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  • 451.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Identitet och verksamhet: Hjulbärande gudinnor och attribut i mellaneuropeisk järnåldersikonografi2015In: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 53-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the difference between identifying and classifying attributes and analyzes the problematic implications if we confuse the two. The empirical material consists of Gallic stone reliefs depicting goddesses with a wheel as attribute. Male deities depicted with wheels have mainly been identified as a Celtic Jupiter or a male sky god sometimes called Taranis. The Gallic goddesses show that the wheel attribute was not an identifying attribute exclusive to this god, but that it rather served as a marker for an activity shared by several deities, both male and female. The articles argument that we need to distinguish between identifying and classifying attributes in order to make a source critical and methodological correct iconographical interpretation, especially when we interpret iconographical representation without the aid of any written sources.

  • 452.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Names of swords in Icelandic sagas2017In: EASR Annual Conference : Communicating Religion: University of Leuven 18-21 September 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Named weapons of different origin and purpose occur in the Old Norse mythology, and some of them are better known than others: Thor's hammer Mjolnir and Odin's spear Gungnir, just to name a few. But named weapons are also present in the more mundane Icelandic sagas, and it suggests that the practice of giving individual names to objects was something that occurred among real people in the Viking society. The named swords, spears and axes, which we can read about in the Icelandic sagas, are not portrayed as especially supernatural. They are, however, sometimes talked about in a special way and considered to be extraordinary in one way or another.What kind of name did people give to weapons, and what might have been the purposes for doing so? It is possible that some weapons told a story through their names and that they because of that also brought fame and glory to their owners. It is also conceivable, considered how some of the swords and spears are described in the Icelandic sagas, that named weapons were seen as almost life-like. This paper discusses some thoughts regarding named weapons in the sagas, the purposes for giving names, and if this practise might tell us something about how people in the Viking age viewed these named, possibly presumed life-like, objects.

  • 453.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Resension av Peter S. Wells. How the Ancient Europeans saw the World. Vision, Patterns, and the Shaping of the Mind in Prehistoric Times, 2012, ISBN 0-691-14338-2,  Princeton University Press2013In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 2, p. 151-152Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 454.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Lund University.
    Vad heter du min skarpe vän?: Vapennamn i myt och verklighet2003In: Populär Arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, no 3, p. 24-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 455.
    Adevåg Guagliano, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av delaktighet i vård i livets slut: En systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is performed throughout the continuum of care, from home care to specialized care in an institution. Palliative care is buildt on a holistic approach that is secured through patient-centered care where the patient's participation is central.

    Objective: Highlighting adult patients' experiences of participation when they are cared for in late stage palliative care.

    Method: The study is a systematic literature review mainly based on the methodology described by Forsberg and Wengström (2013).

    Results: The theme opportunities and obstacles in the experience of their participation emerged, with four categories below: the management of their disease situation, overwhelming new living situations, be seen as an individual and not to be seen as an                                    individual. It was discovered that patients in the late stage palliative phase found opportunities to participate in their care by gathering knowledge about their disease and their future. This knowledge created understanding, giving them the tools to manage and participate in their care. An obstacle to patients’ participation appeared to be when the patients experienced neglect by health professionals.

    Conclusion: Adult patients' experiences of participation when they are cared for in late stage palliative care cannot be described as a single phenomenon, but needs to be described by an integrated approach of the patient. The unique patient forms a dynamic whole, and needs to be treated as the unique individual he/she is.

  • 456.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Amore, Alberto
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Urban tourism and urban socialist and communist heritage: beyond tragedy and farce?2017In: International Journal of Tourism Cities, ISSN 2056-5607, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 291-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Existing literature on state socialist and communist heritage as a form of tourist consumption predominately focuses on destination contexts, such as the former Soviet countries and the few remaining state communist countries (i.e. China, North Korea and Cuba). As a result, the visitation to places linked to the history of socialism and communism in the so-called western pluralist democracies has often been overlooked and, at most, unacknowledged, especially as most research on "socialist" heritage focuses on sites connected to statist heritage rather than sites connected to socialist movements. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - This paper aims to fill the gap in terms of research focusing on these types of sites, with evidence from a range of countries in Europe and the Americas. It does so by illustrating the presence and engagement with official and non-official communist/socialist heritage at varying levels of commodification. Findings - The paper concludes that not only is there a need to broaden the concept of socialist heritage but that its framing needs to continue to be understood from present day ideological discourses and struggles with respect to the marking of urban heritage tourist locations. Originality/value - This contribution advocates the broadening of the concept of socialist heritage by acknowledging the relevance of "hidden" urban sites related to key socialist thinkers, socialist opposition to fascism, and civil wars in which the socialist movement was involved, while also drawing parallels between the levels of socialist/heritage recognition and use as a commodity in relation to the historical narrative within the studied countries.

  • 457.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    IMT Inst Adv Studies Lucca, Italy.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Who visits World Heritage?: A comparative analysis of three cultural sites2017In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a growing segment of the modern tourism industry, and several studies have been undertaken to identify the individuals who participate in this type of tourism. These have indicated that heritage tourists, generally, are middle class, middle age, and well educated. However, despite their iconic role, there has been relatively little attention paid to profile of visitors to World Heritage Sites. This study aims to better understand the demography of this specific tourism segment through the use of survey-based research at three geographically diverse World Heritage Sites: Independence Hall in the USA, Studenica Monastery in Serbia, and the Archaeological Site of Volubilis in Morocco. Through the use of descriptive statistics, several over-arching trends were noted among the three sites. World Heritage Site visitors were found to be very well educated, but they did not have any similarities in relation to age, income, or residence, which contrasts the "general" heritage tourist typology. However, there were several World Heritage specific trends. While this work is a snapshot of the three sites under study and thus is difficult to generalize, it provides the basis for more comprehensive demographic research on visitors to World Heritage Sites.

  • 458.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prayag, Girish
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    World Heritage as a placebo brand: a comparative analysis of three sites and marketing implications2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) List is often regarded as a successful tourism brand that motivates site nominations. However, there is relatively little research dealing specifically with WH brand attraction effects, and what does exist shows conflicting results. There is a significant research gap in terms of awareness of the WH brand and its potential impact on visitation, which this study seeks to fill through a comparative analysis of three diverse case studies: Independence Hall, USA; Studenica Monastery, Serbia; and the Archaeological Site of Volubilis, Morocco. Survey data (n = 771) from these three sites were collected and analyzed resulting in three distinct clusters of visitors. One of the clusters does exhibit higher levels of awareness of the WH brand, but members of this group were not motivated by this knowledge when planning their site visit. It is concluded that the WH brand may function as a placebo, and that its importance may be tied more to political interests than economic advancement. Thus, dependency on the WH List for tourism development may potentially be detrimental for locations in the long term. The WH brand's placebo effect could result in long-term problems for both the site and those whose livelihoods depend on tourism.

  • 459. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Antonelli, A.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Beltrami, I.
    Bergstrom, I.
    Bloch, P.
    Burgun, G.
    Carius, Staffan
    Uppsala University.
    Chaldaras, M.
    Charalambous, S.
    Dedoussis, S.
    Derre, J.
    Dousse, J. C.
    Dris, M.
    Faure, J. L.
    Fetscher, W.
    Fry, J. R.
    Filokyprou, G.
    Gabathuler, E.
    Gamet, R.
    Garreta, D.
    Geralis, J.
    Gerber, H. J.
    Guyot, C.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Hayman, P.
    Hugi, M.
    Kern, J.
    Kerek, A.
    Kesseler, G.
    Kochowski, C.
    Kokkinias, P.
    Kostarakis, L.
    Kuzminski, J.
    Lefas, C.
    Lindblad, T.
    Mall, U.
    Marel, G.
    Mason, P.
    Milsztajn, A.
    Nakada, T.
    Nilsson, A.
    Papdopoulos, L.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Pauli, E.
    Rickenbach, R.
    Schaller, L.
    Schopper, A.
    Tauscher, L.
    Troster, D. A.
    Tzamouramis, J.
    Watson, E.
    Zevgolatakos, S.
    Study Of Cp Violation In A Tagged Neutral Kaon Beam1986In: The Quark Structure of Matter: proceedings / [ed] M. Jacob and K. Winter, 1986, p. 495-507Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 460. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergstrom, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M.
    Findeisen, C.
    Fransson, K.
    Hadjifotiadou, D.
    Kerek, A.
    Papastefanou, K.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Troster, D.
    Williams, C.
    Zioutas, K.
    Pennington, M. R.
    Investigations on baryonium and other rare pmacrp annihilation modes using high resolution pi0 spectrometers (PS 182)1985In: Antiproton 1984. Proceedings of the VII European Symposium on Antiproton Interactions, Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1985, p. 297-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for heavy, narrow exotic states such as baryonium or glueballs, carried out so far, various methods of high- and low-energy production, low-energy formation, and e+e- reactions were used. In particular, a search for baryonium states below threshold (mxlsimmppmacr) has shown some evidence [Richter et al., 1983, Brando et al., 1984] for a few states. However, the results of these measurements suffer from poor statistics. Among the possible methods which can be applied in the baryonium bound state research at LEAR, the authors consider the study of the reaction ppmacrrarrX+pi0 as the most promising. They have performed an experiment to study this reaction by means of an experimental set-up especially tailored for measuring monoenergetic pi0,s, allowing for both angular distribution measurements and high-resolution spectroscopy. They report on the preliminary results from our actual measurements of the inclusive pi0 and eta spectra following the antiproton annihilation at rest.

  • 461. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergstrom, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Uppsala University.
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M.
    Findeisen, C.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Kerek, A.
    Kuzminski, J.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Troster, D. A.
    Williams, C.
    Zioutas, K.
    Pi0 And Eta Spectroscopy At Lear1986In: Tignes 1985, Proceedings, Physics With Antiprotons At Lear In The Acol Era, 1986, p. 359-359Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 462. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergström, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm.
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Findeisen, C.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Kerek, A.
    Papastefanou, K.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Tröster, D.
    Williams, M. C. S.
    Zioutas, K.
    A π0 and η spectrometer of lead glass and BGO for momenta up to 1 GeV/c1986In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 244, no 3, p. 380-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A spectrometer consisting of two sets of bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) crystals and a lead-glass array has been used to measure the π0 and η momentum spectra produced from proton-antiproton annihilations at rest. We describe the test of the BGO sets in electron beams of energies from 50 to 450 MeV. We discuss the method of construction and calibration of the lead-glass array, as well as procedures to extract the energy and position resolutions for detected photons. A momentum resolution (σ) for π0's and η's of 4% and 3%, respectively has been achieved at momenta below 1 GeV/c. © 1986.

