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  • 401.
    Johansson, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Detektion av Fusobacterium necrophorum med realtids-PCR2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fusobacterium necrophorum are Gram-stain negative, anaerobic, bacteria that are grouped into subspecies necrophorum and funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum ss. funduliforme has recently been suspected to play a role in common throat infections such as tonsillitis. The purpose of this work was to set up and test a method for real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) according to Taqman with the purpose of detecting ss. funduliforme. We also examined how the storage time within transport medium (Amies charcoal, Copan) and culture medium (FAB-broth) affects the survival of the bacterium and the sensitivity of the culture and PCR methods. Bacterial suspensions of different concentrations were applied to pharyngeal sampling swabs and then directly incubated in transport medium. For each day the experiment lasted, a set of swabs of each concentration were cultured, DNA extracted, and real-time PCR performed. DNA extracted from ss. funduliforme was used as standards for the real-time PCR, with a minimum concentration of 10 DNA molecules per μL.

    Subspecies funduliforme could be detected from all days with real-time PCR while the cultures showed the best results if the sample was cultured within one day of collection. Real-time PCR can detect the presence of ss. funduliforme after prolonged storage and can therefore show accurate results for transported samples. Traditional culturing on growth medium is still a valuable and reliable method, provided that the samples are cultured within 24 hours. Culture may also be needed i.e. since PCR gives no information of the antibiotic resistance of the isolate.

  • 402.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Test av immunhistokemiska markören CK 20 vid differentialdiagnostik av trichoepiteliom och basalcellscancer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trichoepitelioma and basal cell carcinoma are two different types of skin tumors. Trichoepitelioma is a benign skin tumor whereas basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor. Both tumors can be difficult to differentiate and diagnose. In trichoepitelioma there is cytokeratin (CK) 20-positive merkel cells whereas there is no merkel cell in basal cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether immunohistochemical staining of CK 20 may be helpful in routine diagnostics to distinguish basal cell carcinoma from trichoepilelioma. In this study, immunohistochemistry (EnVision, Dako, Danmark) has been used, with monoclonal antibodies (FLEX monoclonal antihuman Cytokeratin 20 clone Ks 20.8 ready-to-use code IR 777 Dako, Danmark) directed against CK 20. The results show that in11 of 13 cases with trichoepiteliom the staining for CK 20 was evident. However in all cases with basal cell carcinoma the staining for CK 20 was absent. All 12 cases of basal cell carcinoma were missing CK 20-positive merkel cells it may indicate that, if there is CK 20-positive merkel cells may support that it is a trichoepitelioma if morphology support this conclusion.

  • 403.
    Jonsson, Nina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wahlström, Kristin
    Svensson, Lennart
    Serrander, Lena
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Aichi virus infection in elderly people in Sweden.2012In: Archives of Virology, ISSN 0304-8608, E-ISSN 1432-8798, Vol. 157, no 7, p. 1365-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aichi virus (AiV), genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae, is associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Previous studies have shown high seroprevalence but low incidence (0.9-4.1%) in clinical samples. We report here the first detection of AiV in Sweden. Two hundred twenty-one specimens from hospitalized patients with diarrhea, who were negative for other enteric viruses, were included in the study. AiV were detected in three specimens, all from elderly patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three Swedish isolates belonged to genotype A and were genetically closest to European and Asian strains of AiV.

  • 404.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. INRA, France.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Kristianstad University.
    Wahlgren, John
    Karolinska Institutet ; Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bröjer, Caroline
    National Veterinary Institute ; University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sahlin, Sofie
    Karolinska Institutet ; Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Influenza Virus in a Natural Host, the Mallard: Experimental Infection Data2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 1, article id e8935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), are considered the main reservoir of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). They carry viruses that may evolve and become highly pathogenic for poultry or zoonotic. Understanding the ecology of LPAIVs in these natural hosts is therefore essential. We assessed the clinical response, viral shedding and antibody production of juvenile mallards after intra-esophageal inoculation of two LPAIV subtypes previously isolated from wild congeners. Six ducks, equipped with data loggers that continually monitored body temperature, heart rate and activity, were successively inoculated with an H7N7 LPAI isolate (day 0), the same H7N7 isolate again (day 21) and an H5N2 LPAI isolate (day 35). After the first H7N7 inoculation, the ducks remained alert with no modification of heart rate or activity. However, body temperature transiently increased in four individuals, suggesting that LPAIV strains may have minor clinical effects on their natural hosts. The excretion patterns observed after both reinoculations differed strongly from those observed after the primary H7N7 inoculation, suggesting that not only homosubtypic but also heterosubtypic immunity exist. Our study suggests that LPAI infection has minor clinically measurable effects on mallards and that mallard ducks are able to mount immunological responses protective against heterologous infections. Because the transmission dynamics of LPAIVs in wild populations is greatly influenced by individual susceptibility and herd immunity, these findings are of high importance. Our study also shows the relevance of using telemetry to monitor disease in animals.

  • 405.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Ake
    Hubálek, Zdenek
    Sikutová, Silvie
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Wahlström, Maria
    Jozan, Martine
    Falk, Kerstin I
    Surveillance for West Nile virus in wild birds from northern Europe.2011In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 1935 migratory birds from 104 different species were captured in southeastern Sweden in 2005-2006 and tested for antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV). Overall, 46 birds (2.4%; binomial confidence limits, 1.8-3.2) were positive by blocking-ELISA, but only 2 (0.10%; binomial confidence limits, 0.0-0.4) had antibodies detectable by both blocking-ELISA and WNV neutralization test. ELISA-positive birds included long- and short-distance migrants likely exposed to WNV while wintering in or migrating through areas enzootic for WNV. Exposure to a cross-reactive Flavivirus was suspected for short-distance migrants of the Turdidae family, but no cross-neutralization with tick-borne encephalitis and Usutu viruses was observed.

  • 406.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    et al.
    INRA, France.
    van Riel, Debby
    Erasmus Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Munster, Vincent J
    National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Kuiken, Thijs
    Erasmus Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University.
    The pattern of influenza virus attachment varies among wild bird species2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 9, article id e24155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to attach to host cells is one of the main determinants of the host range of influenza A viruses. By using virus histochemistry, we investigate the pattern of virus attachment of both a human and an avian influenza virus in colon and trachea sections from 12 wild bird species. We show that significant variations exist, even between closely related avian species, which suggests that the ability of wild birds to serve as hosts for influenza viruses strongly varies among species. These results will prove valuable to assess the possibilities of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in natural environments and better understand the ecology of influenza.

  • 407.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wahlgren, John
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Orozovic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Kristianstad University.
    Bröjer, Caroline
    National Veterinary Institute ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University ; University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Ake
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 9, article id e24742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 80 µg/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 µg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 µg/L. IC₅₀ for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach µg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.

  • 408.
    Jönsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of Rate Constants from Protein-Ligand Interactions with Weak Affinity Chromatography2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm of drug discovery have been to find the strongest possible binder to the target by high-throughput screening (HTS) but high affinity interactions are related to low kinetic off rates and thus result in severe side-effects and non-approved drugs. Lead molecules working in a transient manner (KD > µM) will allow for rapid off rates and possibly less side-effects. In this study the peak profile method applied to weak affinity chromatography (WAC) was evaluated as a simple way to provide the kinetics of the interaction and thereby allowing for high-throughput determinations. In the peak profile formula all band-broadening effects except the stationary mass transfer is subtracted which simplifies the calculations for the kinetics of the interaction tremendously. The technique was evaluated by screening of 3 different benzamidines at 3 linear flow-rates using zonal chromatography and human α-thrombin as immobilized target protein. The kinetics of the interaction could unfortunately not be determined. This was possibly due to the flow-rates not being high enough as indicated by a low critical ratio (η < 1). Higher flow-rates would increase the contribution to band-broadening due to kinetic effects but would also require more precise estimation of peak variance.

