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• 401.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Sänkt restaurangmoms      : Hur många jobb skapades?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

År 2012 sänktes momsen på restaurang- och cateringverksamhet från 25 % till 12 %.

Huvudsyftet med denna sänkning var att öka sysselsättningen i restaurangbranschen.

Liknande momssänkningar har tidigare gjort på flera håll i övriga Europa. Denna studies syfte

är att utvärdera om denna momssänkning har ökat sysselsättningen och så fall i hur stor grad.

För att skatta denna effekt har en difference-in-difference modell använts. Studien kommer

fram till att det troligtvis har skett en ökning av sysselsättningen i restaurangbranschen men

har svårt att vissa precis hur stor denna ökning har varit.

• 402.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Att arbeta med försörjningsstöd: En analys av jobbstimulansen och drivkrafterna för arbete i försörjningsstödet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The municipalities' costs for social assistance are expected to grow by over 20 per cent in the coming years (Prop. 2018/19:1). There are plenty of studies of how the design and level of unemployment insurances affect labor market outcomes – higher benefits have a negative impact on annual income and wages after unemployment – but few concerning the social assistance system.

For recipients of social assistance, the benefit is reduced by the same amount a person earns, which create weak incentives for work as the substitution effect remains neutral. As a measure to lower the effective marginal tax rate from a hundred percent, Sweden has introduced a claw-back tax: the so-called job stimulus.

Labor supply models assume voluntary unemployment, where the incentives depend on the fixed costs of working. If the fixed costs remain neutral, everyone who has a potential income over the benefit limit should work. However, under 2 per cent receive the job stimulus, even though approximately 50 per cent meet the eligibility requirements (Socialstyrelsen, 2016). Therefore, this thesis investigates potential explanations to this lag between theory and reality, analyzing a specific policy using traditional analysis tools from the economic theory of labor supply.

The results show that the effective marginal tax rate is significantly affected, which strengthens the assumption that traditional analysis tools for labor supply seem insufficient when studying social assistance. Therefore, the effort model is introduced as an analysis tool to complement the established theories.

• 403.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Kan en kommun påverka kostnaderna för bidrag?: Effekter av demografiska, ekonomiska och institutionella faktorer på försörjningsstödet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The development of total costs for social assistance varies heavily between the 290 different Swedish municipalities. A vast majority of recent litterature focus on cross-section data for individual years, or qualitative methods with a sociologic approach. Studies find support for higher rates of participation among young adults, single households (especially those with children), immigrants in general and refugees in particular, and people living in larger cities. Firm correlations are also found between social assistance and the business cycle, employment rates and the coverage of unemployment insurance. Municipalities with higher level of control in the administration of social assistance, and more experienced and specialized social workers, are found to have lower payouts.

This thesis studies demographic, economic and institutional factors in longitudinal data, between 2006 and 2015. Panel regressions are performed for demographic and economic variables. For institutional factors, such as local rules or differences in administration, both a short panel and a cross-section regression are included. Social assistance appears as a complement to national social benefit systems and unemployment insurance, and less correlated to the share of low income households than expected. The results indicates lower social assistance through local labor market programs and adult education, but cannot determine whether it is due to cost passed on to national benefits or to self-sufficiency. The thesis includes some new findings; one example is a correlation between local rules, such as standardized methods in the assessment, and social assistance dependency, another is the effect of local tax policy. Population growth and share of single households do not seem to have the predicted effects on social assistance dependency, among some other examples.

Further studies should focus on some specific variables, especially local rules and policies. A need for evaluation of local labor market programs, and efforts to standardize the social assistance administration, appears with distinction.

• 404.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Capital taxation and investment behaviour: A study of how the introduction of ISK taxation in Sweden has affected households’ investments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The aim with this essay is to research how changes in marginal taxation of capital, changes households’ investment behaviour. To be able to do so, the introduction of investment savings accounts, or ISK, in Sweden will be studied. This since the ISK can be considered a tax-subsidised investment form, and as such could provide insight of how the households change their investment patterns when their marginal tax of capital is reduced. To be able to assess whether this was in fact the case, the method difference-in-difference will be used. Due to many similarities in tax systems, Denmark is chosen as a reference group, to the treatment group Sweden. The result from the two difference-in-differences shows that the ISK taxation had increased the total value of the households’ stock ownership, but that no significant change in the number of private stock owners could be observed.

• 405.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Does type of high school program affect unemployment in Sweden?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This paper is analyzing the unemployment duration difference of individuals under different high school programs in Sweden. The cause of the analysis has from stemmed from different fields of study and its effect on employment positions in the labour market. We see education as a factor of key importance. In addition to research on an education level, the type of study also plays an important role. Therefore, how different school programs affect unemployment duration becomes the central question we try to answer in this paper. To pursue a clear analysis structure, we start with previous studies on an education level and show the author’s interest into the research of the field of study’s effect on unemployment. Job search theory is applied to do analysis on the data. Then, an empirical analysis of unemployment duration is conducted. This is done through linear regression using the least-squares method. Finally, conclusions are made as well as some policy implications and ideas for further research.