  • 463. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergström, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm.
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Findeisen, Ch.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Hugi, M.
    Kerek, A.
    Meyer, H. O.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Troester, D.
    Williams, M. C. S.
    Zioutas, K.
    Experimental study of the inclusive η-spectrum from p {Mathematical expression} annihilations at rest in liquid hydrogen1989In: Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, ISSN 0170-9739, E-ISSN 1431-5858, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inclusive η-momentum spectrum from {Mathematical expression} annihilations at rest in liquid hydrogen was measured at LEAR. Branching ratios were obtained for {Mathematical expression}, and ηη(8.1±3.1)×10 -5. An upper limit for {Mathematical expression} of 1.8×10 -4 at 95% CL was found. The ratio of the branching ratios is BR(ηρ{variant})/BR(ηω)=0.51 -0.06 +0.20. For the ratio of branching ratios into two pseudoscalar mesons, we have BR(ηπ 0)/BR(π 0π 0)=0.65±0.14, BR(ηη)/BR(π 0π 0), BR(ηη ′)/BR(π 0π 0) at 95% CL, and BR(ηη)/BR(ηπ 0). © 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  • 464. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergström, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm.
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Findeisen, Ch.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Hugi, M.
    Kerek, A.
    Meyer, H. O.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Tröster, D.
    Williams, M. C. S.
    Zioutas, K.
    Experimental determination of the branching ratios {Mathematical expression}, and 2γ at rest1987In: Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, ISSN 0170-9739, E-ISSN 1431-5858, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The branching ratios of {Mathematical expression} annihilations into the neutral final states 2π 0, π 0γ, and 2γ are measured by stopping antiprotons in liquid hydrogen. They are {Mathematical expression}, {Mathematical expression}, and B γγ<1.7×10 -6 (95% c.l.).

  • 465. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergström, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm.
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Findeisen, Ch.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Kerek, A.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Tröster, D.
    Williams, M. C. S.
    Zioutas, K.
    Search for narrow signals in the γ-spectrum from pp̄ annihilation at rest1986In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 182, no 3-4, p. 405-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The γ-spectrum originating from pp̄ annihilations at rest in liquid hydrogen was measured with two BGO spectrometers. A total of 24 × 10 6 γ's were accumulated. No narrow peaks indicating exotic states such as baryonium were observed. The upper limit for the branching ratio p p ̄ → γ + X with 1040 ≤ m x ≤ 1770 MeV/c 2 and with λ x ≤ 25 MeV/c 2 is less than 10 -3 with more than 99.96% confidence. © 1986.

  • 466.
    Adielsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Björkander, Christoffer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Att skapa förtroende: En studie om hur personaluthyrningsföretag arbetar med förtroende mellan rekryterare och företagskunder i Växjöregionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Relationships are really important for companies in order to becompetitive today and in these relationships is it important to feel trust to the other companies. There is therefore necessary to find out how companies work to create trust between themselves and their customers.Purpose: The purpose of this report is to examine and explain how staffing companies work to build trust in their relationships with B2B clients through examination of the conceptual model, creating a theoretical contribution.Research question: How do recruiters at staffing companies work to create trust between themselves and the customer?Methodology: The study adopted a quality research method with a deductive approach where the focus wasg on describing and analyzing. The data was collected primarily through semi-­‐structured interviews.Research findings: Through the study’s interviews and their results is it possible to see that staffing companies in Växjö is working with trust. The conclusion is that staffing companies is working a lot and similar with competencies and contractual. But it differs how they work with benevolence. It seems that the staffing companies does not work a lot with benevolence and it depends on the recruiter if they want to work withbenevolence and goodwill or not and how they will do it.

  • 467.
    Adinda, Safahati
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Water Privatization: An optimal and efficient means for developing countries?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Abstract

    Privatization of goods and services can be a way to limit a firm's or a market's total costs. Water privatization in developing countries has many different reasons. The outstanding reasons are; the need to promote private investment in water sectors so that, national/private water rights and the millennium goals for water can be reached. Privatization is a process of changing a business ownership from a public to a private sector. By this process, the government loses power to the new private owner and the firm and/or market transfers to more business oriented. The private owner has one main goal in the business and that is to maximize the profit.

    Water is a good that we all need in order to survive, regardless our economic conditions, son or later we all have to find a way to satisfy this need. Because of this, water is very important for all human being and a part of the human rights.

    The crucial need of water for our existence and the private firm's goal are conflicting. This has created many commotions around the world and raised questions about how water privatization violates the human rights of UN conventions.  But some people are pro water privatization and some of their arguments are that, privatization limits the government's external borrowing and improve the water distribution system.          

     

    Key words: Water privatization, Developing countries, Public sector, Private sector

  • 468.
    Adler, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Är det säkert att byta från originalläkemedlet för inflixmab, Remicade®, till CT-P13 och är CT-P13 ekvivalent med Remicade® med avseende på effekt, säkerhet, immunogenicitet och farmakokinetik?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biologic drugs are effective against numerous diseases but they are very expensive. The European Medicines Agency approved sales of biosimilars in 2006. Biosimilars are copies of already approved biologic drugs, but they are not considered to be exact copies like generic drugs are. Only living organisms can produce substances with the complexity of biologic drugs. Differences in pH, enviroment, and the purification process during the production of biologic drugs can affect the structure of the final product. Differences in the production processes can affect properties like the glycosylation pattern of the molecules which in turn can influence the effect of the drug. This is the reason biosimilars are not considered as exact copies of the original drug. The patent for Remicade® a TNF inhibitor expired in 2015 which led to the introduction of the first biosimilar for monoclonal antibodies (CT-P13) on the European market. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety profile, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics equivalence between CT-P13 and the original drug for infliximab, Remicade®. And to investigate if it was safe to switch from Remicade to CT-P13.

     

    The articles for the study were collected from PubMed, a medical and bioscientific database, and five studies were chosen for further analysis. The articles were not limited to a specific indication for infliximab, so the studies included patients with rhematoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The short-term equivalence between Remicade® and CT-P13 was analysed in the studies but more studies including long-term equivalence are needed. Based on the primary endpoints in the studies it seems to be safe to switch from Remicade® to CT-P13 and short-term equivalence seems to exist between CT-P13 and Remicade® considering the efficacy, safety profile, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics equivalence in patients with RA, AS and IBD.

  • 469.
    Adler, Anne-Kathrin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Google AdWords - Infringing or Liberalizing Trade?: A Comparative Analysis of Treatment of Google AdWords under U.S. and EU Trademark Law2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since Google as the world's largest and most popular search engine encourages Internet users to browse their search results, it is naturally functioning as an advertising vehicle and has turned into the most profitable Internet company in world's history. Google's success, however, has been subject to strong criticism as one of the main concerns is linked to Google AdWords, which reveal keyword-triggered advertisements as well as sponsored links besides unsponsored search results. Courts both in Europe and the United States under different trademark legislation felt forced to address the collision of pre-Internet trademark infringement doctrines with modern technology. 

    As Google AdWords have changed the way consumers observe Internet advertisements and search engines, the boundaries of trademark law have continuously been pushed forward. This development, thus, raises the question of whether Google AdWords by now are considered to function as trade liberalizer or trade infringer under two different trademark jurisdictions. 

    What is certain as of now is, that if the current circumstances are to change, courts cannot solely rely on old doctrines to adapt to new situations. Instead, new rules should not be subject to isolated court proceedings by individual instances regarded that jurisdictions of courts are limited by territorial boundaries and Google AdWords have evolved as an element of borderless online sphere. Taking these new challenges into account, this paper argues that addressing trademark issues originated by AdWords will demand an international consideration and coordinated efforts between the EU and the United States to bring forward an international solution. 

  • 470.
    Adler, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Saltin, Love
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Den lille Krigaren: - En studie om hur svenska SMF kan etablera sig på välutvecklade marknader2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport har vi valt att undersöka hur svenska SMF har gått tillväga för att lyckas etablera sig på en mogen och välutvecklad marknad. Genom att analysera det resursbaserade synsättet samt vilken etableringsform företag har använt sig av vid expansion så har vi haft som syfte att beskriva vilka specifika resurser samt vilken etableringsform som har varit viktigast för företagen när de har tagit beslutet om en expansion. Vi har vidare analyserat de barriärer och konkurrens som gjort att företagen valt att genomföra expansionen på ett specifikt sätt. För att kunna uppfylla syftet med uppsatsen har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ flerfallstudie med företag från olika regioner i Sverige.

    Vår teoriteska referensram har bestått av Barneys (1991) resursbaserade synsätt, olika etableringsformer samt Michael Porters (1980) teori om etableringsbarriärer.

    I vår analys så kopplar vi ihop vår teoretiska syntes med vår insamlade empiri för att kunna urskilja vilken/vilka resurser som har varit avgörande för företagens val av etableringsstrategier vid en expansion till en mogen marknad. Vi har även analyserat hur barriärer och konkurrens påverkat vid val av etableringsstrategier.

    Vi har baserat på denna analys kunnat dra slutsatsen att de teknologiska, entreprenöriella samt storleksmässiga resurserna har varit de mest essentiella resurserna för de undersökningsföretag vi studerat. Detta stärks genom att de tre undersökningsföretagen alla besitter en teknik som är unik, och att ge baserat på denna teknik lyckats skapa och implementera en etableringsstrategi som har anpassats efter både resurser och marknad. Detta har även lett till att vi har dragit slutsatsen att det inte finns något specifikt etableringstillvägagångssätt, utan att detta måste anpassas efter förutsättningar och marknad. Vidare har vi även sett att alla företag nyttjat en differentieringsstrategi, där vi dragit slutsatsen att denna strategi gjort att de itne har haft någon större påverkan från konkurrenter.

