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  • 351.
    Paoli, Jason
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Can mindfulness and nostalgia raise adolescents’ happiness and subjective well-being?: A quantitative study on the effects of using nostalgia and mindfulness as methods to raise happiness and subjective well-being amongst adolescents.2015Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, 450 million people are estimated to have a mental health problem. Therefore this study set out with the aim to fill the gap in research on how to raise happiness and subjective well-being amongst adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 90 students ranging from 16 - 19 years of age. They were randomly assigned to one of two methods; BPS (Best Personal Self) or nostalgia. Each group was then given varying instructions on a task they would perform on a daily basis, with tests taken on the first and last day of the study. The tests consisted of questions from the PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Scale) and the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), which would determine the different methods short- and long-term effect on the participants happiness and subjective well-being. A control group was used to compare the results of the test groups. The results indicated nostalgia as being the most effective way to raise short-term well-being amongst adolescents, which raised interesting questions for future studies.

  • 352.
    Patzer, Natalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Problematiskt spelande: En studie om socialekologiska faktorers samband med riskabelt dator- och tv-spelsbruk bland unga2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problematic gaming is a growing field of research. Especially adolescent males are in several studies of representatives and contact has been shown to many social factors, whilst research methods and concept definitions differ, it has been difficult to draw consistent conclusions from the study situation. In order to gain more clarity in the disseminated knowledge situation, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between social factors and a risky gaming convergent. A survey was conducted on 82 Swedish high school students aged 18-20, based on GAIT (Gaming Addiction Identification Test) and questions regarding social ecological phenomena. Data were analyzed statistically by mean value analysis and regression analysis. The analyzes showed correlation between increased degree of risky gaming and an increased degree of unstable housing situation, financial problems, lack of support from parents, lack of support from friends and lack of social affiliation. Furthermore, it was found that boys to a greater extent exhibit risky gaming than girls and regression analysis showed that being male could predict risky gaming. It is concluded that certain sociological ecological phenomena as well as gender differences may have an impact on the nature of gaming, but based on the study's limitations, there is a further need for studying the social-ecological nature of problematic gaming in order to be able to draw general conclusions

  • 353.
    Pedersen, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svalbring, Josef
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gymnasielärares upplevda stressfaktorer samt optimala arbetsmiljöer: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om de faktorer som lärare upplever stressande i sitt yrke och vad för arbetsmiljöer de anser vara optimala för sitt välmående2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 354.
    Peltola, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Liselotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Påverkas den psykosociala arbetsmiljön och self-efficacy av olika ledarskapsstilar?: En kvantitativ studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan ledarstilar, den psykosociala arbetsmiljön och self-efficacy. Detta för skapa större förståelse för hur olika ledarstilar kan påverka medarbetarnas välbefinnande och prestation. Deltagarna (N = 81, mellan 19-64 år) svarade på en enkät med bakgrundsvariabler, den generella self-efficacy skalan (GSE), psykosocialarbetsmiljökart-läggning (PAK, egenkontroll, arbetsledningklimat, arbetsstimulans, arbetsgemenskap och arbetsbelastning) och ledarskapsstilar (CPE, förändring-oriented-, strukturella och produktionsinriktad och relationsorienterade). Positiva associationer om ledarstilar och den psykosociala arbetsmiljön demonstrerades, särskilt för relationsorienterade ledarstil, vilket korrelerade med alla fem huvudfaktorer i PAK. Däremot korrelerade strukturella- och produktionorienterad och förändringsorienterad inte signifikant. Ingen signifikant korrelation mellan ledarstilar och personal self-efficacy hittades. Dock var self-efficacy relaterad till anställdas upplevda psykosociala arbetsmiljö. Genom deskriptiv statistik rapporterades som medelvärden visade att anställda med mer än genomsnittet på GSEs (self-efficacy) tenderade att svara högre på alla fem huvudfaktorer för PAK. 

  • 355.
    Penttinen, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lärarerfarenhet och dess påverkan på self-efficacy: en kvantitativ studie om erfarenhet, self-efficacy och personlighet bland gymnasielärare2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersökte relationen mellan erfarenhet inom läraryrket och generell selfefficacy samt lärarself-efficacy. Därefter undersöktes även personlighetsegenskaper för att förstå hur self-efficacy fungerar mellan olika personer. Detta blev möjligt genom att utföra en enkätundersökning som skickades ut till lärare i gymnasieskolan (N = 94), vilket involverade General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) och Big Five Inventory (BFI). Tidigare studier har visat blandade resultat, där lärarerfarenhet har korrelerat med generell- och lärarself-efficacy, men även studier som inte visar någon korrelation alls. Resultaten till denna studie visade signifikanta korrelationer mellan lärarself-efficacy och erfarenhet, liksom lärarself-efficacy och generell self-efficacy. Dessutom visades signifikanta korrelationer mellan alla personlighetsegenskaper och båda self-efficacies. Denna studies viktigaste slutsatser var det stigande förhållandet mellan lärarself-efficacy och erfarenhet, där längre erfarenhet resulterar i högre grad av lärarself-efficacy.

  • 356.
    Pernebo, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Children in group interventions after exposure to violence toward a caregiver: Experiences, needs, and outcomes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three empirical studies, all part of the same research project, with a general aim to explore interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Because witnessing violence toward a caregiver is associated with negative impact on children’s health and development, effective interventions for children exposed to IPV are necessary.

    The aim of Study I was to elucidate young children’s experiences of participating in group interventions for children exposed to IPV. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programs designed for children exposed to IPV. The interviews were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five master themes embracing the children’s experiences were identified: joy; security; relatedness; talking; and competence.

    The aim of Study II was to investigate young children’s accounts of their abused parent. Interviews were conducted with 17 children between 4 and 13 years old who had witnessed IPV. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: coherent accounts of the parent; deficient accounts of the parent; and parent as a trauma trigger.

    Study III was an effectiveness study investigating the outcomes of two group interventions for children exposed to IPV and their non-offending parent: one psycho-educative community-based intervention (CBI) and one psychotherapeutic treatment intervention. The study included 50 children between 4 and 13 years old and their mothers. Child and maternal mental health problems and trauma symptoms were assessed before and after treatment. The results indicate that although children benefited from both interventions, symptom reduction was larger in the psychotherapeutic intervention. Despite these improvements, most of the children’s mothers still reported child trauma symptoms at clinical levels post treatment. Both interventions, however, significantly reduced maternal post-traumatic stress.

    The results showed that children generally appreciated and benefited from both interventions studied, but most still showed symptoms at clinical levels post treatment and a possible need for additional and/or different support and interventions. These results indicate not only the need for continuous and post-treatment assessment of children’s symptoms in routine clinical practice, but also the value of including children as informants in research.