• 406.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Kvantitativ studie av det ESF-finansierade projektet Plug In inom Göteborgsregionen: Med syfte att bidra med kunskap kring projektets potentiella effekt samt hur liknande projekt på myndigheten kan utvärderas2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Var fjärde elev som påbörjar studier i den svenska gymnasieskolan avslutar inte studierna med fullständiga betyg inom fyra år. Forskning visar att elever som hoppar av sina studier lider större risk att hamna utanför arbetsmarknaden, vilket bortsett från det personliga lidandet leder till samhällsekonomiska kostnader. Många ekonomer har beskrivit värdet på det humankapital som ackumuleras under studietiden samt den signaleringseffekt det innebär på arbetsmarknaden att klarat av en gymnasieutbildning. Syftet med denna studie är att få ökad förståelse kring de potentiella effekterna av det ESF-finansierade projektet Plug In som pågick i 47 kommuner mellan 2012–2015 och är det i särklass största nationella projektet för att motverka studieavhoppen i de svenska gymnasieskolorna. Den sammanlaga kostnaden för projektet var närmare 200 miljoner kronor och idag finns det en uppföljare till projektet, kallat Plug In 2.0. En kvantitativ effektutvärdering av Plug In utfördes av Ramböll 2015, en utvärdering som inte kunde påvisa några signifikanta effekter som kunde bindas till insatsen i antalet avbrott för de kommuner med åtminstone en skola som deltog i projektet. Nysläppt data från Skolverket över andel elever som på skolenhetsnivå avslutat sina studier med fullständiga gymnasiebetyg har gett möjligheterna till denna mer pregnanta utvärdering där effekterna på längre sikt för första gången undersöks. Skolor i Göteborgsregionens Kommunförbund som deltog i projektet har matchats med skolor av liknande karaktär i jämförbara kommuner och med hjälp av en Difference-in-Difference modell mäts projektets sannolika påverkan av deltagare i projektet.

• 407.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Why does not a professional sport team impact local economy, or does it?: An explanation and extension from earlier studies in Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Subsidies to professional sports teams remain a controversial issue, and in most European countries these subsidies have decreased over the past decades. However, in Sweden they are a common occurrence, municipalities are giving generous amounts of money to their local team. To justify these subsidies, proponents of sports team claim their great economic impact on the local area. Nevertheless, in the sport economic literature, most of the researchers cannot find any positive impact and some of them even find negative impact from a hosting a professional sports team. This study will give an explanation and extension to the earlier articles about sport economics written in Sweden by Emelie Värja (2014) and Lars Behrenz (2009). In this essay we will present two models. The idea behind our first model is to investigate if professional sport events should be considered as a substitute to other leisure activities. This model indicates that there is a substitution effect between ice hockey games and cinema admissions in Sweden. The outcome from our other model which studies the condominium market strongly contradicts the generous sport subsidies given by Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the presence of a professional ice hockey team lowers the condominiums prices.

• 408.
Mid Sweden University.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
Investigating causal relations between the GDP cycle and unemployment: data from Finland2014In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 118-134Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper investigates the causal relationship between two macroeconomic variables, the gross domestic product (GDP) cycle and unemployment, in Finland. This has been done using the vector autoregressive (VAR) model for the period Q1 1995 to Q2 2011. The goal of this study is to gather further evidence for the relationship between the GDP cycle and total, male and female unemployment individually, with special reference to Finland which is a member state of the EU, and has been part of European monetary union, since 1995. The relationship has been investigated using the Granger-causality test in accordance with Okun’s (1962) formula. The empirical facts mostly indicate the existence of a uni-directional causal relationship from the GDP cycle to unemployment. This pattern is not found to be significant when using the model for unemployment in women however. The coefficients of unemployment, total, male and female, are abstracted from the Okun’s coefficient and found to be around -4 per cent total, male and female unemployment individually, -5 per cent and -1 per cent respectively. These results also have important implications for determining macroeconomic and labor-market policy.

• 409.
Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
Purchasing Power Parity Theory Determinants – A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists: a Count Data Approach2015In: American International Journal of Social Science, ISSN 2325-4149, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 294-316Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper employs the time-series negative binomial regression model (TNBM) to test the hypothesis effects of purchasing power parity (PPP) theory on the counts data of visitors to the north-west of Sweden (SW6 region). We consider a sample of monthly time-series count data from 1993:01 to 2008:12 taken from five countries: Denmark, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan and the United States. For each visiting country, we specify separate equations by including the relative available information. We then estimate these equations using the time - series negative binomial model (TNBM). The benefit of this model is that it is much more flexible and therefore likely to fit better (if the data is not Poisson distributed) and hence is more efficient than single-equation estimation methods such as least squares. We found that the number of visitors to Sweden is negatively related to the absolute PPP and relative PPP. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory and the PPP theory. The results also show that some lagged dependent variables, and several monthly dummies (representing seasonal effects), have a significant impact on the number of visitors to north-west Sweden. We also find that, in at least some cases, absolute PPP, relative PPP and relative price have significant effects on international tourism demand.

• 410.
Mid Sweden University.
University of Brescia, Italy. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
Macroeconomic determinants, innovation and the birth of new firms: negative binomial regression approach2013In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper employs the random-effects negative binomial regression model (RENBM) to test the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the birth of new firms. The test is across countries and uses count data. We consider a sample of 135 panel-data observations, taken from 27 countries in the European Union (EU) during the period 2004 to 2008. We found that the birth of new firms is positively related to the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and openness, and is negatively related to unemployment. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory. The results also show that expenditure on research and development (R&D) has a significant positive effect on the number of new firms. This result further supports the hypothesis of new economic growth theory. Moreover, the empirical evidence shows a positive correlation between the number of new businesses and ethnic heterogeneity.