  • 471. Adman, Per
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: Explaining time related change in recognition of political rights among immigrants in Sweden2016In: Presented at SWEPSA 2016: Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, October 19–21, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 472.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: the influence of length of residence on the recognition of political rights among immigrants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in society. Hence, the expectation is that more politically tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when the message (or the messenger as such) challenges one’s own values and beliefs. The theoretical base of the analyses is a learning model, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using surveydata, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in high-tolerance Sweden are related to attitudinal measures of political tolerance, and to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in ‘learning institutions’ of education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that an observed positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Such an adoption, however, seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning alone is not sufficient.

  • 473.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Can’t, won’t, or no one to ask?: Explaining why more recently arrived immigrants know less about Swedish politics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants in Western countries in general participate less in politics, and show lower levels of political efficacy, than native-born citizens. Research is scarce when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and about what happens with this knowledge over the years. This paper focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants in general know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the positive influence of length of residence on political knowledge, the paper shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the paper examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability– Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

  • 474.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political integration in practice: explaining a time-dependent increase in political knowledge among immigrants in Sweden2018In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarly findings suggest that immigrants in Western countries, in general, participate less in politics and show lower levels of political efficacy than native-born citizens. Research is scarce, however, when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and what happens with this knowledge over the years. This article focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants, in general, know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the influence of time of residence on political knowledge, the article shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the article examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability–Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

  • 475.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants’ Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report high levels of political trust among immigrants in Western Europe. Notably, such confidence tend to be particularly pronounced among immigrants from countries without democratic institutions and poor records in terms of corruption level. Yet over time, members of these population categories tend to express decreasing levels of political trust. Following previous research, such a pattern may be explained by high initial—although with time retreating—expectations concerning the quality of institutions in Western Europe. Analyzing Swedish survey data—particularly appropriate in the light of competing hypotheses concerning acculturation and barriers to integration, including discrimination—this paper presents additional support for the importance of expectations when it comes to political trust. Our analyses suggest that the gradual development of more modest expectations regarding institutional performance in the new country is a trustworthy explanation of the falling levels of immigrants‘ political trust.

  • 476.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants' Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2015In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political trust among immigrants in Western Europe seems to be surprisingly high, especially among immigrants from non-democratic countries with institutions plagued by corruption. Over time, however, trust tends to diminish among these individuals. In this paper we argue that this may neither be explained by acculturation nor by experiences of discrimination. Analysing Swedish survey data we instead conclude, although tentatively, that falling expectations regarding the performance of host country institutions is a fruitful explanation. Such expectations presumably become more modest the longer one has been living in Sweden, causing a time-related drop in the overall confidence in Swedish political institutions.

  • 477.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Time for Tolerance: Exploring the Influence of Learning Institutions on the Recognition of Political Rights Among Immigrants2018In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 6, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in a given society. The expectation is that more tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when a specific message challenges one’s own values and beliefs. A theoretical learning model is formulated, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using survey data, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in the high-tolerance country of Sweden is related to measures of political tolerance. Further, we examine to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in a set of ‘learning institutions’—focusing on activities related to education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that a positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Importantly, however, such an adoption seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning in itself is not sufficient.

  • 478.
    Adnan, Sonia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Nhaily, Abir
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Wang, Hongyu
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    To Evaluate and Study the relationship between employees’ commitment and individual performance: A Quantitative Approach- Case Study of Kansai Paints2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the companies want to make sure that they have strong resources that can face the rapid changes in the environment. One of the most important resources is human resources. The interest of the companies to have committed employees have been increased because there is a big difference between the performance of committed employees and the rest of the employees. Committed employees perform well in the organization and help the organization to grow and face the competitive environment. Based on this, this research aims to evaluate and study the relationship between organizational commitment and individual performance.To do this one of the Multinational corporation(MNC) is selected, this MNC is the Japanese company Kansai Paint who has one subsidiary in Pakistan. The theoretical model of this study was formulated based on one dependent variable which is the individual performance and three independent variables which are an affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment.The data of the research was collected by questionnaires which sent to 100 employees on Kansai Paint in Pakistan, and SPSS testing was used to analyze the data. The finding of the study exposed that the affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment have a positive impact on the individual performance. At the end of the research, the conclusion of the research was drawn and several of recommendations were developed.

  • 479.
    Adnerhill, Therese
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    One committee - two institutions?: The Committee of European Affairs in Sweden and Denmark2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to have some say and to scrutinise the government all member states of the EU today has established an institution within their national parliaments, the Committee of European Affairs. This institution, however, has very different rights and regulations depending on the country it is established in. This study uses two rather similar countries, Sweden and Denmark, and investigates what differences and similarities the two committees show.

    By constructing a comparative case study of four units of analysis, the governments and committees of European Affairs in Sweden and Denmark, the formal and informal power relationship between government and committee in each country were studied in order to determine similarities and differences and whether the committee had an impact on the governments’ EU policies. Further they were compared, assessing whether the Danish Committee of European Affairs was more powerful than its Swedish counterpart because of its legal basis in an EU document.

    The theoretical framework was built on empirical institutionalism and Lukes’ first and second dimension of power. The similarities and differences were accounted for and compared. In conclusion, the Danish Committee of European Affairs has more formal power than its Swedish counterpart but regarding informal power the Swedish Committee of European Affairs has a slight advantage. Both committees have an impact on the way their government handle negotiations with the EU.

    Keywords: formal power, informal power, the Committee of European Affairs, Sweden, Denmark

  • 480.
    Adolfson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jansson, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Stadskampen om kunderna – En studie om värdeskapande i handelsplatser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how value creation influences consumers´ choice of market place. We have chosen to focus on how inner city centers can compete with external shopping malls by examining what values consumers find essential in shopping areas. The development within the retail market with more external malls outside cities has resulted in impoverished city centers; therefore, new strategies towards more attractive servicescapes in the inner city are crucial. The study is based on a qualitative approach due to deeper understanding and closeness to the subject, where Kalmar city is chosen as a case. We have completed a focus group study where respondents from each target group where represented. Furthermore, we have accomplished personal interviews category business- men and women from the trade sector in Kalmar. The conclusion has been submitted in different elements within a servicescape where cooperation between different industries, importance of attractive meeting places and pleasant atmosphere were the core findings for value creation. If a city centre corresponds to the findings of value added elements, it is argued to be a strong competitor in today’s concrete retail market

  • 481.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Bok eller inte?: En studie om användandet av läroboken i gymnasiesvenskan2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om användningen av läroboken i svenska på gymnasiet. Forskningen säger att undervisningen länge och fortfarande är styrd av läroboken. Jag ville ta reda på om det fortfarande var så. Genom enkätundersökningar bland lärare och elever på en gymnasieskola har jag tagit reda på vilka föreställningar som finns bland dem. Jag har också frågat lärarna om deras användande om IKT i undervisningen. Denna studie innehåller också en analys av tre läroböcker som används i svenska. Dessa böcker jämförs med kursplanernas mål. Resultaten visade att både lärare och elever känner sig styrda av läroboken i viss mån. eleverna var negativt inställda till användningen av läroböcker. Lärarna pekade på variation i undervisningen och menade att de använder boken ca 50 % av undervisningstiden, medan motsvarande bild hos eleverna varierade. Läroböckerna är till stor del valida i förhållande till kursplanerna, men vissa brister finns. Brister finns även i kursplanernas kriterier, som är otydliga.

  • 482.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Stelin, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Företagsvärdering2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 483.
    Adolfsson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Johansson Mess, Marja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Driftoptimering av lakvatten­­rening: Jämförelse mellan tekniker för uppvärmning av nitrifikationsdammen på Häringetorp avfalls­anläggning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Biologisk lakvattenrening, med hjälp av mikroorganismer, används på Häringetorp avfallsanläggning för att bland annat reducera mängden kväve i lakvattnet. För att möjliggöra en längre reningsperiod, eftersom mikro­organismernas tillväxt hämmas vid låga temperaturer, vill Tekniska förvaltningen på Växjö kommun studera möjligheten att värma upp nitrifikationsdammen på Häringetorp avfallsanläggning med hjälp av grön energi.

    Kvantifiering av effektbehov för förlängning av reningsperioden har gjorts utifrån en simuleringsmodell. Studie av tillförd effekt har gjorts under det första året med tillförd effekt. Jämförelse mellan de tekniska lösningarna solfångare, värmepump och biobränslepanna har gjorts gällande aspekterna driftsäkerhet, praktisk genomförbarhet, enkelhet och ekonomi. Utifrån diskussion ges rekommendation att installera en värmepump, vilken utnyttjar intern energi, för att levererar en effekt till nitrifikationsdammen på 100 kW under temperaturstyrda förhållanden. Denna tillförsel av effekt förväntas ge en förlängning av reningsperioden på fyra veckor.  

  • 484.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att få gymnasieelver att välja rätt: Relationen mellan gymnasieelevers valfrihet och gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion i utbildningspolicy mellan 1960- och 2010-talet2015In: Curriculum and national identity - Nordic divergences? 6th Nordic Curriculum Theory Conference, 21-22 October, Örebro University, Sweden, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en arbetsmarknad som kännetecknas av att vara såväl kunskapsintensiv som differentierad lyfts många gånger skola och utbildning fram som något helt avgörande för både den enskilde individens och nationens sociala och ekonomiska välstånd. Detta är dock inget nytt fenomen. Gymnasieskolans betydelse för ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft är något som starkt har betonats i svensk utbildningspolicy från 1960-talet och framåt. Även om detta ekonomiska imperativa har haft och har mycket stort inflytande på gymnasieskolans läroplan är det dock inte det enda. Vid sidan om uppfattningen om utbildningens ekonomiska potentital växte sig tidigt, med inspiration från bland annat progressivismen, idéer om den individualiserade undervisningen fram. Elevens behov, aspirationer och möjligheter att själv ha inflytande över sin utbildning skulle med detta sättas i centrum för undervisningen. Inte heller dessa idéer har kommit att minska i betydelse över tid utan snarare stärkts. Två idésystem går därmed att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy alltsedan 1960-talet och framåt. Å ena sidan bör gymnasieskolan anpassas till de krav som arbetsliv och samhället i övrigt ställer samtidigt som det å andra sidan också bör ges möjligheter för den enskilda eleven att själv kunna välja och bestämma inriktning och innehåll över sin egen utbildning. Syftet med detta paper är att studera hur spänningsförhållande mellan dessa två idésystem, gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och elevers valfrihet, har hanterats i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy mellan 1960-talet och 2010 - talet.