  • 409.
    Jönsson, Elna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Är patienterna hos sydsvenska optiker oroliga för att gå på linsundersökning?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier inom bland annat allmänsjukvården och tandläkarvården har visat att många patienter är oroliga för att gå på undersökning. Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på om patienter hos optiker också är oroliga. I denna studie undersöktes oron för att gå på linsundersökning och vilka moment patienterna i så fall är oroliga för. Är det något som optikern kan påverka är det viktigt att de får veta vad patienterna oroar sig för. På så sätt kan de utforma undersökningen därefter och förhoppningsvis kunna minska kundernas oro och öka deras förtroende.

    Två enkäter delades ut till patienter som bokat tid för linsundersökning i sex butiker i Skåne och Kalmar, en att fylla i innan undersökningen och en efter. På enkäterna fick patienterna gradera sin oro inför olika moment i undersökningen, där 1 betydde "mycket orolig" och 7 betydde" inte alls orolig". De fick även fylla i lite kring lins- och optikervana. På den andra enkäten fanns frågor om hur patienten tyckte att undersökningen gått.

    Resultat: 61 patienter deltog i studien varav 40 st var kvinnor, 17 st var män och 4 st inte angav sitt kön. Kvinnornas medelvärde i oro låg på 6,51, med en standarddeviation på 0,48. Männens oro låg i medel på 6,41 och standarddeviationen var 0,51. Det var ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad (p=0,515) i oro mellan kvinnor och män. Det som oroar mest är priset och att vända på ögonlocket. Slutsats: Studien visade att det inte finns så mycket oro över linsundersökningar. Kommunikation optiker och patient emellan verkar inte vara något orosmoment. Fler studier bör göras då noggrannare linsbakgrund bör finnas med i orostolkningen.

  • 410.
    Jönsson, Tove
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Distribution of Anthocyanin in Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) and Effects of Heat Treatment on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic and Total Anthocyanin Content2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments responsible for the red, violet and blue colours in plants. Anthocyanins belong to the flavonoid group and are the major antioxidant in bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), where the highest content can be found in the peel. Several health benefits of anthocyanins have been reported, like preventing cancer and diabetes and inhibit the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL).

    The anthocyanins are degraded during heating and storage, thus the nutritional quality changes as berry products are produced. It has been reported earlier that the degradation products also might possess antioxidant activity, hence heating may be beneficial.

    The aim of this degree project work was to determine the distribution of anthocyanin in bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) and effects of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total anthocyanin content. The scavenging capacity was studied against both peroxyl radicals and the DPPH radical. Another part of this project was to develop new products that can stimulate the intake of berry based products.

    The bilberries used for determination of distribution of anthocyanins were peeled, which gave one fraction of peel and one fraction of pulp. The study showed that the peel contained 9 times more anthocyanins than the pulp. When the antioxidant capacity, total content of polyphenolic compounds and anthocyanins, was determined samples obtained in a juiceextractor were used. The bilberries were filtered through a juice-extractor which yielded one fraction of juice and one fraction of presscake. The heat treatments of samples were performed at 80ºC and 120 ºC for 10 and 30 min. The antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals increased after thermal treatment, but decreased for the DPPH radical. Thus it seems as the degradation products possess some antioxidant capacity. The content of polyphenols increased after thermal treatment. The anthocyanin content decreased after heating, except when heating at 80ºC for 10 min. The presscake possessed the highest antioxidant capacity and content of polyphenols and anthocyanins compared to the juice.

    The results indicate that heating of bilberry juice and presscake can be beneficial in regard to antioxidant capacity to scavenge peroxyl radicals and that a bilberry product in which the peel is included gives the product a higher content of antioxidants.

    The outcome of the product development was a mixture of bilberry pomace and corn flour that could be used to make an extruded snack and a bilberry jam with sugar distributed in domains, which was perceived as sweeter than a traditional bilberry jam without sugar domains but with equal total sugar concentration.

  • 411.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Biotreatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in a wood-based industry: COD, formaldehyde and nitrogen removal2010In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 23, p. 8975-8983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes biotreatability tests for treating a wastewater stream generated by wood-floorindustries after cleaning and washing of machinery used to apply urea–formaldehyde resins ontowood-fiber boards. A biological system consisting of an anaerobic – intermittently aerated reactor inlab-scale was constructed. Since the investigated wastewater is intermittently generated, the systemwas designed to operate in batch mode. The treatment focused on removal of formaldehyde and COD,as well as the efficiency of nitrification–denitrification. The proposed cheap and relatively simple-tooperatebiological system achieved COD and formaldehyde removal rates of 65 ± 11% and 93 ± 4% respectively.In spite of anaerobic ammonium removal and denitrification, the intermittently-aerated reactorshowed poor performance for nitrification. Therefore, a better understanding of constraints for the processimprovement is necessary. Regardless the constraints faced during the investigation, the proposedsystem can be considered feasible to partially reduce a great amount of biodegradable compounds inurea–formaldehyde-based wastewaters. However, to comply with strict threshold limits for industrialeffluent discharges, the use of biological treatment combined with more advanced processes is neededto achieve a better quality of the final effluent.This paper describes biotreatability tests for treating a wastewater stream generated by wood-floorindustries after cleaning and washing of machinery used to apply urea–formaldehyde resins ontowood-fiber boards. A biological system consisting of an anaerobic – intermittently aerated reactor inlab-scale was constructed. Since the investigated wastewater is intermittently generated, the systemwas designed to operate in batch mode. The treatment focused on removal of formaldehyde and COD,as well as the efficiency of nitrification–denitrification. The proposed cheap and relatively simple-tooperatebiological system achieved COD and formaldehyde removal rates of 65 ± 11% and 93 ± 4% respectively.In spite of anaerobic ammonium removal and denitrification, the intermittently-aerated reactorshowed poor performance for nitrification. Therefore, a better understanding of constraints for the processimprovement is necessary. Regardless the constraints faced during the investigation, the proposedsystem can be considered feasible to partially reduce a great amount of biodegradable compounds inurea–formaldehyde-based wastewaters. However, to comply with strict threshold limits for industrialeffluent discharges, the use of biological treatment combined with more advanced processes is neededto achieve a better quality of the final effluent.

  • 412.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Biotreatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in wood-floor industries2010In: Proceedings of the 5th International conference of Environmental Science and Technology, American Academy of Sciences, 12-17 July – 2010, Houston, Texas –USA. IC EST2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 413.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lead and vanadium removal from a real industrial wastewater by gravitational settling/sedimentation and sorption onto Pinus sylvestris sawdust2009In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batch sorption with untreated Pinus sylvestris sawdust after settling/sedimentation phase to removevanadium and lead from a real industrial wastewater was investigated using different adsorbent doses,initial pH, and contact time. The development of pH along the sorption test and a parallel investigationof metals release from sawdust in distilled water were carried out. In order to evaluate kinetic parametersand equilibrium isotherms, Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion andFreundlich models were explored. When the initial pH was reduced from 7.4 to 4.0, the sorptionefficiency increased from 32% to 99% for Pb and from 43% to 95% for V. Whereas, V removal was positivelycorrelated with the adsorbent dose, Pb removal was not. The sorption process was best described bypseudo-second-order kinetics. According to Freundlich parameters (Kf and n) sawdust presentedunfavourable intensity for sorption of V.Batch sorption with untreated Pinus sylvestris sawdust after settling/sedimentation phase to removevanadium and lead from a real industrial wastewater was investigated using different adsorbent doses,initial pH, and contact time. The development of pH along the sorption test and a parallel investigationof metals release from sawdust in distilled water were carried out. In order to evaluate kinetic parametersand equilibrium isotherms, Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion andFreundlich models were explored. When the initial pH was reduced from 7.4 to 4.0, the sorptionefficiency increased from 32% to 99% for Pb and from 43% to 95% for V. Whereas, V removal was positivelycorrelated with the adsorbent dose, Pb removal was not. The sorption process was best described bypseudo-second-order kinetics. According to Freundlich parameters (Kf and n) sawdust presentedunfavourable intensity for sorption of V.