  • 357.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Children with Experience of Intimate Partner Violence describe their Abused Parent.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It has been shown that negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the child begins early in the realm of the relationship between child and caregiver. Understanding how children experience and relate to an abused parent is essential for theory and to optimize interventions. The aim of this study was to elucidate how children describe their abused parent in the aftermath of IPV. Method: Face-to face interviews were conducted with 17 children with experience of IPV, aged 4 to 12 years. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Three main themes were identified: Coherent telling about parent; Deficient telling about parent, and Parent as trauma trigger. The results indicate that children may carry integrated as well as deficient or blocked inner representations of the abused parent. Discussion: The finding that for some of the children talking about the abused parent seemed to serve as a trigger for trauma reactions carry theoretical as well as clinical implications. One challenge in clinical work is to help turn a relationship that at times is associated with danger into a calm and secure source of new experiences of trust, nurturance and protection. In this work it will be necessary to pay attention to and recognize signs of trauma reactions within the relationship and to address this in treatment.

  • 358.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Children with experience of intimate partner violence describe their abused parent: A qualitative study.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with experience of intimate partner violence describe their abused parent: A qualitative study.

     

    Karin Pernebo¹² and Kjerstin Almqvist³

    ¹ Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Sweden

    ² Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg

    ³ Department of Psychology, Karlstad University, Sweden

     

    Abstract

    It has been shown that negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the child begins early in the realm of the relationship between child and caregiver. Understanding how children experience and relate to an abused parent is essential for theory and to optimize interventions. The aim of this study was to elucidate how children describe their abused parent in the aftermath of IPV. Face-to face interviews were conducted with 17 children with experience of IPV, aged 4 to 12 years, using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: Coherent telling about parent; Deficient telling about parent and Parent as trauma trigger. The results indicate that children may carry integrated as well as deficient or blocked inner representations of the abused parent and illustrate the benefit of including young children in research. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  • 359.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad university, Sweden.
    Description of how Child-Parent Psychotherapy was implemented in Sweden and Norway through a Clinical and Academic Training Collaborative, Research and the Formation of a Nordic Network.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Effective and evidenced based treatments targeting young children exposed to domestic violence are scarce in Sweden and Norway. Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) is a treatment model validated for work with young children and their caregiver(s) suffering from the consequences of domestic violence. CPP was introduced in Sweden as part of a research project concerning treatment methods for children exposed to violence, financed by the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare. CPP was not previously practiced in Sweden. 

    Method: The implementation process of CPP in Sweden and Norway has included training of therapists, training of trainers and research. During 2013 – 2015 the first training of therapists in was realized in cooperation with the Child Trauma Research Program, University of California, San Francisco. A feasibility study, conducted in conjunction with the training, indicated that the dissemination of CPP was appropriate without particular adjustments to the Swedish cultural context, and that the method was appreciated by clinicians and families. The observed effects from the feasibility study indicated that the positive results from international (US) studies may be replicated in a Swedish context. The results from this study contributed to the decision in 2016 from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to support the implementation of CPP in Sweden.

    Results: To date three cohorts of clinicians have been trained in Sweden and training of Swedish trainers has been completed. The second cohort included participants from Norway, and subsequently a first training of clinicians has been completed in Norway. An effectiveness study is ongoing. Additionally a Nordic network has been established to scaffold training, implementation and sustainability of CPP in the Nordic countries.

    Discussion: It was evident that CPP fills a gap in child and adolescent psychiatry in Sweden and Norway. Challenges and facilitators in the process of implementation will be discussed.

  • 360.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Region Kronoberg.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Young Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence Describe their Abused Parent: A Qualitative Study2017In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) begins early in the child’s relationship with a caregiver. Children’s relationships with, and internal working models of, abused parents have rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to collect and interpret young children’s accounts of their abused parent. Interviews were conducted with 17 children aged 4 to 12 years who had witnessed IPV. Thematic analysis identified three main themes and seven sub-themes: “Coherent accounts of the parent” (sub-themes of “general benevolence”, “provision of support, protection, and nurture”, and “parental distress”); “Deficient accounts of the parent” (“vague accounts” and “disorganized narrations”); and “The parent as a trauma trigger” (“avoidance” and “breakthrough of intrusive memories and thoughts”). The results indicate these children may hold integrated, deficient, or blocked internal representations of an abused parent, and they illustrate the benefit of including young children as informants in research.

  • 361.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Six and 12-month follow-up of group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Children exposed to intimate partner violence are at risk of long-term consequences on their health and development as well as of continued or renewed exposure to witnessing violence and of being subjected to physical child abuse.

    There is a need for effective interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence. Existing interventions in Sweden have shown positive but insufficient outcomes. Long term health effects and children’s protection from violence are often not investigated. Extended knowledge on lasting outcomes, aiming at improving established interventions is needed.

    Method: The current study is an effectiveness study investigating the outcomes of two established group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence and their non-offending parent. The study included 50 children, 24 girls and 26 boys, aged 4-13 years. Background information, child and parental mental health problems and trauma symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment, as well as 6 and 12 months post treatment. Additionally children’s exposure to physical and psychological child maltreatment and to intimate partner violence was tracked.

    Results: The results indicate that children benefit from the group interventions. Late improvements were registered at the follow-up assessments. The findings indicate that children’s exposure to violence decreased, with physical maltreatment decreasing prior to exposure to psychological maltreatment.

    Discussion: Currently data from the 6- and 12-months follow-up assessments are being analyzed. Preliminary results include paths of continuous symptoms reduction for children and children’s long-term exposure to violence. Possible associations between child and maternal levels of symptoms, as well as methodological and clinical implications will be discussed.

  • 362.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fridell, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Outcomes of a psychotherapeutic and a psychoeducative group intervention for children exposed to intimate partner violence2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Experience of violence towards a caregiver during childhood is associated with a risk of negative impact

    on children’s health and development, and there is a need for effective interventions in clinical as well as in community

    settings. Research has shown that existing interventions in Sweden for children with experience of violence towards a

    caregiver are associated with positive but insufficient outcomes. In addition to implementation of new evidence based

    interventions expanded knowledge is needed on outcomes of established interventions aiming at identifying possible

    needs for improvement.

    Method: The current study is an effectiveness study aiming at investigating the outcomes of two established group

    interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence and their non-offending parent, one community based

    psychoeducative intervention and one psychotherapeutic treatment intervention. The study included 50 children, 24

    girls and 26 boys, aged 4-13 years. Background information, child and parental mental health problems and trauma

    symptoms was assessed pre- and post-treatment as well as 6 and 12 months post treatment.