    Utifrån ett ”klassiskt” läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv (Lundgren, 1979, 1983; Englund, 1986) och med inspiration från Carol Lee Bacchis (1999) ”what’s the problem”-ansats riktas i studien intresset mot de utbildningspolitiska problem och tillika lösningar som tre gymnasiereformer (Lgy 70, Lpf 94 och Gy11) över tid varit uppbyggda kring och hur det i sin tur format synen på gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och gymnasieelevens valfrihet. Följande frågor står specifikt i fokus för studien:

    -          Vilka förskjutningar respektive kontinuiteter går att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningsreformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet med avseende på uppfattningen om elevens förmåga, eller oförmåga att göra rationella val inom ramen för sin utbildning?

    -          Hur har samtidigt denna uppfattning om elevers valfrihet hanterats i relation till gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion?

     

    Tre större gymnasiereformer har implementerats i Sverige efter det andra världskriget: Lgy 70, Lpo 94 och Gy 11.  Fokus för studien utgörs av respektive reformperiods huvuddokument (SOU 1963:43; SOU 1992:94 och SOU 2008:27). I ett första steg riktas intresset mot de problembilder som målades upp i respektive utbildningsreform samt vilka utbildningspolitiska idéer som samtidigt presenterades som lösningen på dessa problem. I ett nästa steg studeras vad dessa idéer innebar för hur relationen ovan skulle hanteras på ett effektivt och legitimit sätt. Till sist fokuseras de förändringar och kontinuiteter som kan urskiljas över tid, från 1960-talet fram till 2010-talet.  

    Under alla tre reformperioder framhölls explicit betydelsen av en gymnasieskola av hög kvalitet för att därigenom underbygga ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft, men beroende på den historiska och samhälleliga kontexten kom olika utbildningspolitiska lösningar för att erhålla en sådan utbildning att vinna legitimitet. Detta fick i sin tur implikationer för hur relationen mellan gymnasieelevers individuella aspirationer och gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion hanterades inom ramen för samma utbildningsreform. På 1960-talet kom lösningen att behandlas inom ramen för en centraliserad välfärdsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs där statens uppgift och förmåga att styra skolan och samhällsutveckling på ett rationellt och effektivt sätt starkt betonades. Även om en individualiserad undervisning framhölls som något eftersträvansvärt inom den utbildningspolitiska retoriken gavs liten eller ingen tilltro till den enskilda elevens förmåga att göra rationella val. Under 1990-talets reformperiod går det att urskilja en tydlig förskjutning mot en marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. Studenters valfrihet och inflytande över sin utbildning sågs nu på många sätt som lösningen på flera utbildningspolitiskaproblem, i synnerhet hur kvalitén på gymnasieskolan skulle öka. Under den tredje reformperioden (2010-talet) sker en förskjutning mot en reglerad marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. I denna diskurs kritiseras elevers valfrihet och ses på många sätt som orsaken till flera problem såsom sjunkande elevresultat och att elever överlag är dåligt förberedda för framtida studier och arbetsliv.     

     

    Med en arbetsmarknad som kännetecknas av att vara såväl kunskapsintensiv som differentierad lyfts många gånger skola och utbildning fram som något helt avgörande för både den enskilde individens och nationens sociala och ekonomiska välstånd. Detta är dock inget nytt fenomen. Gymnasieskolans betydelse för ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft är något som starkt har betonats i svensk utbildningspolicy från 1960-talet och framåt. Även om detta ekonomiska imperativa har haft och har mycket stort inflytande på gymnasieskolans läroplan är det dock inte det enda. Vid sidan om uppfattningen om utbildningens ekonomiska potentital växte sig tidigt, med inspiration från bland annat progressivismen, idéer om den individualiserade undervisningen fram. Elevens behov, aspirationer och möjligheter att själv ha inflytande över sin utbildning skulle med detta sättas i centrum för undervisningen. Inte heller dessa idéer har kommit att minska i betydelse över tid utan snarare stärkts. Två idésystem går därmed att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy alltsedan 1960-talet och framåt. Å ena sidan bör gymnasieskolan anpassas till de krav som arbetsliv och samhället i övrigt ställer samtidigt som det å andra sidan också bör ges möjligheter för den enskilda eleven att själv kunna välja och bestämma inriktning och innehåll över sin egen utbildning. Syftet med detta paper är att studera hur spänningsförhållande mellan dessa två idésystem, gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och elevers valfrihet, har hanterats i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy mellan 1960-talet och 2010 - talet.

    Utifrån ett ”klassiskt” läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv (Lundgren, 1979, 1983; Englund, 1986) och med inspiration från Carol Lee Bacchis (1999) ”what’s the problem”-ansats riktas i studien intresset mot de utbildningspolitiska problem och tillika lösningar som tre gymnasiereformer (Lgy 70, Lpf 94 och Gy11) över tid varit uppbyggda kring och hur det i sin tur format synen på gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och gymnasieelevens valfrihet. Följande frågor står specifikt i fokus för studien:

    -          Vilka förskjutningar respektive kontinuiteter går att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningsreformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet med avseende på uppfattningen om elevens förmåga, eller oförmåga att göra rationella val inom ramen för sin utbildning?

    -          Hur har samtidigt denna uppfattning om elevers valfrihet hanterats i relation till gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion?

     

    Tre större gymnasiereformer har implementerats i Sverige efter det andra världskriget: Lgy 70, Lpo 94 och Gy 11.  Fokus för studien utgörs av respektive reformperiods huvuddokument (SOU 1963:43; SOU 1992:94 och SOU 2008:27). I ett första steg riktas intresset mot de problembilder som målades upp i respektive utbildningsreform samt vilka utbildningspolitiska idéer som samtidigt presenterades som lösningen på dessa problem. I ett nästa steg studeras vad dessa idéer innebar för hur relationen ovan skulle hanteras på ett effektivt och legitimit sätt. Till sist fokuseras de förändringar och kontinuiteter som kan urskiljas över tid, från 1960-talet fram till 2010-talet.  

    Under alla tre reformperioder framhölls explicit betydelsen av en gymnasieskola av hög kvalitet för att därigenom underbygga ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft, men beroende på den historiska och samhälleliga kontexten kom olika utbildningspolitiska lösningar för att erhålla en sådan utbildning att vinna legitimitet. Detta fick i sin tur implikationer för hur relationen mellan gymnasieelevers individuella aspirationer och gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion hanterades inom ramen för samma utbildningsreform. På 1960-talet kom lösningen att behandlas inom ramen för en centraliserad välfärdsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs där statens uppgift och förmåga att styra skolan och samhällsutveckling på ett rationellt och effektivt sätt starkt betonades. Även om en individualiserad undervisning framhölls som något eftersträvansvärt inom den utbildningspolitiska retoriken gavs liten eller ingen tilltro till den enskilda elevens förmåga att göra rationella val. Under 1990-talets reformperiod går det att urskilja en tydlig förskjutning mot en marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. Studenters valfrihet och inflytande över sin utbildning sågs nu på många sätt som lösningen på flera utbildningspolitiskaproblem, i synnerhet hur kvalitén på gymnasieskolan skulle öka. Under den tredje reformperioden (2010-talet) sker en förskjutning mot en reglerad marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. I denna diskurs kritiseras elevers valfrihet och ses på många sätt som orsaken till flera problem såsom sjunkande elevresultat och att elever överlag är dåligt förberedda för framtida studier och arbetsliv.     

     

     

     

  • 485.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    How to Get Pupils To Make the Right Choice2012In: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a critical approach the aim of this paper is to investigate how the relationship between upper secondary schools’ economical functions and students’ freedom of choice have been handled in Swedish educational policy between the 1960s and the 2010s.

    In a society characterized of being both more and more knowledge intensive and differentiated in the labor market, education has become increasingly important for the capitalist states integrative functions as for the competitiveness in the global economy (Jessop, 2002). Parallel processes can be found in a European context. Different movements have resulted in the creation of supranational systems with the aims of converging nations’ education policy and comparing pupils’ knowledge standards on an international basis (Ringarp & Rothland, 2010).  In other words – knowledge has become high politics (Apple, 2003). 

    This “economics of knowledge” is in no way a new phenomenon. The paper shows that the upper secondary education’s importance for a country's economic growth and international competitiveness is something that has been emphasized in the Swedish education policy since the 1960s until today (see for example the Committee reports SOU 1963:43, SOU 1992:94, SOU 2008:27). But what becomes important in this paper – in combination with such integrated pronounced intentions the upper secondary educational system also, to become legitimate, must comprise some differentiation principles. One is, as demonstrated in the paper, that the students must have an opportunity to choose direction and determine the formation and content of their education, so the schooling to some extent will correspond with students own aspirations and dreams. This freedom of choice has in last two decades also included the ability for students to choose between different schools, public as well as private ones (Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). 