  • 414.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Preliminary treatability test of a non-conventional industrial waste water in the wood sector: COD and Formation reduction2007In: Proceedings of Kalmar Eco-Tech'07, technologies for WAste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste, remediation of Contaminated Sites and Emissions Related to Climates, the 6th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation Between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, Kalmar, Sweden, 2007, p. v.2, 437-447Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 415.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The use of respirometry for the evaluation of an industrial wastewater toxicity over activated sludge2007In: Proceedings of Kalmar Eco-Tech'07, technologies for WAste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste, remediation of Contaminated Sites and Emissions Related to Climates, the 6th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation Between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, Kalmar, Sweden, 2007, p. vol.2, 427-435Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 416.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Use of Respirometry for the Evaluation of anIndustrial Wastewater Toxicity over Activated SludgeThe Use of Respirometry for the Evaluation of anIndustrial Wastewater Toxicity over Activated Sludge2007In: Kalmar ECO TECH´07 – 6th InternationalConferences on Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste, Remediation of ContaminatedSites and Emissions Related to Climates.Kalmar ECO TECH´07 – 6th InternationalConferences on Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste, Remediation of ContaminatedSites and Emissions Related to Climates. / [ed] Kaczala et al., 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 417.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vinrot, Eva
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stormwater run-off from an industrial log yard: characterization, contaminant correlation and first-flush phenomenon.2012In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, no 13-15, p. 1615-1628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stormwater run-off generated in an industrial log yard during eight run-off events was studied with the main focus on the transport of toxic metals. Associations between water quality constituents and potential surrogates were evaluated by correlation analysis. The first-flush phenomenon was verified by normalized M(V) curves. The results have shown that, whereas some metals such as Zn, Ba, Cd, As and Fe were always detected in these waters, others (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, V, Co) were not. Large variations in the water constituents' concentrations were observed, with Fe, Pb and V being the most variable ones. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in the run-off waters exceeded the values established by the Swedish environmental authorities in 100% and 97% of samples, respectively. The correlation analyses indicated TSS as a potential surrogate of Pb, V, Co, Ni, As, Ba, Cr and COD (0.949 > R > 0.808), making it reasonable to state that a treatment system with focus on TSS removal would also reduce toxic metals from these waters. The first-flush phenomenon was evident for most of the constituents. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the first-flush magnitude of different run-off events were observed confirming that hydro-meteorological variables such as dry period, precipitation duration and average intensity play important roles. Metal loads originating from the log yard were mainly composed ofZn, Cu and Ba. Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics, discharge dynamics and the storm variables involved in the process is a crucial step for the proposal and implementation of a stormwater management programme.

  • 418.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effects from log-yard stormwater runoff on the microalgae Scenedesmus subspicatus: Intra-storm magnitude and variability2011In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 185, no 2-3, p. 732-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the effects posed by stormwater runoff from an industrial log-yard on the microalgae Scenedesmus subspicatus. The effects of stormwater runoff sampled during two rain events were determined by exposing S. subspicatus cells to different concentrations (% v:v) of each sample. The effects were measured as the percentage change in growth rates in relation to a control culture after exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96h. The runoff from the first rain event had no negative effects to S.subspicatus, posing in most cases growth stimulation, whereas the runoff from the second rain event inhibited algae growth. Differences in runoff physico-chemical characteristics combined with the hydrological factors of each rain event explained these opposite effects. The hypothesis of toxic first flush phenomenon was confirmed in the second rain event on the basis of normalized inhibitory effects and runoff volume. It was found that 42, 51 and 50% of the inhibitory effects during exposures of 24, 48 and 72h are associated with the initial 4% of the total discharged volume. The fact that negative effects were observed in the two runoff events analyzed here, raises concern about the potential environmental threats posed by runoff originated from wood-based industrial areas during the entire hydrological year.

  • 419.
    Kanagarajan, Selvaraju
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Muthusamy, Sarala Devi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gliszczynska, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundgren, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brodelius, Peter E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Functional expression and characterization of sesquiterpene synthases from Artemisia annua L. using transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana.2012In: Plant Cell Reports, ISSN 0721-7714, E-ISSN 1432-203X, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1309-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artemisia annua L. produces a number of sesquiterpene synthases, which catalyze the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpenes. The cDNAs encoding amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme in the artemisinin biosynthesis, and epi-cedrol synthase (ECS), a complex sesquiterpene cyclization syn- thase, were cloned into Cowpea mosaic virus-based viral vector (pEAQ-HT) with Kozak consensus motif and C-terminal histidine tag. The plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium LBA4404 and, agroinfiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves along with vector (pJL3:p19) containing Tomato bushy stunt virus post- transcriptional gene silencing suppressor. Quantitative PCR was carried out to measure the transcript levels at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post-infiltration (dpi). The highest relative expression was observed at 9 dpi for both genes. Transiently expressed recombinant proteins of ADS and ECS were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. Recombinant proteins were extracted from 9 dpi leaves and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chroma- tography using histidine tag, which produced yields of 90 and 96 mg kg-1 fresh weight of leaves for ADS and ECS, respectively. Activities of the purified enzymes were assayed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for product identification and quantification using valencene as internal standard. The recombinant ADS and ECS con- verted farnesyl diphosphate into amorpha-4,11-diene (97 %) and epi-cedrol (96 %) as the major products, respectively. The purified enzymes exhibited the specific activity of 0.002 and 0.01 mmol min-1 mg-1 protein for ADS and ECS, respectively. The apparent kcat values were 2.1 x 10-3 s-1 and 11 x 10-3 s-1 for ADS and ECS, respectively.

  • 420.
    Kanagarajan, Selvaraju
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundgren, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brodelius, Peter E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Transient Expression of Hemagglutinin Antigen from Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H7N7) in Nicotiana benthamiana2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 3, article id e33010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influenza A virus is of global concern for the poultry industry, especially the H5 and H7 subtypes as they have the potential to become highly pathogenic for poultry. In this study, the hemagglutinin (HA) of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H7N7 subtype isolated from a Swedish mallard Anas platyrhynchos was sequenced, characterized and transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of vaccine antigens. To examine the possibility of expressing the HA protein in N. benthamiana, a cDNA fragment encoding the HA gene was synthesized de novo, modified with a Kozak sequence, a PR1a signal peptide, a C-terminal hexahistidine (6xHis) tag, and an endoplasmic retention signal (SEKDEL). The construct was cloned into a Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)-based vector (pEAQ-HT) and the resulting pEAQ-HT-HA plasmid, along with a vector (pJL3:p19) containing the viral gene-silencing suppressor p19 from Tomato bushy stunt virus, was agro-infiltrated into N. benthamiana. The highest gene expression of recombinant plant-produced, uncleaved HA (rHA0), as measured by quantitative real-time PCR was detected at 6 days post infiltration (dpi). Guided by the gene expression profile, rHA0 protein was extracted at 6 dpi and subsequently purified utilizing the 6xHis tag and immobilized metal ion adsorption chromatography. The yield was 0.2 g purified protein per kg fresh weight of leaves. Further molecular characterizations showed that the purified rHA0 protein was N-glycosylated and its identity confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the purified rHA0 exhibited hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition activity indicating that the rHA0 shares structural and functional properties with native HA protein of H7 influenza virus. Our results indicate that rHA0 maintained its native antigenicity and specificity, providing a good source of vaccine antigen to induce immune response in poultry species.