• 411.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
How strong is the correlation between the increasing price level on the housing market and the households’ increased financial liabilities?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 412.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Working conditions and retirement: Can improved working conditions extend an individual's time on the labour market?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The objective of this essay is to investigate if working conditions affect the retirement age and additionally, aims to explore the differences in the effects between women and men. This study investigates this by using data of individuals living in Sweden in 2012 that were between the age of 63 and 74 (i.e individuals that are born between 1938 and 1949) retrieved fromStatistics Employment Register (Sysselsättningsregister). To complete the information, Statistics Sweden, conducted a survey on behalf of Anxo et al (2017) to 20 000 randomly selected individuals that included questions about the individual’s previous working conditions at point of retirement or at age 64 if the individual stayed above the age of 65. The result strengthened the idea from previous research that possibility to choose when and how to work decrease the likelihood of retiring earlier, hence, extends the time on the labour market. Additionally, the results indicated that psychologically demanding jobs and monotone tasks increase the probability of retiring earlier. Some results were rather counter-intuitive where the working conditions: physical demanding job, working under time pressure, number of working hours and working unsocial hours increased the likelihood for an individual to stay longer in the labour market. Additional findings in this essay that contradicted prior studies is that socializing with co-workers outside of work and the possibility to combine family and work increases the probability to retire earlier, hence reduces the likelihood of a later retirement.

• 413.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Do attitudes towards equlaity between men and women affect the gender wage gap?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The objective of this essay is to investigate how attitudes towards equality between men and women affect the gender wage gap. The essay studies how positive and negative attitudes on gender equality affects the gender income gap. This study investigates this by using data of the mean yearly incomes from 290 municipalities in Sweden during the years 2000-2008. Additionally, using a survey conducted by the SOM-institute at the Gothenburg university to measure attitudes towards gender equality. The results indicate that positive attitudes towards gender equality had a decreasing effect on the gender wage gap. A conclusion from this essay is that a more egalitarian attitude contributes to a decrease in the existing gender wage gap.

• 414.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
How can we explain the gender gap in the top managerial position in the Indian labor market?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

India is becoming an important country in economic scene worldwide and will be the most populated country by 2050. With its fast-economic development, women’s place in society does not evolve at the same speed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of gender inequalities in the accession to managerial occupation in the Indian labor market. A lot of studies have been conducted in European and North American countries, but there is not much about Asian countries. For this study, we used data from 2011 and find evidence of gender discrimination against women in their accession to managerial occupations and in terms of remuneration. This paper adds more literature about the gender gap in the Indian labor market and offers some tracks to solve India inequality issues on the labor market. Also, limitations regarding our work will be discussed.

• 415.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Szczecin University, Poland. Szczecin University, Poland.
Comparison of the effectiveness of forecasts obtained by means of selected probability functions with respect to forecast error distributions2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 3667-3679Article in journal (Refereed)

The Forecasting of sales in a company is one of the crucial challenges that must be faced. Nowadays, there is a large spectrum of methods that enable making reliable forecasts. However, sometimes the nature of time series excludes many well-known and widely used forecasting methods (e.g. econometric models). Therefore, the authors decided to forecast on the basis of a seasonally adjusted median of selected probability distributions. The obtained forecasts were verified by means of distributions of the Theil U2 coefficient and unbiasedness coefficient.

• 416.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
A New Liu Type of Estimators for the Restricted SUR Estimator2019In: Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, ISSN 1538-9472Article in journal (Refereed)
• 417.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University ; HUI Research, Stockholm.
Jönköping University ; Göteborgs Universitet. Jönköping University ; HUI Research, Stockholm.
Developing Interaction Shrinkage Parameters for the Liu Estimator — with an Application to the Electricity Retail Market2015In: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 539-550Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we examine multicollinearity in the standard OLS interaction-term model—a problem often disregarded by practitioners and in previous research. As a remedy we propose a number of new shrinkage parameters based on the Liu (Commun Stat 22:393–402, 1993) estimator. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate the robustness of all models for different data-generating processes under varying conditions such as altered sample sizes and error distributions. In the simulation study it is demonstrated that the Liu estimator, which is robust to multicollinearity, systematically outperforms the traditionally applied OLS approach. The simple reason is that interaction models by definition always induce substantial multicollinearity, which in turn distorts the inference of OLS. Conversely, the Liu estimator is robust against multicollinearity in interaction-term models. The advantages of our Liu-based method are also demonstrated in practice when examining the efficiency of the Swedish power retailing market. By the use of this unique data set we find strong evidence of positive asymmetric price transmission effects. Increases in Nord Pool electricity wholesale spot prices lead to immediate and full increases in the electricity retail prices, but decreases in Nord Pool prices are not completely passed down or are delayed before being passed down to consumers. This finding suggests evidence of inefficient and unjust wealth transfers from consumers to retailers in the Swedish power market.

• 418.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
The impact of working conditions on employers' labour demand of older workers: A cross-sectional study on the Swedish labour market2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The objective of this essay is to identify the different implications that hard and demanding working conditions may have on firms’ labour demand of older workers. The theoretical framework developed in this study is based on Lazear’s deferred compensation theory and adapted for the purpose of the research question to take into consideration the impact of workplaces’ characteristics. Several hypotheses were put forward and tested with logit models and ordinary least squares regressions on a large dataset comprising information on over 2,000 Swedish firms. Results mainly show negative relationships between hard working conditions and the probability of hiring older workers, in particular concerning jobs implying mentally exhausting tasks. Results also tend to show that the higher the age, the lower the probability of being hired. However, the low statistical significance of the results is quite restrictive in terms of generalizability, and further researches are needed to pin down clear trends about the consequences of the different characteristics of the working conditions on the labour demand of older workers, especially concerning the dichotomy between physically demanding tasks and mentally exhausting tasks.

• 419.
Jönköping University.
Jönköping University. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
A new nonlinear asymmetric cointegration approach using error correction models2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 1661-1668Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article, two new powerful tests for cointegration are proposed. The general idea is based on an intuitively appealing extension of the traditional, rather restrictive cointegration concept. In this paper we allow for a nonlinear, but most importantly a different, asymmetric convergence process to account for negative and positive changes in our cointegration approach. Using Monte Carlo simulations we verify, that the estimated size of the first test depends on the unknown value of a signal-to-noise ratio q. However, our second test – which is based on the original ideas of Kanioura and Turner (2005) – is more successful and robust in the sense that it works in all of the different evaluated situations. Furthermore it is shown to be more powerful than the traditional residual based Enders and Siklos (2001) method. The new optimal test is also applied in an empirical example in order to test for potential nonlinear asymmetric price transmission effects on the Swedish power market. We find that there is a higher propensity for power retailers to rapidly and systematically increase their retail electricity prices subsequent to increases in Nordpool's wholesale prices, than there is for them to reduce their prices subsequent to a drop in wholesale spot prices.

• 420.
Jönköping University ; HUI Research.
Jönköping University ; HUI Research. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University ; HUI Research.
Testing for panel cointegration in an error-correction framework with an application to the Fisher hypothesis2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1735-1745Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article, three innovative panel error-correction model (PECM) tests are proposed. These tests are based on the multivariate versions of the Wald (W), likelihood ratio (LR), and Lagrange multiplier (LM) tests. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the size and power of the tests are investigated when the error terms exhibit both cross-sectional dependence and independence. We find that the LM test is the best option when the error terms follow independent white-noise processes. However, in the more empirically relevant case of cross-sectional dependence, we conclude that the W test is the optimal choice. In contrast to previous studies, our method is general and does not rely on the strict assumption that a common factor causes the cross-sectional dependency. In an empirical application, our method is also demonstrated in terms of the Fisher effect—a hypothesis about the existence of which there is still no clear consensus. Based on our sample of the five Nordic countries we utilize our powerful test and discover evidence which, in contrast to most previous research, confirms the Fisher effect.

• 421.
Jönköping University, Sweden.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden ; Gothenburg University, Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
The efficiency of the Scandinavian banking sector - a wavelet quantile regression analysis2015In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 47, no 50, p. 5378-5389Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article, the Scandinavian housing financing market is analysed in order to determine whether the interest rate price-discovery processes of Denmark, Norway and Sweden are efficient. Based on wavelet quantile regression analysis, we find systematic positive asymmetric price transmission (APT) inefficiencies. We conclude that there is a very high propensity for mortgage lenders to directly increase its customers’ mortgage interest rates subsequently to an increase in its borrowing costs. However, after a corresponding borrowing cost decrease, the same mortgage lenders are very slow to decrease its customers’ mortgage rates. These positive coefficients for so-called APT effects are found in all Scandinavian countries, even if the coefficients for Norway were not statistically significant. Wavelet quantile regression analysis, with a focus on the relevant higher percentiles, is easily motivated since the mortgage rates are adjusted very infrequently. Moreover, wavelet decomposition allows a robust analysis at different time frequency scales, while simultaneously controlling for nonstationary trends, autocorrelation and structural breaks. Except for the still positive but yet insignificant and inconclusive coefficients for Norway, the result is very clear-cut. Regardless of which wavelet scaling decomposition or quantile coefficient that is studied – positive APT effects are clearly identified and confirmed on the Scandinavian mortgage market.

• 422.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
Employment effects of union-bargained minimum wages: evidence from Sweden’s retail sector2015In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 694-710Article in journal (Refereed)

Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of collectively agreed increases in minimum wages for manual workers on employment transitions and hours.

Design/methodology/approach– The econometric approach relies on the identification of workers affected by minimum wage changes, depending on their position in the wage distribution and contrasts outcomes for these workers to those for unaffected workers, with slightly higher wages.

Findings– The analysis suggests that separations increase as minimum wages increase and that substitution between worker groups in response to changes in minimum wages is important in retail. In general, though, hours do not change much as minimum wages increase.

Research limitations/implications– Analyses that deal with employment consequences of increasing minimum wages but disregard hours may exaggerate the overall decline in employment to the extent that job losses are concentrated among low-paid, part-time workers.

Practical implications– With union-bargained minimum wages, unions and employers need to carefully consider the effects of increasing rates on employment.

Social implications– The findings that there is a trade-off between higher wages among the low-paid and employment loss and that employment to some extent is reshuffled between individuals should be important from a welfare perspective.