    In this paper focus is directed towards how this relationship, i.e. the balance between the secondary school’s economic functions and students' ability to choose, has been handled in education policy over the period 1960-2010. How have students' abilities, or disabilities, to make rational choices been discussed in educational policy in different periods? And how have these individual aspirations been handled in relation to the upper secondary school’s important function to strengthen the nation economic growth and competitiveness? In Sweden three major reform periods of the Swedish upper secondary school after the Second World War are distinguished. The first one in the 1960s, the second one in the 1990s and the third one in the 2010s. In each reform period a number of so-called “discursive breaks” in education policy have been identified where new ideas win legitimacy of how this relationship should be managed in an effective and legitimate way. Each reform period’s main documents (SOU 1963:43, SOU 1992:94 and SOU 2008:27) have been analyzed and compared in order to explicate these discursive shifts in regard to how education policy has attempted to manage this problem.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used With methodological inspiration from the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) (Fairclough, 1992, Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) the paper investigate educational policy from the viewpoint of three different dimensions: text, discursive practice and social practice. With a focus on how policymakers talk about students, knowledge and society I try, on the text level, to elucidate and analyze the essential concepts, or what I will call them, semantic magnet, in the policy texts. In the next step, i.e. in the analysis of the discursive practice, I see how these concepts underlie and create different types of education discourses. The concept orders of discourse (Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) enables an analysis of the relation between the discursive- and the social practice and to visualize changing patterns of dominance and legitimate education discourses in a specified historical and sociopolitical context, and how this order changes (ranging from 1960s to the 2010s) in relation to societal changes. With a methodological approach as described above it is possible to understand how this relation between students’ individual aspirations and freedom of choice and the secondary educations economics functions has been handled in educational policy in relation to broader societal changes. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings In all three investigated reform periods the importance of a high quality- secondary education to reinforce economic growth and competitiveness is emphasized. But depending on the historical and the societal context different legitimate solutions are presented for how the secondary school should be organized to achieve such an education. This has implications for how the relationship between students' individual aspirations and the education’s economical functions are handled in policy. In the 1960s, the answer was discussed within the scope of a centralized welfare-oriented educational discourse. In this discourse, the state's capacity to manage the school and the society in a rational way, was highly emphasized. Therefore no or very little confidence was given to the individual student’s rational ability. In the 1990s, a significant shift occured toward a market-oriented educational discourse. Students’ freedom of choice was accordingly here seen as the solution to many problems, especially how the quality would increase. In the current reformation a shift towards a regulated market-oriented educational discourse is discerned in the paper. In this discourse the 1990s freedom of choice is criticized and blamed for causing bad results, particularly in different international knowledge assessments, and that students are too ill-prepared for future employment. References Apple, Michael (2003). The state and the politics of knowledge. London: Routledge Chouliaraki, Lilie & Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity – Rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University press Fairclough, Norman (1992). Discourse and social change. Oxford: Polity Press. Jessop, Bob (2002). The future of the capitalist state. Cambridge: Polity Lindensjö, Bo & Lundgren, Ulf P (2000). Utbildningsreformer och politisk styrning. Stockholm: HLS. Ringarp, Johanna & Rothland, Martin (2010). “The effects of the PISA results on Education Debates in Sweden and Germany” European Educational Research Journal. Vol. 9, Nr. 3 SOU 1963:42. 1960 års gymnasieutredning. 4, Ett nytt gymnasium. Stockholm: Ecklesiastikdepartementet ( SOU 1992:94. Skola för bildning: Huvudbetänkande av Läroplanskommittén. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet SOU 2008:27). Framtidsvägen – En reformerad gymnasieskola. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet

  • 486.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Kunskapsfrågan: En läroplansteoretisk studie av den svenska gymnasieskolans reformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a society where the labour market is becoming increasingly knowledge intensive and more differentiated, education has assumed greater importance for the capitalist states integrative functions as for the competitiveness in the global economy. As a consequence, the educational system has become a key governing resource for the state to meet and manage different kinds of social changes and problems. Against this background the thesis raises the main question - “what kind of societal problems are the educational reforms studied here considered to be the solution of?” The aim of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of the changes of the formation of knowledge in Swedish upper secondary curriculum between the 1960s and 2010s. In what way attained these changes in view of knowledge legitimacy in relation to the socioeconomic context? And what do these changes mean in terms of the attribution of the positioning of upper secondary school pupils and teachers?

     

    This thesis draws on a “classical” theoretical framework of curriculum theory (i.e. the frame-factor theory) this means that the analytical focus is directed at the relationship between the content of the curriculum and the social context. With theoretical and methodological inspiration from critical realism and critical discourse analysis (CDA) the thesis argue for an alternative way to theoretical and empirical examined this relationship. Three historical reform periods are used to explore the discursive changes in the formation of knowledge in the Swedish upper secondary education reforms.

     

    The results show how changes in socioeconomic conditions, such as economic crisis, over time have acted as important triggers for governing mechanisms embedded in the control of the educational system. These changes and mechanisms, in turn, have resulted in some major discursive knowledge shifts between the reforms studied, from the 1960s combination of an economic-rational and an objective-subject knowledge discourse, through the deregulated goal-rational and socio-cultural oriented knowledge discourse of the 1990s towards the 2010s knowledge discourses that are characterized by an increased focus on learning outcomes and measurability. Against the background of these discursive shifts, the analysis also points to some underlying continuities in terms of a general “reform imperative”, based on a number of overarching values ​​such as efficiency and rationality. The result show how this imperative was embedded in all three educational reforms and has ruled the order of discourses about what was deemed to be legitimate curriculum knowledge, a professional teacher and a desirable pupil.

  • 487.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Legitimitetskris, styrning och kunskap2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 488.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Läroplansteorin efter den ”realistiska vändningen”: exemplet kunskapsfrågan2013In: Den femte nordiska läroplansteorikonferensen i Uppsala : Curriculum and/or didactics – a discussion revisited. Towards a transnational curriculum theory?, Uppsala universitet, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteorin har de senaste två decennierna kommit att präglas av en så kallade språklig eller diskursiv vändning. Med det använda språkets konstituerande funktion som en central utgångspunkt uppfattas språket som en aktiv social handling som inte kan skiljas från den sociala praktik som denna sker inom. För det läroplansteoretiska forskningsfältets vidkommande har detta medfört flera viktiga analytiska möjligheter inte minst när det gäller exempelvis att studera läroplansförändringar över tid samt hur policy rör sig och omformuleras mellan olika kontexter. I detta paper kommer jag dock argumentera för att denna diskursiva vändning i flera fall dragits för långt. Konsekvensen har blivit att språkets konstituerande effekter i alltför stor utsträckning kommit att överbetona med en långgående kunskapsrelativism som följd och där exempelvis icke-diskursiva element av verkligheten tappats bort i de läroplansteoretiska analyserna. Jag kommer i detta sammahang därför lyfta fram behovet av en realistisk vändning inom läroplansteorin som delvis återvänder till den klassiska läroplansteorins utgångspunkter men där samtidigt vissa betydelsefulla analytiska insikter från diskursteorin tas med.

    Syftet med detta paper är att med utgångspunkt från den kritiska realismen samt med några exemplifierande empiriska nedslag diskutera innebörden av en sådan realistisk vändning. Utifrån den kritiska realismen förstås verkligenheten som såväl strukturerad som stratifierad. Detta innebär att diskursers konstituerande effekter inte negligeras men samtidigt understryks att dessa inte heller utgör fritt flytande meningssystem utan är såväl förankrade som villkorade av reella (i betydelsen icke-diskursiva) betingelser. Analytiskt fokus riktas utifrån detta realistiska perspektiv mot de strukturer och tillhörande mekanismer som finns inbäddade i en viss praktik samt den kontext (som innefattas av såväl diskursiva som materiella element) som kommer att påverka (men inte determinera) utfallet av dessa mekanismer. Med detta möjliggörs en förklarande analys som, i enlighet med den klassiska läroplansteorins utgångspunkter, rör sig bortom läroplanstexten till de bakomliggande strukturer och kontextuella villkor.        

    Med resultat hämtade från en studie av kunskapens formering och legitimering i gymnasieskolans reformmaterial mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet påvisas empiriskt innebörden av en sådan realistisk vändning. Resultaten pekar på flera diskursiva förskjutningar av kunskapens konstituering över tid men också hur dessa diskursers legitimitet var kopplade till de inbäddade strukturer och mekanismer som förstås forma utbildningspolitiken i relation till den samtida samhällskontexten. Med denna analys visar jag bland annat hur förändrade reella samhällsekonomiska villkor över tid utgjort en viktig påverkanskraft på utbildningspolitiken samt i förlängningen läroplansförändringar.

  • 489.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skolstorlekens påverkan på elevers skolprestationer och sociala situation i skolan:En forskningsöversikt2014Report (Other academic)
  • 490.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Upgraded curriculum?: An analysis of knowledge boundaries in teaching under the Swedish subject-based curriculum2018In: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 424-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a contribution to the current debate about knowledge and the curriculum, especially initiated by social realist writers. The enacted Swedish subjects-based curriculum for compulsory schooling is examined and is also used as a significant case with the aim of discussing practical implications of social realist claims regarding knowledge and the curriculum. Video-recorded lessons from grade six in six different Swedish schools, in combination with teacher interviews, are explored within the scope of a curriculum theory framework with the purpose of illuminating dominant patterns of knowledge boundaries and knowledge conceptions. The study shows how the Swedish subject-based curriculum frames teaching in a direction where a disciplinary knowledge conception with fixed knowledge boundaries predominates over other knowledge forms. The subject-based curriculum also appears to produce an ‘overloading’ of content, which implies that pupils’ questions and experiences are avoided and dismissed in the teaching practice.

  • 491.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Vad räknas som kunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett samhälle där arbetsmarknaden utvecklats mot att bli alltmer kunskapsintensivt och differentierat har utbildningssystemet kommit att framhållas som betydelsefullt för den kapitalistiska statens såväl integrativa funktioner som för dess möjligheter att skapa ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft. Kunskap har med andra ord kommit att bli ’High politics’ (Jessop, 2006, Apple, 2003) vilket inneburit att ett lands utbildningssystem betraktas som en allt viktigare resurs och tillika ”styrnings-medium” för det byråkratiska och politiska systemet försök att möta olika samhälleliga förändringar och problem (Lundgren, 200xx).

     

    Med en sådan utgångspunkt argumenteras det i detta paper att om en ny utbildningsreform ska framstå som legitim måste densamma framställas som lösningen på ett eller flera problem (jmf Forsberg, 2008). Problem som den samtida skolan således inte anses vara kapabel att lösa. Det är med en sådan utgångspunkt som den pågående reformeringen av den svenska gymnasieskolan i detta paper studeras. Med ett intresse för den politiska dimensionen av läroplanens kunskaper analyseras den nya gymnasiereformen (SOU 2008:xx, prop. 2008/09:xx) genom frågan – vilka problem är den pågående reformeringen av gymnasieskolan att betrakta som lösningen på? Med 1990-talets gymnasiereform som fond är syftet att försöka urskilja vissa diskursiva förskjutningar över tid, från 1990-talet fram till idag, med avseende på vad som, i reformtexterna, framställs som god kunskap samt hur denna kunskap framställs som legitim.