  • 421.
    Karlaviciene, Vilmante
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Svediene, S
    Marciulioniene, D.E.
    Randerson, R
    Riemika, M
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The impact of storm water runoff on a small urban stream2009In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 6-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban areas, storm water runoff often transports various pollutants, some of which settle and form sediments. In order to have the comprehensive view of the ecological state of storm water runoff recipients, both water and sediments of the stream must be assessed. In the Baltic Sea Area, the Water Framework Directive & HELCOM Recommendations aim to prevent or minimise pollution caused by harmful substances arising from storm water runoff, in order to promote the ecological restoration of the Baltic Sea-one of the most vulnerable seas. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of bottom sediments of a small storm water runoff recipient focusing on the potential impact of successive discharges of urban storm water. Some storm water runoff quality parameters and the toxicity of bottom sediments of recipients was studied in this research.During 9 years, at four discharge points, minimum four grab samples per year at each discharge point were taken for chemical characterisation. General parameters (pH, SS, BOD7, CODCr and TPH) in liquid phase samples were analysed according to standard methods. Annual limit values were taken from the Lithuanian EPA requirements for the management of storm water runoff with a focus on prevention and control of contamination. Eleven composite samples of stream bottom sediments, each consisting of ten sub-samples, were collected in 2006. Toxicity screening from sediments was performed using the plant Lepidium sativum according to modified I. Magone's methodology (Magone I, Bioindication of phytotoxicity of transport emission. In: Kachalova O-L, Zinatne (eds) Bioindication of toxicity of transport emissions in the impact of highway emissions on natural environment. Riga, pp 108-116, 1989). The level of toxic impact of Lepidium sativum (compared to control) was assessed according to the modified method of Wang (Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 126:88-127, 1992).

    The mean pH of urban storm water runoff does not vary much from neutral, but range values are quite different, from 4.0 up to 8.7. The highest concentration of SS reached 800 mg L-1, TPH-2.4 mg L-1, BOD7-300 mg O-2 L-1 and CODCr-1,400 mg L-1. The SS was above the limit in 64% of total amount of grab samples, TPH-37%, BOD7-41% and CODCr-55%. The toxicity analysis of the bottom sediments showed varying toxicity of bottom sediments along the stream. From nine analysed samples of bottom sediments, 30% had weak toxicity, 30% medium and 30% strong toxicity on the test organism plant L. sativum. There was one single sample with no toxic effects, so that the results showed that urban storm water has an unacceptable environmental impact on recipients. It was also indicated that storm water runoff discharge alone is not the potential source of toxicity of bottom sediments. The litter demonstrated a weak toxicity of bottom sediments as well.

    Most local authorities do not consider storm water runoff discharges to be a matter of great concern because they believe that surface runoff arising from rainfall is still relatively clean. The study showed that the current method of monitoring storm water runoff quality by chemical analyses is not the best tool for environmental impact assessment and must be combined with toxicity tests of bottom sediments of recipients.

    To avoid the environmental impact of storm water runoff more attention should be paid to the development and implementation of storm water runoff pollution prevention measures. The study implies that future research concerning the relationships between storm water runoff deposit characteristics and biological activities must be developed to evaluate the contamination potential of stream sediment deposits for local aquatic ecosystems. Further studies should be developed to characterise the activities of the microbial community of storm water runoff sediments, and to monitor bioremediation in situ. 

  • 422.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Gustaf D.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Effect of Warfarin’s Structural Diversity on Permeation Across a DPPC Bilayer Membrane2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant drug used to prevent thrombolic disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke by inhibiting the active site of vitamin-K dependent epoxide reductase (VKOR) [1]. Despite being in widespread use and having a narrow therapeutic window, its mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood and incorrect warfarin dosage often leads to severe side effects. A factor limiting our understanding of warfarin’s bioavailability is warfarin’s structural diversity, which has been shown to be strongly affected by the nature of molecular environment e.g. solvent polarity and pH [2-7]. One of the major factors contributing to a drug’s biological effect is membrane transport, a process involving exposure of warfarin to environments of quite different character. Since a drug’s transport across membrane may include both active transport by carriers as well as diffusion-controlled processes, it may be envisaged that in order to fully predict warfarin’s anticoagulant effect these mechanisms must be carefully elucidated.

     

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have previously been performed in order to obtain detailed information on static equilibrium as well as dynamic properties of small organic drugs in biomembranes. One of the most studied lipids in cell membrane simulations has been dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) which is the most abundant phospholipid in cell membranes. Here we present lipid bilayer membrane transport properties for a series of warfarin structures previously reported in the literature using a fully solvated DPPC membrane model. Data extracted from simulations shed light on differences in membrane partioning as well as mobilities of warfarin isomers studied and a mechanism by which warfarin permeates through membranes in vivo is presented.

     

    References

    1. Landefeld, C.; Beyth, R. Am. J. Med. 1993, 95, 315-328.
    2. Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 10520-10528.
    3. Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 7945-7949.
    4. Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Näslund, I.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. Submitted 2010.
    5. Rosengren, A. M.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Näslund, I.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. Submitted 2010.
    6. Nicholls, I. A.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Henschel, H. J. Mol. Recognit. 2010, In press.
    7. Henschel, H.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Nicholls, I. A. Submitted 2010.

     

  • 423.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Näslund, Inga
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    A molecularly imprinted polymer-based detection of Warfarin using time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warfarin is a clinically important drug widely used in the treatment of thrombolic disorders e.g. myocardial infarction and stroke.1 When administered, 99% of the drug present in blood is bound to the transport protein human serum albumin (HSA).2 On account of the fact that HSA demonstrates polymorphism and warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, careful monitoring of the effect of drug-dosage must be performed.

    Currently, warfarin’s anticoagulant effect is measured by an indirect method in which the clotting time is measured and correlated to the amount of warfarin present. As current methods for self-monitoring are limited, the development of alternative robust and more sensitive methods is desirable.

    In this study, we have developed a non-covalent molecularly imprinted polymer3 (MIP) system with selectivity for warfarin.4 The HSA-like binding properties of this MIP were established in previous efforts to develop polymers capable of HSA-like binding of warfarin.5

    In principle, the fluorophoric nature of warfarin should allow for the fluorescence spectroscopy-based detection of the drug. Recent efforts by us,6-8 using a series of theoretical and spectroscopic studies have highlighted the complex nature of warfarin. In particular, the medium dependent isomerization of this drug illustrates why spectroscopy based methods for the direct detection of the drug has not been forthcoming. Results from these studies have been used to develop a method for the in situ detection of warfarin using time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    (1)      Landefeld, C.; Beyth, R. Anticoagulant-related bleeding - epidemiology, prediction and prevention. Am. J. Med. 1993, 95, 315-328.

    (2)      Yacobi, A.; Udall, J. A.; Levy, G. Comparative pharmacokinetics of coumarin anticoagulants.18 Serum-protein binding as a determinant of warfarin body clearance and anticoagulant effect. Clin. Pharmacol Ther. 1976, 19, 552-558.

    (3)      Alexander, C.; Andersson, H. S.; Andersson, L. I.; Ansell, R. J.; Kirsch, N.; Nicholls, I. A.; O'Mahony, J.; Whitcombe, M. J. Molecular imprinting science and technology: A survey of the literature for the years up to and including 2003. Journal of Molecular Recognition 2006, 19, 106-180.

    (4)      Rosengren, A. M.; Karlsson, B. C. G.; Näslund, I.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. Time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic detection of the anticoagulant warfarin: A sensor-based method for direct detection in blood plasma. 2010, Submitted.

    (5)      Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Näslund, I.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. Synthetic Human Serum Albumin Sudlow I binding site mimics. 2010, Submitted.

    (6)      Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. The Spectrophysics of Warfarin: Implications for Protein Binding J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 10520-10528.

    (7)      Karlsson, B. C. G.; Rosengren, A. M.; Andersson, P. O.; Nicholls, I. A. Molecular Insights on the Two Fluorescence Lifetimes Displayed by Warfarin from Fluorescence Anisotropy and Molecular Dynamics Studies. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 7945-7949.

    (8)      Nicholls, I. A.; Karlsson, B. C. G., Rosengren, A. M.. Henschel, H. Warfarin: an Environment-Dependent Switchable Molecular Probe. J. Mol. Recognit. 2010, in press.