Originality/value– The literature on employment effects of minimum wages is large, but very few studies are concerned with union-bargained minimum wages. The assumptions of the econometric model are tested in a novel way by imposing fictitious minimum wages on lower-level non-manuals in the same industry, with turnover characteristics similar to those of manuals but covered by a different collective agreement with non-binding actual minimum wages.

• 423.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
Nationalekonomisk forskning om anställningsskydd2018In: Arbetsrättsliga föreningen 60 år: LAS 40 år: anföranden vid sammankomst 21 januari 2015 i Stockholm / [ed] Ronnie Eklund, Stockholm: Jure, 2018, 1, p. 31-43Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

Denna uppsats diskuterar teoretiska utgångspunkter och empiri i internationell och svensk forskning om anställningsskyddets effekter. Jag sammanfattar de viktigaste empiriska resultaten om effekter på sysselsättning, arbetslöshet och produktivitet och diskuterar kvarstående kunskapsluckor i forskningen.

• 424.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
Non-standard employment in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)

In Sweden, as in many other countries, marginal groups tend to be overrepresented in non-standard employment. A decomposition of the employment rate of full-time workers on permanent contracts reveals that non-standard employment contributes to a substantially weaker labour market attachment for females and the foreign born than suggested by conventional employment figures alone. Our econometric analysis shows that the negative wage premia associated with fixed-term employment are considerably smaller in Sweden, both for natives and foreign born, than those that have been found for other countries. This may be due to a highly compressed wage structure and extensive coverage of collective bargaining in Sweden. On the whole, the type of fixed-term contract seems not to matter for the estimated wage premia.

• 425.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm.
Non-standard Employment in Sweden2018In: De Economist, ISSN 0013-063X, E-ISSN 1572-9982, Vol. 166, no 4, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)

In Sweden, as in many other countries, marginal groups tend to be overrepresented in non-standard employment. A decomposition of the employment rate of full-time workers on permanent contracts reveals that non-standard employment contributes to a substantially weaker labour market attachment for females and the foreign born than suggested by conventional employment figures alone. Our econometric analysis shows that the negative wage premia associated with fixed-term employment are considerably smaller in Sweden, both for natives and foreign born, than those that have been found for other countries. This may be due to a highly compressed wage structure and extensive coverage of collective bargaining in Sweden. On the whole, the type of fixed-term contract seems not to matter for the estimated wage premia.

• 426.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Immigrants probability to receive social assistance: Do we have a difference between immigrants and natives and what happens over time?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This essay studies the immigrant’s probability to participate in social assistance compared to natives and if there any assimilation effect. A linear probability model is used to get the result. The result show that immigrant have a higher likelihood of participating in social assistance compared to natives. The result shows that the probability differs between regions of birth and between refugees and non-refugees, with a higher probability for immigrants from the Middle east and refugees. Previous Swedish studies have not added language skill in Swedish to their models but in this essay, language skill in Swedish variable is included, it shows that the probability reduces if the immigrants know Swedish. There is no assimilation effect on immigrants as a group but there is evidence of assimilation when immigrant gets divided into regions, education level and refugees.

• 427.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Self-employment gap between natives and immigrants in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This paper examines three questions orderly with the help of the European Social Survey (ESS) pooled cross section data. Firstly, whether there is a gap of probability of being self-employed existed between natives and immigrants in Sweden. Secondly, whether there is heterogeneity existed within different ethnic group of immigrants and thirdly, if that heterogeneity existed across genders. The results show that there is no significant gap of probability of being self-employed between natives and immigrants in Sweden, and it can be due to the heterogeneity within the immigrant group itself. The results of logit model indicate that the probability of being self-employed for immigrants from Asian countries (the Middle East countries excluded) are significantly different from Swedish natives, and that for immigrants from the Middle East countries and Asian countries (the Middle East countries excluded) are both significantly different from immigrants from the Nordic countries (Sweden excluded). Furthermore, when looking by the perspective of genders, the results reveal that the heterogeneity existed when examining the groups for both genders can only be found in male immigrant group, while female immigrant group do not appear to be heterogeneous.

• 428.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Bitcoin: A study on the determinants of the Bitcoin price development2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Bitcoin is a new evolutionary development within the internet and payment system. Its price has a high volatile nature what brings a lot of attention to this cryptocurrency. This paper investigates the price formation of the Bitcoin by looking at three determinants: speculative position, transaction volume and the utility users obtain from joining the network. To see the correlation between these determinants and the influence it has on the Bitcoin price a multiple regression model has been built over the time period from 2017 to 2019.  The model shows that the effect of speculation is heavier than any other variable, reflecting the uncertainty brought by the sensible sentiment of speculators and users.

• 429.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University;IZA, Germany.
Umeå University.
Flexibility at a cost - Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2016In: Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 7, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)

Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions. Also, the estimated returns in this study are more than twice the size compared with earlier studies of Swedish adults who enrolled AE at the upper secondary level. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

• 430.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Umeå University, Sweden.
Flexibility at a cost: should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2015Report (Other academic)

Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

• 431.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University.
Umeå University.
The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed2015In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)

Training programs for the unemployed typically involve training specific skills in demand amongst employers. In 1997, Swedish unemployed could also choose general schooling at the upper secondary level. This offers a unique opportunity to assess the theoretically ambiguous long-term relative earnings of general vs. specific training for unemployed. Analyzing detailed administrative data 1990–2010, we find 1) that specific training is associated with higher earnings in the short run, 2) that earnings converge 5–7 years post program and 3) that individuals act on their comparative advantages. When we extrapolate our estimates to life-time earnings, there is overall a relative advantage of specific training. However, for females with limited prior education, we find a relative life-time earnings advantage of general training. JEL-codes: I21, J62, J68 © 2015, Stenberg and Westerlund.