     

    Med metodologisk inspiration från den kritiska realismen och den kritiska diskursanalysen blir en viktig utgångspunkt i analysen att försöka förstå och förklara utbildningspolitiska processer i sitt historiska och sociopolitiska sammanhang. I ett första steg i analysen har fokus riktats mot respektive reformtexters bärande begrepp, eller som de kommer att benämnas här, semantiska magneter, som respektive reform ses vara uppbyggd kring. Dessa semantiska magneter ses i ett nästa analytiska skede konstituera olika diskurser som ses sätta ramarna för vad som är att betrakta som ett problem och lösningen på densamma under respektive reformperiod. Slutligen diskuteras dessa diskurser och de diskursiva förskjutningar som kan påvisas mellan de två reformperioderna i relation till den samhälleliga praktik som desamma ses ha skapats inom.

     

    Resultatet av analysen pekar mot ett antal diskursiva brott och vissa diskursiva förskjutningar mellan de två reformperioderna. På 1990-talet hanterades de aktuella problemen inom ramen för en hybridisering av en marknadsorienterad- och en sociokulturellt orienterad kunskapsdiskurs medan problemen inom den senaste gymnasiereformen kan ses hanteras inom ramen för en mer reglerad marknadsorienterad- och en essentialtiskt orienterad kunskapsdiskurs. Hur denna förändrade kunskapssyn vinner legitimitet diskuteras till sist utifrån en pågående samhällsutveckling i termer av legitimitetskriser inom, en ökad uppmärksamhet kring internationella kunskapsmätningar och en hög ungdomsarbetslöshet.    

  • 492.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Vad räknas som kunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan?: En kritisk diskursanalys av förändrade policyformeringar mellan 1990-talet och 2010-talet i svensk gymnasieskola2012In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 15-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the question – what problems is the current reform of the Swedish upper secondary school considered being the solution of – this article analyzes the political dimension of knowledge in the way it is discursively visualized in policy texts. With methodological inspiration from the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) two education policy reforms, published for the 1990s- and the 2010’s reformation of the upper secondary school, have been compared with an aim to study discursive shifts over time concerning changing politics of knowledge. To understand and explain these shifts the relation between declared knowledge discourses and the social practice, that these discourses are embedded in, is discussed. The results in the article point to some discursive shifts. The 1990’s policy texts were dominated by a hybridization of a deregulated objective-rational- and a socio-cultural oriented knowledge discourse. These discourses have now been challenge by a form of hybridization of a regulated working lifeoriented and a content- and result oriented knowledge discourse. These discursive movements are finally discussed in relation to what different societal problems these reforms are considered to be a solution to.

  • 493.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    What count as knowledge?: A critical analysis of the ongoing reformation of the Swedish upper secondary school in the age of “standards-based education”2011In: ECER 2011, Urban Education: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a society that is characterized of being both more and more knowledge intensive and differentiated in the labor market, education has come to be increasingly important for the capitalist states integrative functions as for the competitiveness in the global economy. Parallel processes can be found in a European context. Different movements have resulted in the creation of different supranational systems with the aims of converging nation’s education policy and compare pupils’ knowledge standards on an international basis (Ringarp & Rothland, 2010).  In other words – knowledge has become high politics! This means, just like Apple (2003) emphasizes, that schooling by its very nature is political. Apple also suggests that analyses of the politics of knowledge are crucial if a deeper understanding of the complex connections between education and power is to be examined.

     

    In regard to, among others, Swedish results in the international knowledge comparison between countries and an increasingly youth unemployment, the Swedish school system, and especially the upper secondary school, has had to endure a lot of criticism. These critics resulted in a reformation of the Swedish upper secondary school system. With a general interest in understanding the relationship between the constitution of knowledge in education policy and broader social changes - this paper analyses the political dimension of knowledge in the way it is materialized in this reformation. Two education policy reforms will be compared with an aim to study discursive shifts over time concerning the formation of knowledge in educational policy. In 2009 the Swedish government handed over the proposition “Higher standards and quality in the new secondary school” (2008/09: 199) to the Parliament. Foregoing this proposition was the government committee report “the path to the future – a reformed upper secondary school” (SOU 2008:27), which proposed the most extensive changes in the Swedish upper secondary school since the 1990s. This government committee report, with the subsequent proposition, will in this paper be analysed in relation to one of the most influential committee reports (School of education, 1992:94) and propositions (1992/93:250) which in the same way can be regarded as the most important policy texts in the reformation of the 1990s upper secondary school. The interest of this study is to examine discursive and social changes by comparing the content in these policy texts with regards to the constitution of knowledge in the way it manifest itself in how policymakers talk about the concept of student, education and society. With a critical approach it is crucial to understand and explain policy processes of education in its historical and sociopolitical context. The educational system is then, in this study, theoretically positioned in terms of its embeddedness in a prescribed dilemma by the welfare states politics to, in a as well legitimately and efficiently ways, reproduce the capitalistic system (Offe, 1984; Jessop 2002). In this processes the educational system seems play an important role.

     

    With methodological inspiration from the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) (Fairclough, 1992, Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) I study educational policy from the viewpoint of three different dimensions: text, discursive practice and social practice. With a focus on how the policymakers talk about knowledge I try, on the text level, to elucidate and analyse the essential concepts in the policy texts. In the next step, i.e. in the analysis of the discursive practice, I see how these concepts underlie and create different types of knowledge discourses. The concept orders of discourse (Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) enable an analysis of the relation between the discursive and the social practice. In this dimension I analyse the relation between this different types of knowledge discourses. The aim is to visualize changing patterns of dominance and legitimate knowledge discourses in a specified historical and sociopolitical context, and how this order changes (in this case from 1990s to 2009) in relation to social changes. With a methodological approach like the above describes it is possible to understand the constitution of knowledge in educational policy in relation to a broader sociopolitical and historical context.

     

    In preliminary results of the analyzed policy texts I can see discursive shifts in the formation of knowledge from the 1990s until today. The 1990s policy texts were dominated by a form of a hybridization of a market- and a socio-cultural knowledge discourse. This discourse has now been challenge by, what I will call, an economic neo-conservative knowledge discourse characterized by an explicitly and defined knowledge content in each syllabus and with major differences between vocational education and theoretical educations. These movements can be understood in relation to the processes of the increasingly standard based education trend we can see in a European context. In conclusion, Habermas (1984) concepts system and life world, help us to understand how different rationalities are working within theses different discourses of knowledge. From this analysis I then discus in which direction the current reformation of the upper secondary school seems to move in terms of what is considered to be a desirable student, a good education and a desirable society.

     

    References

     

    Apple, Michael (2003). The state and the politics of knowledge. London: Routledge

    Chouliaraki, Lilie & Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity – Rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: EdinburghUniversity press

    Fairclough, Norman (1992). Discourse and social change. Oxford: Polity Press.

    Habermas, Jürgen (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume 1: Reasons and the Rationalization of Society: Cambridge : Polity Press

    Jessop, Bob (2002). The future of the capitalist state. Cambridge: Polity

    Offe, Claus (1984), Contradictions of the welfare state. London: Hutchinson

    Ringarp, Johanna & Rothland, Martin (2010). “The effects of the PISA results on Education Debates in Sweden and Germany” European Educational Research Journal. Vol. 9, Nr. 3

  • 494.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    A study on policy pressures and power dynamics in the changing landscape of local school governance2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to explore local school governance in the Swedish schooling system by focusing on the local authority and principals through a lens of neo-institutional theory. The study is conducted against a backdrop of current trends in global and national educational policy where it in the Swedish context is possible to identify two major shifts:

     

    • new ways of how the state seeks to control the schools’ outcomes at the expense of the local authorities room for exercise of power– a ‘re-centralisation’
    • the emergence of a new dynamic between the local authority and principals.

     

    In the early 1990s, the Swedish school system was decentralised and the municipalities were given authority for the governing of the schools. A new goal- and outcome-based quality system was introduced that put the municipalities in Sweden in a new position. However, during the last decades transnational organisations and associations such as the OECD and the EU have gained greater influence over education policy (Robertson & Dale, 2015). New policy spaces have emerged that transcend, but also converge within, national borders (Sassen, 2006). Accountability, standardisation and increased student results stand out as important ingredients in current global reform agendas (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017a; Anderson-Levitt, 2008). In Sweden, declining student achievement in PISA has made policy-makers inclined to be informed by policy solutions from the OECD (Wahlström, 2017). Paired with a strong focus on student achievement, the notion of a school system in a state of crisis grew. Altogether, this have spurred an intensive critique against the decentralised schooling system and triggered a trend of ‘re-centralisation’ in Sweden, meaning a shift towards a more state-regulated governing of the school system (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017; Adolfsson, 2013) . The government has introduced several reforms and incentives that involves the local management of schools. These include, for instance, a new national curriculum for the compulsory and the upper secondary schooling, a School Inspectorate for auditing and monitoring schools; A reformed Education Act emphasising the local authority’s responsibility for equity and student achievement, and strengthening the principals’ authority; Professional development programmes; and new specialist functions in school (Alvunger, 2015; Adolfsson & Alvunger, 2017). These policy movements have altogether challenged the relations between the state, the local authorities and the schools in Sweden. In light of these changes and with reference to the presented aim of this paper, we ask ourselves the following research questions:

    • How do representatives of the local authority experience and respond to the pressure and influence from the state through the focus on equity and the improvement of student results in national educational policy discourse?
    • What strategies do the local authority employ for governing the schools in the municipality?
    • In what ways do principals respond to the tension in the ‘dual’ governance from the state and the local authority?

     

    The paper draws on a ‘classical’ theoretical and methodological framework of curriculum theory (i.e. the frame-factor theory), with its different levels of analysis – the societal/ideological level, the programmatic level; and the school/classroom level (Lundgren, 1972). When it comes to the more specific analysis of the consequences of the changed conditions of governing and exercise of control at the local policy level, a neo-institutional theoretical perspective will be used (Scott, 2008). From this perspective, three dimensions can be highlighted regarding how institutions seek to control and affect other institutions, respond to external pressure and seek legitimacy: regulative (rules and sanctions for legitimacy), normative (evaluation and moral legitimacy), and cognitive-cultural/discursive (shared conceptions and frames of meaning-making (2008).