  • 424.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Näslund, Inga
    FOI.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    FOI.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Synthetic Human Serum Albumin Sudlow I Binding Site Mimics2010In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 53, no 22, p. 7932-7937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) derived mimics of the human serum albumin (HSA) Sudlow I site-the binding site for the anticoagulant warfarin. MIP design was based upon a combination of experimental (H-1 NMR) and computational (molecular dynamics) methods, Two MIPs and corresponding nonimprinted reference polymers were synthesized and characterized (scanning electron microscopy; nitrogen sorption; and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). MIP-ligand recognition was examined using radioligand binding studies, where the largest number of selective sites was found in a warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid ethylene dimethacrylate copolymer (MAA-MIP). The warfarin selectivity of this MIP was confirmed using radioligand displacement and zonal chromatographic studies. A direct comparison of MIP-warfarin binding characteristics with those of the HSA Sudlow I binding site was made, and similarities in site population (per gram polymer or protein) and affinities were observed. The warfarin selectivity of the MIP suggests its potential for use as a recognition element in a MIP-based warfarin sensor and even as a model to aid in understanding and steering blood-plasma protein-regulated transport processes or even for the development of warfarin sensors.

  • 425.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    En jämförelse mellan användandet av högkontrast och lågkontrast-optotyper vid subjektiv refraktion hos patienter med åldersrelaterad makuladegeneration2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att värdera användningen av lågkontrast-optotyper, jämfört med traditionella högkontrast-optotyper, vid subjektiv refraktionering hos individer med åldersrelaterad makuladegeneration. Samt att undersöka om detta ger ett mer exakt refraktionsvärde och därmed bättre syn.

    Metod: Subjektiv refraktion utfördes mot hög (100 %) och låg (10 eller 25 %) kontrast hos 15 patienter med åldersrelaterad makuladegeneration. Ett objektivt värde i form av ett autorefraktorvärde eller habituell korrektion användes som utgångsläge. Bracketing-teknik, specialbeställda flipprar från Multilens, provbåge, provglas och 3 olika starka korscylindrar (±0,25 DC, ±0,50 DC och ±1,00 DC) användes till refraktionen. Visus mättes i fyra olika kombinationer: korrektionen man fann vid högkontrast-refraktionen mättes mot hög och låg kontrast; och korrektionen man fann vid lågkontrast-refraktionen mättes mot hög och låg kontrast.

    Resultat: Vektors analys användes för att analysera skillnaderna i refraktionsvärden mellan hög och låg kontrast. T-test visar att det inte finns någon statistiskt signifikant skillnad (p > 0,05) i refraktion mellan de olika kontrasterna. Analys av visusvärden visar att det blir en statistiskt signifikant förbättring (p < 0,05) när visus mäts mot hög i stället för låg kontrast. Dock fann man ingen statistiskt sigifikant skillnad (p > 0,05) då visus mättes mot optotyper med hög/låg kontrast med lågkontrast-refraktionen jämfört med högkontrast-refraktionen.

    Slutsats: Subjektiv refraktion mot optotyper med låg kontrast kan hos vissa individer med åldersrelaterad makuladegeneration ge något bättre visus. Dock var inte förbättringen av klinisk signifikans och därför ger inte resultaten i denna studie något stöd för att det skulle vara användbart att inkludera lågkontrast-refraktion hos alla individer med AMD.

  • 426.
    Karlsson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Har ackommodationsförmågan ändrats under ett århundrade?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att studera om det fanns någon skillnad i ackommodationsamplituden idag jämfört med för 100 år sedan.

    Metod: I studien undersöktes 29 försökspersoner mellan 8 och 55 år. De genomgick en synundersökning för att få rätt värde på den avslutande mätningen, ackommodationsamplituden som mättes med RAF-linjal. Objektet var ett streck med en punkt på för att efterlikna Duanes studie i början av 1900-talet.

    Resultat: 37 av mätningarna, 48,7%, låg inom Duanes normalgränser. 26 mätningarna, 34,2%, hamnade under normalgränsen. Fem mätningar, 6,6%, hamnade över normalgränsen men inom Duanes högre extremgräns och åtta mätningar, 10,5%, överskred extremgränsen.

    Slutsats: Studien visar att en tredjedel av mätningarna hamnar under de normalvärden Duane tog fram i början av 1900-talet och därför kan ackommodationsamplituden försämrats men antalet försökspersoner är för litet för att kunna dra en sådan slutsats.

  • 427.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Inaktuella recept i Receptregistret : En möjlig källa för felmedicinering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Misuse of drugs is a growing problem and a major cause of both morbidity and mortality in today's society. This may be a result of an incomplete or outdated medication history of patients and it is therefore important that all medical records are updated with the current drugs for the patient to use to prevent medication errors.

    The ultimate effect of any drug therapy depends on the patient's decision to take their medicines as the doctor has prescribed, to have so-called adherence to their prescription medicines, which in turn depends in particular on the patient's knowledge of the drugs at issue. To assist the patient there are two kinds of printing, a list with the doctor’s prescriptions from the electronic patient record (EMR) and also a list from the national prescription repository (NPR) of all the saved prescriptions at pharmacies by the patient. Discrepancies may exist between what is documented in the patient's EMR and that in the pharmacy record, which both also may differ from the drugs that the patient actually is using. These discrepancies between the documents, which can both include valid and outdated prescriptions so as prescription duplicates, can cause a worsening of compliance and medication errors especially in patients with multiple drugs that may have difficult to keep track of their current drug treatment.

    The aim of the study was compare the national prescription repository (NPR), the electronic medical records (EMR) and patient’s knowledge of the prescribed treatment for people with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis.

    The study was conducted both as registry study by reconciliation of journal data on current drug prescriptions from a health centre (HCC) with saved recipes in the Swedish national prescription repository (NPR) and partly by telephone interview with patients about the prescriptions that represent his / her current prescriptions. The participation rate was 58 %. Twenty-nine patients with osteoarthritis were included in the study.

    Of the osteoarthritis patients 89 % the recipes in the NPR were found to be valid and 11 % were outdated. Duplicates of recipes were estimated to 5 %, and double-medication occurred in 1 % of the recipes.

    Of the patients' prescriptions in the medical records at the health centre 69 % were found to be valid. The outdated prescriptions were estimated to 31 % while 4 % was duplicates.

    For all of the osteoarthritis patients' 247 drugs, only 52 % was valid and occurred both in the NPR and in the EMR.

    There were major discrepancies between the prescriptions in the EMR, the NPR and what the patients with osteoarthritis are seeing as their current prescriptions. Through regular medical reconciliations after changes in the patients' treatment, in both health care and pharmacies, the discrepancies can be reduced, the patient can be surer of what to administrate and therefore medication errors can be reduced.

  • 428.
    Karlsson, Jesper G
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Lars I
    Nicholls, Ian A
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Probing the molecular basis for ligand-selective recognition in molecularly imprinted polymers selective for the local anaesthetic bupivacaine.2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 429.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kan behandling med läkemedlet Roaccutan orsaka psykiatriska symptom och leda till självmord?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Akne är en hudsjukdom som förekommer främst hos tonåringar. Ungefär en tredjedel har så uttalade besvär att behandling krävs. Behandling av akne rekommenderas efter svårighetsgrad av hudsjukdomen. Vid svår akne används läkemedlet Roaccutan (isotretinoin). Det har visat sig vara ett mycket potent läkemedel mot akne, men orsakar ofta biverkningar. Roaccutan är teratogent och det har även dykt upp en del rapporter som antyder samband mellan Roaccutan och psykiska reaktioner såsom depression och självmordstankar. Syftet med detta litteraturarbete var att undersöka om behandling med Roaccutan kan orsaka psykiatriska symptom och leda till självmord. En sökning i databasen PubMed gjordes för att hitta sex väsentliga studier.