    Results: The results indicate that children benefit from both interventions, yet mothers of a majority of the children still

    reported child trauma symptoms at clinical levels post treatment. Preliminary results from the follow up assessments will

    be presented, such as outcomes in symptoms reduction and possible associations with confounding variables.

    Discussion: Theoretical, methodological and clinical implications will be discussed.

  • 363.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Fridell, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Outcomes of group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence, 6- and 12-months follow-up of an effectiveness study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a global public health problem. Many children worldwide are living with a mother who is a victim of intimate partner violence, a situation associated with a serious risk of short- as well as long-term consequences to children’s health and development.

    There is a need for effective interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence. Existing interventions in Sweden have shown positive but insufficient outcomes. Extended knowledge on lasting outcomes, aiming at improving established interventions is needed.

    Method: The current study is an effectiveness study investigating the outcomes of two established group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence and their non-offending parent. The study included 50 children, 24 girls and 26 boys, aged 4-13 years. Background information, child and parental mental health problems and trauma symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment, as well as 6 and 12 months post treatment.

    Results: The results indicate that children benefit from the group interventions, although post intervention a majority of mothers still reported symptoms in their children at clinical levels. Late improvements were registered at the follow-up assessments. The findings indicate that mothers benefit from these primarily child-oriented interventions, showing considerable and lasting reduction of symptoms.

    Discussion: Currently data from the 6- and 12-months follow-up assessments are being analyzed. Preliminary results include paths of continuous symptoms reduction for children and mothers. Possible associations between child and maternal levels of symptoms, as well as methodological and clinical implications will be discussed.

  • 364.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Region Kronoberg.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lund university.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad university.
    Outcomes of psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence.2018In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 79, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Witnessing violence toward a caregiver during childhood is associated with negative impact on children's health and development, and there is a need for effective interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence in clinical as well as in community settings. The current effectiveness study investigated symptom reduction after participation in two established group interventions (one community-based psychoeducative intervention; one psychotherapeutic treatment intervention) for children exposed to intimate partner violence and for their non-offending parent. The study included 50 children-24 girls and 26 boys-aged 4-13 years and their mothers. Child and maternal mental health problems and trauma symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment. The results indicate that although children showed benefits from both interventions, symptom reduction was larger in the psychotherapeutic intervention, and children with initially high levels of trauma symptoms benefited the most. Despite these improvements, a majority of the children's mothers still reported child trauma symptoms at clinical levels post-treatment. Both interventions substantially reduced maternal post-traumatic stress. The results indicate a need for routine follow-up of children's symptoms after interventions.

  • 365.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Reduced psychiatric symptoms at 6 and 12 months' follow-up of psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence2019In: Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, Vol. 93, p. 228-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long-term follow-up studies of interventions for children exposed to intimatepartner violence are few, and the sustainability of their outcomes often remains unexplored anduncertain. Current research including follow-up assessment suggests that treatment gains may bemaintained or continue post termination. In addition some children may show increased levels ofsymptoms.

    Objective: The present effectiveness study investigated the long-term outcomes of two establishedgroup interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence and their non-offendingparent.

    Participants and Setting: The study included 50 children, 24 girls and 26 boys, aged 4 to 13 yearsattending a psychotherapeutic child and adolescent mental health service intervention and apsychoeducative community-based intervention.

    Methods: Background information, child and parental mental health problems, trauma symptoms,and exposure to violence were assessed pre- and post treatment and at 6 and 12 months’follow-up.

    Results: Sustained treatment gains and late improvements in children’s internalizing and externalizingsymptoms and in symptoms of traumatic stress were recorded from post treatment tothe follow-up assessments (p = .004– .044; d = 0.29–0.67). No significant increase in symptomswas reported. Additionally, very little continued or renewed child exposure to violence was reported.

    Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the children did benefit from the two interventionsstudied and that the outcomes of reduced child symptoms and protection from exposureto violence were sustainable. Children with severe trauma symptoms benefited the most, thoughmaternal psychological problems may for some have hindered recovery. Clinical implications arediscussed.

  • 366.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fridell, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad Universitet, Institutionen för Psykologi.
    Young children’s experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposedto intimate partner violence: A qualitative study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young children’s experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed

    to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study

    Karin Pernebo¹, Mats Fridell¹² and Kjerstin Almqvist³

    ¹Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Sweden

    ²Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden

    ³Department of Psychology, Karlstad University, Sweden

    The risk of exposure to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased

    during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest

    children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have

    experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge

    about how the children themselves experience the interventions.

    The aim of this study was to elucidate young children’s own experiences of participating in

    a group-treatment designed to improve their psychological health in the aftermath of family

    violence. Nine children, ages four to six, were interviewed after participating in group-programs

    specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A

    semi-structured interviewguide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed

    and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis toensure focus on the children’s

    own views and experiences.

    Five master themes embracing the children’s experiences were identified:

    Joy - positive emotional experience of participation; Security - feeling safe; Relatedness -

    relations within the group; To talk – externalized focus on the violence; and Competence –

    new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit

  • 367.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Utvärdering av två svenska gruppinterventioner för barn med erfarenhet av våld i föräldrarnas nära relation.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvärdering av två svenska gruppinterventioner för barn med erfarenhet av våld i föräldrarnas nära relation.

    Karin Pernebo¹², Mats Fridell 3, Idor Svensson1 and Kjerstin Almqvist4

    ¹ Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Sweden

    ² Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg

    3 Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden

    4 Department of Psychology, Karlstad University, Sweden

     

    Abstract

    Erfarenhet av våld mot primär omsorgsgivare medför risk för negativ påverkan på barns hälsa och utveckling och det finns ett behov av genomförbara och verksamma interventioner för dessa barn. Tidigare studier visar att befintliga insatser i Sverige till barn med erfarenhet av våld i föräldrarnas nära relation är uppskattade av barn och föräldrar samt är förknippade med positivt men otillräckligt utfall. Ökad kunskap behövs för att bättre förstå vad som är verksamt och hur insatser kan förbättras. I en pågående studie granskas två väletablerade och manualiserade gruppinterventioner som erbjuds inom ramen för ordinarie etablerad klinisk verksamhet för barn med erfarenhet av våld mot primär omsorgsgivare. Den ena interventionen är tydligt psykoedukativ och den andra har sin grund i utvecklingspsykologi, traumateori och psykodynamisk teori. Interventionerna innehåller parallella grupper för barn och för den våldsutsatta föräldern med ett besök per vecka, vid 12-15 tillfällen. 50 barn i åldern 4-13 år ingår i studien. Barn och föräldrar har inkluderats kontinuerligt under en tvåårsperiod. Kontextuella faktorer, förekomst av våld (dvs. förälderns utsatthet, barnets exponering för våld mot föräldern och barnets egen våldsutsatthet), generell symtombelastning samt symtom på posttraumatisk stress hos barnen och generell symtombelastning samt symtom på posttraumatisk stress hos den våldsutsatta föräldern mäts före och efter intervention, samt efter 6 månader och efter 1 år.

