth; and the role of motherhood as an underlying mechanism. We find that although men and women change jobs and occupations at the same rate, women receive a significantly lower wage returns to mobility than men. We find evidence that women's lower return to occupational mobility is largely explained by motherhood, while the evidence for job mobility is rather weak.

  • 400.
    Robin, Sjöblom
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Are the invdividuals who buy Triss rational by doing it?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the extent to which individuals who bought Triss in Värnamo at Hemköp are rational in their decision to buy Triss. The expected value was found to be lower than the price of the Triss ticket. The results from the experiment suggests the individuals act irrationally as they did not accept to exchange their Triss for another Triss and an additional Mini Triss. The data from the observation suggests that individuals with a winning Triss tend to exchange it for a new Triss when the amount won is relatively small. When the amount won was relatively larger, the more likely the individuals were to claim the money. When a jackpot Triss was sold in the store, there was no significant increase of sales of Triss in the store, hence the individuals in the store did act rational in the sense they did not buy more or less Triss because of the jackpot was sold in the store. The results found in this paper suggest that individuals who buy Triss acts with a bounded rationality since their decision of buying Triss are driven by emotions, poor understanding of probabilities and risk under uncertainties.

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf