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  • 451.
    Senel, Kerem
    et al.
    Istanbul University - Cerrahpasa.
    Özdinc, Mesut
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Akgul, Ahmet
    Istanbul University - Cerrahpasa.
    Instantaneous R for COVID-19 in Turkey: Estimation by Bayesian Statistical Inference2020In: Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 1300-0292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instantaneous R in Turkey is estimated by Bayesian statistical inference that utilizes a 68-days-long dataset from the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey for monitoring the progression of the pandemic. As it is also globally adapted, enforced social distancing measures help to keep the instantaneous reproduction number below one. The low levels of instantaneous R are referred to as a basis for several countries to relax their country-wide restrictions, while hindsight involves a possible second wave of infections to follow in China, Germany, and South Korea. Thus, policy and decision-makers need to be vigilant regarding the pandemic's progress. It is not yet sure if it is possible to maintain the instantaneous reproduction number below one, even at the lack of societal measures.

  • 452.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Doszyń, Mariusz
    Szczecin University, Poland.
    Dmytrów, Krzysztof
    Szczecin University, Poland.
    Comparison of the effectiveness of forecasts obtained by means of selected probability functions with respect to forecast error distributions2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 3667-3679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Forecasting of sales in a company is one of the crucial challenges that must be faced. Nowadays, there is a large spectrum of methods that enable making reliable forecasts. However, sometimes the nature of time series excludes many well-known and widely used forecasting methods (e.g. econometric models). Therefore, the authors decided to forecast on the basis of a seasonally adjusted median of selected probability distributions. The obtained forecasts were verified by means of distributions of the Theil U2 coefficient and unbiasedness coefficient.

  • 453.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University ; HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University ; Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University ; HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Developing Interaction Shrinkage Parameters for the Liu Estimator — with an Application to the Electricity Retail Market2015In: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 539-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine multicollinearity in the standard OLS interaction-term model—a problem often disregarded by practitioners and in previous research. As a remedy we propose a number of new shrinkage parameters based on the Liu (Commun Stat 22:393–402, 1993) estimator. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate the robustness of all models for different data-generating processes under varying conditions such as altered sample sizes and error distributions. In the simulation study it is demonstrated that the Liu estimator, which is robust to multicollinearity, systematically outperforms the traditionally applied OLS approach. The simple reason is that interaction models by definition always induce substantial multicollinearity, which in turn distorts the inference of OLS. Conversely, the Liu estimator is robust against multicollinearity in interaction-term models. The advantages of our Liu-based method are also demonstrated in practice when examining the efficiency of the Swedish power retailing market. By the use of this unique data set we find strong evidence of positive asymmetric price transmission effects. Increases in Nord Pool electricity wholesale spot prices lead to immediate and full increases in the electricity retail prices, but decreases in Nord Pool prices are not completely passed down or are delayed before being passed down to consumers. This finding suggests evidence of inefficient and unjust wealth transfers from consumers to retailers in the Swedish power market.

  • 454.
    Sirugue, Louis
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of working conditions on employers' labour demand of older workers: A cross-sectional study on the Swedish labour market2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this essay is to identify the different implications that hard and demanding working conditions may have on firms’ labour demand of older workers. The theoretical framework developed in this study is based on Lazear’s deferred compensation theory and adapted for the purpose of the research question to take into consideration the impact of workplaces’ characteristics. Several hypotheses were put forward and tested with logit models and ordinary least squares regressions on a large dataset comprising information on over 2,000 Swedish firms. Results mainly show negative relationships between hard working conditions and the probability of hiring older workers, in particular concerning jobs implying mentally exhausting tasks. Results also tend to show that the higher the age, the lower the probability of being hired. However, the low statistical significance of the results is quite restrictive in terms of generalizability, and further researches are needed to pin down clear trends about the consequences of the different characteristics of the working conditions on the labour demand of older workers, especially concerning the dichotomy between physically demanding tasks and mentally exhausting tasks.

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  • 455.
    Sjölander, Pär
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    A new nonlinear asymmetric cointegration approach using error correction models2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 1661-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, two new powerful tests for cointegration are proposed. The general idea is based on an intuitively appealing extension of the traditional, rather restrictive cointegration concept. In this paper we allow for a nonlinear, but most importantly a different, asymmetric convergence process to account for negative and positive changes in our cointegration approach. Using Monte Carlo simulations we verify, that the estimated size of the first test depends on the unknown value of a signal-to-noise ratio q. However, our second test – which is based on the original ideas of Kanioura and Turner (2005) – is more successful and robust in the sense that it works in all of the different evaluated situations. Furthermore it is shown to be more powerful than the traditional residual based Enders and Siklos (2001) method. The new optimal test is also applied in an empirical example in order to test for potential nonlinear asymmetric price transmission effects on the Swedish power market. We find that there is a higher propensity for power retailers to rapidly and systematically increase their retail electricity prices subsequent to increases in Nordpool's wholesale prices, than there is for them to reduce their prices subsequent to a drop in wholesale spot prices.

  • 456.
    Sjölander, Pär
    et al.
    Jönköping University ; HUI Research.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University ; HUI Research.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University ; HUI Research.
    Testing for panel cointegration in an error-correction framework with an application to the Fisher hypothesis2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1735-1745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, three innovative panel error-correction model (PECM) tests are proposed. These tests are based on the multivariate versions of the Wald (W), likelihood ratio (LR), and Lagrange multiplier (LM) tests. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the size and power of the tests are investigated when the error terms exhibit both cross-sectional dependence and independence. We find that the LM test is the best option when the error terms follow independent white-noise processes. However, in the more empirically relevant case of cross-sectional dependence, we conclude that the W test is the optimal choice. In contrast to previous studies, our method is general and does not rely on the strict assumption that a common factor causes the cross-sectional dependency. In an empirical application, our method is also demonstrated in terms of the Fisher effect—a hypothesis about the existence of which there is still no clear consensus. Based on our sample of the five Nordic countries we utilize our powerful test and discover evidence which, in contrast to most previous research, confirms the Fisher effect.

  • 457.
    Sjölander, Pär
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden ; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Kekezi, Orsa
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    The efficiency of the Scandinavian banking sector - a wavelet quantile regression analysis2015In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 47, no 50, p. 5378-5389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the Scandinavian housing financing market is analysed in order to determine whether the interest rate price-discovery processes of Denmark, Norway and Sweden are efficient. Based on wavelet quantile regression analysis, we find systematic positive asymmetric price transmission (APT) inefficiencies. We conclude that there is a very high propensity for mortgage lenders to directly increase its customers’ mortgage interest rates subsequently to an increase in its borrowing costs. However, after a corresponding borrowing cost decrease, the same mortgage lenders are very slow to decrease its customers’ mortgage rates. These positive coefficients for so-called APT effects are found in all Scandinavian countries, even if the coefficients for Norway were not statistically significant. Wavelet quantile regression analysis, with a focus on the relevant higher percentiles, is easily motivated since the mortgage rates are adjusted very infrequently. Moreover, wavelet decomposition allows a robust analysis at different time frequency scales, while simultaneously controlling for nonstationary trends, autocorrelation and structural breaks. Except for the still positive but yet insignificant and inconclusive coefficients for Norway, the result is very clear-cut. Regardless of which wavelet scaling decomposition or quantile coefficient that is studied – positive APT effects are clearly identified and confirmed on the Scandinavian mortgage market.

  • 458.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Employment effects of union-bargained minimum wages: evidence from Sweden’s retail sector2015In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 694-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of collectively agreed increases in minimum wages for manual workers on employment transitions and hours.

    Design/methodology/approach– The econometric approach relies on the identification of workers affected by minimum wage changes, depending on their position in the wage distribution and contrasts outcomes for these workers to those for unaffected workers, with slightly higher wages.

    Findings– The analysis suggests that separations increase as minimum wages increase and that substitution between worker groups in response to changes in minimum wages is important in retail. In general, though, hours do not change much as minimum wages increase.

    Research limitations/implications– Analyses that deal with employment consequences of increasing minimum wages but disregard hours may exaggerate the overall decline in employment to the extent that job losses are concentrated among low-paid, part-time workers.

    Practical implications– With union-bargained minimum wages, unions and employers need to carefully consider the effects of increasing rates on employment.

    Social implications– The findings that there is a trade-off between higher wages among the low-paid and employment loss and that employment to some extent is reshuffled between individuals should be important from a welfare perspective.

    Originality/value– The literature on employment effects of minimum wages is large, but very few studies are concerned with union-bargained minimum wages. The assumptions of the econometric model are tested in a novel way by imposing fictitious minimum wages on lower-level non-manuals in the same industry, with turnover characteristics similar to those of manuals but covered by a different collective agreement with non-binding actual minimum wages.

  • 459.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Nationalekonomisk forskning om anställningsskydd2018In: Arbetsrättsliga föreningen 60 år: LAS 40 år: anföranden vid sammankomst 21 januari 2015 i Stockholm / [ed] Ronnie Eklund, Stockholm: Jure, 2018, 1, p. 31-43Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats diskuterar teoretiska utgångspunkter och empiri i internationell och svensk forskning om anställningsskyddets effekter. Jag sammanfattar de viktigaste empiriska resultaten om effekter på sysselsättning, arbetslöshet och produktivitet och diskuterar kvarstående kunskapsluckor i forskningen.

  • 460.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Non-standard employment in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many other countries, marginal groups tend to be overrepresented in non-standard employment. A decomposition of the employment rate of full-time workers on permanent contracts reveals that non-standard employment contributes to a substantially weaker labour market attachment for females and the foreign born than suggested by conventional employment figures alone. Our econometric analysis shows that the negative wage premia associated with fixed-term employment are considerably smaller in Sweden, both for natives and foreign born, than those that have been found for other countries. This may be due to a highly compressed wage structure and extensive coverage of collective bargaining in Sweden. On the whole, the type of fixed-term contract seems not to matter for the estimated wage premia.

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  • 461.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm.
    Non-standard Employment in Sweden2018In: De Economist, ISSN 0013-063X, E-ISSN 1572-9982, Vol. 166, no 4, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many other countries, marginal groups tend to be overrepresented in non-standard employment. A decomposition of the employment rate of full-time workers on permanent contracts reveals that non-standard employment contributes to a substantially weaker labour market attachment for females and the foreign born than suggested by conventional employment figures alone. Our econometric analysis shows that the negative wage premia associated with fixed-term employment are considerably smaller in Sweden, both for natives and foreign born, than those that have been found for other countries. This may be due to a highly compressed wage structure and extensive coverage of collective bargaining in Sweden. On the whole, the type of fixed-term contract seems not to matter for the estimated wage premia.