     

    Preliminära resultat från före och eftermätning presenteras vad gäller traumasymtom och generella symtom på psykisk ohälsa hos barnen. Eventuella samband med exempelvis typ av gruppintervention, barnets egen våldsutsatthet, förälders psykiska ohälsa, pågående rättsliga tvister och umgänge diskuteras.

  • 368.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ulmestig, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Sandor
    Konsultationer från specialistnivå till basnivå: en utvärdering av ett projekt inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 369.
    Persson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Traditionell mobbning och nätmobbning bland svenska gymnasieelever: Könsskillnader och psykosomatiska symtom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 370.
    Petersson Lundgren, Helén
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av kreativitet hos individer med konstnärligt kreativa yrken: en fenomenologisk studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien gjordes djupintervjuer med sex personer med konstnärligt kreativa yrken. Syftet var att undersöka den personliga upplevelsen av kreativitet hos individer som dagligen möter kreativitet i sitt yrke. Undersökningen var kvalitativ och en fenomenologisk infallsvinkel antogs. Frågeställningarna berörde de intervjuades känslomässiga och tankemässiga upplevelse av kreativitet, en kartläggning av de förutsättningar och begränsningar respondenterna uppfattade, samt deras syn på den kreativa processen.

    Resultatet i studien visade på en känslomässig dualism gällande skapandet, en upplevelse av plötslig helhet och ett flöde. Några tankemässiga teman togs upp av respondenterna gällande bland annat definitionen av begreppet kreativitet, fokus, inspiration, drivkrafter, identitet och kontroll. Publikens/kundens roll, yrkets ramar och samarbete var tre aspekter på kreativa förutsättningar och begränsningar. Slutligen framkom att den kreativa processen upplevdes bestå av hårt arbete, någon sorts aha-upplevelse, samt att förloppet snarare verkade vara spiral- eller vågformigt än linjärt. 

  • 371.
    Pettersson, Madeléne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westesson Bexéus, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anknytning och emotionsreglering under adolescensen: en sambandsstudie bland gymnasieelever2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the links between secure attachment relationships and emotion regulation during adolescence. In total 82 adolescents, 47 women and 35 men, between the ages of 17 and 20 years participated in the study by completing Swedish versions of the self-assessment forms Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). The results show that the relationships between attachment and the emotion regulation strategies cognitive reappraisal and suppression, differ in strength. The attachment relationships are a weak predictor of cognitive reappraisal and explains approximately 5 percent of the variance, while they predict approximately 41 percent of the variance of suppression. A comparison between women and men showed that young men use cognitive reappraisal more frequently than young women. The relationships with friends appears to be particularly significant to emotion regulation during adolescence, which may be due to that adolescents rely on their friends to greater extent when they separate themselves from their parents and become more independent. Therefore, it is important to further examine how the absence of secure friendships affect young people in general including their emotion regulation.

  • 372.
    Popucza, Tímea Zsuzsanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sinnesstämningens inflytande på olfaktorisk perception2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta forskare inom området är överens om att det finns kopplingar mellan luktsinnet och känslor. Däremot finns det mindre forskning och bevis kring hur människors inre tillstånd påverkar olfaktorisk perception, dvs. uppfattningen av dofter. Föreliggande studie hade avsikt att studera sambandet mellan sinnesstämning och uppskattning av behagliga dofter. Den aktuella sinnesstämningen mättes med hjälp av Mood Adjective Checklist (Sjöberg et.al., 1979), ett tillförlitligt och känsligt instrument. För att mäta doftuppskattning användes fem olika dofter på doftstickor. Dofterna valdes ut systematiskt, testades i förväg och bekräftades som behagliga. Resultaten kunde inte visa något signifikant samband mellan sinnesstämning och doftuppskattning (p = .612). Ingen predicerande effekt i sinnesstämning och i de olika dimensionerna av sinnesstämningen på doftuppskattning kunde påvisas (p varierar mellan .293 och .862). Resultaten kan ha påverkats av metodologiska brister och utformningen av dofttestningsinstrumentet som diskuterats.

  • 373.
    Porto, Fabio Henrique de Gobbi
    et al.
    Harvard University, USA.
    Fox, Anne Murphy
    Harvard University, USA.
    Tusch, Erich S.
    Harvard University, USA.
    Sorond, Farzaneh
    Harvard University, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Daffner, Kirk R.
    Harvard University, USA.
    In vivo evidence for neuroplasticity in older adults2015In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 114, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroplasticity can be conceptualized as an intrinsic property of the brain that enables modification of function and structure in response to environmental demands. Neuroplastic strengthening of synapses is believed to serve as a critical mechanism underlying learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. Ex vivo work investigating neuroplasticity has been done on hippocampal slices using high frequency stimulation. However, in vivo neuroplasticity in humans has been difficult to demonstrate. Recently, a long-term potentiation-like phenomenon, a form of neuroplastic change, was identified in young adults by differences in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that were measured before and after tetanic visual stimulation (TVS). The current study investigated whether neuroplastic changes in the visual pathway can persist in older adults. Seventeen healthy subjects, 65 years and older, were recruited from the community. Subjects had a mean age of 77.4 years, mean education of 17 years, mean MMSE of 29.1, and demonstrated normal performance on neuropsychological tests. 1 Hz checkerboard stimulation, presented randomly to the right or left visual hemi-field, was followed by 2 mm of 9 Hz stimulation (TVS) to one hemi-field. After 2 mm of rest, 1 Hz stimulation was repeated. Temporospatial principal component analysis was used to identify the Nib component of the VEPs, at lateral occipital locations, in response to 1 Hz stimulation pre- and post-TVS. Results showed that the amplitude of factors representing the early and late Nib component was substantially larger after tetanic stimulation. These findings indicate that high frequency visual stimulation can enhance the Nib in cognitively high functioning old adults, suggesting that neuroplastic changes in visual pathways can continue into late life. Future studies are needed to determine the extent to which this marker of neuroplasticity is sustained over a longer period of time, and is influenced by age, cognitive status, and neurodegenerative disease. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 374.
    Priebe, Gisela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund University.
    Mitchell, Kimberly J.
    University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Finkelhor, David
    University of New Hampshire, USA.
    To tell or not to tell?: Youth’s responses to unwanted internet experiences2013In: Cyberpsychology : Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, ISSN 1802-7962, E-ISSN 1802-7962, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is one of the first that investigated youth’s response to unwanted Internet experiences, not only for those youth who were bothered or distressed but for all youth who reported the experience. Three types of response were examined: telling someone about the incident and ending the unwanted situation by active or passive coping. Responses to the following unwanted Internet experiences were analysed: Sexual solicitation, online harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography. The study was based on data from the Third Youth Internet Safety Survey (YISS-3), a telephone survey with a nationally representative U.S. sample of 1,560 Internet users, ages 10 to 17, and their caretakers. Youth’s responses to unwanted Internet experiences differ depending on the type of unwanted experiences, whether they are distressed or have other negative reactions caused by the incident and – to some degree – other youth characteristics and incident characteristics. For example, not all youth who are distressed tell someone and not all youth who tell someone are distressed. Also, the reasons for telling may differ depending on whom they tell, and youth tell somebody less often about their victimization if they also are online perpetrators, but of different types of unwanted Internet experiences. Internet safety information for parents and parents’ active mediation of Internet safety does not seem to result in youth telling more often about unwanted Internet experiences.