     

    Methods and material

     

    This paper has a mixed-method design, where the research design aims at preserving the complexity and deepening the perspective of the research questions being addressed while at the same time obtaining different, but complementary data on the same phenomenon (Cresswell, 2010; Cresswell and Clark, 2007). The study of local governance with the local authority and principals is conducted in three steps. The first of the research questions, i.e. how representatives of the local authority experience and respond to policy pressure from the state, will be answered by using secondary data from a project that investigated the municipalities as policy actors in light of the implementation of the new national curriculum for compulsory schooling in Sweden (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017). It includes a survey (n= 727) and interviews with representatives from local authorities in Sweden. The two remaining sets of research questions, comprising local authorities’ strategies for governing schools and principals’ responses, will be answered through a case study of a large municipality in southern Sweden (135 000 inhabitants) using a survey (n=61; response rate 62 %) to principals and 4 semi-structured focus-group interviews with principals and representatives of the local authority. The survey consisted of questions about experiences of the subsequent organisation, governing structures, the communication of aims between different levels, collaborative structures and arenas, professional development, curriculum support and the role of functions for school development. The quantitative data was then analysed and used for asking follow-up and questions in the interviews, targeting specific items regarding experiences of expectations from the institutional environment, policy pressures, governing structures and strategies to cope with certain arrangements in the environment. The interviews thus provided complementary qualitative data and gave a richer description of the principals’ views.

     

    Expected outcomes

     

    Representatives from the local authority emphasise that the national governance of schools to a higher extent and in a more explicit way is directed towards the schools as units as a result the recent educational reforms. They claim that the autonomy of principals following the Education act has created greater clarity. Meanwhile, it has impeded their agency in matters concerning enactment of government policy and curriculum. In combination with the emphasis on local authorities as being responsible for quality assurance, allocating resources for equity and student achievement, the local authorities’ ability to control internal processes of schools has decreased significantly. It seems that local authorities’ space for regulative sanctions and mechanisms has been weakened. In order to compensate, local authorities apply strategies of soft governance for controlling the schools. These strategies are characterised by normative and cognitive/discursive dimension and may be comprised by one or a combination of the following:

    • Re-structuring the organisation and controlling communication
    • Use expert teachers to monitor and control internal professional development/school improvement efforts of schools
    • Competition through rewarding schools which comply to reforms, show best practice and have high-performing students
    • Standardisation measures to ensure greater coherence and compliance

     

    The principals describe a more generous space for action with the Education act, but they also experience a higher degree of pressure to improve student achievement and goal attainment, both from the local authority and from the state. This pressure is expressed in different ways. The local authority presents comparisons of results between schools which triggers competition. The principals are bound to report results or other statistical data on request, which in turn may cause a negative pressure from their teachers. In addition, principals describe how a lot of resources in terms of time and money are invested to ‘pass’ inspections from the national agency.

     

    References

    Adolfsson, C-H. (2013). Kunskapsfrågan – En läroplansteoretisk studie om gymnasieskolans reformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet [The question of knowledge – a curriculum study of the Swedish upper secondary school reforms between the 1960s and 2010s]. Dissertation, Linnaeus University.

     

    Adolfsson, C-H., & Alvunger, D. (2017). The nested systems of local school development : Understanding improved interaction and capacities in the different sub-systems of schools. Improving Schools. 20. 195-208.

     

    Alvunger, D. (2015).
Towards new forms of educational leadership? The local implementation of förstelärare in Swedish schools.
Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 1(3), 55–66.

     

    Anderson-Levitt, K. M. (2008). Globalization and curriculum. In: M. F. Connelly (Ed.), The Sage handbook of curriculum and instruction (pp. 349–368). London: Sage Publications.

    Creswell, J. W. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori, & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Sage handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 45–68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods. London: SAGE.

    Lundgren, U.P. (1972). Frame factors and the teaching process: A contribution to curriculum theory and theory of teaching. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

     

    Robertson, S., & Dale, R. (2015). Towards a ‘critical cultural political economy’ account of the globalising of education, Globalisation, Societies and Education, 13(1), 149–170, DOI: 10.1080/14767724.2014.967502

    Sassen, S. (2006). Territory, authority, rights: From medieval to global assemblages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


    Scott, W. (2008). Approaching Adulthood: The Maturing of Institutional Theory. Theory and Society, 37(5), 427-442.

    Wahlström, N., & Sundberg, D. (2017). Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices. The new meaning of teaching. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Wahlström, N. (2017). The travelling reform agenda: The Swedish case through the lens of OECD. In N. Wahlström, & D. Sundberg (Eds.), Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices. The new meaning of teaching (pp. 15–30). New York, NY: Routledge.

     

  • 495.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers' selection of content in an age of standard-based policy2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 496.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ selection of content in the age of standard-based policy2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 497.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The nested systems of local curriculum innovation2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, 22-26 August, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In school systems around the world there is an increasing focus on students' academic achievement and performance and higher demands for school decision makers to gradually improve school results. In this respect Sweden is no exception. The last years you find a number of different national policy initiatives in line with these transnational policy trends: a new curriculum for the compulsory school (Lgr11) and the upper secondary school (Gy11), a new school law (SFS 2010:800), a reform for career services for teachers with the introduction of “first-teachers” in 2013 and the establishment of new authorities like the School Inspectorate in 2008. In turn, all these reforms have resulted in intensive school improvement work in Swedish municipalities.

    Curriculum innovation is a dynamic research field. During the last decades important empirical findings have emerged as well as theoretical models explaining and supporting successful school development and school leadership (cf Fullan, 2001; Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012; Hallinger, 2011). Recent research has also pointed out how strategies and aspects of different actors and levels in the school system interact. A current discussion concerns how school reforms and improvement efforts are used to increase student achievement, with special regard to significance and potential of the local and regional leading and management. Another question is how school improvements solutions on a more general basis is possible to roll out when research also argues for the need of versatile and context-specific school improvement efforts (Hopkins, Stringfield, Harris, Stoll & Mackay 2014).

    The aim with this paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper wants to contribute to and develop a deepened theoretical understanding of local school curriculum innovation. The local curriculum context is defined as an “open nested school system” with different sub-systems, e.g. the classroom, teacher work-units, school leadership teams, the local school authority etc. (Resnick, 2010). Although these systems are internally related, the curriculum actors in each system stand on its own logic and conditions (i.e. loosely coupled). Therefore you will find different arguments, perceptions and notions in the sub-systems and that they are nested in context-specific ways (Resnick 2010). Our primary hypothesis is that centrally initiated curriculum changes and improvement initiatives are unlikely to be successful, unless these actively engages all the sub-systems and re-couples the nested systems of the curriculum (Adolfsson & Håkansson, 2015).

    Secondly, the empirical aim is to explore how different curriculum actors in a medium-sized Swedish municipality understand their functions, interact and respond to central aspects in local curriculum work. By looking into and explaining relationships between the sub-systems – the local school authority, principals and teachers – important features and factors for organising robust school improvement processes can be identified. Of particular interest is the introduction of first-teachers in 2013. First-teachers are a new function in Swedish public and independent schools, engaged in school improvement and thus curriculum actors. Previous research has shown that first-teachers might strengthen the idea of distributed leadership in schools, but at the same time also challenge, to some extent, existing leadership relations and authority – primarily that of the principal (Alvunger, 2015). However, we know – so far – little of how this might impact the school organization and relationships between the sub-systems in school improvement. Our aim is guided by the following research questions:

    -        How do the curriculum actors understand and describe their functions in relation to each other in local curriculum work?

    -        What are perceived as primary challenges and needs among the curriculum actors? What strategies do they suggest and use to deal with these challenges and needs?

    -        How can the local curriculum work be explained and understood from the perspective of nested school systems?

    Methods and material (400)

    The study draws on material from two recently finished “ongoing evaluation” projects conducted in a medium-sized municipality (65,000 inhabitants) in the southeastern part of Sweden. As a way to support schools’ improvement work, researchers in the first project have studied processes and outcomes of nine schools’ development work over three years by collecting and analysing data from different levels of the local school system. The second project focused and analysed the implementation of the national reform for career services for teachers. Together the projects have resulted in a rich empirical material from various contexts in the local school organisation that enable a thorough analysis of the school improvement work on different levels (i.e.in different sub-systems).

    This paper is based on a “mixed-method” design (Cresswell, 2010). Along with Cresswell and Clark (2007) we argue that such a methodological research design is a way of preserving the complexity and deepening the perspective of the research questions being addressed while at the same time it is possible to obtain different but complementary data on the same phenomenon. In line with the theoretical points of departure and the general aim to elucidate patterns of actors’ understanding, interaction and responses on general aspects of improvement work, following methods and empirical data have been used: i) a content analysis of central policy documents ii) questionnaires and iii) semi-structured focus group interviews.

    As a first step central documents regarding the local school organisation, policy and vision, leading and management structure, evaluations, school improvement strategies were analysed. The purpose was to conduct a contextual analysis and to create a map of the organisation, central strategies and content of the improvement work in the municipality.

    During the project three different teacher surveys were conducted (n=250; n=160; n=157). In these online questionnaires teacher’s perceptions of central dimensions of the local improvement work was investigated. Another important purpose was to explore teachers’ notions of patterns of changes as a result of the improvement work.    

    Finally, as a way to deepen the understanding of the improvement work in the municipality semi-structured focus group interviews with representatives from the local school authority (8 interviews), principals (12 interviews), and first-teachers (14 interviews) were carried out. The main focus in these interviews was the experiences and notions of the schools’ improvement work.