• 432.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
An explanation to earned income disparities2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The earned income differ across municipalities in Sweden, where Stockholm is the location with the highest average earned income. One can ask whether this is depending on higher educational attainment, the disparity in population size and house prices. This paper aims to explain which parameter affects the income disparities between large and small cites. Using data from Statistics Sweden between the years 1991-2017. The above-mentioned topics are used in the three statistical models; Ordinary Least Squares, Pooled OLS, and Fixed-Effects. From this analyze, this paper can conclude that human capital is essential to explain earned income disparities. The discussion part includes limitations of the dataset and its consequences depending on geographical choice. Another exciting explanation of earned income differences is mentioned in the discussion, namely happiness level in each region.

• 433.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
A Study of a Relationship Between The U.S. Stock Market and Emerging Stock Markets in Southeast Asia2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Resulting from the deregulation and prosperity of the economic and financial sectors in Asia during 1980s, a significant increase in cross-bordered financial transactions ultimately accelerated the region of Southeast Asia to be on a process of financial integration and consequently diminished opportunities for portfolio diversification. Financial Integration is a multidimensional process through which allocation of financial assets becomes lastly borderless. This purpose of this paper is to examine a progress thus far in capital market integration or preferentially, the co-movement of the equity markets between the U.S. and the Southeast Asian nations: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines by employing the methodology of Gregory and Hansen Cointegration and Error Correction Analysis (ECM). The consequence of the U.S. market performance on each Southeast Asian national markets are extensively analyzed by decomposing monthly price-index time series into three distinct sub-periods based on an occurrence of the Subprime Mortgage Financial Crisis in 2007. The results indicate that these four emerging markets had been considerable influenced by the U.S. market performance, regardless of crisis or non-crisis periods. Nevertheless, some countries like Indonesia and the Philippines acted differently during the pre-crisis and crisis sub-periods respectively due to their domestic market infrastructure and regulation adjustment. However, these two markets had eventually turned to share an interdependent long-run relationship with the U.S. equity market since the ending of the Subprime financial downturn. Moreover, this finding suggests that ongoing capital market integration in the Southeast Asian region would mitigate portfolio diversification benefits for investors by virtue of increasing in correlation among securities and assets. Therefore, more exhaustive investigation about equity market integration is significantly beneficial in macroeconomic and financial perspective.

• 434.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Etableras vårdcentraler där vårdbehoven finns?: Förändring efter vårdvalsreformens införande i den svenska primärvården2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

En underutbyggd primärvård med bristande tillgänglighet och långa väntetider motiverade den då sittande regeringen att införa vårdvalsreformen med fri etableringsrätt i samtliga landsting år 2010. Målet med att öppna marknaden för privata vårdgivare var att öka tillgängligheten, minska väntetiderna och samtidigt uppnå en ökad kvalitet för samtliga vårdleverantörer och ge fler alternativ för befolkningen. Enligt hälso- och sjukvårdslagens (HSL) etiska plattform ska vård ges på lika villkor och prioritera dem med störst behov på ett så kostnadseffektivt sätt som möjligt.

Det har både startats nya och lagts ner vårdcentraler sedan reformen infördes, totalt sett har antalet ökat. Frågan är om denna ökning skett i enlighet med HSL. Vårdbehov skiljer sig åt runt om i landet och tidigare forskning visar på att socioekonomiska förutsättningar samvarierar med hälsa. Med en linjär sannolikhetsmodell undersöks i denna uppsats om de socioekonomiska förutsättningarna och det förväntade vårdbehovet på områdesnivå påverkar var det etableras vårdcentraler.

Resultaten visar att ett områdes socioekonomiska profil kan ha betydelse i vårdgivarens val av lokalisering. Nytillkomna vårdcentraler har främst etablerats i befolkningstäta områden med hög medelinkomst, en stor andel högutbildade och/eller en låg andel individer äldre än 70 år. Denna utvecklig talar för en försvårad uppgift att uppnå vårdens etiska principer enligt HSL.

Detta arbete har utförts som en del av granskningen ”Primärvårdens styrning – efter behov eller efterfrågan?”, Riksrevisionen (rapport 2014:22).

• 435.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
The effect of government spending and school enrollment ratio in tertiary education on labor productivity: A panel data analysis on OECD countries2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This study investigates the effect of human capital, using gross enrolment rate as a proxy, on labor productivity. It also investigates if a larger public effort in providing education opportunities would lead to a more efficient distribution of skills and therefore give a positive effect on labor productivity. We use a panel data approach to estimate an endogenous growth model on countries that are selected as to be reasonably similar. The main results are that growth in gross enrolment rate have a positive effect on labor productivity, while the level of government expenditure on tertiary education (measured as a percentage of GDP) has a negative effect on labor productivity.