  • 462.
    Skoog, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigrants probability to receive social assistance: Do we have a difference between immigrants and natives and what happens over time?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the immigrant’s probability to participate in social assistance compared to natives and if there any assimilation effect. A linear probability model is used to get the result. The result show that immigrant have a higher likelihood of participating in social assistance compared to natives. The result shows that the probability differs between regions of birth and between refugees and non-refugees, with a higher probability for immigrants from the Middle east and refugees. Previous Swedish studies have not added language skill in Swedish to their models but in this essay, language skill in Swedish variable is included, it shows that the probability reduces if the immigrants know Swedish. There is no assimilation effect on immigrants as a group but there is evidence of assimilation when immigrant gets divided into regions, education level and refugees.

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  • 463.
    Song, Yidan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment gap between natives and immigrants in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines three questions orderly with the help of the European Social Survey (ESS) pooled cross section data. Firstly, whether there is a gap of probability of being self-employed existed between natives and immigrants in Sweden. Secondly, whether there is heterogeneity existed within different ethnic group of immigrants and thirdly, if that heterogeneity existed across genders. The results show that there is no significant gap of probability of being self-employed between natives and immigrants in Sweden, and it can be due to the heterogeneity within the immigrant group itself. The results of logit model indicate that the probability of being self-employed for immigrants from Asian countries (the Middle East countries excluded) are significantly different from Swedish natives, and that for immigrants from the Middle East countries and Asian countries (the Middle East countries excluded) are both significantly different from immigrants from the Nordic countries (Sweden excluded). Furthermore, when looking by the perspective of genders, the results reveal that the heterogeneity existed when examining the groups for both genders can only be found in male immigrant group, while female immigrant group do not appear to be heterogeneous.

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  • 464.
    Spaans, Jana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Crivellaro, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bitcoin: A study on the determinants of the Bitcoin price development2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bitcoin is a new evolutionary development within the internet and payment system. Its price has a high volatile nature what brings a lot of attention to this cryptocurrency. This paper investigates the price formation of the Bitcoin by looking at three determinants: speculative position, transaction volume and the utility users obtain from joining the network. To see the correlation between these determinants and the influence it has on the Bitcoin price a multiple regression model has been built over the time period from 2017 to 2019.  The model shows that the effect of speculation is heavier than any other variable, reflecting the uncertainty brought by the sensible sentiment of speculators and users.

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  • 465.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University;IZA, Germany.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University.
    Flexibility at a cost - Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2016In: Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 7, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions. Also, the estimated returns in this study are more than twice the size compared with earlier studies of Swedish adults who enrolled AE at the upper secondary level. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 466.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Flexibility at a cost: should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

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  • 467.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University.
    The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed2015In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training programs for the unemployed typically involve training specific skills in demand amongst employers. In 1997, Swedish unemployed could also choose general schooling at the upper secondary level. This offers a unique opportunity to assess the theoretically ambiguous long-term relative earnings of general vs. specific training for unemployed. Analyzing detailed administrative data 1990–2010, we find 1) that specific training is associated with higher earnings in the short run, 2) that earnings converge 5–7 years post program and 3) that individuals act on their comparative advantages. When we extrapolate our estimates to life-time earnings, there is overall a relative advantage of specific training. However, for females with limited prior education, we find a relative life-time earnings advantage of general training. JEL-codes: I21, J62, J68 © 2015, Stenberg and Westerlund.

  • 468.
    Sundin, David
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    An explanation to earned income disparities2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The earned income differ across municipalities in Sweden, where Stockholm is the location with the highest average earned income. One can ask whether this is depending on higher educational attainment, the disparity in population size and house prices. This paper aims to explain which parameter affects the income disparities between large and small cites. Using data from Statistics Sweden between the years 1991-2017. The above-mentioned topics are used in the three statistical models; Ordinary Least Squares, Pooled OLS, and Fixed-Effects. From this analyze, this paper can conclude that human capital is essential to explain earned income disparities. The discussion part includes limitations of the dataset and its consequences depending on geographical choice. Another exciting explanation of earned income differences is mentioned in the discussion, namely happiness level in each region. 

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  • 469.
    Suppakittiwong, Tanyatorn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Aimprasittichai, Sornsita
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A Study of a Relationship Between The U.S. Stock Market and Emerging Stock Markets in Southeast Asia2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resulting from the deregulation and prosperity of the economic and financial sectors in Asia during 1980s, a significant increase in cross-bordered financial transactions ultimately accelerated the region of Southeast Asia to be on a process of financial integration and consequently diminished opportunities for portfolio diversification. Financial Integration is a multidimensional process through which allocation of financial assets becomes lastly borderless. This purpose of this paper is to examine a progress thus far in capital market integration or preferentially, the co-movement of the equity markets between the U.S. and the Southeast Asian nations: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines by employing the methodology of Gregory and Hansen Cointegration and Error Correction Analysis (ECM). The consequence of the U.S. market performance on each Southeast Asian national markets are extensively analyzed by decomposing monthly price-index time series into three distinct sub-periods based on an occurrence of the Subprime Mortgage Financial Crisis in 2007. The results indicate that these four emerging markets had been considerable influenced by the U.S. market performance, regardless of crisis or non-crisis periods. Nevertheless, some countries like Indonesia and the Philippines acted differently during the pre-crisis and crisis sub-periods respectively due to their domestic market infrastructure and regulation adjustment. However, these two markets had eventually turned to share an interdependent long-run relationship with the U.S. equity market since the ending of the Subprime financial downturn. Moreover, this finding suggests that ongoing capital market integration in the Southeast Asian region would mitigate portfolio diversification benefits for investors by virtue of increasing in correlation among securities and assets. Therefore, more exhaustive investigation about equity market integration is significantly beneficial in macroeconomic and financial perspective.

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  • 470.
    Svensson, Beata
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Etableras vårdcentraler där vårdbehoven finns?: Förändring efter vårdvalsreformens införande i den svenska primärvården2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En underutbyggd primärvård med bristande tillgänglighet och långa väntetider motiverade den då sittande regeringen att införa vårdvalsreformen med fri etableringsrätt i samtliga landsting år 2010. Målet med att öppna marknaden för privata vårdgivare var att öka tillgängligheten, minska väntetiderna och samtidigt uppnå en ökad kvalitet för samtliga vårdleverantörer och ge fler alternativ för befolkningen. Enligt hälso- och sjukvårdslagens (HSL) etiska plattform ska vård ges på lika villkor och prioritera dem med störst behov på ett så kostnadseffektivt sätt som möjligt.

    Det har både startats nya och lagts ner vårdcentraler sedan reformen infördes, totalt sett har antalet ökat. Frågan är om denna ökning skett i enlighet med HSL. Vårdbehov skiljer sig åt runt om i landet och tidigare forskning visar på att socioekonomiska förutsättningar samvarierar med hälsa. Med en linjär sannolikhetsmodell undersöks i denna uppsats om de socioekonomiska förutsättningarna och det förväntade vårdbehovet på områdesnivå påverkar var det etableras vårdcentraler.

    Resultaten visar att ett områdes socioekonomiska profil kan ha betydelse i vårdgivarens val av lokalisering. Nytillkomna vårdcentraler har främst etablerats i befolkningstäta områden med hög medelinkomst, en stor andel högutbildade och/eller en låg andel individer äldre än 70 år. Denna utvecklig talar för en försvårad uppgift att uppnå vårdens etiska principer enligt HSL.

    Detta arbete har utförts som en del av granskningen ”Primärvårdens styrning – efter behov eller efterfrågan?”, Riksrevisionen (rapport 2014:22).

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  • 471.
    Sörensson, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The effect of government spending and school enrollment ratio in tertiary education on labor productivity: A panel data analysis on OECD countries2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of human capital, using gross enrolment rate as a proxy, on labor productivity. It also investigates if a larger public effort in providing education opportunities would lead to a more efficient distribution of skills and therefore give a positive effect on labor productivity. We use a panel data approach to estimate an endogenous growth model on countries that are selected as to be reasonably similar. The main results are that growth in gross enrolment rate have a positive effect on labor productivity, while the level of government expenditure on tertiary education (measured as a percentage of GDP) has a negative effect on labor productivity.

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  • 472.
    Tell, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikesfödda och institutionella förändringar i det svenska pensionssystemet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare income from private pension between immigrants who arrived to Sweden before 1970 and natives. The group that have been observed are immigrants and natives, men and women whom in 2008 were in the ages 65-66, 70-74 and 75 and older. The purpose is to, taking point of departure in that immigrants receive lower income from public pension than natives, analyze whether they compensate with higher income from private pension. The study shows that immigrants from the age group 75 and older obtains a somewhat lower level from private pension than corresponding natives, in the age group 70-74 is the difference larger while immigrants in the age group 65 receive significantly lower income levels from private pension than natives. Accordingly, immigrants do not compensate a lower public pension with private pension savings. The study also shows that women, immigrants as well as natives, obtain lower levels of income from private pension than men.

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  • 473.
    Thangstapornpong, Rujikorn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Porananond, Pun
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Is 300 Baht minimum wage in Thailand a good policy tool to reduce poverty, measured by the impacts on employment and average wage?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Minimum wage is a topic that has been of particular interest for policymakers and economists in Thailand since it has been one policy instrument aiming at reducing poverty. In , 2013, minimum wage was increased from

    239 Baht to 300 Baht per day, an increase by 26 percent. The main objective of this essay is to assess the extent towhich the 300 Baht minimum wage is a good instrument to reduce poverty. Using a difference-in-difference we analyse the impact of minimum wage on employment and average wage. Minimum wage in Thailand does not cover workers inthe informal sector . the results of our estimation show that minimum wage provides minimal disemployment effects in the formal sector in the short run, but minimum wage have a positive effect on average wage.

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    300 baht minimum wage policy
  • 474.
    Thitiratsakul, Thunhavich
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diawpanich, Thatee
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Linnaeus university.
    The Employment Gap between immigrants and natives in European countries: The importance of integration policy and origin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We study the employment gap between immigrants and natives in 16 European countries and the effect of integration policies and country of origin. In this paper, we want to answer 3 main questions. First, is there employment gap between natives and immigrants? Using the European Social Survey, we found that employment gap exists for both male and female immigrants compare to natives because of their characteristics are different from natives. Second, how do various integration policies affect the employment probability of immigrants? Using Migration Integration Policy Index, the result shows that some integration policies are beneficial to immigrants but some are not. Lastly, how do various countries of origin characteristics affect the employment probability of immigrants? Using data from the World Bank and the United Nation Development Program, we found that Human development index and labor force participation rate of the origin country affects immigrants in positive effects of probability of being employed.

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  • 475.
    Thorstensson, Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Employers’ Perception of Older Workers and Labour Demand2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the ageing population in Sweden and the need for more working hours among older workers as background, this essay analyses labour demand for older workers. More precisely it tries to find a connection in employer perceptions of certain character traits for older contra younger workers and the propensity to hire older workers. Using a newly conducted survey sent out to Swedish establishments, this study finds two character traits where negative perceptions have an extra negative effect on hiring: creativity and endurance. Unfortunately, there is a presence of low t-statistics throughout the results which calls for further research on the subject. As a secondary objective, this study also briefly looks at the previously unexplored subject of how the age of an establishment affects labour demand. Results for this points to a small effect but in these results, there are also cases of low statistical significance.

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  • 476.
    Uddgård, Björn
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    How does municipality tax impact on net regional mobility in Sweden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this essay is to test how the municipality tax rate affects net regional migration in Sweden. All the 290 municipalities where included between the years 2008 to 2016. The relationship is estimated by panel data using a fixed effect model. The main findings of this study suggest that there is no correlation between municipality tax rate and net regional migration, ceteris paribus. The result is partly in line with theory and shows slightly different finding than Edmark and Ågren (2008).

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  • 477.
    Ung, Kevin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Olsson, Isabela
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The effects of immigration on income distribution: The Swedish case2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to study what impact immigration has on the Swedish income distribution for the period 1992-2005. This essay uses a two-folded approach to study the income distribution, first, an income inequality measure will be investigated in order to find if the inequality increases or decreases by the increased immigration. Secondly, we estimate a quantile regression for the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles for the period 1992, 1995, 2000 and2005, together with an OLS regression in order to find the income gap between the immigrants and natives, which is analysed for males and females separately. The study found that the inflow of immigrants increased income inequality in the lower tail of the income distribution. Immigrants at the upper tail of the income distribution are doing relatively better than the immigrants in the lower tail of the income distribution. Conclusively, independently of gender, the income gap between immigrants and natives is almost three times as large in the lower tail of the income distribution relative to the upper tail of the income distribution.

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    fulltext
  • 478.
    Unger, Julian
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A small open economy’s view on interest rate differential’s relation to the nominal exchange rate2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of interest rate differentials’ relationships with the change in nominal exchange rates are here investigated from the small open economy Sweden’s pointof view. We assume rational expectations and risk neutrality. However, these are solelysufficient but not necessary conditions. The only necessary condition is that the deviationsfrom rational expectations and risk neutrality are uncorrelated with the interestrate differential (Chinn and Meredith 2004, p. 412). We find no evidence for the interestrate differentials to be unbiased predictors of the percentage change in nominalexchange rates. With 3- and 6-month maturity interest rates, the signs are positivealthough not statistically different from zero.

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  • 479.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Univ Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany ; IFAU Uppsala, Uppsala.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping Int Business Sch.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Critical periods during childhood and adolescence2014In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1521-1557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify the ages that constitute sensitive (or critical) periods in children's development towards their adult health status, skills, and human capital. For this, we use data on families migrating into Sweden from countries that are poorer, with less healthy conditions. Late-life health is proxied by adult height and other adult outcomes. The relation between siblings' ages at migration and their adult outcomes allows us to estimate the causal effect of conditions at specific childhood ages. We effectively exploit that, for siblings, the migration occurs simultaneously in calendar time but at different developmental stages (ages). We find evidence that the period just before the puberty growth spurt constitutes a critical period for adult height and we find related critical periods for adult cognition, mental health, and education.

  • 480.
    Van den Berg, Gerard
    et al.
    University of Mannheim, Germany;VU University, Netherlands.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University, Sweden;VU University, Netherlands.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA;CReAM.
    Critical periods during childhood and adolescence: a study of adult height among immigrant siblings2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify the ages that constitute sensitive (or critical) periods in children’s development towards their adult health status. For this we use data on families migrating into Sweden from countries that are poorer, with less healthy conditions. Long-run health is proxied by adult height. The relation between siblings’ ages at migration and their heights after age 18 allows us to estimate the causal effect of conditions at certain ages on adult height. We effectively exploit that for siblings the migration occurs simultaneously in calendar time but at different developmental stages (ages). We find evidence that the period just before the puberty growth spurt constitutes a critical period. We also study adult cognitive score outcomes and we compare sensitive age periods for cognitive ability to those for height.

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  • 481.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN) ; Paris School of Economics, France.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hansson, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Kapitalbeskattningens förutsättningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten från SNS Konjunkturråd 2018 analyserar och diskuterar tre nationalekonomer kapitalbeskattningens förutsättningar i Sverige. Författarna finner brister i kapitalinkomsternas beskattning och föreslår en enhetligare beskattning. De förespråkar också en löpande fastighetsskatt för både småhus och bostadsrätter men lägre skatt på omsättning av fastigheter. Rapporten pekar också på att en skatteväxling från arbete till kapital kan ge samma intäkter och omfördelning men till högre ekonomisk effektivitet.

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  • 482.
    Wallertz, Christoffer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Governance Effects of Credit Rating Changes: A Study of the European Banking Market2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The results from this research provide numerous evidence that credit rating changes have consistent governance effects on the European banking market. In the event of a credit rating downgrade, banks on the European banking market decrease in size and set aside more capital as reserves for non performing loans. In the event of a credit rating upgrade, banks increase in size and re-allocate assets, providing evidence that these banks have a more optimistic view of their financial conditions. The findings in this thesis are in line with previous research on the U.S. banking market, however, banks on the European banking market seems to have, on average, a more conservative attitude towards risk-taking in the event of a credit rating change.