  • 375.
    Rahman, M. S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zhao, X.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Liu, J. J.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Torres, E. Q.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tibert, B.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kumar, P.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lindefors, N.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Forsell, Y.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lavebratt, C.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Exercise Reduces Salivary Morning Cortisol Levels in Patients with Depression2019In: Molecular Neuropsychiatry, ISSN 2296-9209, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the Study: Cortisol hypersecretion plays a role in depression pathophysiology. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and physical exercise (PE) are new treatment alternatives for depression, and their long-lasting effect on cortisol is unknown. We investigated cortisol level changes after 12 weeks of ICBT, PE or treatment as usual (TAU).

    Procedures: The present pre-post repeated measure study analysed data derived from a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of 12 weeks’ interventions of ICBT, PE and TAU in depressed primary care patients (Sweden 2011–2013) and aimed at prospectively evaluating the within-group effects of ICBT, PE and TAU on diurnal salivary cortisol levels in a small representative subsample (n = 56, 38 and 27, respectively).

    Results: We found a marked flattening of the diurnal cortisol slope (p = 0.004) and a reduced cortisol level at awakening (p = 0.017) after 12 weeks of PE treatment. No apparent effects of ICBT or TAU interventions were seen on diurnal cortisol levels.

    Conclusions and Message: PE reduced the rate of cortisol level decline across the day in depressed adults. ICBT and TAU treatments had no detectable effects on diurnal cortisol levels. Larger samples are required for the detection and comparison of smaller effects of PE, ICBT and TAU on diurnal cortisol levels.

  • 376.
    Raita, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Medkänsla och Välbefinnande: Finns det ett samband mellan medkänsla, självmedkänsla samt kön och välbefinnande hos unga2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines by means of multiple regression analysis whether self-compassion, compassion, and gender is associated with the well-being of adolescents, 12-15 years, in a small municipality in Sweden. The hypothesis’s of the study assumes that high values of compassion and self-compassion predict high levels of well-being and that girls well-being is lower than boys’. To identify the underlying aspects of well-being measured in this study a factor analysis was also conducted. The results show that all hypotheses are confirmed and that the underlying aspects of well-being in this study were physical, mental and social well-being as well as a somewhat weak fourth aspect here called Potential cognitive maturity. Further on the implications of the results are discussed in a wider perspective and suggestions for future research is presented.

  • 377.
    Ramebäck, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skillnaden i work-life balance i England och i Sverige: - och om det i sin tur har påverkan på individens well-being2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research has been studying if there is a difference in work-life balance for people working in England (n=30) and in Sweden (n=32), and if well-being can be related to this in any way. The study has used an online survey including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) which measured well-being and QPS Nordic which measured work-life balance and work-family conflict. The result shows that there is a significant difference (p<.005) between wellbeing and work-life balance together with a significant higher level (p<.001) of work-life balance for the participants working in England compared to the once working in Sweden. The study also shows a significant correlation (p<.003) between work-life balance and the number of hours which the individual participants are normally working per day. However, the study cannot tell what is causing the significant relation between work-life balance and well-being regarding to the non-statistic significant difference between well-being and the participants working in England verses Sweden or between any of the covariates which has been included in the analysis. 

  • 378.
    Rasmussen, Hampus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungqvist Svenssson, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationen mellan akademisk stress och autonomi, kompetens samt tillhörighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown on an increasing of sick leave among academics and that students feel stressed in general. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between stress connected to academic studies and the psychological needs from Self-determination theory. The study was made with 142 university students. For measuring the psychological needs Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in General (BPNS-G) was used and for measuring stress parts of The Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PAS) were used. Results show a significant correlation between the psychological need and stress. Significant differences emerged between the sexes in all factors of stress and total stress. Women rated lower than men, which is on the contrary to previous reports. The difference between genders may be explained with that the stress experienced by the university student origin from sources outside the academic world.

  • 379.
    Razavioun, Popak
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Muhammad, Daria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetsdrag och Psykisk ohälsa relaterat till Datorspelsberoende hos ungdomar: En kvantitativ mediationsstudie på gymnasieelever2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many adolescents play computer games daily and despite the fact that many play for the sake of entertainment, there are those who develop problems similar to addiction problems. Internet gaming addiction is not a diagnosis but it's part of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) as a potentially new state that requires further research. This study aimed to investigate which personality traits of young people that have a relationship with Internet gaming addiction and which in turn have a relationship with mental illness and how the relationships between the variables interact in samples with boys and girls. The overall aim of the study was to contribute knowledge in Internet gaming addiction to enable treatment for this target group to become a more individualized treatment. 123 high school students participated in a survey. Mediation analysis were made on the data consisting of specific personality traits as predictor variable, Internet gaming addiction as mediator and mental illness as outcome variable. No mediation effects for the total sample were measured. The results showed 3 medium mediation effects for boys and for girls there was no correlation between predictor, mediator and outcome variables, after which mediation analysis was not performed on this sample. The results of the study indicate that there is a mediation effect of Internet gaming addiction on the relationship between specific personality traits and mental illness for boys, but not girls.

  • 380.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictors of survival in the Swedish 60 to 96 years old population2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl 1, article id ckw166.004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Longevity is multi-determined. In this study, biological, social and psychological factors were included in a multivariate model in order to investigate their predictive ability of survival in a nine year follow up period.

    Methods

    The sample was drawn from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC), including a representative database of Swedish inhabitants aged 60 to 96 years. The participants (N = 6986) were followed during the years 2002 to 2011. Data was collected including age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), muscle strength, living alone or not, household economy, functional status, smoking habits and education. These variables were used as predictors in multiple logistic regression analyses in order to estimate the odds ratios of survival during the follow up period.