• 436.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Utrikesfödda och institutionella förändringar i det svenska pensionssystemet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare income from private pension between immigrants who arrived to Sweden before 1970 and natives. The group that have been observed are immigrants and natives, men and women whom in 2008 were in the ages 65-66, 70-74 and 75 and older. The purpose is to, taking point of departure in that immigrants receive lower income from public pension than natives, analyze whether they compensate with higher income from private pension. The study shows that immigrants from the age group 75 and older obtains a somewhat lower level from private pension than corresponding natives, in the age group 70-74 is the difference larger while immigrants in the age group 65 receive significantly lower income levels from private pension than natives. Accordingly, immigrants do not compensate a lower public pension with private pension savings. The study also shows that women, immigrants as well as natives, obtain lower levels of income from private pension than men.

• 437.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Is 300 Baht minimum wage in Thailand a good policy tool to reduce poverty, measured by the impacts on employment and average wage?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Minimum wage is a topic that has been of particular interest for policymakers and economists in Thailand since it has been one policy instrument aiming at reducing poverty. In , 2013, minimum wage was increased from

239 Baht to 300 Baht per day, an increase by 26 percent. The main objective of this essay is to assess the extent towhich the 300 Baht minimum wage is a good instrument to reduce poverty. Using a difference-in-difference we analyse the impact of minimum wage on employment and average wage. Minimum wage in Thailand does not cover workers inthe informal sector . the results of our estimation show that minimum wage provides minimal disemployment effects in the formal sector in the short run, but minimum wage have a positive effect on average wage.

• 438.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Linnaeus university.
The Employment Gap between immigrants and natives in European countries: The importance of integration policy and origin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

We study the employment gap between immigrants and natives in 16 European countries and the effect of integration policies and country of origin. In this paper, we want to answer 3 main questions. First, is there employment gap between natives and immigrants? Using the European Social Survey, we found that employment gap exists for both male and female immigrants compare to natives because of their characteristics are different from natives. Second, how do various integration policies affect the employment probability of immigrants? Using Migration Integration Policy Index, the result shows that some integration policies are beneficial to immigrants but some are not. Lastly, how do various countries of origin characteristics affect the employment probability of immigrants? Using data from the World Bank and the United Nation Development Program, we found that Human development index and labor force participation rate of the origin country affects immigrants in positive effects of probability of being employed.

• 439.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Employers’ Perception of Older Workers and Labour Demand2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

With the ageing population in Sweden and the need for more working hours among older workers as background, this essay analyses labour demand for older workers. More precisely it tries to find a connection in employer perceptions of certain character traits for older contra younger workers and the propensity to hire older workers. Using a newly conducted survey sent out to Swedish establishments, this study finds two character traits where negative perceptions have an extra negative effect on hiring: creativity and endurance. Unfortunately, there is a presence of low t-statistics throughout the results which calls for further research on the subject. As a secondary objective, this study also briefly looks at the previously unexplored subject of how the age of an establishment affects labour demand. Results for this points to a small effect but in these results, there are also cases of low statistical significance.

• 440.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
How does municipality tax impact on net regional mobility in Sweden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The primary objective of this essay is to test how the municipality tax rate affects net regional migration in Sweden. All the 290 municipalities where included between the years 2008 to 2016. The relationship is estimated by panel data using a fixed effect model. The main findings of this study suggest that there is no correlation between municipality tax rate and net regional migration, ceteris paribus. The result is partly in line with theory and shows slightly different finding than Edmark and Ågren (2008).

• 441.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
The effects of immigration on income distribution: The Swedish case2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The purpose of this essay is to study what impact immigration has on the Swedish income distribution for the period 1992-2005. This essay uses a two-folded approach to study the income distribution, first, an income inequality measure will be investigated in order to find if the inequality increases or decreases by the increased immigration. Secondly, we estimate a quantile regression for the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles for the period 1992, 1995, 2000 and2005, together with an OLS regression in order to find the income gap between the immigrants and natives, which is analysed for males and females separately. The study found that the inflow of immigrants increased income inequality in the lower tail of the income distribution. Immigrants at the upper tail of the income distribution are doing relatively better than the immigrants in the lower tail of the income distribution. Conclusively, independently of gender, the income gap between immigrants and natives is almost three times as large in the lower tail of the income distribution relative to the upper tail of the income distribution.

• 442.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
A small open economy’s view on interest rate differential’s relation to the nominal exchange rate2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The characteristics of interest rate differentials’ relationships with the change in nominal exchange rates are here investigated from the small open economy Sweden’s pointof view. We assume rational expectations and risk neutrality. However, these are solelysufficient but not necessary conditions. The only necessary condition is that the deviationsfrom rational expectations and risk neutrality are uncorrelated with the interestrate differential (Chinn and Meredith 2004, p. 412). We find no evidence for the interestrate differentials to be unbiased predictors of the percentage change in nominalexchange rates. With 3- and 6-month maturity interest rates, the signs are positivealthough not statistically different from zero.

• 443.
Univ Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany ; IFAU Uppsala, Uppsala.
Lund Univ. Jönköping Int Business Sch. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Critical periods during childhood and adolescence2014In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1521-1557Article in journal (Refereed)

We identify the ages that constitute sensitive (or critical) periods in children's development towards their adult health status, skills, and human capital. For this, we use data on families migrating into Sweden from countries that are poorer, with less healthy conditions. Late-life health is proxied by adult height and other adult outcomes. The relation between siblings' ages at migration and their adult outcomes allows us to estimate the causal effect of conditions at specific childhood ages. We effectively exploit that, for siblings, the migration occurs simultaneously in calendar time but at different developmental stages (ages). We find evidence that the period just before the puberty growth spurt constitutes a critical period for adult height and we find related critical periods for adult cognition, mental health, and education.