    De flesta studier som har granskats i detta arbete tyder på att det inte finns något samband mellan Roaccutanbehandling och psykiatriska symptom såsom ångest, depression och självmordstankar. Det verkade snarare som att aknebesvären påverkar patienternas livskvalitet negativt. För att frågeställningen ska kunna besvaras med säkerhet krävs mer forskning kring ämnet, framförallt hur

    Akne är en hudsjukdom som förekommer främst hos tonåringar. Ungefär en tredjedel har så uttalade besvär att behandling krävs. Behandling av akne rekommenderas efter svårighetsgrad av hudsjukdomen. Vid svår akne används läkemedlet Roaccutan (isotretinoin). Det har visat sig vara ett mycket potent läkemedel mot akne, men orsakar ofta biverkningar. Roaccutan är teratogent och det har även dykt upp en del rapporter som antyder samband mellan Roaccutan och psykiska reaktioner såsom depression och självmordstankar. Syftet med detta litteraturarbete var att undersöka om behandling med Roaccutan kan orsaka psykiatriska symptom och leda till självmord. En sökning i databasen PubMed gjordes för att hitta sex väsentliga studier.

    De flesta studier som har granskats i detta arbete tyder på att det inte finns något samband mellan Roaccutanbehandling och psykiatriska symptom såsom ångest, depression och självmordstankar. Det verkade snarare som att aknebesvären påverkar patienternas livskvalitet negativt. För att frågeställningen ska kunna besvaras med säkerhet krävs mer forskning kring ämnet, framförallt hur

    Akne är en hudsjukdom som förekommer främst hos tonåringar. Ungefär en tredjedel har så uttalade besvär att behandling krävs. Behandling av akne rekommenderas efter svårighetsgrad av hudsjukdomen. Vid svår akne används läkemedlet Roaccutan (isotretinoin). Det har visat sig vara ett mycket potent läkemedel mot akne, men orsakar ofta biverkningar. Roaccutan är teratogent och det har även dykt upp en del rapporter som antyder samband mellan Roaccutan och psykiska reaktioner såsom depression och självmordstankar. Syftet med detta litteraturarbete var att undersöka om behandling med Roaccutan kan orsaka psykiatriska symptom och leda till självmord. En sökning i databasen PubMed gjordes för att hitta sex väsentliga studier.

    De flesta studier som har granskats i detta arbete tyder på att det inte finns något samband mellan Roaccutanbehandling och psykiatriska symptom såsom ångest, depression och självmordstankar. Det verkade snarare som att aknebesvären påverkar patienternas livskvalitet negativt. För att frågeställningen ska kunna besvaras med säkerhet krävs mer forskning kring ämnet, framförallt hur de biologiska aktiviteterna i kroppen påverkas av läkemedlet.

  • 430.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    En jämförelse mellan två salthaltsstressade marina bakteriesamhällen, med avseende på funktionalitet.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the sea there is a high diversity of different microorganisms, especially bacteria. In other studies it has been shown that salinity is an important factor forming the bacterial communities. In this study we have investigated how diversity and functionality is affected by changing salinity. Bacterial communities from Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea were used in the study. In the Skagerrak community the bacteria live in an environment with high salinity and low DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentration and the Baltic communitiy has a low salinity and a high DOC concentration. We made a salinity change between these communities to see how that would affect the communities. The diversity, genotype variation, and functionality of the bacteria were studied using DGGE-analysis and Eco-plates respectively. The results showed that the two communities were affected by the salinity change. The bacterial counts decreased and increased, in the Baltic and Skagerrak communities respectively, in relation to the salinity change and a diversity change was seen in the DGGE-analysis (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). The original Baltic and Skagerrak communities showed different functionality traits. Over time, along the experiment, the functionality changed and the communities showed different functionality at the end of the experiment. But we can’t definitely say that high diversity always gives high functionality.

  • 431.
    Karlsson, Lydia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie om refraktiv kirurgi med fördjupning inom LASIK (Laser In Situ Keratomileusis)2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att göra en kort redovisning av de vanligaste tekniker (LASIK, LASEK, PRK och RLE) som finns inom refraktiv kirurgi med en fördjupning inom LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis). Studiens syfte är att ta reda på hur LASIK operationen går till, vilka som är lämpade kandidater och vilka de vanligaste riskerna som finns.

    Bakgrund: Keratorefraktiv kirurgi har utvecklats enormt under de senaste årtionden. De initiala försöken att korrigera sfärocylindriska refraktiva fel med corneal kirurgi och första generationen excimer laser kirurgi var effektiva för korrigering av lägre refraktiva fel. Utvecklingen av mer komplex laserteknologi har gett mer noggranna och förutsägbara resultat. Detta har gjort att indikationer för den refraktiva kirurgin har expanderat. LASIK har fått ett bra fäste inom den refraktiva kirurgin och används allt oftare med syftet att korrigera refraktiva fel.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie gjordes där fyra originalartiklar som presenterade resultat kopplade till ämnet studerades.

    Resultat: Excimer laserkirurgi är en effektiv metod för korrigering av sfärocylindriska refraktiva fel. En utveckling av mer komplex laserteknologi har resulterat i mer noggranna och förutsägbara resultat. De förbättrade resultaten beror även på att både den diagnostiska och den terapeutiska vågfrontteknologin lyfts fram.

    Slutsats: Sfäriska aberrationer visade sig vara mindre efter vågfrontoptimerad LASIK än efter kirurgi med konventionell LASIK. Inga bestående skillnader hittades mellan vågfrontstyrd PRK och vågfrontstyrd LASIK. Den vågfrontstyrda IntraLASIK visade inga fördelar på att bevara tårkvalité i jämförelse med de konventionella IntraLASIK.

  • 432.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Evolution in changing environments revealed by fire melanism in pygmy grasshopper2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to theory, genetic diversity can be maintained by environmental variation and the degree of genetic and phenotypic polymorphism may enhance the ability of populations to endure stress imposed by changing environments. In my thesis I used colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) as a model system to explore how environmental variation influenced genetic diversity. I compared population colour morph frequencies between populations in burnt and non-burnt areas and performed experiments to investigate to what extent colour patterns in these insects are determined by genes and influenced by phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental effects experienced during development. My results showed that the frequency of black individuals on average was much higher in recently fire ravaged areas, a condition known as fire melanism. The highest proportion of black individuals was reached within the first year after a fire. After the initial increase, the proportion of black individuals declined again and the distribution among alternative colour morphs became more even. Data for individuals raised in captivity revealed a high correspondence between maternal and offspring colour patterns, indicating a strong genetic influence on colour. Additional experiments demonstrated that the development of colour patterns in pygmy grasshoppers was not influenced by burnt material or high population densities, two environmental cues associated with post fire environments.

    To test if reduced competition among alternative colour morphs may contribute to the maintenance of colour pattern polymorphism in these insects I examined if average survival was higher in diverse compared to homogeneous groups of individuals. I found that survival increased with colour pattern diversity, presumably due to reduced competition among alternative colour morphs. Relaxation of competition may explain why the distribution among alternative colour patterns changed and became more even after the initial evolution of fire melanism. My results demonstrate that environmental change may cause extremely rapid and reversible evolution, indicate that fluctuating selection may preserve genetic variation and support the notion that polymorphism may increase average individual success and enable populations to withstand environmental change.

     

  • 433.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Is melanism in pygmy grasshoppers induced by crowding?2010In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 975-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Color polymorphisms in animals may result from plasticity of the developmental system in response to genetic cues in the form of allelic variation at polymorphic loci, environmental cues, or a combination of genetic and environmental cues. An increased understanding of the evolution of color polymorphisms requires better knowledge of when we should expect genetic and environmental cues respectively to influence phenotype determination. Theory posits that the developmental systems of organisms should evolve sensitivity to such cues that most accurately predict coming selective conditions. Pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) vary in color pattern within and among populations and show fire melanism, i.e., an increased frequency of black and dark colored phenotypes in high density populations inhabiting fire-ravaged areas. We examined if the population density experienced by individuals during development influenced the phenotypic expression of color pattern in Tetrix subulata. Individuals were experimentally reared either in solitude, at intermediate density or under crowded conditions. We found that color patterns of experimental individuals were independent of rearing density but strongly influenced by maternal color pattern. High population density and crowding may not constitute reliable predictors of the selective regime that characterizes post-fire environments.