    Results

    During the nine year period, 4447 participants (64%) survived. Education was the strongest predictor of survival with 57% higher odds to survive for higher educated participants (P<.001. 95%CI = 1.38 – 1.78), followed by not living alone, which increased the odds of survival with 37% (P<.001. 95%CI = .65 - .83). Light physical activity increased the odds of survival with 18% (P<.001. 95%CI = 1.12 – 1.24) and not smoking was significant related to survival but the odds ratio was as low as 10% (P<.01. 95%CI = 1.03 – 1.71).

    Conclusions

    Social aspects such as education and not living alone are strong predictors of survival in older populations and must be considered in the understanding of differences in longevity. In addition, life habits such as physical activity and smoking behaviors should be taken into account.

    Key message:

    • Both social and behavioral factors contribute to the understanding of differences in longevity in the Swedish population of 60 to 96 years old people in Sweden.

  • 381.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Changes in mood, activity level and cognition at the age of 66 years, associated with leaving working life before the age of 60: longitudinal results from the SNAC study2013In: European Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 1878-7649, E-ISSN 1878-7657, Vol. 4, no Supplement 1, p. S208-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Age of retirement has economical implications as we tend to live longer with the result that an increasing number of older inhabitants have to share limited economical resources. This is however not only an economical issue. It is also of interest to investigate health- and quality of life-related factors associated with age of retirement. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in mood, activity level, and cognition at the age of 66 years associated with leaving working life before the age of 60 years.

  • 382.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Decreased cognitive functions at the age of 66, as measured by the MMSE, associated with having left working life before the age of 60: results from the SNAC study2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 304-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The age of retirement has financial implications as we tend to live longer, with the result that an increasing number of older inhabitants have to share limited financial resources. However, this is not only a financial issue. It is also of interest to investigate factors related to health and quality of life associated with the age of retirement. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in mood, activity level, and cognition at the age of 66 associated with leaving working life before 60. Methods: Baseline and follow-up data on 840 participants of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care – Blekinge was used. Mood was measured by the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Scale and activity level by 27 survey items. Cognition was measured by the Mini Mental State Examination. Results: Retirement before 60 years of age was not associated with lower cognitive functions and a higher score on depression at baseline, but retirees were less active. Six years later, at the age of 66, a decline in their cognition was found. Retirees were still not more depressed but less active. In a logistic regression analysis, being retired increased the odds ratio for cognitive decline by 1.36-times (OR 2.36) when gender, activity level, education level, and depression were adjusted for. Conclusions: Participants who retired before the age of 60 declined in cognitive ability over the 6-year study period.

  • 383.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jogréus, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sanmartin-Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Relationships between frequency of moderate physical activity and longevity: an 11-year follow-up study2018In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, E-ISSN 2333-7214, Vol. 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Moderate physical activity gains survival. There are, however, several variables that may affect this relationship. In this study, the relationship between moderate physical activity and longevity was investigated, taking into account age, gender, smoking habits, cohabitation status, body mass index, leg strength and balance, education level and cognitive function. Method: A sample of 8,456 individuals aged 60 to 96 years, representative of the Swedish population, was included. Participants were followed from 2004 to 2015. Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the predictive value of physical activity on longevity. Results: Participants still alive in the follow-up measure were more physically active on a moderate level. Being active 2 to 3 times a week or more was related to a 28% lower risk of not being alive at the follow-up measure. Discussion: The low frequency of physical activity, necessary for survival benefits should be considered in public health programs.

  • 384.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The study of personality traits in the Blekinge part of the Swedish National stydy on Aging and Care (SNACB)2019In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M Kostrzewa, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, 1, p. 85-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Personality has been shown to be related to numerous health-related factors. In the SNAC-B study, relationships between health variables and the personality traits of neuroticism (N), conscientiousness (C), agreeableness (A), openness (O), and extraversion (E) have been investigated. Aim: In this chapter, stability and change of personality during the ages of 60 to 90 years are explored. In addition, relationships between personality traits and health-related variables are presented. Methods: The results are based on data from the SNAC-B studies of 1402 men and women aged 60 to 90. The participants have been followed up during 12 years, while data on health, well-being, and autonomy have been continuously collected. In addition, variables assumed to influence health have been collected, such as lifestyles, demographic factors, social environment, and personality. Results: The results show personality to be stable over time according to rank order, but all personality traits except neuroticism were shown to have small but significant mean level changes. In addition, connections between a number of health-related variables and personality traits, such as mortality, self-care, work ability, and perception of pain, were indicated. Conclusions: The results indicate that the role of personality should be taken into account in research on health and aging. Personality traits have a lifelong influence on health behaviors and have been shown to affect both subjective and objective aspects of health and the way we cope with health-related experiences.

  • 385.
    Richardsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vad är viktigt, på riktigt, för oss?: En kvalitativ studie om en organisations villighet och förväntan att ta sig an innovation.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studien har två syften: att, i en utvald statlig myndighet, 1) undersöka organisationens villighet till innovation och 2) att utforska vad som är allmänt kännetecknande för att ta sig an innovation i organisationen. Utgångspunkten är sju anställdas perspektiv och upplevelser kring hur deras myndighet och organisation arbetar med innovation. Data är insamlad via intervjuer och två olika former av analysmetoder har använts. Resultaten från den första delstudien visar på att organisationens villighetsnivå i arbetet med innovation (vid studiens genomförande) ligger på nivå 4, förplaneringoch förflyttar sig i riktning mot nivå 5, förberedelser. Den andra delstudiens fenomenologiska resultat visar på en allmän upplevd psykologisk processviktig att tänka på i arbetet med att ta sig an innovationi organisationen. Denna psykologiska process visar att förväntanär kopplad till att ta sig an innovation och att det även finns förväntan kopplad till värdesättande och uppskattning; kapacitet och skicklighet; modig beslutsamhet; praktiskt görande och samskapande; nytt lärande; möjliggörande dialog och stärkande relationer. Tillsammans kan dessa vara viktiga riktningsgivare att tänka på för att framgångsrikt möta organisationens och de anställdas behov av att navigera och orientera sig i arbetet med att ta sig an innovation; att uppnå fullt ägarskap/professionalism inom innovation samt att säkra organisationens hållbara värdeskapande. 