• 444.
University of Mannheim, Germany;VU University, Netherlands.
Lund University, Sweden;VU University, Netherlands. Linköping University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA;CReAM.
Critical periods during childhood and adolescence: a study of adult height among immigrant siblings2014Report (Other academic)

We identify the ages that constitute sensitive (or critical) periods in children’s development towards their adult health status. For this we use data on families migrating into Sweden from countries that are poorer, with less healthy conditions. Long-run health is proxied by adult height. The relation between siblings’ ages at migration and their heights after age 18 allows us to estimate the causal effect of conditions at certain ages on adult height. We effectively exploit that for siblings the migration occurs simultaneously in calendar time but at different developmental stages (ages). We find evidence that the period just before the puberty growth spurt constitutes a critical period. We also study adult cognitive score outcomes and we compare sensitive age periods for cognitive ability to those for height.

• 445.
Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN) ; Paris School of Economics, France.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund University.
Kapitalbeskattningens förutsättningar2018Report (Other academic)

I rapporten från SNS Konjunkturråd 2018 analyserar och diskuterar tre nationalekonomer kapitalbeskattningens förutsättningar i Sverige. Författarna finner brister i kapitalinkomsternas beskattning och föreslår en enhetligare beskattning. De förespråkar också en löpande fastighetsskatt för både småhus och bostadsrätter men lägre skatt på omsättning av fastigheter. Rapporten pekar också på att en skatteväxling från arbete till kapital kan ge samma intäkter och omfördelning men till högre ekonomisk effektivitet.

• 446.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
The Governance Effects of Credit Rating Changes: A Study of the European Banking Market2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The results from this research provide numerous evidence that credit rating changes have consistent governance effects on the European banking market. In the event of a credit rating downgrade, banks on the European banking market decrease in size and set aside more capital as reserves for non performing loans. In the event of a credit rating upgrade, banks increase in size and re-allocate assets, providing evidence that these banks have a more optimistic view of their financial conditions. The findings in this thesis are in line with previous research on the U.S. banking market, however, banks on the European banking market seems to have, on average, a more conservative attitude towards risk-taking in the event of a credit rating change.

• 447.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Aspects of Moment Testing when p>n2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis concerns the problem of statistical hypothesis testing for mean vector as well as testing for non-normality in a high-dimensional setting which is called the Kolmogorov condition. Since we consider mainly the first and the second moment in testing for mean vector and we utilize the third and the fourth moment in testing for non-normality, this thesis concerns a more general moment testing problem. The research question is related to a data matrix with $p$ rows, which is the number of parameters and $n$ columns which is the sample size, where $p$ can exceed $n$, assuming that the ratio $\frac{p}{n}$ converges when both the number of parameters and the sample size increase.

The first paper reviews the Dempster's non-exact test for mean vector, with a focus on one-sample case. We investigated its size and power properties compared to Hotelling's $\mathit{T}^2$ test as well as Srivastava's test using Monte Carlo simulation.

The second paper concerns the problem of testing for multivariate non-normality in high-dimensional data. We proposed three test statistics which are based on marginal skewness and kurtosis. Simulation studies are carried out for examining the size and power properties of the three test statistics.

• 448.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Inkomstojämlikheter i Europa: En paneldatastudie som söker finna underliggande orsaker till utvecklingen i 16 europeiska länders inkomstojämlikhet under åren 2000-2010.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Denna studie tillämpar en paneldataanalys för att undersöka huruvida det finns ett

samband mellan utvecklingen av inkomstojämlikhet och ett lands

fackförbundsanslutning, arbetslöshet, storlek på offentlig sektor och sociala

utbetalningar. Studien omfattar 16 europeiska länder och data har använts för åren

2000 – 2010.

Studiens syfte är att försöka ge en djupare insikt hur variabler som har anknytning till

arbetsmarknad och finanspolitik påverkar inkomstojämlikhetens utveckling.

De resultat som denna studie presenterar överensstämmer delvis med tidigare

forskning inom arbetsmarknadens och finanspolitikens påverkan på

inkomstojämlikhet.

Resultatet visar att inkomstfördelningen bland studiens 16 länder påverkas främst av

andelen fackförbundsanslutna och andel anställda i offentlig sektor och till viss del av

arbetslöshet och sociala utbetalningar. Studien kan inte bevisa, med den

underliggande data som använts i denna studie, att variablerna arbetslöshet samt

sociala utbetalningar har en signifikant påverkan på inkomstojämlikhet.

• 449.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Dawn of the radicals: The connection between economic growth and political radicalism2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis explores how economic performance, measured as real GDP-growth per capita, affects the vote share of parties which relies on radical ideological platforms. Using a fixed effect model with panel data, based on real electoral outcomes of 18 western European democracies, the result reveals an ambiguous reality. The overall conclusion implies that low growth rates benefit the electoral success of radical-right parties and holds for robustness checks. No solid evidence of the relationship is found on the radical-left side.The result further reveals that the individuals decision to vote radical is relative more affected by the ongoing business cycle trend between the elections rather than sudden changes close to the election day. The relationship also appears to be stronger among nations of southern Europe.

• 450.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Sänkta sociala avgifter för unga: Har sänkningen medfört en positiv sysselsättningseffekt?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

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