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    The Governance Effects of Credit Ratings
  • 483.
    Wang, Zhizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Aspects of Moment Testing when p>n2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the problem of statistical hypothesis testing for mean vector as well as testing for non-normality in a high-dimensional setting which is called the Kolmogorov condition. Since we consider mainly the first and the second moment in testing for mean vector and we utilize the third and the fourth moment in testing for non-normality, this thesis concerns a more general moment testing problem. The research question is related to a data matrix with $p$ rows, which is the number of parameters and $n$ columns which is the sample size, where $p$ can exceed $n$, assuming that the ratio $\frac{p}{n}$ converges when both the number of parameters and the sample size increase. 

    The first paper reviews the Dempster's non-exact test for mean vector, with a focus on one-sample case. We investigated its size and power properties compared to Hotelling's $\mathit{T}^2$ test as well as Srivastava's test using Monte Carlo simulation. 

    The second paper concerns the problem of testing for multivariate non-normality in high-dimensional data. We proposed three test statistics which are based on marginal skewness and kurtosis. Simulation studies are carried out for examining the size and power properties of the three test statistics.

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    Licentiate Thesis (Comprehensive Summary)
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    Front Page
  • 484.
    Wennerholm, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rask, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Inkomstojämlikheter i Europa: En paneldatastudie som söker finna underliggande orsaker till utvecklingen i 16 europeiska länders inkomstojämlikhet under åren 2000-2010.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie tillämpar en paneldataanalys för att undersöka huruvida det finns ett

    samband mellan utvecklingen av inkomstojämlikhet och ett lands

    fackförbundsanslutning, arbetslöshet, storlek på offentlig sektor och sociala

    utbetalningar. Studien omfattar 16 europeiska länder och data har använts för åren

    2000 – 2010.

    Studiens syfte är att försöka ge en djupare insikt hur variabler som har anknytning till

    arbetsmarknad och finanspolitik påverkar inkomstojämlikhetens utveckling.

    De resultat som denna studie presenterar överensstämmer delvis med tidigare

    forskning inom arbetsmarknadens och finanspolitikens påverkan på

    inkomstojämlikhet.

    Resultatet visar att inkomstfördelningen bland studiens 16 länder påverkas främst av

    andelen fackförbundsanslutna och andel anställda i offentlig sektor och till viss del av

    arbetslöshet och sociala utbetalningar. Studien kan inte bevisa, med den

    underliggande data som använts i denna studie, att variablerna arbetslöshet samt

    sociala utbetalningar har en signifikant påverkan på inkomstojämlikhet.

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  • 485.
    Wickström, David
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dawn of the radicals: The connection between economic growth and political radicalism2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how economic performance, measured as real GDP-growth per capita, affects the vote share of parties which relies on radical ideological platforms. Using a fixed effect model with panel data, based on real electoral outcomes of 18 western European democracies, the result reveals an ambiguous reality. The overall conclusion implies that low growth rates benefit the electoral success of radical-right parties and holds for robustness checks. No solid evidence of the relationship is found on the radical-left side.The result further reveals that the individuals decision to vote radical is relative more affected by the ongoing business cycle trend between the elections rather than sudden changes close to the election day. The relationship also appears to be stronger among nations of southern Europe.

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  • 486.
    Wickström, David
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sänkta sociala avgifter för unga: Har sänkningen medfört en positiv sysselsättningseffekt?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har likt många andra europeiska nationer brottats med hög ungdomsarbetslöshet under de senaste 20 åren. I ett försök att underlätta ungdomars inträde på arbetsmarknaden valde regeringen att i två steg sänka arbetsgivaravgiften för ungdomar. De båda sänkningarna innebar sedermera en dryg halvering av det samlade uttaget för arbetsgivaravgiften från 31 till 15 procent. Tidigare forskning påvisar försumbara sysselsättningseffekter. Detta till följd av att skattesänkningen på längre sikt övervältras till löntagaren i form av högre lön. I denna uppsats studeras huruvida sänkningarna av arbetsgivaravgiften i enighet med proposition 2006/07:84 Nedsättning av sociala avgifter för personer som fyllt 18 men inte 25 år, samt proposition 2008/09:7 kraftfullare nedsättning av sociala avgifter för unga, har medfört en positiv sysselsättningseffekt för ungdomar. Metoden som använts är Difference-in-Differences-skattningar av förändringen i sysselsättningsgrad för tidsperioderna ett år efter genomförandet av respektive reform. Mätningen har sedan utökats till att innefatta tiden för första reforen och 3.5 år framåt. Två olika behandlings- respektive kontrollgrupper har använts. Sysselsättningsgraden för ungdomar mellan 15-24 år matchas mot samma grupp i Finland. Även en inhemsk jämförelse har gjorts bestående av sysselsättningsgraden för gruppen 20-24 år mot 25-34 år. Data som ligger till grund för mätningarna är tvärsnittsdata hämtade från SCB och Eurostat. Ingen signifikant positiv sysselsättningseffekt har kunnat påvisas inom ramen för denna uppsats.

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    Wickström
  • 487.
    Widerstedt, Barbro
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Can business counselling help SMEs grow?: evidence from the Swedish business development grant programme2015In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 652-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state funded business counselling on firm growth.

    Design/methodology/approach– A quasi-experimental difference-in-difference estimation of treatment effects, using a matched sample of comparable untreated firms.

    Findings– Firms that have been granted counselling vouchers have a higher growth in value added than comparable untreated firms. This effect is mainly due to increased use of labour and capital, rather than increased efficiency. Results are upwardly biased due to sample selection among treated firms.

    Research limitations/implications– An improved strategy for identifying potential comparison firms from the pool of all firms may be necessary for further impact evaluations on business development programmes.