  • 386.
    Richt, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fröderberg Hallberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress och copingstrategier hos gymnasieungdomar: En kvalitativ studie om upplevda stressfaktorer och stresshantering hos gymnasieungdomar i årskurs 32018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ämnade att undersöka vilka faktorer som stressade elever som gick i årskurs tre på gymnasiet samt att undersöka vilka strategier de använde sig av för att hantera stressen. Studien var en kvalitativ intervjustudie och metoden som användes för att undersöka frågeställningen var hermeneutisk. Uppsatsen hade en salutogen ansats. Resultatet visade att studenterna upplevde att de faktorer som stressade dem var skolan, fritiden, viktiga relationer, ekonomi och tankar på framtiden. De copingstrategier som ungdomarna uppgav att de använde sig av var problemfokuserad coping, omstrukturerande coping, emotionsfokuserad coping och undvikande coping. Socialt stöd spelade en betydande roll för stresshantering hos respondenterna. Slutsatsen blev att gymnasielever i årskurs 3 upplevde flera faktorer som stressade dem och att de använde sig av olika copingstrategier för att hantera stressen. 

  • 387.
    Rilöv, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brunosson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enkomponentsbehandling bestående av sömnrestriktion-sömnkomprimering jämfört med multikomponent KBT för insomni: En benchmark, non-inferiority studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia is a common problem and there is a need for increased accessibility to cost-effective treatments. The purpose was to examine if an one-component treatment (EK), consisting of sleep-restriction/sleep-compression, were non-inferior to a multi-component (MK) CBT treatment for insomnia and if there was a difference in symptom reduction. The prestated margins for non-inferiority were d = 0.8, based on previous research, and a stricter margin of d = 0.4. Data from a research study where participants received EK (n = 193) was compared to a benchmark consisting of a CBT treatment in regular health care (MK) (n = 289). Both groups received treatment at the same Internet platform, and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used as outcome measurement. The results showed that EK could not be confirmed as non-inferior to MK directly after treatment or at the one-year follow up when using a strict limit. When a liberal limit was used, EK could be confirmed as non-inferior directly after treatment but not one year later. Directly after treatment and at the one-year follow up both groups showed a significant symptom reduction, but at the one-year follow up MK showed a greater reduction. A large number of missing data at the one-year follow up and more therapeutic support in MK may have affected the results. More RCT-studies with longterm follow ups are needed in the area, and also studies of other populations. MK is preferable, but with limited resources EK can be offered with good effect both short term and long term.

  • 388.
    Roberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwartz, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Unga mödrars upplevelser av amning: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young mothers breastfeeding experiences in order to gain a better understanding of women’s subjective experience.  Furthermore, the purpose of this study was to examine how the health care system and the women’s social environment influenced the breastfeeding experience. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in five main themes: Mutual exchange, Unwritten rules of breastfeeding, Unable to manage the task, Someone to turn to and When the support fails you. The results showed the women’s view of breastfeeding as natural and the best option for the child. Breastfeeding was described as an important part of motherhood and breastfeeding difficulties were associated with feelings of failure and inadequacy. The women experienced pressure to breastfeed, both from the health care system as well as their social surroundings. The study showed the young mothers’ lack of and need for social support and sense of belonging in regards to breastfeeding.

  • 389.
    Rochester, Anna-Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping mechanisms of hostage and crisis negotiators during acute stress and its effect on performance2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore coping mechanisms used in acute stress situations and how these effect performance. Specifically, the aim was to study how hostage and crisis negotiators use different types of coping mechanisms to reach a positive result in negotiations. Crisis negotiations have several attributes that make them interesting to study from a coping perspective.  They regularly present high-stake situations where people’s well-being and lives can be at risk, creating a highly stressful situation for the negotiator. These situations are often very emotionally charged and the negotiator has to deal with both the emotions of the person they are negotiating with as well as their own. A qualitative method was used in the study and the data was collected in semi-structured interviews. A content analysis was carried out to analyse the material. Five categories were distilled from the material; team, internal skills, negotiation tools, physical techniques and organisation. Themes that particularly stood out were the importance of the support from the team, internal skills such as self-control and lowering physiological stress reactions by deep breathing. These were all seen as contributing to an increased performance.

  • 390.
    Rolandsdotter, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att vara kvinna på en mansdominerad arbetsplats: En kvalitativ studie ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What is it like, to be a woman at a male-dominated workplace? In this qualitive study, the question was asked to raise awareness around the complexities related to the subject, and how the situation for many women could be improved. The study focused on the psychological factors related to being one or one of few woman at a male-dominated workplace. The material was gathered through interviews and analyzed according to Burnard's step-process. The result showed a variation when it came to the women's experiences. Some of the women reported sexual harrassement and insuperably high requirements. Some also reported positive factors related to their situation, such as supportive male colleagues as well as honest communication styles. The result also showed on the importance of maintaining improvement work related to equality policies at every workplace. The paper offers some examples on such improvement work. 

  • 391.
    Rosen, A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, S.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Akerstedt, T.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    D'onofrio, P.
    Stockholm University.
    Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia - is sleep compression an equally effective and less difficult alternative compared to sleep restriction?2018In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 392.
    Rosenberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahlberg, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Går arbetstillfredsställelse att predicera med hjälp av socialt stöd?: En undersökning av grundskollärares arbetssituation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 393.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attityder till tabuord bland amerikaner: Kognition, intensitet och frekvens.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 394.
    Roslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Livet som frivilligt ensamstående mamma: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med tonvikt på socialt stöd, stress och sömn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att välja att bli ensamstående mamma med hjälp av assisterad befruktning är något som blivit allt vanligare. Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att öka kunskapen och förståelsen för livet som frivilligt ensamstående mamma genom att undersöka den subjektiva upplevelsen av att vara frivilligt ensamstående småbarnsmamma med tonvikt på socialt stöd, stress och sömn. Datainsamlingen skedde genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju frivilligt ensamstående mammor. Materialet analyserades med Burnards metod för tematisk innehållsanalys som utgångspunkt och med inspiration av Interpretative phenomenological analysis, IPA. Intervjuerna resulterade i tre teman: Att leva själv med barn, Omställningen samt Påfrestningar i vardagen. Hur det sociala stödet såg ut skilde sig mellan mammorna. Två av mammorna saknade instrumentellt socialt stöd och hade ingen självklar person att vända sig till för avlastning. Däremot upplevde samtliga mammor någon form av emotionellt och/eller informativt socialt stöd. Ekonomi, arbete, vård av barn och att tiden inte räckte till var de faktorer som mammorna i studien belyste som stressande. De mammor som väcktes nattetid av barnet menade ändå att sömnbristen var hanterbar.