  • 434.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Finns Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis bland fågelburna fästingar?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is the causative agent of a recently discovered tick-borne disease. This bacterium is known to infect different types of rodents and can be transferred occasionally, by ticks, to humans. Thus far only six human cases are documented, and of them five individuals were immunosuppressed. Symptoms characteristic for Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis is persistent fever, arthralgia, myalgia and coagulation disorders. To increase our understanding of the host range of this disease we sampled 552 ticks from birds at Ottenby birdstation, Öland. Samples were screened utilizing real time-PCR for Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis 16S rRNA gene and positive samples were further analyzed for the bacteria’s GroEL-gene. The fragments from the bacteria’s 16S rRNA-gen were sequenced. Of the 552 analyzed ticks, 9 contained the bacterium resulting in a prevalence of 1,6 % and illustrating that Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis is present in ticks collected from birds. Hence, we can elucidate that birds may carry the bacterium as a number of the positive ticks belonged to the species Ixodes frontalis, which mainly parasitize birds.This study has contributed new information about Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis, particularly in regards to the host range, as ticks from birds never before have been studied for this purpose.

  • 435.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Reststensinventering i Kalmar läns fastland2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle krävs stora mängder bergmaterial för att infrastruktur och byggnationer av olika slag ska kunna utföras, samtidigt ses naturgrus som en allt mer värdefull resurs där uttagen måste minska. Det finns alltså ett stort behov av bergkross som är det naturliga ersättningsmaterialet till naturgrus och intresset för att använda reststen från blockstensbrytning har i och med det ökat.

    Täktverksamheten i Kalmar län har gamla anor och syftet med den här studien var att inventera och dokumentera den reststen som finns i gamla och befintliga täkter. Reststensupplagen har sedan med hjälp av uppsatta kriterier klassats efter deras olika värden. Modellen som utarbetats är också tänkt som ett hjälpmedel vid framtida reststensinventeringar.

    23 stycken potentiella reststenstäkter inventerades varav elva stycken visade sig vara exploaterbara. Sju stycken var av mycket stort exploateringsvärde och fyra stycken visade sig vara exploateringsvärda. Materialet i dessa täkter utgör en sammanlagd krosstensreserv i länet om 4 700 000 ton.

    Resultaten visar att det finns stora mängder exploaterbar reststen i täkterna på fastlandet i Kalmar län. Förutom volymen reststen är transportavståndet till avsättningsställe viktigt för om ett reststensupplag ska bli intressant för en exploatör. Bergmaterial är väldigt tungt att transportera och blir avståndet längre än cirka 50 km så kommer transportkostnaderna att överstiga värdet på materialet.

  • 436.
    Karlsson, Natalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förekomst och källor av koppar och kadmium i Kalmars avloppsvatten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av avloppsslam från kommunala avloppsreningsverk som ett alternativt gödningsmedel ökar i det svenska jordbruket. Ett problem med slam som gödningsmedel är dock att de metaller och oönskade ämnen som finns i avloppsvattnet också tillförs åkermarken via slammet, och slutligen, genom ackumulering i mark och grödor, kan ge effekter på miljön och människors hälsa. För att möjliggöra användning av avloppsslam som växtnäring finns certifieringssystemet REVAQ. Målet med REVAQ är att genom systematiskt uppströmsarbete vid reningsverken förbättra slammet. Detta, genom att minska metaller och oönskade ämnen i inkommande avloppsvatten till den nivå där halterna i slammet inte påverkar markorganismer och gröda, negativt.

    Kalmar Vatten AB är certifierat enligt REVAQ och samtliga metallhalter i deras avloppsslam, avsett för slam som växtnäring, har en godkänd halt. Emellertid har halterna av koppar och kadmium varit något förhöjda. Med anledning av detta har det, som en del av uppströmsarbetet enligt REVAQ, i denna studie undersökts om något område i Kalmar kommun bidrar med ett större tillskott av dessa metaller i avloppsvattnet och det har spekulerats i vad detta i så fall kan bero på. För att svara på detta har provtagningar gjorts i pumpstationer som utgör knutpunkter inom större avrinningsområden för kommunens spillvattennät.

    Resultaten visar att kommunen har områden som är av betydelse för koppar- och kadmiumtillförseln till reningsverket, både när mängderna sätts i relation till antalet anslutna personer på avloppsnätet och vad gäller mängder/koncentrationer som kan påverka halter i slammet. Orsakerna till mängder från dessa områden beror möjligen på hur områdena ser ut och är uppbyggda. Vidare provtagningar, uppströms de presenterade områdena, är nödvändiga för att fastställa de källor som behöver åtgärdas för att slutligen minska koppar- och kadmiumhalterna i slammet.

  • 437.
    Karlström, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Near Vergence Facility in Non-presbyopic Swedish Adults2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 438.
    Karpestam, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prescribing Patterns to Children and Adolescents (10-19 years) in Sweden during 2006-2011: A Registry Study with Focus on Drugs Acting on the Nervous System2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and adolescents are a group among which the data on efficacy and safety of drugs is particularly scarce. This has consequences that can lead to adverse effects. The recent increase in utilization of specialized psychiatric care among young men and women in Sweden may influence drug utilization because the Swedish guidelines for treating neuropsychiatric disorders in youth include medical treatment. Using de-personalized prescription data from The Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry for the years 2006-2011 to estimate period prevalence of drug use for males and females aged 10-19 years; trends in prescribing were analyzed on a national as well as a regional level. The prevalence of both overall (+ 2.6 %) and ATC N (+ 51 %) drug use has increased for the age group 10-19 years during the years 2006-2011. In general, the increase was greater for males than for females, and the number of prescriptions increased generally more than the number of individuals getting a prescription dispensed. Hypnotic/sedative drugs increased most for males (> 200 %) and for females drugs used to manage ADHD increased the most (> 350 %). There were considerable differences in both prevalence and change in prevalence of drug use between various regions.

  • 439.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Dietary differences among colour morphs of pygmy grasshoppers revealed by behavioural experiments and stable isotopes.2011In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 13, p. 461-477Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 440.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments2012In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 2204-2212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human “predators” with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers.

  • 441.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Matching habitat choice by experimentally mismatched phenotypes2012In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 893-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene flow is often regarded a random process that homogenizes differencesbetween populations and constrains local adaptation. However, the matching habitat choicehypothesis posits that individuals actively choose those microhabitats that best match theirspecific phenotype to maximize fitness. Dispersal (and possibly gene flow) may thus bedirected. Many studies report associations between habitats and phenotypes, but they mayreflect selection, plasticity or adaptation rather than matching choice. Here, we test twopredictions from the matching habitat choice hypothesis by manipulating the dorsal colourof Tetrix subulata, a pygmy grasshopper. (1) Is microhabitat choice flexible such thatdifferently manipulated phenotypes distribute themselves differently in a microclimaticand solar radiation mosaic? (2) If they do, are their fitness prospects higher in the morepreferred microhabitat? We find that individuals painted white or black do distributethemselves differently, with black individuals residing in habitats with less radiation, onaverage, than white individuals, demonstrating that microhabitat choices are plastic. Furthermore,white females had more hatchlings than black ones in the increased radiationtreatment, and this was mainly due to increased mortality of black females under increasedradiation. These findings provide rare experimental evidence in line with predictions fromthe matching habitat choice hypothesis.

  • 442. Keller, Judith I
    et al.
    Shriver, W Gregory
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Griekspoor, Petra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds of the mid-Atlantic region, USA.2011In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 750-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the occurrence of three Campylobacter species--C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari--from 333 wild bird fecal samples collected at Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research in Newark, Delaware, in 2008. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, we detected C. jejuni from six avian families with an overall prevalence rate of 7.2%. We did not detect any other Campylobacter species. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence ranged widely between different avian families with crows (Corvidae) and gulls (Laridae) having the highest prevalence rates (23% and 25%, respectively).