    Social implications– Policy makers may have to reconsider the programme design, since the programme currently suffer from a large potential for crowding-out, and low additional value of business counselling.

    Originality/value– The paper uses a matching procedure in order to infer causal effects of business counselling and compares the effect of, respectively, contamination and selection on estimated impact on firm growth and survival. The data used are an original, rich micro-level data set on state investment support to businesses.

  • 488.
    Widerstedt, Barbro
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rosdahl, Jonatan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A warm welcome? Access to advisory services for men and women2018In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 58, p. 100-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In politics, broadly stated ambitions such that a service should be available to all are fairly commonplace. However, evaluation access to service in a broader sense is often difficult and expensive. In this study we use a field experiment to investigate if the reception from the business development community differs contingent on the gender of the client. In the experiment, identical email requests were sent to actors in the enterprise promotion system. The result is that response frequency and time were independent of the gender of the sender. However, the male sender was more often given an explicit invitation to book a time slot. To delve further into the responses, we use sentiment analysis, a ‘big data’ method, to analyse the replies. The analysis reveal that replies to the female sender is more positive. Our conclusion is that even if there are some gender differences we would not consider it to be a systematic discrimination. However, the unconsciousness from public servants should be included in training to increase awareness of this issue.

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  • 489.
    Wigren, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Är det möjligt att göra det omöjliga?: En effektutvärdering av Arbetsförmedlingens Förberedande och orienterande utbildningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att utvärdera effekten av Förberedande och orienterande utbildning, vilket är en insats som ges till arbetssökande för att gynna framtida aktivitet inom arbetskraften. Insatsen är en av Arbetsförmedlingens största, och bedöms öka ytterligare framöver. En kombination av coarsened exact matchning samt propensity score matchning används för att försöka fastställa kausala effekter på individnivå med mikrodata från Arbetsförmedlingen och SCB. Deltagare som skrevs in hos Arbetsförmedlingen 2008 studeras och utfallen som tillämpas är inkomster och socialbidragstagande, vilka mäts 2010, 2011, 2012 respektive 2013. Resultaten visar att deltagare i insatsen generellt har sämre arbetsmarknadsutfall än jämförelsegruppen som består av öppet arbetslösa. Känslighetsanalysen visar att det kan finnas vissa problem med selektion, men dessa bedöms inte omkullkasta resultaten. Vidare fastställs att de skattade effekterna avtar med uppföljningstiden, vilket tyder på att det kan finnas inlåsningseffekter. En annan förklaring till att negativa effekter av deltagande kan uppstå är enligt den nationalekonomiska litteraturen att deltagande i insatsen signalerar något negativt till potentiella arbetsgivare, snarare än att insatsen bidrar med en produktivitetsökning för den arbetssökande individen.

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  • 490.
    Wigren, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nilsson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of Human Capital on earnings - a study regarding urban Vietnam2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The stock of human capital plays an important role for a sustained economic development, both at the individual and the country level. In order to prosper as a middle income country Vietnam need to increase the nation ́s human capital stock and this thesis shows that human capital theory holds for investments in years of education, knowledge of a foreign language and experience. Human capital investments, such as educational attainment and knowledge of a foreign language, are estimated to have significant impact on earnings in year 2012. Subjective evidence through interviews and observations are used to understand the underlying interpretation of these results in order to see how the labor market actually works in Vietnam. 

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    Bachelor thesis Linda Nilsson & Emma Wigren
  • 491.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A Note on Regulatory arbitrage: Bank risk, Capital risk, Interest rate risk and ALM in European Banking2016In: Liquidity Risk, Efficiency and New Bank Business models / [ed] Santiago Carbó Valverde, Pedro Jesús Cuadros-Solas & Francisco Rodríguez Fernández, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 5-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter considers asset and liability management (ALM) as a possible avenue for regulatory arbitrage under regulatory capital constraints. The chapter presents a theory of regulatory arbitrage as a regulatory response to capital requirements in banking depending on capitalization mechanisms and empirically analyses capital risk and bank risk in European banking in terms of ALM. The results suggest a possible loophole in today’s capital regulation via ALM and the need for regulatory arbitrage as a regulatory response.

  • 492.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Risk and Efficiency in European Banking: Does Corporate Governance Matter?2015In: Bank Risk, Governance and Regulation / [ed] Elena Beccalli & Federica Poli, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 163-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges for banks due to the new detailed regulation of the 'management body' predict a reduced bank risk at low cost. In this chapter, we determine the relevance of this statement, empirically testing whether the corporate governance of banks influences banking risk and banking efficiency. The results reveal a relationship between efficient banks and risk. However, the corporate governance variables considered in this chapter reveal limited evidence on the effect on risk, although corporate governance attributes can explain banking efficiency. Consequently, we cannot find strong support that corporate governance reduces risk without a significant cost.

  • 493.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    What is and what is not regulatory arbitrage?: a literature review and syntheses2017In: Financial markets, SME financing and emerging economies / [ed] Giusy Chesini, Elisa Giaretta & Andrea Paltrinieri, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 71-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 494.
    Wrååk, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Individuals’ risk propensity and job search activity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the Dutch panel data from LISS, Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Science in trying to establish if a relationship between individuals’ risk propensity and job search activity is present. When looking at employed and unemployed job seekers jointly, a positive significant relationship is present. Looking at these groups separately shows that the relationship is driven by employed job seekers. No relationship for unemployed job seekers can be identified when being looked at separate. However, when taking into account possible biases from changes in risk propensity over time as well as the classification of actively searching individuals, no relationship is present at all. We hence are cautious towards the significant estimates received that potentially could suffer from biases. Further studies should be made with a bigger sample of individuals and a continuously updated measure of risk propensity to minimizing potential bias.