  • 395.
    Rosén, Erika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johnsson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns det ett samband mellan graden av upplevd arbetsrelaterad stress och copingstrategi hos grundskolepedagoger?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was any connection between coping strategies; emotional and cognitive strategy and perceived level of stress among primary school teachers in primary and middle school. It was also investigated whether there was a difference between full-time and part-time employees and perceived level of stress. As a theoretical background Lazarus' transaction theory of stress was used as an explanation of mental stress, Lazarus coping strategies for stress and Karasek’s and Theorell’s model of psychosocial work environment was used to explain unhealthy at work. To measure coping we used Coping inventory resources and to measure the stress we used Percieved stress scale. Data were collected from 76 elementary school teachers in five elementary schools from small towns in southern Sweden. The result showed significant relationships between cognitive coping strategy and greater perceived stress. No significant associations were found regarding full-time, part-time and perceived degree of stress. Participating teachers between 23-66 years (M= 41 years) and gender distribution were 68 women and 8 men. Further research is suggested on studying elementary school teacher’s positive self-image and positive view of others in relation to perception of stress and to examine differences in adulthood and coping strategy.

     

  • 396.
    Rundkvist, Rebecka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The road to academic achievements2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt tidigare forskning finns det ett samband mellan motivation och akademiska prestationer. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan gymnasieelevers motivation, ansvarskänsla, närvaro, föräldrars/vårdnadstagares utbildningsnivå, studietid utanför skolan och deras studieresultat. De hypoteser som ställdes utifrån tidigare forskning var att högre motivation, ansvarskänsla samt studietid utanför skolan skulle predicera elevers akademiska prestationer. Föräldrars utbildningsnivå skulle ha ett mindre samband på prestation och närvaro skulle inte kunna predicera akademiska prestationer alls. Studien genomfördes genom en kvantitativ metod på två skolor i en mellanstor stad i södra Sverige och insamlad data analyserades genom en stegvis regressionsanalys. För att mäta motivation och ansvarskänsla användes två befintliga enkäter som översattes till svenska. Dessa kompletterades med frågor för resterande variabler som sedan sammanställdes till en enkät som sammanlagt 78 elever svarade på. Resultatet visade att inre motivation, inre motivation för att uppnå mål, positiv ansvarskänsla och studietid var signifikanta prediktorer till elevers akademiska prestationer, som då hade en positiv inverkan på utfallsvariabeln. Ytterligare en variabel var en signifikant prediktor till betyg, inre reglering som påverkade utfallsvariabeln negativt. Slutsatsen av denna studie var att lärare bör sträva efter att skapa villkor som ökar elevers inre motivation och känsla för ansvar, samt uppmuntra elever att använda mer tid att studera utanför lektionstid.     

  • 397.
    Rydh, Mathias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender Differences in Gratitude Among University Students in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous findings suggest that gratitude is related to a multitude of benefits, such as improved psychological well-being, decreased psychological distress and more positive social relationships. The interest in gratitude as a research topic for psychological science is relatively new, and as such, there are many aspects of gratitude that need to be studied more. One of these areas is gender differences in trait gratitude. The main purpose of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in trait gratitude and in positive- and negative affect. In addition, a possible relationship between trait gratitude and affect is investigated, as well as cultural differences between Swedish students and international students studying in Sweden. This study was unable to find any differences in trait gratitude, however, a gender difference was found in experienced negative affect and cultural differences were found inboth positive- and negative affect. A positive relationship between trait gratitude and positive affect, as well as a negative relationship between trait gratitude and negative affect, were also found.

  • 398.
    Safinianaini, Negar
    et al.
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Bostrom, Henrik
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Gated Hidden Markov Models for Early Prediction of Outcome of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy2019In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2019 / [ed] Riano, D Wilk, S TenTeije, A, Springer, 2019, p. 160-169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a major threat to public health and its mitigation is considered to be of utmost importance. Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) is one of the employed treatments for depression. However, for the approach to be effective, it is crucial that the outcome of the treatment is accurately predicted as early as possible, to allow for its adaptation to the individual patient. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been commonly applied to characterize systematic changes in multivariate time series within health care. However, they have limited capabilities in capturing long-range interactions between emitted symbols. For the task of analyzing ICBT data, one such long-range interaction concerns the dependence of state transition on fractional change of emitted symbols. Gated Hidden Markov Models (GHMMs) are proposed as a solution to this problem. They extend standard HMMs by modifying the Expectation Maximization algorithm; for each observation sequence, the new algorithm regulates the transition probability update based on the fractional change, as specified by domain knowledge. GHMMs are compared to standard HMMs and a recently proposed approach, Inertial Hidden Markov Models, on the task of early prediction of ICBT outcome for treating depression; the algorithms are evaluated on outcome prediction, up to 7 weeks before ICBT ends. GHMMs are shown to outperform both alternative models, with an improvement of AUC ranging from 12 to 23%. These promising results indicate that considering fractional change of the observation sequence when updating state transition probabilities may indeed have a positive effect on early prediction of ICBT outcome.

  • 399.
    Said, Tara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intuitive and Analytic Decision Making in Employee Selection Process: Intuitive Decision2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study aimed to investigate intuitive and analytic decision making approach when assessing job applicants during employee selection process, and feedback related to employee selection process. Theories used in the study to explain intuition are the dual process model and the recognition model. The population was recruiters and non-recruiters. A sample of 169 participants were included. Recruiters’ and non-recruiters’ were randomly assigned into two conditions: use of intuition or analytic thinking as assessment strategy when assessing eight real job applicants. A comparison between their decision making approaches was made. Based on previous research, three hypotheses were obtained and tested. The first hypothesis was that intuitive decision making approach, in combination of experience of employee selections, will enhance assessments of the job applicants. The second hypothesis was that there is a positive relationship between feedback related to employee selection and accuracy in assessing job applicants. The third hypothesis was that there is a positive relationship between participants’ guessed cognitive ability test scores of the job applicants, with employability of the job applicants. The last hypothesis was supported, there was a significant and strong positive relationship between the two variables for all eight job applicants. Significant and non-significant results, methodological influences and theories accounted for are discussed.

  • 400.
    Samardzievska, Natali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mukka, Antonia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsmotivation: Betydelsen av empatin hos ledaren, anställningstid, arbetstillfredsställelse, kön och ålder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work motivation is a well-studied area of work psychology. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the factors of gender, age and empathy of the leader predicts internal and external motivation. Although gender differences in job satisfaction depending on length were investigated. In this quantitative study participated sellers and administrative staff in the private sector. Of these were 43 women and 56 men. Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory were used to measure work motivation and job satisfaction. The questionnaire also contained four demographic questions and five statements regarding the empathy of the leader based on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Statistical testing with Multiple Regression Analysis and partial correlation showed that internal and external motivation was explained by 10% of empathetic leadership. Other factors explained less than 1%. Statistical analysis with Manova regarding gender differences in work motivation showed that men have significantly higher internal and external motivation than women. Gender differences in job satisfaction depending on work length was tested using two-way ANOVA for between group measurements. Results showed a statistically significant gender difference. One interpretation of the result can be that empathetic leadership creates good conditions for work motivation. The discussion is carried on effect on the outcome in relation to previous research.

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