  • 443.
    Kilander, Agnes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Yeast as a Model Organism in Epigenetic Research; Altered Phenotype Caused by Food Components: A Pre-Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 77642012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The epigenetic state of individuals is most relevant for health and disease prevention. Epigenetics are modifications (such as methylation or acetylation) of DNA and chromatin with no changes in the DNA sequence, which affects the phenotype. Nutrient deficiency and bioactive food components are examples of factors affecting the epigenetic state. The aim of present thesis work was to investigate if the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used to find food components that alter the epigenome. S. cerevisiae is widely used as a model organism because of the high conservation in many genes between yeast and humans. S. cerevisiae CBS 7764 was cultivated in zinc deficiency or with resveratrol (grape polyphenol), and the death rate in H2O2 after recovery in full media/without resveratrol was determined. Zinc deficiency and resveratrol have previously been shown to have epigenetic effects. An altered sensitivity against oxidative stress was indicated as a change in the epigenome. Both zinc deficiency and resveratrol treatment were shown to give an increased sensitivity against H2O2 compared with the control culture. The change in the zinc deficiency culture was shown to be reversible, which is indicative of epigenetic modulation and not mutations. This indicates that S. cerevisiae can be used as a model organism to find food components with epigenetic effects, but the method needs further evaluation.

  • 444. Kilpi-Koski, Johanna
    et al.
    Konsti-Laakso, Suvi
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Toivakainen, Sakari
    Dahl, Olli
    How regional eco-innovative waste water clusters benefit from triple helix approach - Case STInno2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 445. Klapper, Yvonne
    et al.
    Hamad, Osama
    Teramura, Yuji
    Leneweit, Gero
    Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Investigation of complement activation by neutral liposomes2012In: Immunobiology, ISSN 0171-2985, E-ISSN 1878-3279, Vol. 217, no 11, p. 1179-1180Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 446.
    Klitterud, Evelina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Den klimatsmarta grisen - visst finss den!: En LCA av gris och olika förändringar i produktionssystemet i syfte att minska klimatpåverkan.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förståelse för hur vår mat påverkar klimatet blir allt mer viktigt. Grisproduktion har visat sig ha betydligt mindre klimatpåverkan än nötköttsproduktion dock har befintlig forskning visat att all köttproduktion relativt sett leder till stor miljöpåverkan. Att grisen står sig starkt i miljösynpunkt jämfört med nötkött ger inget skäl till att inte försöka göra grisen mer klimatsmart. 

    Syftet med studien är att beräkna potentialen att minska den svenska grisens klimatpåverkan genom olika produktionsförändringar. De produktionsförändringar som undersökts är; användning av förnyelsebar energi till stall(vindkraft), biogasproduktion av gödsel och användning av restprodukter som foder och då matavfall. 

    Detta är en screening-livscykelanalys där endast Global Warming Potential tas i hänsyn med ett 100 års perspektiv. Den funktionella enheten(FE) är 1 kg ben- och fettfritt griskött. 

    Genom att använda förnyelsebar energi i form av vindkraftproducerad el till stall kan klimatpåverkan potentiellt minskas med 3,3 %. Genom att ha en biogasproduktion av gödslet kan klimatpåverkan potentiellt minskas med 31,8 % och genom att använda restprodukten, matavfall, som foder kan klimatpåverkan potentiellt minskas med 54,2 %. Resultaten i studien visar att det potentiellt går att producera en klimatsmart gris. 

  • 447.
    Knaziak, Margareta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av C6-peptid-baserad serologi på cerebrospinalvätska som komplement vid diagnostik av neuroborrelios2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lyme Borreliosis, caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-complex, is the most common tick-borne infection in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The bacteria can infect many different organs, this can give rise to a variety of symptoms in skin, the nervous system, joints and heart. Approximately 15 % of the infected individuals show neurological symptoms referred to as neuroborreliosis. An active neuroborreliosis is indicated by inflammatory changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and local synthesis of anti-Borrelia antibodies in CSF. The current method to diagnose neuroborreliosis is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which compares levels of anti-Borrelia antibodies in CSF and serum by calculating an antibody index (AI). Calculations of AI compensate for unspecific leakage of antibodies from serum to CSF following an injury of the blood-brain barrier. The drawback of the current method is a low sensitivity with a high rate of false negative results in samples collected early during an infection. Another type of ELISA, based on the use of a C6 peptide, has earlier shown good sensitivity for detection of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific antibodies in serum. The C6 antigen corresponds to a highly immunogenic and conserved region of the bacterial surface protein VlsE. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a detection of antibodies against the C6 peptide in CSF could improve the total sensitivity for the diagnostics of neuroborreliosis. In the current study, 169 samples with negative AI from young patients and 18 samples from special cases were analyzed. Antibodies against the C6 peptide were found in 8 young patients and in 2 samples from special cases. Out of these, 3 young patients were stated positive for neuroborreliosis. Results of this study show that the C6 peptide ELISA on CSF samples could act as a complement to the current serological method for diagnosing neuroborreliosis. A combination of both methods could possibly increase the overall sensitivity. However, the blod-brain barrier injury issue is a problem in the analysis and interpretation of the results of the C6 peptide-based method on CSF should take into consideration a possible dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier. In conclusion, a combination of both the current method and the C6 peptide ELISA could give a markedly improved sensitivity in diagnostics of neuroborreliosis.

  • 448. Knowles, N J
    et al.
    Hovi, T
    Hyypiä, T
    King, A M Q
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Pallansch, M A
    Palmenberg, A C
    Simmonds, P
    Skern, T
    Stanway, G
    Yamashita, T
    Zell, R
    Family - Picornaviridae2012In: Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses / [ed] Andrew M.Q. King, Elliot Lefkowitz, Michael J. Adams and Eric B. Carstens, San Diego - London: Elsevier, 2012, p. 855-881Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on Picornaviridae family whose member genuses includeEnterovirus, Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus, Hepatovirus, and Parechovirus. The virions of this family consist of a capsid with no envelope and surrounds a core of ssRNA. Hydrated native particles are 30 nm in diameter, but vary from 22 to 30 nm in electron micrographs due to drying and flattening during preparation. The virions contain one molecule of positive sense, ssRNA, and possess a single long ORF. The UTRs at both termini contain regions of secondary structure, which are essential to genome function. In addition to the major CPs, 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D, and 3B (VPg), small amounts of 1AB (VP0) are commonly seen in lieu of one or more copies of 1A and 1B. Protein 1A is small in hepatoviruses, and 1AB is uncleaved in avihepatoviruses, kobuviruses, parechoviruses, and a number of unclassified picornaviruses. Some picornaviruses carry a sphingosine-like molecule in a cavity located inside 1D, and protein 1A generally has a molecule of myristic acid covalently attached to the amino terminal glycine. The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and the viral mRNA. Infection is generally cytolytic, but persistent infections are common with some species and reported with others. Poliovirus infected cells undergo extensive vacuolation as membranes are reorganized into viral replication complexes.

  • 449.
    Korten, Till
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden,.
    Månsson, Alf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Diez, Stefan
    Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden,.
    Towards the application of cytoskeletal motor proteins in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2010In: Current Opinion in Biotechnology, ISSN 0958-1669, E-ISSN 1879-0429, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 477-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past ten years, great advancements have been made towards using biomolecular motors for nanotechnological applications. In particular, devices using cytoskeletal motor proteins for molecular transport are maturing. First efforts towards designing such devices used motor proteins attached to micro-structured substrates for the directed transport of microtubules and actin filaments. Soon thereafter, the specific capture, transport and detection of target analytes like viruses were demonstrated. Recently, spatial guiding of the gliding filaments was added to increase the sensitivity of detection and allow parallelization. Whereas molecular motor powered devices have not yet demonstrated performance beyond the level of existing detection techniques, the potential is great: Replacing microfluidics with transport powered by molecular motors allows integration of the energy source (ATP) into the assay solution. This opens up the opportunity to design highly integrated, miniaturized, autonomous detection devices. Such devices, in turn, may allow fast and cheap on-site diagnosis of diseases and detection of environmental pathogens and toxins.

  • 450.
    Kozarcanin, Huda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Lectin Pathway of Complement is Triggered by Activated Platelets2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
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