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    Thesis
  • 495.
    Yan, Jinying
    et al.
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden;Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Zou, Zhi
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Contamination of heavy metals and metalloids in biomass and waste fuels: Comparative characterisation and trend estimation2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 700, p. 1-19, article id 134382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of contaminated biomass and waste fuels is essential for waste management, waste to energy (WtE) and mitigating carbon emissions. The contamination of heavy metals and metalloids is specially concerned by environmental regulation and waste to energy processes. In this study, comparative characterisation is performed for three typical contaminated biomass and waste fuels. i.e. recycled woods, combustible municipal solid waste, and industrial and commercial wastes. The contamination characteristics are further analysed using statistical methods (e.g. significance, correlation, profile, and principal component analyses) to identify specific contamination features, relations among the contaminants and potential contamination sources. Contamination trend is estimated based on the continuously monitoring fuel qualities, the driving forces for regulating and reduction of the contaminations, and potential changes in major contamination sources. The comparative characterisation combined with statistical analyses provides a better way to understand the contamination mechanisms. The approach can also relate the fuel contamination with the contamination sources and their changes for trend estimation. Generally, the toxic heavy metals and metalloids are expected to be significantly reduced due to stricter regulations, but there is no general trend for the reduction of other metals and metalloids because of the complicated changes in contamination sources and waste recycling streams in the near future. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 496.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kibria, B. M. Golam
    Florida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Seemingly unrelated regressions with covariance matrix of cross-equation ridge regression residuals2018In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 47, no 20, p. 5029-5053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized least squares estimation of a system of seemingly unrelated regressions is usually a two-stage method: (1) estimation of cross-equation covariance matrix from ordinary least squares residuals for transforming data, and (2) application of least squares on transformed data. In presence of multicollinearity problem, conventionally ridge regression is applied at stage 2. We investigate the usage of ridge residuals at stage 1, and show analytically that the covariance matrix based on the least squares residuals does not always result in more efficient estimator. A simulation study and an application to a system of firms' gross investment support our finding.

  • 497.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    On the least absolute deviations method for ridge estimation of SURE models2019In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the application of the Least Absolute Deviations (LAD) method for ridge-type parameter estimation of Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE) models. The methodology is aimed to deal with the SURE models with non-Gaussian error terms and highly collinear predictors in each equation. Some biasing parameters used in the literature are taken and the efficiency of both Least Squares (LS) ridge estimation and the LAD ridge estimation of the SURE models, through the Mean Squared Error (MSE) of parameter estimators, is evaluated.

  • 498.
    Zhang, Jiaxin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Factors affecting Chinese consumers buying luxury goods overseas2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the improved people’s living standard, luxury buying has increasingly spread in popularity, especially in developing countries. Conspicuous consumption has resulted in this luxury buying among consumers. This mentality leads to consumers to achieve their own goal through luxury goods, such as reflecting their status, showing the uniqueness and so on. In order to buy their favorite luxury goods, consumers try different channels and overseas buying is the main channel for them. Under this situation, China as the second-biggest luxury market, the demand for overseas luxury among Chinese consumer has credit raised. It is therefore important for conducting consumer behavior research to analyze this phenomenon and identify corresponding factors that lead consumers buying luxury abroad. The purpose of the research is to understand the phenomenon of the consumers buying luxury goods overseas and to identify the corresponding factor for the luxury shop or the company which could conduct managerial implication to encourage consumers buying domestically. Since the improved people’s living standard, luxury buying has increasingly spread in popularity, especially in developing countries. Conspicuous consumption has resulted in this luxury buying among consumers. This mentality leads to consumers to achieve their own goal through luxury goods, such as reflecting their status, showing the uniqueness and so on. In order to buy their favorite luxury goods, consumers try different channels and overseas buying is the main channel for them. Under this situation, China as the second-biggest luxury market, the demand for overseas luxury among Chinese consumer has credit raised. It is therefore important for conducting consumer behavior research to analyze this phenomenon and identify corresponding factors that lead consumers buying luxury abroad. The purpose of the research is to understand the phenomenon of the consumers buying luxury goods overseas and to identify the corresponding factor for the luxury shop or the company which could conduct managerial implication to encourage consumers buying domestically.

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  • 499.
    Åström, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Is there an economic value for elite sports?: The case of Swedish Hockey League2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The economic value of sport has long been an interesting subject to study. Proponents arguing there is big monetary return for a region hosting a professional sports team. However, majority of studies done on the subject point in the same direction where it seems economic return are negligible. Researchers even argue there is rather an alternative cost where money could be better spent on other social structure such as education and health care. The value of sport creates both direct and indirect effect. In this essay I will look at whether there could be any indirect spillover effects from hosting a hockey team in the highest league. Due to its simplicity, a difference-in-difference (DiD) method will be used on municipalities hosting a hockey team. This when looking at Gross Regional Product (GRP), unemployment rate and population growth to municipalities without a hockey team. The results of this study are ambiguous and hard to interpret when sign on coefficient differ between variables and municipalities. However, there seem to be a correlation between lower unemployment rate and population growth and an increase in GRP when a team is qualifying to SHL. It cannot be determined whether this depend on economic growth or success of their professional sports team. 

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