    Expected outcomes/Results (300)

    The results of the study clearly show that the local school organisation consists of different nested sub-systems. Both similarities and differences in how the curriculum actors interact and respond to central aspects in curriculum work can be identified. There is a common view that the work should be based on teaching practices and collegial learning, where the themes “classroom leadership” and “language and concept development” have been agreed upon collegially (bottom-up). However, the sub-systems argue for different strategies and disagree on how to work with these themes. The development unit on local authority level has decided that specific resources and interventions are to be directed for peer observation and feed-back sessions between teachers (top-down). This limits the possibilities for principals to respond to the requests from the teachers who favour pedagogical dialogues for exchanging experiences and developing teaching. All in all, this presents challenges for the school improvement work. In this respect first-teachers as a new sub-system may create conditions for better communication between other sub-systems (e.g. subject teacher teams, work-units, principals) because they operate on different levels. However, there are almost no collaborative arenas or networks for communication within the first-teacher system. Furthermore, the introduction of first-teachers seem to present challenges for the principals who must improve their internal communication as a sub-system in order to be educational leaders and to on-ward engage first-teachers and teachers in school improvement work. The results support our hypothesis that centrally initiated curriculum innovation initiatives are unlikely to be successful, unless these actively engages all the sub-systems and re-couples the nested systems of the curriculum.

    References

    Adolfsson, C-H & Håkansson, J (2015). Building School Improvement Capacity and Learning Capital – A Swedish Case Study. Contribution to the ECER-conference in Budapest, September 2015.

    Alvunger, D. (2015.) Towards New Forms of Educational Leadership? – The Local Implementation of Förstelärare in Swedish Schools. Special issue: Educational Leadership in Transition. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 2015, 1: 30103, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/nstep.v1.30103

    Creswell J, & Plano Clark, V. (2007), Designing and conducting mixed methods, SAGE Publications, London.

    Cresswell, J.W. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. I Abbas Tashakkori & Charles Teddlie, red: Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research, s 45-68. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications

    Fullan, Michael (2001). The new meaning of educational change. 3. ed. New York: Teachers College Press

    Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Hallinger, Philip (2011). Leadership for Learning: Lessons from 40 Years of Empirical Research. Journal of Educational Administration, v. 49 n. 2 p. 125-142.

    Hargreaves, Andy & Fullan, Michael (2012). Professional capital: transforming teaching in every school. New York: Routledge.

    Hopkins, D., Stringfield, S., Harris, A., Stoll, L. & Mackay, T (2014). School and system improvement: a narrative state-of-the-art review, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25:2, 257-281.

    Resnick, Lauren B. (2010). Nested System for the Thinking Curriculum. Educational Researcher, vol. 39 No. 3  183-197.

  • 498.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The nested systems of local school development: Understanding improved interaction and capacities in the different sub-systems of schools2017In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 195-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In school systems around the world, there is an increasing focus on students’ academic achievement. The challenge of how to improve schools is an important issue for all levels in the school system. However, a central question of both practical and theoretical relevance is how it is possible to understand why (or why not) school-development efforts are successful. The purpose of this article is to explore the ecology of local school development through the case of a medium-sized municipality in Sweden, based on empirical data from two follow-up research projects. The analytical framework draws from organisational theory and new institutional theory, where focus is directed towards how different sub-systems of the school organisation interact with and respond to aspects of development work and the implications for outcomes of school-development initiatives. Findings show that great investment of resources from the central level in the local school organisation necessarily does not lead to changes in teaching practice. School-development initiatives are unlikely to be successful unless they engage and re-couple the involved sub-systems. Finally, we discuss how the introduction of Expert Teachers as a new sub-system has the ability to work as a link between other sub-systems and to promote school development.

  • 499.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in an Era of Standards-based Policy Reforms2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 500.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in the era of standard based policy reforms2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in the era of standard based policy reforms

     

    Proposal information (research question, theoretical framework so on) (600 words) 

    This study is part of the project 'Understanding Curriculum Reforms - A Theory-Oriented Evaluation of the Swedish Curriculum Reform Lgr 11'.  In the last two decades transnational organizations and agreements have become increasingly important as driving forces in the making of curriculum. The international education policy movement towards so-called standards-based curricula has been characterized by top-down accountability and linear dissemination (Andersson-Levitt, 2008; Sivesind & Karseth, 2010). This also applies to the formation of Swedish curriculum policy discourses. The latest Swedish curriculum for compulsory School “Lgr11” can foremost be described in line with such a standards-based curriculum, where the objectives and standards, but also the content, are prescribed and put in the foreground for what students ought to do and know (Sundberg & Wahlström, 2012).

    Although these policies are transnational and nationally oriented, it is in the same time up to schools and teachers on the local level to interpret and enact the curriculum, in classrooms and in the interaction between teachers and students. This unarguably raises questions about the curriculum-in-use, i.e. how is teaching performed? The ‘what’ that is prescribed in the (trans-)national policy is one thing, but researchers rarely take notice of the fact that recontextualisation, selection, translation, relocation and refocus of content indeed occurs in the local school setting. Therefore, the overall aim of this paper is to explore how a standards-based oriented curriculum, Lgr 11, is enacted at the local school level.

    In a first step, the process of the selection of teaching content will be studied. A central question here is how and on what foundations the selection of teaching content is made when prescribed content and learning outcomes is given a central role in the curriculum structure? Secondly – which relates to the selection of content – we examine how the same curriculum is achieved in teaching and learning practices at classroom level in terms of knowledge content. What content seems to dominate the teaching in favour for another under a standard-based oriented curriculum like Lgr 11?

    To understand the conditions for teachers’ selection of content we bring theoretical inspiration from a “classical” framework of curriculum theory in terms of the “frame-factor theory” (Dahlöf, 1967; Lundgren, 1989). This theoretical perspective puts the relationship between teaching processes, outcomes and external (frame-) factors in focus. In other words, to understand processes and outcomes in the teaching practice you have to, from this theoretical perspective, analyse the frame-factors, for example time, equipment, the composition of the class and (of course) the current curriculum, that in different ways enable and limit these processes and outcomes.  When we in a next step examine the curriculum content in teaching we bring inspiration from Deng & Luke’s (2008) discussion about different knowledge classification schemes and conceptions. From this discussion we derived three conceptions of knowledge, in terms of an academic disciplinary knowledge conception; a practical knowledge conception and an experiential” knowledge conception. These knowledge conceptions will be used to identify and discuss different aspects of lesson content in the investigated teaching practice.    

    Methodology and method (400 words)

    With a classical curriculum theory framework, the present study focus on teaching and lesson content in terms of enacted and achieved curricula. In other words, and with Doyle’s (1990) conceptual framework, we are interesting in the relationship between the programmatic and classroom level of the curriculum. This in turn links us to classic classroom studies addressed by e.g.  Bellack, Kliebard et al.1966; Gustafsson 1977; Jackson 1968/1990; Lundgren 1981, but now against a backdrop of the ‘new’ scenario of transnational policy.

    The study is based on an extensive empirical material from six municipalities in Sweden and consists of three different sources. Firstly, semi-structured interviews with representatives from the local school authority, teachers, principals and students in grade 6 (12-13 years old) where the main focus has been their views on the impact of the curriculum for the compulsory school Lgr11 with particular attention on the organisation of teaching, the dominating content in teaching and the interaction between teacher and students and students and students. Secondly, documents related to teaching such as local pedagogical plans, lesson plans, tests, work sheets, material produced by students and so on have been analysed. Thirdly, 71 lessons of teaching in the social studies subjects Civics, History, Geography, Religion have been video-recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed from organisation of teaching, content and the interaction in the classroom. The study on teachers’ selection of content will mainly draw from interviews and documents in order to look at contextual factors, while the analysis of knowledge content in teaching generally is based on interviews with teachers and 71 video-recorded lessons.

    Conclusion (300 words)

    In the last section of the paper, we will discuss the empirical results in relation to our theoretical points of departure. Here we show how the Swedish curriculum in great extent is influenced by a standards-based tradition where both content and performance are put in the foreground. From a frame-factor theoretical perspective we then discuss the consequences on the possibilities for the teachers selecting content. Besides struggling with the crowding of content teachers are under constant pressure to hold on to a tight schedule in order for the different curriculum tasks to fit into an over-arching plan for the whole semester. The teachers have to make sure that they can assess knowledge and competences according to the knowledge requirements in the “time slots” reserved for each curriculum task in the subjects. Teachers indeed focus on central concepts deriving from academic disciplines foregrounded in the syllabuses, while they at the same time employ a strategy to patch subjects and their specific content together.

    The analysis of the video recorded lesson show that the general pattern of teaching comes in the shape of whole class teaching with the teacher as central actor. Because the teacher has to ensure that all students get the ability to reach the knowledge requirements, the lesson content to a great extent is prescribed and comes in the shape of subject matter-oriented facts, concepts and competences. Because of the combination of crowding of content, teachers’ time constraint and the knowledge requirements in the curriculum, our results also show that teachers – more or less – have to neglect initiatives from students in order to keep the lesson on the “right” track. Content that is not considered to fit in the current lesson, for example student’s experiences, interests and questions, is to a high degree dismissed.

     

    References

    Andersson-Levitt, K. M. (2008), Globalization and curriculum, in M. F. Con-nelly, red, The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction, (s 329-348), Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

    Bellack, A.A.; Kliebard, H.M.;Hyman, R.T. & Smith, F.L. (1966). The language of the classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

     

    Deng, Z & Luke, A (2008). Subject matter. Defining and theorizing school subjects. In connnelly, Michael (Ed). The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.

    Dahllöf, U. 1967: Skoldifferentiering och undervisningsförlopp [School differentiation and teaching processes]. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

    Gustafsson, C. (1977). Classroom Interaction. A study of pedagogical roles in the teaching process. Stockholm: Gotab.

     

    Jackson, P. W. (1968/1990). Life in classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.

     

    Lundgren, U. P. (1981). Model analysis of pedagogical processes. Lund: Liber/Gleerup.

     

    Lundgren, U. P. (1989), Att organisera omvärlden [Organising the world around us], Utbildningsförlaget, Stockholm.

    Sivesind, K. & Karseth, B. (2010), Conceptualising curriculum knowledge within and beyond the national context, European Journal of Education 45 (1),103- 120.

    Sundberg, D. & Wahlström, N. (2012), Standards-based curricula in a denationalized conception of education: The case of Sweden, European Educational Research Journal 11 (3), 342–356.

    Utbildningsdepartementet (The Ministry of Education) (2011). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011 (Lgr 11). [Curriculum for the Compulsory School, Preschool Class and the Leisure-time Centre 2011; in Swedish]. Stockholm: National Agency for Education.

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